nrhy;ypy; caHT jkpo;r; nrhy;Ny!

ef;fPud;

jkpopd; ,dpik gw;wpAk; mjd; ePHik gw;wpAk; vOjp vOjp ifAk; xa;e;J tpl;lJ. Ngrpg; Ngrp thAk; Xa;e;J tpl;lJ.

jkpoHfs; Nghy; jq;fs; jha;nkhopia Vw;wpAk; Nghw;wpAk; jiyapy; itj;Jf; nfhz;lhLk; NtW nkhopahsH ahUk; ,Uf;fpwhHfsh?

,sq;Nfhtpw;Fg; gpwF jkpopd; ,dpikia cyfwpar; nra;jtH ghujpahH. jkpo;j; jha;f;F Kjd;Kiwahfj; jpUg;gs;sp vOr;rp ghbatDk; ghujpjhd;. ghujp ghba Xb tpiahL ghg;gh vd;w ghl;ilr; nrhy;ypf; nfhLf;Fk; NghNj-

nrhy;ypy; caHT jkpo;r; nrhy;Ny> - mijj;
njhOJ gbj;jplb ghg;gh~

vdr; nrhy;fpNwhk;.

rw;W tsHe;jgpd; ghujpahH jkpopd; rpwg;Gg; gw;wpg; ghba ghliy cuf;fr; nrhy;fpNwhk;.

ahkwpe;j nkhopfspNy jkpo;nkhop Nghy;
,dpjhtJ vq;Fk; fhNzhk;!
 

vd;Wk;

"%d;WFyj; jkpo; kd;dH - vd;id
%z;ley; yd;nghL epj;jk; tsHj;jhH
Md;w nkhopfsp Ds;Ns - caH
Mupaj;jpw;F epfnud tho;e;Njd;.

fs;isAk; jPiaAk; NrHj;J - ey;y
fhw;iwAk; thdntspiaAk; NrHj;Jj;
njs;S jkpo;g;Gy NthHfs; - gy
jPQ;Ritf; fhtpak; nra;J nfhLj;jhH."

vd;Wk; ngUik NgRfpNwhk;.

jkpopd; ePHik> ,dpik gw;wp kl;Lky;y mjd; ,sik gw;wpAk; NgRfpNwhk;.

'gy;YapUk; gyTyFk; gilj;jspj;Jf; Jilf;fpDNkhH
vy;iyaW guk;nghUs;Kd; ,Ue;jgb apUg;gJNghy;
fd;dlKq; fspnjYq;Fk; ftpd;kiyahsKe; JSTk;
cd;DJuj; cjpj;njOe;Nj nahd;Wgy Ma;tpbDk;
Mupak;Nghy; cyf tof;F mope;njhope;J rpijahTd;
rPupsikj; jpwk;tpae;J nrad;kwe;J tho;j;JJNk!"

kNdhd;kzpak; Re;judhupd; jkpo;j; nja;t tzf;fg; ghly; ,J.

jkpo;nkhopf;F jkpo;g; GytHfs; mLf;Fk; milnkhopfs; Nghy; Ntnwe;j nkhopf;F cz;lh?

me;jkpo;
mUe;jkpo;
Muh mUe;jkpo;
,irkyp jkpo;
,d;jkpo;
,d;gj;jkpo;
xz;jkpo;
ftpd;jkpo;
fd;dpj;jkpo;
Fd;whj;jkpo;
Fw;wkpy; jkpo;
Qhdj;jkpo;
rq;fj; jkpo;
rq;fkyp nre;jkpo;
re;jkhH jkpo;
re;jkhiyj; jkpo;
nre;jz;lkpo;
nre;jkpo;
nra;jkpo;
jz;lkpo;
jPe;jkpo;
ew;wkpo;
epd;wjkpo;
gRe;jkpo;
gps;isj;jkpo;
ige;jkpo;
Kj;jkpo;
%d;Wjkpo;
%thj;jkpo;
tz;lkpo;

,d;Dk; ,Uf;fpwJ. ,g;Nghijf;F ,J NghJk; vd epidf;fpNwd;. ,e;j milnkhopfspy; ghjp jkpo; Qhdrk;ge;juJ nfhil vd;gJ ftdpf;fj;jf;fJ.

,t;tsT caHTk; rpwg;Gk; cila nkhopiag; gbAq;fs; vOJq;fs; NgRq;fs; gad; gLj;Jq;fs; vd;W nrhy;y Ntz;ba xU jho;T epiyapy; ,d;W ehk; cs;Nshk;.

,jw;fhd fhuzk; vd;d? ghujp nrhd;dJ Nghy jkpoHfs; tha;r; nrhy;ypy; kl;Lk; tPuHfshf ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. $l;lj;jpy; $b epd;W $tpg; gpjw;wyd;wp eilKiwapy; ehl;lk; ,y;yhJ ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. jkpo;nkhopiag; Nghw;Wtjpy; Neuj;ijf; fopf;fpwhHfNsnahopa mjid tho;tpay; nkhopahf;Ftjpy; mtHfs; mf;fiw fhl;Ltjpy;iy.

jkpo;nkhopf;F Vw;gl;l ,e;jj; jho;tpidg; Nghf;fp tho;tpidj; Njl jkpo;nkhop thuk; nfhz;lhl jkpo;f; fiy njhopy;El;gf; fy;Yhup Kd; te;Js;sJ.

fdlhtpw;Fg; Gyk; ngaHe;J tpl;Nlhk; ehk; ,g;NghJ fNdbaj; jkpoHfs;. ehis fNdbaHfs;.  vkf;F vjw;Fj; jkpo;? gps;isf;F jkpo; tpsq;fpdhy; NghJk;> ehY thHj;ij Ngrpdhy; NghJk;. ,g;gb epidf;Fk; ngw;NwhHfs; epiwa ,Uf;fpwhHfs;.

,q;F Gyk; ngaHe;j Ntw;W ,d kf;fs; ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. rPdH> ,j;jhypaH> NghHj;Jf;NfaH> fpNuf;fH vd gy;ypd kf;fs; ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. ehd; mwpe;j tiuapy; ,tHfs; jkpoHfisg; Nghy; EhW fiy tpohf;fs; Kj;jkpo; tpohf;fs; vLg;gjpy;iy. ,Ue;Jk; gy jiyKiwahf ,q;F thOk; ,e;j ,dj;jtHfsJ gps;isfs; jq;fs; jha;nkhopiag; gbf;fpwhHfs;. NgRfpwhHfs;. gy;fiyf; fofk; GFtjw;F Njitahd jpwikr; rpj;jpf; fw;if  (Credit Course) ghlq;fspy; jq;fs; jha;nkhopiaAk; NrHj;Jf; nfhs;fpwhHfs;. ,g;gbg; gbf;fpwtHfsJ tpOf;fhL 90- 95 Mf ,Uf;fpwJ.

Mdhy; jkpo;g; gps;isfsJ tpOf;fhL 33 Mf kl;Lk; ,Uf;fpwJ. ,t;tstpw;Fk;jkpoHfs; fdlhtpy; FbNawp xU jiyKiw $lf; fopatpy;iy.

jkpoHfspd; kf;fs; njhifia vLj;Jf; nfhz;lhy; mjpy; mz;zsthf 70>000 jkpo;g; gps;isfs; ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. ,tHfspy; jkpiog; gbg;NghH 5>000 kl;LNk!

me;epaHfSf;F mbikg; gl;Lf; fple;j fhyj;jpy; 'vdJ gps;isf;Fj; jkpo;j; njupahJ' vdg; ngUikahfr; nrhy;ypf; nfhz;l gy ngw;NwhHfs; ,Ue;jhHfs;. kPz;Lk; me;jf; fw; fhyj;Jf;Fg; Nghfg; NghfpNwhkh? my;yJ xU nghw; fhyj;ij cUthf;fg; NghfpNwhkh?

Kd;G Gyk; ngaHe;j jkpoHfs; jq;fs; nkhopia ,oe;jjd; fhuzkhf jq;fs; milahsj;ij ,oe;jhHfs;. ehkkJ jkpoHfshf khwpdhHfs;. mJ Nghy; ehKk; vq;fs; milahsj;ij ,of;fg; NghfpNwhkh? cupa gjpYf;fhf fhj;jpUf;Fk; Nfs;tpfs; ,it!

rPdd; rPdnkhop gbf;fpwhd;. rPd nkhopapy; NgRfpwhd;. ,uz;L rPdHfs; re;jpj;Jf; nfhz;lhy; -mtHfs; ve;jj; jiyKiwiar; NrHe;jtHfs; Mf ,Ue;jhYk; rup - rPd nkhopapy;jhd; NgRfpwhHfs;. fpNuf;fUk; mg;gbNa. ,j;jhypf;fhuDk; mg;gbNa. F[auhj;jpAk; mg;gbNa.

Mdhy; fzf;fpy; mlq;fh fiytpohf;fis elhj;Jk; jkpodJ gps;isfs; kl;Lk; ntF Ntfkhfj; jkpio kwe;J tUfpwhHfs;. vd;d fhuzk;?

'NjkJuj; jkpo; Xir cyfnkyhk; guTk; tif nra;jy; Ntz;Lk;' vd;W ghl;Lf; nfhU Gytd; ghujp Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lhd;. mtd; Miria epiwNtw;w fdbaj; jkpoHfs;jhd; nghUj;jkhdtHfs;. mtHfSf;Fj;jhd;  me;j tha;g;G epiwa ,Uf;fpwJ. vg;gb vd;gij mLj;j fpoik ghHg;Nghk;.  (kpFjp mLj;j thuk;;)

 

 


 

 

jkpo; thuk; (2) 

,aw;wkpo; fw;wtHfNs Mly; ghly; fw;f Ntz;Lk;!   

xt;nthU ,dKk; jdJ ,Ug;ig epiy epWj;Jk; nghUl;L nkhop> fiy> fyhrhuk; Nghd;w jdpj;Jt milahsq;fisg;  Ngzpf; fhf;f Ntz;Lk;.   

fdba ehl;by; thOk; jkpo; kf;fs; fhyf; fiutpy; jq;fsJ Njrpa milahsj;ijAk; KftupiaAk; ,of;Fk; mghak; epiwa ,Uf;fpwJ.  

ma;f;fpa mnkupf;fhtpd; kf;fs; njhif 295 kpy;ypad; MFk;. ,jpy; Mq;fpyj;ijj; jha; nkhopahff; nfhz;NlhH njhif 90 tpOf;fhL vd kjpg;gplg;gLfpwJ. mnkupf;fhtpd; Ml;rp nkhop Mq;fpyk;. NtW nkhopfSf;F me;j ehl;by; ve;jtpj cupikAk; fpilahJ. me;j ehl;by; FbNawpa Mq;fpNyaH my;yhjtHfs; Mq;fpyj;ijg; gbj;J Mq;fpyk; NgRfpw Fbkf;fshf khw Ntz;Lk;. ,JNt mnkupf;f murpd; FbtuTf; nfhs;if MFk;.   

gjpdhwhk; Ehw;whz;L njhlq;fp Mgpupf;f ehLfspy; ,Ue;J fUg;g ,d kf;fs; mnkupf;fhtpw;F mbikfshff; nfhz;L tug;gl;ldH. gpd;dH RakhfTk; fUg;G ,dkf;fs; mnkupf;fhtpw;Ff; Fb ngaHe;jhHs;. ,tHfsJ vz;zpf;if ,d;W 35 kpy;ypad; MFk;. ,e;j kf;fs; ,d;W jq;fs; nrhe;j nkhopia kwe;J Mq;fpyj;ij jq;fs; jha; nkhopahff; nfhz;L tpl;lhHfs;. nkhopkhw;wk; kw;Wk; kjkhw;wk; fhuzkhf mtHfs; jq;fs; czT cil eil ghtid gof;f tof;fq;fs; Mfpadtw;iw khw;wp tpl;lhHfs;. Mq;fpNyauplk; ,Ue;J mtHfis ,d;w gpupj;Jf; fhl;LtJ mtHfsJ epwk; xd;W kl;LNk. 

fUg;G ,d kf;fisg; Nghy; mnkupf;fhtpy; FbNawpa njd; mnkupf;f Hispanic kf;fSk; ehsilapy; jq;fs; milahsj;ij ,oe;J Mq;fpNyaHfshfp tpLthHfs;. 

,g;gb xU ,dk; ,d;ndhU ,dj;ij xNuabahf ,y;yhky; gbg;gbahf tpOq;Ftij Mq;fpyj;jpy; assimilation vd;W miof;fpwhHfs;. 

vg;gbf; ghidf;Fs; jdpj; jdpahfg; Nghlg;gLk; muprp fha; fwp cg;G rHf;fiu fiue;J fQ;rp (soup) MfpwNjh mNj Nghy; Mq;fpNyaH my;yhjtHfs; r%fj;jpy; fiue;J jdpj;jd;ikia ,oe;J Mq;fpNyaHfshf khw Ntz;Lk; vd;gNj mnkupf;f ehl;L murpd; nfhs;ifahR ,Uf;fpwJ. 

fle;j fpoik ehd; Fwpg;gpl;lJ Nghy fdhlh rpwpJ NtWgl;l ehL. fdba muR gy;ypd fyhrhuj;ij Cf;Ftpf;fpwJ. xt;nthU ,d kf;fSk; jq;fs; nkhop fiy gz;ghl;il Ngzpf; fhf;f NgusT tha;g;Gf; nfhLf;fpwJ. mjd; xU $Nw gy;fiyf; fofk; GFtjw;Fj; Njitahd 30 jpwik rpj;jpfspy; 4 jpwik rpj;jpfs; jkpiog; gbj;Jg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;syhk; vd;w Vw;ghL.  

fdlhtpd; murpay; mikg;G $l;lhr;rp (con-federation) murpaiy mbg;gilahff; nfhz;lJ. ngUk;ghd;ik ,dj;jtH NgRk; Mq;fpy nkhopAk; rpWghd;ik ,dj;jtH NgRk;  gpuQ;R nkhopAk; mur nkhopfshf murpay; ahg;gpy; vOjg;gl;Ls;sJ. 

mg;gb ,Ue;Jk;  gpuQ;R nkhop NgRk; fpA+ngf; kf;fs; jdp ehL Nfl;Lg; Nghuhb tUfpwhHfs;. ,uz;L Kiw ele;j Neub thf;nfLg;gpy; Ehy; ,ioapy; jdpehL Nfl;Fk; fl;rpapdH ntw;wp tha;g;ig ,oe;J NghdhHfs;. Mdhy; jdp ehl;Lf; Nfhupf;if njhlHe;J ePW G+j;j neUg;ghf fdd;W nfhz;L ,Uf;fpwJ. 

fpA+ngf; khfhzk; $l;lhr;rp ahg;gpd; fPo; jd;dhl;rp ngw;w khfhzk;. mtHfSf;Fj; jdp ehlhSkd;wk;> jdpf; nfhb> jdp ePjpj;Jiw> jdpf; fhty;Jiw> jdpf; fy;tpj;Jiw> jdp FbtuTj; Jiw vd xU ,iwikAs;s ehl;Lf;F vd;d vd;d mjpfhuq;fs; ,Uf;fpwNjh mit ahTk; fpA+ngf; khfhz kf;fSf;F ,Uf;fpwJ. 

,t;thW cupikfs; gy ,Ue;Jk; me;j khfhz kf;fs; fdba $l;lhr;rp mikg;gpy; ,Ue;J gpupe;J Nghf Kaw;rp nra;fpwhHfs;. fhuzk; vd;d? 

fdlhtpd; kf;fs; njhif 32. kpy;ypad; (2004) MFk;.  ,jpy; fpA+ngf; khfhzj;jpd; kf;fs; njhif 7 kpy;ypad; (23 tpOf;fhL) MFk;. ,Ue;Jk; tl mnkupf;fhitg; nghWj;jstpy; jhq;fs; 25 kpy;ypad; Mq;fpNyaH kj;jpapy; tho;tjhf epidf;fhky; If;fpa mnkupf;fhitAk; NrHj;J 320 kpy;ypad; (4.6 tpOf;fhL) kf;fs; kj;jpapy; thOk; kpfr; rpwpa rpWghd;ik ,dkhfj; jq;fisg; gHHf;fpwhHfs;.  

fhy Xl;lj;jpy; ,e;j 320 ,yl;rKk; (32 Nfhb) jq;fis tpOq;fp Vg;gk; tpl;L tpLk; vd gpuQ;R kf;fs; mQ;RfpwhHfs;. Mq;fpNyaH vd;w ngUk; flyhy; #og;gl;l jhq;fs; xU rpW jPtpy; tho;tjhfTk; me;jr; rpW jPit #o ,Uf;Fk; Mq;fpyg; ngUq;fly; %o;fbj;J tpLk; vd mQ;RfpwhHfs;. mtHfsJ mr;rk; epahakhdJ.   

fpA+ngf; khfhzj;ij tpl;Lj; njhopy; fhuzkhf Vida khfhzq;fSf;Ff; FbngaUk; gpuQ;R fpA+ngf;fpaH jq;fs; nkhop fyhrhuj;ij ,oe;J Mq;fpNyaNuhL rq;fkkhfptpLfpwhHfs; vd jdpehL Nfl;gtHfs; nrhy;fpwhHfs;. 

$l;lhr;rpapd; fPo; jdpahl;rp elj;Jk; gpuQ;R nkhop NgRk; kf;fNs vq;Nf jhq;fs; $o;g; ghidf;Fs; fiue;J NghNthNkh vd;W mQ;Rk; NghJ 2 ,yl;rk; fdba jkpoHfs; fjp vd;d?  

Vida nkhop NgRNthNuhL xg;gpLk; NghJ jkpo;g; gps;isfs; Ntfkhfj; jkpio kwe;J tUfpwhHfs;.  

rpWghd;ikj;  jha; je;ijaHfNs jq;fsJ gps;isfis jkpo; tFg;GfSf;F mDg;gp jkpiof; fw;f ghLgL;fpwhHfs;. ngUk;ghd;ikahd jha; je;ijaHfs; jkpo; gbj;J vd;d gad; vd epidj;J thoh ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. 

jkpo; nkhopiag; gbg;gtHfis  tplf;  $Ljyhd jkpo;g; gps;isfs; eldk; fw;fpwhHfs;. ,irj; jkpo; fw;fpwhHfs;. ,irf; fUtpfis thrpf;ff; fw;Wf; nfhs;fpwhHfs;. ,g;gbahd Ez;; fiyfs; tsHe;jhy; jkpo; tsUk; jkpo;g; gz;ghL fhf;fg;gLk; vdg; gyH epidf;fyhk;. Mdhy; cz;ik epiyNah Ntwhf ,Uf;fpwJ.  

Ez; fiyfisg; gbf;Fk; khztHfs; jkpo;g; ghl;Lf;fisAk; RutupirfisAk; Mq;fpyj;jpy; vOjp itj;Jj;jhd; gbf;fpwhHfs;.  

Ez; fiyfis fw;Fk; NghJ jkpioAk; fw;f khztHfSf;F ngUk; tha;g;G ,Uf;fpwJ. ,irj; jkpo; Mfl;Lk;> ehlfj; jkpo; Mfl;Lk; mtw;iw gOjwf; fw;W  nghUs; czHe;J ghl Ntz;Lk; vd;why; nghUs; czHe;J Ml Ntz;Lk; vd;why; jkpo; nkhop mwpT ,d;wpaikahjJ. jkpopy; Gyik ,y;yhjtHfs; me;jf; fiyfSf;F epahak; nra;a KbahJ. ePjp nra;a KbahJ.  

,e;j tifapy; ,ir fw;Wf; nfhLf;Fk; ,ir MrpupaHfs;> Mly; fw;Wf; nfhLf;Fk; eld MrpupaHfs; jkpo;nkhopf;F ,uz;lfk; nra;fpwhHfs;. 

,e;j MrpupaHfs;  Ik;ngUq; fhg;gpaq;fspy; xd;whd rpyg;gjpfhuj;ijg; gbj;jpUg;ghHfs; vd epidf;fpNwd;.  

jkpoHfSf;F nrhe;jkhd jkpopir gw;wpAk; jkpopirapd; El;gq;fs; gw;wpAk; Mlw; fiy gw;wpAk; mjd; EZf;fq;fs; gw;wpAk; rpyg;gjpfhuj;jpYk; mjw;F mbahHf;F ey;yhH vOjpa ciuapYk; tpupthfr; nrhy;yg;gl;Ls;sd.  

rpyg;gjpfhuj;jpy; cyfj;jtH vtUk; jw;fhyk; tiu fz;L nfhs;shky; ,Uf;Fk; Ruq;fs;> myFfs; (RUjpfs;) gz;fs; (,uhfq;fs;) gz;fs; cz;lhFk; Kiwfs; gw;wpr; nrhy;yg;gl;Ls;sJ.  

cotH> Ntl;LtH> MaH> FwtH MfpNahuJ  Mly; ghly;fisAk;> mk;khid> fe;Jftup> Cry;> ts;sg;ghl;L Kjypa kfspH Mly;ghly;fisAk; ,sq;Nfh mbfs; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;shH. flyhL fhijapy; Mly;fisg; gw;wpAk; mzpfisg; gw;wpAk; njspthf vLj;Jiuj;Js;shH. 

rpyg;gjpfhuj;jpy; nrhy;yg;gl;l ,ir EZf;fq;fis Muha;e;Nj tpGyhde;j mbfshH Gfo; ngw;w aho; Ehiy ,aw;wpdhH. 

jhuk;> Fuy;> Jj;jk;> cio> ,sp Mfpa Kjiye;J ,ir euk;Gfs;> gpd; Jj;jj;jpw;Fk; coif;Fk; ,ilNa Njhd;wpa iff;fpisahYk; ,spf;Fk; jhuj;jpw;Fk; ,ilNa Njhd;wpa tpsupahYk; KjNyopir euk;Gfshfpa ghd;ikapidAk; mtw;wpd; mikg;G Kiw> gpw;fhyj;jhH mtw;wpw;F toq;fpa tlnkhopg; ngaHfs; Kjypatw;iwAk; aho; Ehy; vLj;Jr; nrhy;fpwJ. 

rpyg;gjpfhuk; muq;Nfw;W fhijapy; Mlyhrpupad;>  ,irahrupad;> ghlyhrpupad;> jz;Zik Mrpupad;> Foyhrpupad;> ahohrpupad; ed;Dhw; Gytd; Nghd;Nwhupd; ,yf;fzj;ijAk;> MLk; muq;fpd; mikg;G ,yf;fzj;ijAk; rpwg;igAk; mofhf tpsf;FfpwhH.  

NkYk; kHjtpapd; MLk; jpwj;ijAk; ghLk; jpwj;ijAk;> ghlyhrpupaDf;F cupa ,yf;fzj;ijAk; ,sq;Nfh mbfs; vLj;Jiuf;fpwhH. 

,kpo;fly; tiug;gpy; jkpofk; mwpaj;
jkpo;KOJ mwpe;j jd;ikapd; Mfp
Ntj;jpay; nghJtpay; vd;W,U jpwj;jpd;
ehl;ba ed;Dhy; ed;F filg; gpbj;J
,irNahd; tf;fpupj;jpl;lj;ij czhe;J - Mq;F
mirah kugpd; mJgl itj;J
khw;NwhH nra;j tirnkhop mwpe;J
ehj;njhiyT ,y;yh ed;Dhy; GytDk;

 

Foy;top epd;wJ ahNo> aho;topj;
jz;Zik epd;wJ jfNt> jz;Zikg;
gpd;top epd;wJ KoNt> KoNthL
$bepd;W ,irj;jJ Mke; jpupif

.. 

xypf;Fk; fly; #o;e;j jkpo;ehl;bdH czHe;j Kj;jkpOk; JiwNghff; fw;Wj; NjHe;jtd;. Ntj;jpay; nghJtpay; vd;Dk; ,U $WghLfisAila ehl;ba Ehy;fis ed;whff; fw;wwpe;jtd;. ,irg;Gytd; mikj;j ,irapd; Nghf;fpid  ed;F czHe;J> mtd; jhs epiyapy; nfhz;L te;j moifr; rpwpJk; gpwohky; jd;Dila ftpijapy; Njhd;w itf;f ty;ytd;. kuGfSf;F khWgl;l tirnkhopfis mwpe;J> mit fythj Jha ,dpa nrhw;fshy; ftp ,aw;Wk; rpwe;j ehtd;ikAk; ey;y EhywpTk; kpf;ftd;. ,j;jifa ghlyhrpupaDk; muq;fpw;F te;jhd;. 

Mapuj;J vz;zhapuk; Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH ngUk; Njhs; kle;ij jhJ mtpo; Gup Foy; G+q;nfhb Mly; ghly; moF ,k; %d;wpYk; xd;W FiwT glhky; ma;e;jhtJ tajpy; njhlq;fp> Vohz;L Kiwahf ehl;bak; gapd;W gd;dpuz;lhtJ mfitapy; tPuf; foy; mzpe;j Nrho kd;dd; Kd; muq;Nfwpf; fhl;l tpUk;gpdhs;. mg;NghJ mts; Mlyhrpupad;> ,ir Mrpupad;> ,aw;wkpo;g; Gytd;> jz;zik Kjy;td;> Foyhrpupad;> ahohrpupad; MfpNahNuhL muq;fpw;F te;jhs;. 

mtNshL muq;Ff;F te;j Mlyhrpupad; mff; $j;J> Gwf; $j;J Mfpa ,Utiff; $j;Jfspd; ,yf;fzq;fisAk; mwpe;jtd;. mtw;wpd; gFjpfshfpa gy $j;Jf;fisAk; tpyf;FWg;Gf;fSld; ,izf;f ty;ytd;.  my;ypak; Kjy; nfhLnfhl;b <whf cs;s gjpndhU $j;Jf;fisAk;> mf; $j;JfSf;Fupa ghly;fisAk;> mtw;wpw;fike;j ,irf; fUtpfspd; $WfisAk;> mtw;wpw;fike;j ,irf; fUtpfspd; $WfisAk;> mtw;iwg; gw;wpf; $wpAs;s rpwe;j Ehy;fspd; gb tpsf;fkhfj; njupe;jtd. MlYk;> ghlYk;> jhsKk;> jhsq;fspd; topNa tUk; Jhf;FfSk; jk;Ks; xj;jpaq;FkhW epfo;tpf;Fk; Mw;wy; kpf;ftd;.  

,t;thNw ,ir Mrpupad;> ghly; Mrpupad;> jz;Zik Mrpupad;> Foyhrpupad; ahohrpupad; MfpNahuJ jpwikiaak; Gyikiaak; ,sq;Nfh mbfs; muq;Nfw;W fhijapy; mLf;fLf;fhff; $WfpwhH.  

,q;F ehk; ftdpf;f Ntz;baJ khjtpapd; muq;Nfw;wj;jpy;  ,irg; GytNdhL mtSf;Fj; jkpioj; JiwNghff; fw;Wf; nfhLj;j ,aw;wkpo;g; GytDk; cldpUe;jhd; vd;w nra;jpNa.  

,d;W 1>800 Mz;Lfs; fopj;J Mly; ghly; nrhy;ypf; nfhLf;Fk; MrpupaHfs; Mq;fpyj;jpy; jkpo;g; ghly;fis vOjpf; nfhLj;J MlTk; ghlTk; itf;fpwhHfs;.  

Nghjhf;Fiwf;F jhq;fs; ghlk; nra;j Mdhy; nghUs; tpsq;fhj njYq;Fg; ghly;fisAk; nrhy;ypf; nfhLj;J ghlTk; MlTk; itf;fpwhHfs;.  

,it jkpo; nkhopf;Fk; fiyf;Fk; mtHfs; nra;Ak; ,uz;lfk; MFk;! 

xU ghlYf;F capuhf tpsq;FtJ czHr;rp. clyhf tpsq;FtJ tbtk;. xU rpwe;j ghlYf;F cupa cr;rupg;G> nghUs;> czHr;rp> moF (vJif Nkhid Xireak; my;yJ re;jk;) fw;gid> fUj;J> tbtk; ,tw;iw mwpahj MlyurpNah ghlfNuh vg;gbf; Fw;wkw MlTk; ghlTk; KbAk;? 

,e;j jkpo; thuj;jpy; ,Ue;jhtJ MlyhrpupaHfSk; ghlyhrpupaHfSk; jq;fs; khztHfSf;f jkpo; nrhy;ypf; nfhLf;f Kd; tu Ntz;Lk;.  

,aw;wkpo; fw;w khztHfSf;Nf Mly; ghly; nrhy;ypf; nfhLg;Nghk; vd;W #Siuf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,JNt mtHfs; jkpo; nkhopf;Fk; jkpo;f; fiyf;Fk; Mw;wf; $ba ngUk; njhz;lhFk;. (tsUk;)


jkpo; nkhop thuk; (3)

jpUf;Nfhapy;fspy; jkpopy; mHr;rid topghL

ef;fPud;

jpUf;Nfhapy;fspy; jkpopy; mHr;rid topghL eilngw Ntz;Lk; vd;W Fuy; ,d;W jkpofj;jpYk; fdlhtpYk; xypf;fj; njhlq;fpAs;sJ.

,q;Fs;s fPjthzp thndhypapy; jpUf;Nfhapy; topghL nre;jkpopy; eilngw Ntz;Lkh ,y;iyah? vd;w thjk; eilngWtjhf mwpfpNwd;.

jpUf;Nfhapy; topghl;by; jkpopy; mHr;rid vd;gJ thjj;Jf;F mg;ghy;gl;lJ. mJ kdpjTupik gw;wpaJ MFk;. jkpopy; mHr;rid nra;a kWg;gJ kdpjTupik kPwyhFk;!

jpUf;Nfhapy;fspy; jkpopy; mUr;rid nra;tjw;F ,iwtDf;Fr; rpf;fy; ,y;iy. ,ilapy; cs;stHfSf;Fj;jhd; rpf;fy;.  rptngUkhNd jkpio mfj;jpaUf;Ff; fw;gpj;jhH vd;gJ IjPfk;. vdNt jkpo; flTz; nkhopjhd;. mJ mHr;ridf;F cfe;j nkhopjhd;. 

jkpopy; mHr;rid> jkpo;Kiwg;gb FlKOf;F> Ntjk; gbj;j midj;Jr; rhjpapdUk; G+rfHfshf Mfyhk; vd;w Nfhl;ghLfis mHr;rfHfs; jPtpukhf vjpHj;J tUfpwhHfs;. mHr;rid nra;tJ mHr;rfHfspd; gpwg;Gupik vd;W $wp mtHfs; ePjpkd;wk; nrd;W thjhbdhHfs;. mjpy; XusT ntw;wpAk; ngw;wpUf;fpwhHfs;. ,g;gb ,tHfs; jkpo;nkhopg; gad;ghl;il Vd; vjpHf;fpwhHfs;?

jq;fs; gpiog;gpy;  kz; tpOe;J tpLk; vd;gjw;fhfNt mHr;rfHfspy; xU rhuhH jkpo;  mHr;ridia vjpHf;fpwhHfs;.

,e;J kjj;jpy; kl;LNk xU Fwpg;gpl;l rhjpapdH Ntjhfkk; gbf;Fk; cupikiaAk;> jpUf;Nfhapy;fspy; mHr;rid nra;Ak; cupikiaAk; ngw;wpUf;fpwhHfs;. kw;wtHfSf;F me;j cupikfs;  kWf;fg;gLfpwJ.  xU gpuhkzd; vt;tsT xOf;ff; Nfldhf ,Ue;jhYk;> fy;tp Nfs;tpapy; vt;tsT jho;e;jtdhf  ,Ue;jhYk;> xU Fwpg;gpl;l rhjpapy; gpwe;j xNu fhuzj;Jf;fhf Ntjhfkk; gbf;Fk; cupikiaAk;> mHr;rid nra;Ak; cupikiaAk; gpwg;gpd; mbg;gilapy; ngw;WtpLfpwhd;.

fdlhtpy; cs;s ve;j irthyaKk; rpw;g> rhj;jpu> Mfk tpjpfSf;F mikaf; fl;lg;gltpy;iy! Nfhtpypd; mikg;G kdpj clk;ig xj;jjhf mikf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,q;Fs;s gy Nfhapy;fs; Kd;ida gz;lfrhiyfs;. mq;F fUtiw> mHj;jkz;lgk;> kfhkz;lgk;> ];ehekz;lgk;> myq;fhukz;lgk;> rghkz;lgk;>  nfhbkuk;. gypgPlk;> ee;jp vJTNk ,y;iy. %Hj;jp> jyk;> jPHj;jk; %d;wpy;  jPHj;jk; ,y;iy.

NkYk; gpuhkzHfs; fly; flf;fg;glhJ vd;gJ tpjp. me;j tpjpAk; kPwg;gl;Ls;sJ.   

Nfhapy;fspy; nja;tj;jpd; ngauhy; eilngw;w capHg; gypfs;> Njtjhrp Kiw> cld;fl;il VWjy;> jypj; Myag; gpuNtrk; Ntjhfk tpjpfSf;F xg;g  ,Ue;jNghjpYk; $l ,d;W rl;l G+Htkhf mit jilnra;ag;gl;L tpl;ld.

,t;thW rhj;jpuq;fSk; rk;gpujhaq;fSk; kPwg;gLk;NghJ Myaq;fspy; jkpopy; Nghw;wp nra;jhy; mJ irthfk tpNuhjk; vdf; $r;ry; ,Ltjpy; nghUs; ,y;iy. 

NkYk; rk];fpUj nkhopapy; nra;ag;gLk; Ntjhfk rk;Nksdf; fpupiffSf;F kl;LNk ke;jpurf;jp cz;nld;Wk; fhQ;rp fhkNfhbgPl n[Nae;jpu rq;fuhr;rhupahH thjpLtjpYk;  nghUs; ,y;iy. mJ jkpo; kPJ mtHfSf;F Mz;lhz;L fhykhf ,Ue;J tUk; ntWg;igAk; fho;g;igAk; ntspg;gLj;JfpwNjnahopa nka;awpit ntspg;gLj;jtpy;iy.

jp.K.f Ml;rpapd;NghJ jkpof mwepiyaj;Jiw mikr;ruhf ,Ue;j jkpo;f; Fbkfd; 1998 Mk; Mz;L jkpoff; Nfhapy;fspy; jkpopYk; mHr;rid nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd;w murhiz xd;iw ntspapl;lhH. mg;NghJ mjw;F MjuthfTk; vjpHg;ghfTk; jkpofk; KOf;ff; Fuy;fs; fpsk;gpd. 

jha;nkhop jkpiog; Gwf;fzpf;fr; nrhy;gtHfs; kPz;Lk; GJNtfk; nfhz;L fpsk;gpapUf;fpwhHfs;. ,J Ntjidf;Fupa tplak;. cyfk; KOf;f cs;s gRf;fs; me;je;j nkhopfspy; NgRtjpy;iy. mk;kh vd;Wjhd; jkpopy; fj;Jfpd;wd. ngUiktha;e;j jkpo; nkhopiag; Gwf;fzpf;fr; nrhy;tJ> jhiag; Gwe;js;sp tpl;L NtnwhUj;jpiaj; jha; vd;W nrhy;tJ Nghd;wJ" vd kJiu MjPdk; nghd;dg;gy mbfshH nrhy;yp ,Uf;fpwhH.

mHr;rid kl;Lky;y FlKOf;Fk; jkpopy;jhd;  eilngw Ntz;Lk; vd;W gy Mz;LfshfNt typAWj;jp tUk; Ng&uhjPdk; rhe;jypq;f ,uhkrhkp mbfshH "Mfk tpjpfs; vd;W nrhy;yp Vkhw;WfpwhHfs;. Mfkk; ve;j rhjpf;Fk; nrhe;jkhdjy;y. vy;yh ,dj;Jf;Fk; nghJthdJ. xU FWfpa vy;iyf;Fs; ,Ue;Jnfhz;L> vy;yhNk ehq;fs;jhd; vd;W rpyH nrhy;tij Vw;f KbahJ. jkpioj; jPz;lj;jfhj nkhop vd;W nrhy;Yk; msTf;F rpyUf;F cs;sj;JzpT te;jpUg;gNj ,e;j ehl;Lf;F Nftyk;. jkpoh> tlnkhopah vd;gjy;y ,g;Nghija rpf;fy;. vq;fs; nkhopapy; vq;fis topgl tpLq;fs; vd;Wjhd; nrhy;fpNwhk;.

flTis NeUf;F NeH fhz toptFj;j nkhop jkpo;> Kjiy tpOq;fpa ghyfid kPl;f cjtpa nkhop jkpo;. ,k;nkhopapy; FlKOf;F elj;Jtijj; jtW vd;W nrhy;fpw rpf;fyhd ,d;iwa #o;epiyia xd;Wgl;L epd;W rkhspj;jhf Ntz;Lk;. ,dp elf;Fk; ve;jf; FlKOf;Fk; jkpopy;jhd; elf;f Ntz;Lk;. ele;Nj jPUk;. rk;];fpUjk; Ntz;LNthH me;j nkhopapy; nra;Jnfhs;sl;Lk;. jkpopy; nra;tij mtHfs; jLf;ff;$lhJ' vd;W vr;rupf;Fk; njhdpapy; njuptpj;jpUe;jhH.

vk;.[p.MH Kjy;tuhf ,Ue;j fhyj;jpNyNa jkpopy; mHr;rid nra;tJ Fwpj;J Muhaf; FO mikj;J> mjd; gupe;Jiuiag; ngw;W jkpopy; mHr;rid nra;a cj;juTk; te;Jtpl;lJ. mg;NghJk; rpyH mij vjpHj;jhHfs; vd;gJ NtW tplak;.

,d;iwa Kjy;tH n[ayypjh jkpOf;F vjpupay;y. vy;yh ,dj;jtUk; mHr;rfuhfyhk; vdr; nrhy;yp mtHfSf;F ke;jpuk; nrhy;ypf; nfhLf;f Ntj ghlrhiy epWtpatH. mtH ehj;jpfH my;y. khwhf ey;y Mj;jPfH. mbg;gilthj ,e;J.

jkpio typAWj;JtJ Nfhapy; mHr;rfHfSf;F vjpuhdJ my;y. vdNt> ahUila Jhz;LjYf;Fk; Mshfp mHr;rfHfs; jkpio vjpHf;f Ntz;lhk;. n[Nae;jpuH Vd; ,ij vjpHf;fpwhH vd;gJ vdf;Fg; Gupatpy;iy.  Mr;rupakhf ,Uf;fpwJ. jkpioj; jLf;fhjPHfs; vd;W Nfl;Lf;nfhs;fpNwd;' vd Ntz;LNfhs; tpLj;jtH Kd;dhs; ,e;J mwepiyaj; Jiw mikr;rH MH.vk;. tPug;gd; mtHfs;.

nghJkf;fs; kdJ itj;jhy;> mtHfspd; czHTfisg; ghjpf;Fk; ve;jj; jilfisAk;> rl;lq;fisAk; Jhs; Jhshf;fyhk;.  jkpopy;jhd; mHr;rid nra;a Ntz;Lk; jkpopy;jhd; FlKOf;F elj;j Ntz;Lk; vd;W kf;fs; mHr;rfHfsplk; typAWj;jp Nfl;f Ntz;Lk;. vdf;Fj; jkpo; mHr;rid njupahNj vd;W ve;j mHr;rfUk; nrhy;yptpl KbahJ.  Vndd;why;> ehd; mikr;ruhf ,Ue;jNghJ ,jw;fhfNt Nghw;wp E}y;fisj; jahupj;Jj; je;Js;Nshk;.  

vy;yh rhkpfSf;Fk; etf;fpufq;fSf;Fk; Nghw;wp E}y;fs; cs;sd.  mjpYk; jw;NghJ mk;kd; topghL mjpfk; vd;gjhy; fhsp> JHf;if kw;Wk; khupak;kd;fSf;Fk; $lg; Nghw;wpg; ghly;fisj; jkpopy; toq;fpAs;Nshk;. Mfk tpjpfisr; nrhy;yp ePz;l ehs; Vkhw;w KbahJ.  Vohk; E}w;whz;Lf;F Kd;G ve;j Mfk tpjp ,Ue;jJ? jkpioj; jLg;gtHfsplk; ,Ue;J jkpiof; fhf;f> tpopg;Gld; ,Uf;f Ntz;baJ cq;fs; flik." ,g;gbr; nrhd;dtH Kd;dhs; jkpo; Ml;rpnkhop> jkpo;g; gz;ghL> ,e;J rkak; kw;Wk; mwepiyaj; Jiw mikr;rH jkpo;f; Fbkfd;.

Kd;dhs; Kjy;tH gf;jtr;ryk; fhyj;jpNyNa jkpo; mHr;rid njhlq;fg;gl;lJ. fiyQH fUzhepjp Ml;rpapy; 1971k; Mz;L mjw;fhd fl;lis gpwg;gpf;fg;gl;lJ. ,g;NghJ irt> itzt mwpQHfshy; Njthuk;> jpUthrfk;> jpt;ag; gpuge;j ehy;fspypUe;J Nghw;wp tupfs; njhFf;fg;gl;L> jkpo; ehnlq;fpYk; cs;s MjPdfHj;jHfspd; ghHitf;F mDg;gp mtHfsJ xg;Gjypd; gpd; mHr;rid Ehy;fs; Kiwahf ntspaplg;gl;Ls;sd.

,Jtiu (1997) jkpopy; mHr;rid eilKiwg;gLjg;gLk; Nfhtpy;fs; 3127. jkpopy; yl;rhHr;rid elj;jg;gl;l Nfhapy;fs; 1082. jkpopy; Nfhb mHr;rid elj;jg;gl;l Nfhapy;fs; 11. xypngUf;fp %yk; gf;jpg;ghly;fs; xypgug;gg;gLk; Nfhapy;fs; 1068.

Mdhy; jkpo; mHr;ridia vjpHj;J mHr;rfHfs; ePjpkd;wj;jpy; tof;Fj; njhlHe;Js;sdH. "Njtehfup nkhop" (tlnkhop) kl;LNk ,iwtDf;F cfe;jJ vd;gJ mtHfsJ thjkhFk;.  

jkpopy; mHr;rid nra;aj; njhlq;fpdhy; ,Jtiu fhyKk; jhq;fs; mDgtpj;J te;j VfNghf njhopy; cupikf;F (Monopoly)  vq;Nf Mgj;J te;J tpLNkh vd;w Raeyk; fhuzkhfNt xU rpy mHr;rfHfs; mg;gb epidf;fpwhHfs;. vy;NyhUk; my;y. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf fdlh  =JHf;ifak;kd; Nfhapy; gpujk FUf;fs; jkpo; mHr;ridia Mjupf;fpwhH. Vw;fdNt jkpopy; mHr;rid topghL nra;fpwhH. mz;ikapy; jkpopy; mHr;rid topghLgw;wp mtuplk; ehd; Nfl;l NghJ tlnkhop mHr;rid ke;jpuk; xd;iw vdf;Fr; nrhy;ypf; fhl;b mjd;; nghUisj; jkpopy; nrhy;yp> mt;thW me;j ke;jpuj;ij jkpopy; nrhy;tjpy; ve;jr; rpf;fYk; ,y;iy vd;whH.

mHr;rid nra;tjw;F jkpOf;Fj; jFjp ,y;iy vd;W $WtJ cyfpYs;s VO Nfhb jkpoHfisAk; ,opTgLj;Jk; nrayhFk;. tlnkhopjhd; flTSf;Fg; GupAk; vd;gJ flTisAk; mtd; rf;jpiaAk; Fiwj;J kjpg;gpLtjhFk;. cyfpy; cs;s nkhopfs; vy;yhNk ,iwtd; je;j nkhopfs;jhd;. mij Ngjg;gLj;jpg; ghHf;fNtz;ba mtrpakpy;iy.

jkpopy; Nghw;wp (mHr;rid) kw;Wk; FlKOf;Fr;  nra;tij rhjhuz mHr;rfHfs; njhlq;fp fhQ;rp fhkNfhb rq;fuhr;rhupahH tiu vjpHf;fpwhHfs;. mit rk];fpUjj;jpy;jhd; nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;W xw;iwf; fhypy; epw;fpwhHfs;. mjw;F mtHfs;  $Wk;  fhuzq;fs; vit?

    (m) flTSf;F jkpo; cfe;j nkhop my;y. ghuk;gupakhf rk];fpUjj;jpNyNa ke;jpuq;fs; nrhy;yp mgpNrfk;> Muhjidnay;yhk; elj;jg;gl;L tUfpd;wd.  

    (M) Mfk tpjpfspd;gb rk];fpUjj;jpNy kl;Lk;jhd; FlKOf;F (Fk;ghgpNrfk;) elj;jyhk;. jkpopy; nra;a Mfk tpjpfspy; ,lkpy;iy.

    (,) kPwpj;jkpopy; elj;jpdhy; mJ flTspd; Nfhgj;jpw;F cs;shf;Fk; nrayhfptpLk;. mjdhy; ehl;by; ,aw;if cw;ghjq;fs; NeupLk;> ehl;L kf;fSf;F ngUk; jPq;Ffs; tpisAk;.

jkpo; mHr;ridia vjpHg;gtHfs; jq;fs; epiyg;ghl;bw;F tY NrHf;f irthfkj;ijf; Nflakhfj; Jhf;fpg; gpbf;fpwhHfs;.

'Mfk tpjpg;gb fl;ba Nfhapypy; Mfk tpjpg;gbjhd; Fk;ghtpN\fk; (FlKOf;F) elj;j Ntz;Lk;. ahfrhiyfspy; Ntj ke;jpuq;fs;jhd;  xypf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gJjhd; Mfktpjp. jkpopy; ke;jpuq;fSf;Fupa gjq;fs; fpilahJ.  ke;jpuq;fis tpl;L  jpUKiwfis Xjyhk;. Mdhy; mjdhy; gyd; fpl;lhJ. jkpo;j; Njhj;jpuq;fSf;F kupahij ,Ue;jhYk; mtw;Wf;F ke;jpu rf;jp fpilahJ. Md;kPf gyDk; fpilf;fhJ' vd tujuh[g;ngUkhs; Nfhapy; NkyhsH rq;fuuhkd; nfhiyapy; Kjy; vjpuahf Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;lUtk; ,g;NghJ rpiwapy; ,Ue;J gpizapy; ntspte;Jtpl;l  fhQ;rp fhkNfhb n[Nae;jpu ru];tjp rq;fuhr;rhupahH $WfpwhH.

,jd; nghUs; vd;dntd;why; ,e;Jf; flTsHf;Fj; rk];fpUjk; kl;LNk GupAk;.  ,e;Jf; flTsHf;Fj; jkpo; GupahJ. rk];fpUjk; kl;LNk ke;jpu rf;jp cs;s nkhop. rk];fpUjnkhopf;F cs;s ke;jpurf;jp jkpOf;Ff; fpilahJ vd;gjhFk;.

Mfk tpjpfspd;gb ,d;W Nfhapy; topghL G+ir ,lk;ngWtJ Fiwe;J tUfpwJ. NkNy $wpathW Mfkk; jkpoHfspy; xU rhuhiu jPz;lg;glhjtH vd Kj;jpiu Fj;jp mtHfs; NfhapYf;Fs; nrd;W topghL nra;tijj; jil nra;;fpwJ. topgl;lhy; rhkpf;F jPl;Lg;gl;LtpLk; vd;W nrhy;fpwJ. Mdhy; ,d;W jPz;lhik mDl;bg;gJ rl;lg;gb Fw;wk; MFk;.  ,e;jpah kw;Wk; ,yq;if ehLfs; ,uz;bYk; ,jw;fhd jilr; rl;lk; gpufldg;gLj;jg; gl;Ls;sJ.

Mfkj;jpy; ma;ag;gd;rhkp vd;w xU rhkpNa ,y;iy. Mdhy; ,d;W Mfkj;Jf;F tpNuhjkhf ma;aag;gd; topghL elf;fpwJ. vdNt Mfkj;ijf; fhuzk; fhl;b jkpo; mHr;ridiaNah jkpo;Kiw FlKOf;ifNah vjpHf;f KbahJ! 

Mfkj;jpy; ,lkpy;iy my;yJ Mfk tpNuhjk; vd;W nrhy;yp Mfkj;ij xU MAjkhf jkpOf;F vjpuhf vg;NghJk; Jhf;FfpwhHfNs? Mfkk; vd;why; vd;d? Mfkk; jkpo;nkhop topghL gw;wp vd;d nrhy;fpwJ?

ePjpgjp lhf;lH v];;. kfuhrd; jiyikapy; Nfhapy;fspy; jkpopy; topghL nra;ayhkh vd xU Mizaj;ij jkpo;ehL muR mikj;jJ. ePjpgjp kfuhrd; FO mijapl;Lg; gbj;J Muha;e;J xU mwpf;if nfhLj;jJ.

Nfhapy;fspy; ahH mHr;rfH Mfyhk; vd Mfkq;fspy; tiuaiw nra;ag;gl;Ls;sjhff; $WfpwhHfs;. me;j Mfkq;fs; gw;wpAk; mjpy; fhyj;Jf;Ff; fhyk; ,lk; ngw;Ws;s ,ilr;nrUfy; gw;wpAk; ePjpgjp kfuhrd; FO tpsf;FfpwJ.  (tsUk;)

 


  

jkpo;nkhop  thuk; xU kPs; ghHit! 

Ngia tpul;lg; Nghd G+rhupf;Nf Nga; gpbj;jhy;? 

Ngia tpul;lg; Nghd G+rhupf;Nf Nga; gpbj;jhy;?

kq;if #jfkhdhy; fq;ifapy; Fspf;fyhk;! fq;ifNa #jfkhdhy;?

fz;iz tpw;Wr; rpj;jpuk; thq;fpdhy;?

Neha; jPHf;Fk; kUj;JtUf;Nf jPuhj tpahjp vd;why;?

Fspf;fg; Ngha; Nrw;iwg; G+rpf; nfhz;lhy;?

ghk;ghl;bf;Nf ghk;G fbj;jhy;?

gps;isahH gpbf;f mJ Fuq;fhf khwpdhy;?

jkpo; tsHr;rp vd;gJk; jkpo;g;gw;W vd;gJk; jkpo;g; ghJfhg;G vd;gJk; mLj;j jiyKiwf;F jkpo;nkhopia mopatplhky; milfhj;J ifaspg;jpy;jhd; ,Uf;fpwJ.  

ele;J Kbe;j jkpo;nkhop thuk; jkpo; kf;fspilNa jkpo; nkhop> gz;ghL gw;wpa tpopg;GzHT Vw;gLj;jNt nfhz;lhlg;gl;lJ. Kf;fpakhf jkpo;nkhopiag; gbg;gjpy; khztHfs; Vd; gpd;epw;fpwhHfs;? mjw;fhd jilfs; vit? vd;gtw;iwf; fz;lwpe;J mtw;iwf; fistNj jkpo;nkhop thuj;jpd; Kjd;ik Nehf;fkhf ,Ue;jJ. mijnahl;ba gpw Fwpf;Nfhs;fSk; ,Ue;jd. mjw;F ,iraNt jkpopd; tho;Nt jkpoupd; tho;T vd;W Kof;fk; Kd;itf;fg;gl;lJ. 

nkhop vd;gJ fUj;Jg; gupkhw;wj;Jf;F kl;Lk; Njitg;gLk; fUtp ,y;iy.    mjw;Fk; Nkyhf nkhop vd;gJ xU ,dj;jpd; ehfupfk;>  gz;ghL> fiy Mfpa  tpOkpaq;fisAk; ntspfhl;Lk; fUtp MFk;.  

jkpo;nkhop vd;gJ jkpo;kf;fsJ tho;tpaypy; ,uz;lwf; fye;J epw;f Ntz;Lk;. jkpo;nkhop jkpoHfsJ tho;tpaypd; rfy JiwfspYk; jsq;fspYk; gad;gLj;jg; glNtz;Lk;. 

jkpo;nkhop thuk; ,e;j ,yf;fpidj; njhl;ljh? mjpy; ntw;wp fz;ljh? vd;gij kPs; ghHit nra;tNj ,e;jf; fl;Liuapd; Nehf;fkhFk;. ,jpy; $wg;gLk; fUj;Jf;fis nrupf;Fk; kdg;ghq;F njhlHGs;stHfSf;F ,Uf;Fk; vd vjpHghHf;fpNwd;. 

Kjy; Nfhzy; Kw;Wk; Nfhzy; vd;gJ Nghy; jkpo;nkhop thu Kjy;ehs; epfo;r;rpNa jLkhw;wj;NjhL njhlq;fpaJ. 

jkpo;nkhop gad;ghl;Lf;F Clfq;fspd; gq;F vd;d vd;gijg; Ngr te;j ClftpayhsHfspy; ,uz;nlhUtH me;jg; gq;fspg;igg; gw;wpg; Ngrhky; jkpopy; cs;s tlnkhopr; nrhw;fis ePf;fp jdpj;jkpo;r; nrhw;fisg; gad;gLj;Jq;fs; vd;w Ntz;LNfhSf;F tpil ,Wg;gJ Nghy; NgrpdhHfs;. mtHfs; Kd;itj;j thjq;fs; gpd;tUkhW- 

     1) tlnkhopr; nrhw;fSf;F ,izahd nrhw;fs; jkpopy; ,y;iy. 

    2) jkpo;nkhop jdpj;J epw;f KbahJ. Mq;fpy nkhopapd; nry;thf;Ff; fhuzk; mJ gpwnkhopfsplk; Vuhskhd nrhw;fisf; fld; thq;fp ,Ug;gNj. 

    3) Jha jkpo;r; nrhw;fisg; gad;gLj;jpdhy; mJ kf;fSf;F tpsq;fhJ. nra;jpfs; kf;fisr; nrd;W milaNtz;Lk; vd;why; tlnkhopr; nrhw;fis gad;gLj;jpNa  Mf Ntz;Lk;. 

,e;j thjq;fs; kpfTk; nrhj;ijahdit. jq;fSf;F ,Uf;Fk; jkpo; mwpTg; gQ;rj;ij %b kiwf;f gopiaj; jkpo;nkhop kPJ Vw;WfpwhHfs;. ,tHfSf;F kiwkiy mbfshH 1946 ,y; njhlf;fp itj;j jdpj;jkpo; ,af;fk; gw;wpa tuyhw;W mwpT nfhQ;rk; $l ,y;iy vd;gJ ntl;l ntspr;rkhfpwJ. kiwkiy mbfshH  njhlf;fp itj;j jdpj;jkpo; ,af;fj;ij mtUf;Fg; gpd;te;j jkpo;j; njd;wy; jpU. tp..f. gupjpkhw;fiyQH;> jpUkjp jp. ePyhk;gpif mk;ikahH> ghNte;jH ghujpjhrd;> ngUQ;rpj;jpudhH> nkhopQhapW NjtNeag;ghthzH> ,uh. ,sq;FkhudhH  Nghd;w jkpo; mwpQHfs; Kd;ndLj;jhHfs;. mjd; gadhf jkpo; nkhopia %bapUe;j mOf;F ePf;fg;gl;L mjd; Jha;ik fhf;fg;gl;lJ. nkhopj; Jha;ikjhd; jkpio vd;WKs njd;jkpohf ,sikAld; thoitf;Fk;. tho itj;jpUf;fpwJ. nkhopj; Jha;ik nfl;lNghJjhd; njYq;F> fd;dlk;> kiyahsk; Mfpa jpuhtpl nkhopfs; gpwe;jd.   

gpwnkhopr; nrhw;fis jkpopy; fyg;gjhy; tUk; NfL gw;wp kiwkiy mbfs; gpd;tUkhW vOjpapUf;fpwhH. 

'tl nrhw;fis ,g;NghNj ehk; jil nra;ahtpbd;> jkpo; jd;dpiy nfl;L NtW nkhop Nghyhfptplf;$Lk;. jkpopy; gpwnkhopr; nrhw;fisr; NrHg;gjhy; jkpo; jd; ,dpik ,oe;J NghtNjhL gy jkpo;r; nrhw;fSk; tof;fpy; ,y;yhJ ,we;J Nghfpd;wd.' 

'nrhy;ypy; caHT jkpo;r; nrhy;Ny' vdg;  ghujp  ntWkNd nrhy;ytpy;iy. mtUf;F tlnkhop> Mq;fpyk;> ,e;jp> gpuQ;R nkhopfs; njupe;jpUe;jd. 

jdpj; jkpo; ,af;fk; fhuzkhfNt jkpo; nkhopapd; ,dpikAk; ePHikAk; kPl;fg;gl;Ls;sd. 

jkpo;nkhopapy; xU nghUisf; Fwpf;f gy nrhw;fs; ,Uf;fpd;wd. ,J mjd; tsikf;F vLj;Jf; fhl;L. 

jkpopy; ngUk;ghYk; tpidabapy; ,Ue;Nj ngaHr; nrhw;fs; gpwf;fpd;wd. ,jid xU rpW vLj;Jf;fhl;L %yk; vz;gpf;fyhk;.  

Mq;fpyj;jpy; G+Tf;F flower,   bud vd;w ,U nrhw;fNs ,Uf;fpd;wd.  tlnkhopapy; G\;g;gk; vd;w xNu nrhy;jhd; ,Uf;fpwJ. Mdhy; jkpopy;- 

    mUk;G -  mUk;Gk; epiy
    nkhl;L -  nkhf;FtpLk; epiy
    Kif  -  Kfpo;f;Fk; epiy
    NghJ  -  kyUk; epiy
    kyH   -  kyHe;j epiy
    myH   -  ed;whf kyHe;j epiy
    tP     -  thLk; epiy
    nrk;ky; -  tjq;Fk; epiy 

,Nj Nghy; xU ngz;zpd; gUtj;ijAk; cUtj;ijAk; fhl;l -   

    Ngij           5 mfitf;Ff; fPo;
    ngJk;ig        12 mfitf;Ff; fPo;
    kq;if           16 mfitf;Ff; fPo;
    kle;ij          25 mfitf;Ff; fPo;
    mupit           30 mfitf;Ff; fPo;
    njupit>          35 mfitf;Ff; fPo;
    Ngupsk; ngz;      45 mfitf;Ff; fPo;

vdg; gFj;Js;shHfs;.  

gpw;fhyj;jpy; jkpo;nkhop Ml;rp Mz;ik ,oe;jNghJ mjd; tsHr;rp jilgl;lJ.Gjpa Gjpa fiyr; nrhw;fs; cUthf;Ftjpy; Njf;fk; Vw;gl;lJ. 

jkpo;thuj;jpy; tlnkhopr; nrhw;fSf;F ,izahd nrhw;fs; jkpopy; ,y;iy vd;gij epiyehl;l xU vLj;Jf;fhl;Lr; nrhy;yg;gl;lJ. 

'gpuNahfk;' vd;w nrhy;Yf;F vd;d jkpo; vd;W Nfl;fg;gl;lJ? ml fz;whtpNa! Kg;gJ Mz;L xypgug;Gj;Jiwpay; ,Uf;Fk; xUtUf;F ,J$lj; njupahjh? gad;ghL vd;w xU nrhy; jkpopy; ,Uf;fpwNj!  

Mq;fpyk; fld;thq;fpa gbahy;jhd; mJ tskhd nkhopahf  ,Uf;fpwJ vd;gJ cz;ikjhd;. Mq;fpynkhopapy; cs;s gpwnkhopr; nrhw;fis ePf;fptpl;lhy; me;j nkhop jdpj;J epw;fhJ. me;j nkhop njhlf;fk; njhl;Nl xU fyit nkhopjhd;. NrhrH fhyj;Jf;F (15 Mk; Ehw;whz;L) Ke;jpa Mq;fpyj;ij (Old English) ,g;NghJ ahUk; gbj;J tpsq;fpf; nfhs;s KbahJ. Mdhy; jkpo; mg;gbay;y. njhy;fhg;gpaH fhyj;J jkpio ,d;Wk; gbj;J tpsq;fpf; nfhs;s KbAk;. jkpo; jdpj;J epw;ff; $ba nkhop. Mapuf;fzf;fhd NtHr; nrhw;fisf; nfhz;l nkhop. nrhw;fs; nghUs; Fwpj;J epw;git. vdNt jkpo;nkhopf;Ff; fld; Ntz;ba Njit ,y;iy.  

Jha jkpo;r; nrhw;fisg; gad;gLj;jpdhy; kf;fSf;Fr; nrhy;Yk; nra;jp Ngha;r; NruhJ vd;gJ nehz;br; rhl;L. mz;ikf; fhyj;jpy; Clfj;Jiwapy; Vuhskhd Jha jkpo;r; nrhw;fs; gad;ghl;Lf;F te;Js;sd. te;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wd. fzpdpj; jkpo; $l mRu Ntfj;jpy; tsHe;J tUfpwJ.  

mz;ikf; fhyk; tiu tof;fpy; ,Ue;j tlnkhopr; nrhw;fs; fisag;gl;L ,ay;ghfg; nghUs; tpsq;Fk; ,dpa jdpj;jkpo; nrhw;fs; eilKiwf;F te;jd. mit tpsq;ftpy;iy vdr; nrhy;yp mtw;wpd; gad;ghl;ilj; jkpo;kf;fs; Gwk; js;spdhHfsh? ,y;yNa! 

mf;fpuhrdH    -      jiytH MdhH
fhupajuprp     -      nrayH my;yJ nrayhsH MdhH
nghf;fp\jhuH  -      nghUshsH MdhH
mq;fj;jtH    -      cWg;gpdH MdhH
gpNuupj;jy;     -      Kd;nkhopjy; MdJ
MNkhjpj;jy;   -      topnkhopjy; MdJ
ek];fhuk;     -      tzf;fk; MdJ
rhae;jpuk;     -      khiy MdJ
tpthfk;       -      jpUkzk; MdJ
tpQ;Qhgdk;    -      miog;gpjo; MdJ
rpNu\;l Gj;jpup  -      %j;j kfs; MdhH
fdp\;l Gj;jpud; -      ,isa kfd; MdhH
K$Hj;jk;      -      ey;yehs; MdJ
=            -      jpU MdhH
=kjp         -      jpUthl;b MdhH
ge;Jf;fs;      -      cwtpdH MdhHfs;
kpj;jpuH        -      ez;gHfs; MdhHfs;
jk;gjpfs;      -      kzkf;fs; MdhHfs;
MrPHthjk;     -      tho;j;J MdJ
Fk;ghgpN\fk;   -      FlKOf;F MdhJ
tpujk;         -      Nehd;ghdJ
kN`hw;rtk;    -      jpUtpoh MdJ
fpUfg;gpuNtrk;  -      GJkid GFtpoh MdJ
jpdk;         -      ehs; MdJ
khjk;         -      jpq;fs; MdJ
tU\k;        -      Mz;L MdJ 
tp[ak;        -      tUif MdJ
Ngh[dk;       -      czT my;yJ tpUe;J MdJ
tpyhrk;       -       Kftup MdJ
jghy;         -       mQ;ry; MdJ
rHtfyhrhiy   -      gy;fiyf; fofk; MdJ
ghi\         -      nkhop MdJ
cg mj;al;rfH  -      Jiz Nte;jH MdhH
gj;jpupif       -      ,jo; MdJ
gj;jpuhjpgH     -       MrpupaH MdhH
tpQ;Qhdk;     -       mwptpay; MdJ
tpahrk;       -       fl;Liu MdJ
gpuRuk;        -       ntspaPL MdJ
gazk;        -      nryT MdJ
re;Njh\k;     -       kfpo;r;rp MdJ
fe;NjhH       -       mYtyfk; MdJ
tpNr\k;      -       rpwg;G MdJ
fpshf;fH     -       mYtyH MdhH
tpfpjk;       -       tpOf;fhL MdJ
ehuhazrhkp   -      neLQ;nropad; MdhH
NrhkRe;juk;   -       kjpaofd; MdhH
fdNfe;jpud;   -       <oNte;jd; MdhH
eluhrd;      -       Mlyurd; MdhH   

(njhlUk;)


 

jkpo;nkhop  thuk; xU kPs; ghHit! (2)

,yf;fzk; y\;\zj;jpy; ,Ue;J gpwe;jJ! tpQ;Qhdp fz;Lgpbg;G?

jpUkfs;

jkpo;nkhop thuj;jpd; njhdpg; nghUs; vd;d njupAkh? "jkpopd; tho;Nt jkpoupd; tho;T' vd;gjhFk;. mjhtJ jkpo; tho;e;jhNy jkpoH tho;thH vd;gjhFk;.

jkpo; Clfq;fisg; nghWj;jstpy; jkpo; tho;e;jhNy mit tho KbAk; vd;gJ nrhy;yhkNy tpsq;Fk;.  Gyk; ngaHe;j jkpoHfs; jkpio kwe;jhy; jkpo; Clfq;fs; kiwe;J tpLk;. mtw;Wf;fhd Njit ,y;yhJ Ngha;tpLk;. vdNt jkpopd; tho;tpy; kw;wtHfistpl ClftpayhsHfSf;Nf mjpf mf;fiw ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.

jkpo; tho jkpo;nkhopia khztHfSf;Fr; nrhy;ypf; nfhLg;Nghk;> jkpo;nkhopapd; ,yf;fpa tsk; gw;wp vLj;Jr; nrhy;Nthk;> jkpopd; njhd;ik gw;wp vOJNthk;> jkpo;nkhopg; gad;ghl;il Cf;Ftpg;Nghk; vdg; NgRthHfs; vd;Wjhd; vtUk;  vjpHghHg;ghHfs;. Mdhy; NgusT mg;gb vJTk; eilngwtpy;iy.

fyg;Gj; jkpo;jhd; NgRNthk;> mg;gbg; Ngrpdhy;jhd; ehq;fs; nrhy;y Ntz;ba nra;jp kf;fisg; Ngha; NrUk; vd;W ,d;ndhU xypgug;ghsUk; Kd;ida xypgug;ghsiu topnkhope;J NgrpdhH.

njupahky;jhd; Nfl;fpNwd;> Mq;fpy ClftpayhsHfs; ahuhtJ ,g;gbg; NgRfpwhHfsh? kf;fSf;F tpsq;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;fhf fyg;G Mq;fpyj;jpy; NgRfpwhHfsh? Ngrj;jhd; KbAkh?

Mq;fpynkhop xyp xspg;ghsHfs; NgRk;NghJk; rup> nra;jp thrpf;Fk; NghJk; rup> ,yf;fzj;NjhLjhd; NgRfpwhHfs;. ,yf;fzj;NjhLjhd; vOJfpwhHfs;. mJkl;Lky;y NgRk; NghJk; nrhw;fisr; rupahf cr;rupg;gjpYk; ftdkhf ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. ,jdhy; gpgprp apd; xyp xsp gug;G Mq;fpyk; 'murpahH Mq;fpyk;' (Queen's English ) vd;w rpwg;Gg; ngw;W Mq;fpy nkhop NgRgtHfSf;F xU Kd;khjpupahf tpsq;FfpwJ.

cyfpy; ,d;W jkpo;nkhopg; gad;ghl;by; Kbe;jkl;Lk; Jha jkpo;g; gad;gLjg;gly; Ntz;Lk; vd;gjpy; jkpoPo epoy; muNr kpff; $Ljyhd mf;fiw fhl;b tUfpwJ. mjw;fhf Kidg;NghL nray;gl;Lk; tUfpwJ vd;gJ nts;splkiy. 

1992 Mk; Mz;bNyNa tpLjiyg; Gypfspd; jkpo; tsHr;rpf; fofk; 'kf;fl; ngaH mfu tupir' vd;w Ehiy ntspapl;Lj; Jha jkpo;g; ngaHfisg; ngw;NwhHfs; jq;fs; gps;isfSf;F ,l;L toq;f topfhl;baJ. mjidj; njhlHe;J 'eilKiwj; jkpo; topfhl;b'  vd;w Ehy; ntspaplg;gl;lJ. Vwj;jho 1>800 gpwnkhopr; nrhw;fSf;F> ngUk;ghYk; tlnkhopr; nrhw;fSf;F> Neuhd Jha jkpo;r; nrhw;fs; ,e;Ehypy; ,lk;ngw;Ws;sJ.

,e;j Ehypd; KfTiuapy; gpd;tUkhW vOjg;gl;bUe;jJ>

'tl nrhw;fSk; jpirr; nrhw;fSkhff; fhye;NjhWk; jkpopilNa gpwnkhopr; nrhw;fs; vz;Zf;fzf;fw;W te;J fyg;gjhNy> jkpopd; Jha;ikAk; jdpj;jd;ikAk; gho;gl;L tUtjidj; jkpouhfpa ehk; czHe;J nfhs;shjpUf;fpd;Nwhk;. ,e;epiy njhlUkhapd; 'nky;yj; jkpopdpr; rhFk;' vd;gJ jpz;zk;.

rq;ffhyj;jpNy jkpopNy 2 Ehw;Wf;$Nw tlnrhy;yhAk; jpirr; nrhy;yhAkpUe;J> gpd;dH rq;fk; kUtpa fhyj;jpy; 8 Ehw;Wf; $whfpg; gbg;gbaha; tsHe;J> ,d;W 70-80 Ehw;Wf;$W jkpo; nkhop my;yhj gpwnrhw;fsha; ,Ue;J tUtJ ngUq;ftiyf;FupajhFk;. vk; kf;fs;> Nrhk;gyhYk; gpw nkhopr; nrhw;fisf; ifahs;tjdhNy jhk; ehfupfH> mwpthsH vd;W fhl;l KidAk; Nghyp tpUg;gpdhYNk jkpOf;F ,e;epiy Vw;gl;lJ.

cynfq;Fk; mwptpay; My;Nghyj; jioj;J mWFNghy NtNuhb tUfpd;wJ. mwptpaypy; tsHr;rp ngw;Ws;s ve;j ehLk; jdJ jha;nkhop thapyhfNt ,t;tsHr;rpiag; ngw;Ws;sJ. gpwnkhopr; nrhw;fisj; jtpHj;J ,ad;w msT jkJ nkhopr; nrhw;fisNa me;ehl;ltH ifahz;L tUfpd;wdH. jkpouhd ehNkh mwptpay; rhHe;j Jha jkpo;r; nrhw;fisf; ifahs csq;nfhs;shJ> tlnrhw;fisAk; xypkhw;wk; nra;j gpwnkhopr; nrhw;fisAk; ifahz;L tUfpd;Nwhk;. ,jdhYk; jkpopd; Jha;ik nfLtNjhL> mwptpaYf;Ff; ifahsj; jFjp tha;e;j goe;jkpo;r; nrhw;fis ,of;fTk; NeupLfpd;wJ. jkpopd; nrhw;fsQ;rpak; Fiwa mjdplj;jpNy gpwnkhopr; nrhw;fNs Vwpf; nfhLq;NfhNyhr;RtJk; jtpHf;fg;glNtz;baNj. md;Wjhd; ehk; mwptpaypYk; tsHe;J jiyepkpHe;J epw;fyhk;.'

jkpo;kf;fspd; murpay;> nghUshjhu> gz;ghl;L kPl;Gg; Nghuhl;lj;jpy; jkpoPok; Kd;NdhbahfTk; topfhl;bahfTk; tpsq;FfpwJ. jkpo;nkhopf; fhg;gpYk; Jha jkpo;r;nrhy; mwpKfj;jpYk; mf;fiw fhl;Ltjd; ntspg;ghNl ,e;j 'eilKiwj; jkpo; topfhl;b' vd;w Ehy;.

gpd;dH 1993 Mk; Mz;L 'kf;fl; ngaH mfu tupir' vd;w Ehiyg; ngUg;gpj;J ntspapl KbT nra;ag;gl;lJ. ,lg;ngah;tpd; gpd; (1995) mjw;fhd njhlf;f Kaw;rpfs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;ld. Nguhrphpah; rz;Kfjh];> KidtH kNdhd;kzp rz;Kfjh];> gz;bjh; tP. gue;jhkd;> ,sq;Fkud; MfpNahh; ,ize;J ehyhapuk; ngah;fisf; nfhz;l jkpo;g; ngaH ifNaL vd;w Ehiy; 2003 Mk; Mz;L ntspapl;lhHfs;.  

ntspaPl;L tpohtpw;F jkpoPo epjpj;Jiwg; nghWg;ghsH nr.t. jkpNoe;jp jiyik jhq;fpdhH. mg;NghJ mtH NgRk;NghJ "ehq;fs; vq;fSila tpLjiyg; Nghuhl;lg; gzpf;fpilNa ,e;jg; gzpiaAk; nra;jpUf;fpd;Nwhk;. jkpo; mwpQh;fs; gyh; Kd;tUthh;fshdhy; ,g;gbg;gl;l gy E}y;fis ntspaplyhk;. jkpoh;fs; jq;fSila ngaiuj; jkpopy; ,l;Lj; jk;ik milahsq;fhl;l mJtop tFf;Fk;' vdj; njhptpj;jhh;.

mzpikapy; (A+iy 09) gz;bjH tP.  gue;jhkd; vOjpa Ntu;-mb jkpoPo nrhw;gpay; mfuKjyp vDk; J}a jkpo; nrhw;fslq;fpa E}y; aho;. gy;fiyf;fof ifyhrgjp fiuauq;fpy; ntspapl;L itf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;j Ehy; gpwnkhopr; nrhw;fisf; fisnaLg;gjw;F mupthshf ,Uf;Fk; vd;gjpy; ma;akpy;iy.

NghHr; #oypYk; tpLjiyg; Gypfspd; jkpoPo fy;tpf; fofk; (Kd;ida jkpo; tsHr;rpf; fofk;) jkpo;nkhopf; fhg;gpYk; Jha jkpo;r; nrhy; gad;ghl;bYk; <LghL fhl;LtJ Nghd;W Gyk;ngaHe;j jkpoHfs; mf;fiw fhl;LfpwhHfsh vd;why; ,y;iy vd;gNj tpilahf ,Uf;fpwJ.  

jkpo;nkhopf; fhg;G> Jha jkpo; gad;ghL ,uz;bYk; tp.Gypfs; MjuT Clfq;fs; $l mf;fiw nrYj;Jtjpy;iy vd;gJjhd; kpfg; ngupa Vkhw;wk;!  

nrQ;Nrhiy> fhe;j&gd; mwpTr;Nrhiu Mfpatw;wpy; thOk; Foe;ijfSf;F jdpj; jkpo;g; ngaHfs; itf;fg;gltpy;iy. 

,q;Fs;s thndhyp xd;W jdJ fiytpohit tpsk;guk; nra;fpwJ? vg;gb? 'el;rj;jputpoh! mjp Njf;F gp];jhdh' .................. ,J vd;d nkhop vd;WjhNd Nfl;fpwPHfs;? kd;dpf;fTk;> vdf;Nf tpsq;ftpy;iy! ehq;fs; nkhopf;fyg;Gr; nra;tJ vkJ nra;jp vkJ NeaHfSf;Fg; Ngha; NruNtz;Lk; vd;gjw;fhfNt mg;gbr; nra;tjhf ,e;j thndhyp xypgug;ghsH jkpo;thuj;jpd; NghJ jpUtha;kyHe;jhH. vdNt mtuJ   NeaHfSf;F kl;Lk; ,e;j 'mjp Njf;F gp];jhdh' vd;why; vd;d vd;gJ tpsq;Fk; vd;W epidf;fpNwd;.  

,Nj thndhyp mt;tg;NghJ mk;khkpj; jkpopYk; tpsk;guk; nra;fpwJ. jkpo;ehl;by; mf;fpufhuq;fspy; kl;Lk; Nfl;fg;gLk; mk;khkpj; jkpOf;F fdlhtpy; vd;d Njit vd;gJ tpsq;ftpy;iy. thndhypia nehe;J gadpy;iy. me;j tpsk;guj;ijf;  nfhLf;Fk; epWtdj;ijj;jhd; Nehf Ntz;Lk;.

,q;F ntspahFk; <oKuR fpoik VL jdJ gj;jhz;L epiwitnahl;b xU ,uT tpUe;J epfo;r;rpia elj;jpaJ. mjpy; tpLjiyr; rpWj;ijfs; ,af;fg; nghJr; nrayhsH njhy;. jpUkhtstd; rpwg;G tpUe;jpdhuhff; fye;J nfhz;lhH. Mdhy;> me;j epfo;r;rp tpsk;guj;jpy; ',uhg; Ngh[d tpUe;J' vd;W Nghl;bUe;jJ! gpioiar; Rl;bf; fhl;ba gpd;dUk; mJ jpUj;jg;gltpy;iy.  

jkpo;g; ghJfhg;G ,af;fj;jpd; jiytHfspy; xUtuhd jpUkhtstd; ,uhkrhkp vd;w jdJ je;ijapd; ngaiuj; njhy;fhg;gpad; vd;W khw;wptpl;lhH.  mj;NjhL epd;Wtplhky; xU ,yf;f tpLjiyr; rpWj;ij cWg;gpdHfsJ tlnkhopg; ngaHfis  Jha jkpo;g; ngaHfshfTk; khw;wpdhH.  Fiwe;jJ rpwg;G tpUe;jpdH vd;w Kiwapy; jkpo; fhf;Fk; njhy;. jpUkhtstdJ jdpj; jkpo;nkhopg; gw;Wf;fhtJ nfhQ;rk; kjpg;Gf; nfhLj;jpUf;fyhk; my;yth? 

,ijtplf; ftiy njhy;. jpUkhtstd; ,q;Fs;s jkpo;j; njhiyf;fhl;rp- thndhypf;Fr; nrt;tp nfhLf;fr; nrd;wNghJ xU kzpj;jpahyj;Jf;F Nkyhff; fhf;f itj;jhHfs;. mtiug; gw;wp mq;F ,Ue;jtHfSf;F xd;WNk njupahjJjhd; mjw;Ff; fhuzk;! mtH $lg;Nghd xypgug;ghsH tpky; nrhf;fehjidg; gw;wpf;$l mtHfSf;Fg; ngupjhf xd;Wk; njupe;jpUf;ftpy;iy. xypg;gug;Gj; Jiwapy; ehw;gJ Mz;L fhyk; gzpGupAk; xU ehlwpe;j xypgug;ghsiug; ghHj;Jf; Nfl;fg;gl;l Nfs;tp 'xypgug;Gj;Jiwapy; vj;jid Mz;Lfs; ,Uf;fpwPHfs;? xU ,UgJ Mz;Lfs; ,Uf;Fkh?'  

jpU. tpky; nrhf;fehjd; fle;j nehntk;ngH khjk; jkpoPok; nrd;W tp.Gypfs; thndhyp xypgug;ghsHfSf;F xypgug;Gf; fiy gw;wpg; gl;liw elj;jpj; Njrpaj; jiytiuAk; re;jpj;J tpl;L te;jpUe;jhH vd;gij ,q;F Fwpg;gpl Ntz;Lk;.

jkpoPo fy;tpf; fofk; Kd;ndLf;Fk; jdpj; jkpo; ,af;fk; gw;wpa tpopg;GzHT Gyk;ngaHe;j jkpo;g; ngw;NwhHfisr; nrd;wilatpy;iy vd;gij mtHfs; jq;fs; gps;isfSf;F itf;Fk; ngaHfisg; ghHj;jhNy njupe;JtpLk;. 

jkpo;nkhop thuj;jpy; fye;J nfhz;L jq;fs; gilg;Gj; jpwidf; fhl;ba rpwhHfSf;Fg; gupR toq;fg;gl;ld. ehDk; ez;gH rhkp mg;ghj;JiuAk; mtHfsJ  ngaHfisg; gbj;jNghJ ngupa Vkhw;wkhf ,Ue;jJ. fdp\h> tpJ\h> j[Pgh> mgp\h> fdp\d;> aJ\d;> by;rhd;> f[d;> ,e;J[h> epNtjh> jHrpdp> uk;ah> kp\hdp ,g;gbahd nghUs; tpsq;fhj ngaHfNs fhzg;gl;ld. xNunahU gps;isf;F kl;Lk; ngw;NwhHfshy; fPud; vd;w jdpj; jkpo;ngaH ,lg;gl;bUe;jJ.  

itfiw Vl;bd; rhHgpy; NgrpatH jkpo;nkhop  mLj;j re;jjpf;F vLj;Jr; nry;yg;gl Ntz;Lkhdhy; gzk; nfhLj;Jg; gj;jpupif thq;fpg; gbf;Fk; gof;fk; Cf;fptpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd ,ytr VLfis xU gpb gpbj;jhH. gzk; nfhLj;Jg; gj;jpupiffisg; gbf;Fk; gof;fj;ij xU Gdpj Nghuhf (crusade) Mf ifapy; vLf;FkhW miog;G tpLj;jNjhL itfiwapd; re;jhjhuH MFq;fs; vd;w Ntz;LNfhisAk; tplj; jtwtpy;iy.  Ntbf;if vd;dntd;why; itfiwNa xU ,ytr VL vd;gJjhd;! jkpo;nkhop thu Nkiliaj; jdJ re;jh NrHf;Fk; Kaw;rpf;F KOjhfg; gad;gLj;jpa cj;jpiag; ghuhl;lj;jhd; Ntz;Lk;? jkpopy; ngaH itg;gJgw;wpAk; fpz;ly; nra;jJNghy; gl;lJ.  

Gjd;fpoik (29-06-05) ele;j ciu muq;F jkpoH tho;tpaypy; gpwnkhopf; fyg;G kw;Wk; fzpdpj; jkpo; vd;w nghUs; gw;wpaJ. ,jpy; KidtH  ntq;fl;uhkd; (tpQ;Qhdp> nuhwd;Nuh gy;fiyf; fofk;)  jpU. kzp NtYg;gps;is (vOj;jhsH> nkhopngaHg;ghsH) jpU.ghyuh[d; (fzpdpj; njhopy;El;g ty;YdH) jpU. rz;Kfk; Ffjhrd; (jkpo; MrpupaH) fye;J nfhz;lhHfs;. 

,tHfSs; fyhepjp ntq;fl;uhkd; kw;Wk; jpU.ghyuh[d; fzpdpj; jkpo; gw;wp kl;Lk;  fUj;Jiu toq;FthHfs; vd;Wk; vQ;rpa ,UtUk; jkpoH tho;tpaypy; gpwnkhopf; fyg;G vd;gJ gw;wpg; NgRthHfs; vdTk; vjpHghHf;fg;gl;lJ. Mdhy; Kw;wpYk; vjpHghuhj tpjkhf KidtH ntq;fl;uhkd; tlnkhopf;F Kz;L nfhLf;Fk;  Nehf;NfhL jkpopy; tof;fpy; cs;s ,yf;fzk; vd;w nrhy; rk];fpUjr; nrhy;yhd y\;\zj;jpy; ,Ue;J te;jJ vd;W xU ngupa fy;iyj;; Jhf;fpg; Nghl;lhH. 

,g;gbj; jkpopy; xd;Wkpy;iy ,Ug;gnjy;yhk; tlnkhopapy; ,Ue;J fld;ngw;witNa vd;W Kfhup ghLk; jkpo;g; giftHfs; $l;lk; vg;NghJk; ,Ue;J nfhz;Nl te;jpUf;fpwJ. (tsUk;)   


 

jkpo;nkhop  thuk; xU kPs; ghHit! (3) 

#j;uhs; g+i[ gz;wJ> mJTk; jkpo;y gz;wJ Vj;Jf;f KbahJ! 

,ilf;fhyj;jpy; ,UNtW fUj;Jf;fs; Njhd;wp tsuyhapd. xd;W xUtd; mwpQdhf ,Ue;jhy; mtd; ghHg;gd Fyj;jtdhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. kw;nwhd;W jkpopy; Ehy; nra;jhy;> mJ tlnkhopapy; ,Ue;J nkhopngaHj;jjhfNth my;yJ jOtyhfNth ,Uf;fNtz;Lk;. 

njhy;fhg;gpak; vkf;F ,d;W fpilj;Js;s Ehy;fspy; fhyj;jhy; Ke;jpaJ vd;gij vy;yhj; jkpowpQHfSk; Vw;Wf; nfhz;Ls;sdH. mJkl;Lk; my;yhJ njhy;fhg;gpak; ePHikAk; jz;ikAk; tz;ikAk; njhd;ikAk; epiwe;j jkpo;nkhopapd; vOj;Jr; nrhy; ,yf;fzj;ijAk;  jkpo;kf;fspd; tho;tpay; ,yz;fzj;ijAk; (nghUs;) tpsf;Fk; rpwe;j Ehy; MFk;. nkhop> tho;T ,uz;ilAk; ,izj;J ,yf;fzk; nrhd;d rpwg;G njhy;fhg;gpaj;Jf;F kl;LNk cz;L.

vOj;jjpfhuk; xyp msT> capH> nka; vd;w gpupTfs;> Fwpy;> neby;. ty;ypdk;> nky;ypdk;> ,ilapdk;> Fw;wpaYfuk;> Fw;wpaypfuk;> nkhopkuG> Gzupay; Nghd;wtw;Wf;F ,yf;fzk; nrhy;fpwJ.

nrhy;yjpfhuj;jpy; jkpo;r; nrhy;ypd; rpwg;Gk; jpiz ghy; Kjypa capHg;GFg;G capupay;gFg;G KiwAk; fpstpahf;fk;> Ntw;Wikapay;> Ntw;Wik kaq;fpay;> tpspkuG> xt;nthU nrhy;Yk; nghUs;Fwpj;Jf; fhuzj;NjhL mikf;fg;gl;Ls;sd vd;gtw;iw tpsf;fpf; $WfpwJ.

nghUsjpfhuk; epyk; nghOJ>  fUg;nghUs;> cupg;nghUs;> mfj;jpiz> Gwj;jpiz> fstpay;> fw;gpay;> ghtpd; gz;G> nka;g;ghL> ctkapay;> kugpay; gw;wpr; nrhy;fpwJ.

,t;tsT rPUk; rpwg;Gk; epiwe;j Ehiyj; jkpo;g; GytH xUtH ,aw;wp ,Ug;ghuh? xUf;fhYk; ,Uf;fhNj! ,Uf;f KbahNj! gpd; njhy;fhg;gpaH vOjhtpl;lhy; ahH mjid ,aw;wp ,Ug;ghH?

njhy;fhg;gpaj;ij vOjpatH njhy;fhg;gpaH md;W> mij vOjpatH jpuzJhkhf;fpdp vd;gtH> mtuJ je;ijahH ngaH rkjf;fpdp. mjhtJ EhyhrpupaH xU Mupa KdptH! tlnkhopapy; ghzpdp vOjpa ghzpdpaNk njhy;fhg;gpaj;Jf;F top Ehy;.!

njhy;fhg;gpaH tuyhW NghyNt jpUf;Fwis vOjpa jpUts;StuJ Gfiof; fz;L kdk; GOq;fpatHfs; Kjy; Fwspy; cs;s Mjpgftd; vd;Dk; njhliug; gad;gLj;jpj; jpUts;Stiu xU gpuhkzDf;Fg; gpwe;jtuhfTk; mNj rkaj;jpy; XH ,opFyj;jtuhfTk; fhl;ly; Ntz;bf; fl;Lf; fijfs; fl;btpl;ldH. 

jpUts;StH ahspjj;jd; vd;w gpuhkzDf;Fk; rz;lhsg; ngz;Zf;Fk; gpwe;jjhf QhdhkpHjk; (6 Mk; Ehw;whz;L) njuptpf;fpwJ. mjw;Fg; gpe;jpa fgpyH mfty; 'mUe;jt KdpAk; gftw;Fg; gUT+Hg; ngUk; gjpf;fl; ngUk;Giyr;rp Mjp tapw;wpdpy;' gpwe;jhH vd;Wk; mtuJ ngw;NwhH jq;fSf;Fg; gpwf;Fk; gps;isfisg; gpwe;j ,lj;jpNyNa tpl;L tpl;Lg; Ngha;tpLtjhy;  'njhz;il kz;lyj;jpy; tz;jkp;o; kapiyg; giwauplj;jpy; ts;StH tsHe;jhH' vdf; $WfpwJ.

NkYk; jpUts;StiuAk; jpUf;FwisAk; ,opj;Jg; gopf;Fk; Kfkhf jpUf;Fws; mwj;Jg; ghy; ,uhkhazk;> kfhghujk;> guhru rk;fpij> ghftjk;> ,Uf;F Ntjk;> kD ];kpUjp Nghd;w rhj;jpuq;fisj; jOtpaJ vd;Wk; nghUl;ghy; rhzf;fpad; ,aw;wpa mHj;jrh];jpuk;> fhke;jf ePjp> Rf;fpuePjp> Nghjhad ];kpUjp Mfpatw;wpy;  ,Ue;J fld;thq;fg;gl;lnjd;Wk; fhkj;Jg;ghy; thj;];ahadhH tlnkhopapy; ,aw;wpa fhk#j;jpuj;jpd; jOty; vd;Wk; tlnkhopg; gw;whsHfs; gfHfpwhHfs;.

thj];ahadhH $Wk; gpwd;kid eaj;jiy jpUts;StH mwj;Jg; ghypy; fz;bf;fpwhH. mg;gbapUf;f ts;Stupd; fhkg; ghy; fhk#j;jpuj;jpy; ,Ue;J vg;gb te;jpUf;f KbAk;?

jpUf;Fwspy; typAWj;jg;gLk; mwk; vd;w nrhy;Yf;F tpsf;fk; $w te;j gupNkyofH jdJ ciug; ghapuj;jpy; 'mtw;Ws; mwkhtJ> kD Kjypa Ehy;fspy; tpjpj;jd nra;jYk;> tpyf;fpaJ xopj;jYk; Mk;. m/J xOf;fk;> tof;F> jz;lk; vd %tifg;gLk;.

mtw;Ws;> xOf;fkhtJ me;jzH Kjypa tUzj;jhH> jj;jkf;F tpjpf;fg;gl;l gpukrupak; Kjypa epiyfspy; epd;w> mtw;wpw;F Xjpa mwq;fspy; tOthJ xOFjy;' vdg; ghypy; eQ;R fyg;gJ Nghd;W Mupa er;Rf; fUj;Jf;fis KjYk; ,ilAk; KbTkhfg; GFj;jp jkpOf;Fk; jkpoHf;Fk; NfL tpistpj;Js;shH. jpUf;Fwis Cd;wpg; gbg;gtHfSf;F ,e;j cz;ik Gyg;gLk;.

,t;thW jkpopy; xd;Wkpy;iy mJ #j;jpuhs; NgRk; ePr ghi\ tlnkhopNa epyj; NjtH NgRk; Njt ghi\ vd;gJ 'mths;' kj;jpapy; ePz;l fhykhfg;  Ngrg;gl;L tUfpwJ. ,yf;fzk; vd;w nrhy; y\zj;jpy; ,Ue;J te;jJ vd;W nrhy;yhly;  Guptjw;F ,e;jj; jpkpHg; Nghf;Nf Kf;fpa fhuzp MFk;.

'fhQ;rpfhkNfhb gPlhjpgjpahf ,Ue;j re;jpuNrfNue;jpu ru];tjp rq;fuhr;rhupahH fhyj;jpy; jkpo;ehl;by; ,Ue;j MjPdq;fis xd;W gLj;jp xU nghJthd rka mikg;ig cUthf;fj; jpl;lkpl;lhH. jpUthtLJiw MjPdj;Jf;F Vfg;gl;l nrhj;Jfs; ,Ue;jJ. mJNghyNt kw;w MjPdq;fSf;Fk; tUtha; ,dq;fs; cz;L. MjPdq;fspd; tUthapy; 5 tpOf;fhl;ilg; gad;gLj;jp Md;kPfg; gug;Giu nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ jpl;lk;.

nrhd;dgb klq;fs; jq;fsJ tUthapy; 5 tpOf;fhL  gq;iff; nfhLf;f Kd;tutpy;iy. Mdhy; $l;lk; kl;Lk; ele;jgb ,Ue;jJ.  mjpy; kJiu ngupa MjPdk; xU gpur;rpidiaf; fpsg;gpdhH.

'Nfhtpy;fisf; fl;baJ kd;dHfs;> mjw;F cjtp nra;jJ> ciog;Gf; nfhLj;jJ> tpaHit nfhLj;jJ> tPHak; nfhLj;jJ> fy; Rke;jJ> kz; Rke;jJ vy;yhk; gpuhkzHfsh? fy;Rke;J kz; Rke;J Nfhtpy; fl;batDf;Fr; rhkpiar; Rkf;f> g+ir nra;aj; jilah?

tlehl;by;> Fwpg;ghf fhrpapy;> NfhapYf;F tUfpwtHfs; vy;yhk; mtutH g+ir nra;J NghfpwhHfs;. mJNghy ,q;NfAk; midtUk; g+ir nra;aNtz;Lk;. klq;fSf;fhd mikg;G mjw;F Kd; Kaw;rp vLf;fNtz;Lk;. jkpopy; mHr;ridfs; eilngwNtz;Lk; mjw;F ,e;j mikg;G cjtNtz;Lk;' vd;nwy;yhk; kJiu MjPdk; Gjpa fUj;Jf;fisg; NgrpdhH.

nrhd;dNjhL ,y;yhky;> jQ;rht+H [py;yhtpy;> Fk;gNfhzk; Rthkpkiy ,ilNa ,Uf;fpw jpUg;Gwk;gpak; Nfhapypy; Fb nfhz;Ls;s rptidg; NghyNt NtnwhU tpf;ufj;ijf; NfhapYf;F ntspNa itj;J mij midtUk; g+rpf;f Vw;ghLk; nra;jhH.

,J klq;fSf;fhd mikg;gpy; ryryg;ig cz;L gz;zpaJ. Vw;nfdNt epjpahjhuk; ,y;yhky; eilNghl;l mikg;gpy; kJiu MjPdj;jpd; fUj;ij kfhngupatH Vw;Wf; nfhs;stpy;iy.

'#j;uhs; g+i[ gz;wJ> mJTk; jkpo;y gz;wJ Vj;Jf;f KbahJ" vd;whH kfh ngupatH.  (mf;dpNfhj;jpuk; uhkD[jhj;jhr;rhupahH vOJk;  ',e;J kjk; vq;Nf NghfpwJ?' - (ef;fPud; 30-03-2005)

,e;jr; #j;jpuhs; ntWg;Gk; jkpo; ntWg;Gk; Ntjnewp jioj;Njhq;f kpFirtj;Jiw tpsq;f> G+jguk;giu nghypa' te;Jjpj;j Qhdrk;ge;jH>  ew;fUg;gQ; rhw;wpdpNy Njd;fye;J> ghy;fye;J> nrOq;fdpj; jPQ;Ritfye;J> Cd;fye;J> capHfye;J jpj;jpf;Fk; jpUthrfk; ghba khzpf;fthrfH  Nghd;w gpuhkzHfs; kPJk; ckpog;gl;lJ.

kd;dhHFbapy; fhQ;rp rq;fuhr;rhupahupd; Jhz;Ljypd; ngaupy; ghit (jpUntk;ghit> jpUg;ghit)  khehL elj;jg;gl;lJ. itztj;ijAk; irtj;ijAk; ,izg;gNj ,e;j khehl;bd; Nehf;fkhFk;.  khehL Nkilapy; Mz;lhs;  khzpf;fthrfH rpiyfs; gf;fk; gf;fkhfg; Nghlg;gl;bUe;jd.  itztKk;> irtKk; gf;fj;Jg; gf;fj;jpy; ,Ug;gijg; ghHj;J rpyuJ fz;fs; mdy; ff;fpd. me;j mdiy mlf;f Kbahky;  kd;dhHFb uh[Nfhghy; jPl;rpjH mf;dpNfhj;jpuk; uhkD[jhj;jhr;rhupahuplk; XbdhH.

'];thkp.. vd;d ,g;gbg; gz;zpl;Nls;?' vd nkhl;ilahf Muk;gpj;jhH.

'vij vg;gbg; gz;zpl;Nld;? tptukh nrhy;Yq;Nfh" vd ehd; gjpy; ciuj;Njd;.

'njupQ;Rz;Nl Nff;fwPNs?" kWgbAk; nkhl;il nkhopfisNa NgrpdhH uh[Nfhghy; jPl;rpjH.

"jPl;rpjNu.. vd;d nrhy;wPH? ePH Nff;fwJ vdf;F Kd;$l;bNa njupawJf;F ehd; vd;d gfthdh?'

jPl;rpjH mg;NghJjhd; jd; cs;sf; fplf;ifia cilj;jhH.

gfthDf;Nf mgr;rhuk; gz;NwNs... Mz;lhs; ahU? khzpf;fthrfH ahU? Mz;lhs; gpuhl;b gf;fj;Jy me;jr; #j;jpud; khzpf;fthrfd; ,Uf;fyhkh? ,J gfthDf;Nf ghtk; gz;w khjpup Mfhjh? me;jr; rq;fuhr;rhup nrhd;dh ePH Nff;fZkh? ' (,e;Jkjk; vq;Nf NghfpwJ?- mjpfhuk; 27)

Mz;lhs; gpuhl;b gf;fj;Jy me;jr; #j;jpud; khzpf;f thrfH ,Uf;fyhkh? vd jPl;rfH Vd; vupe;J tpo Ntz;Lk;? mjd; gpd;Gyj;jpy; xU ePz;l tuyhNw ,Uf;fpwJ.

Qhdrk;ge;jH rPHfhopapy; fTzpa Nfhj;jpuj;jpy; gpwe;j gpuhkzH. jkpo;ehl;by; gTj;jj;ijAk; rkzj;ijAk; mopj;njhopj;jtH. mjw;F mtH ifapy; Ve;jpa MAjk; jkpo; MFk;.

irtj;NjhL jkpio ,izj;Jf; nfhz;l rk;ge;jH jd;idj; jkpo; Qhdrk;ge;jd;> Kj;jkpo; Qhdrk;ge;jd;> nre;jkpo;ty;y Qhdrk;ge;jd;> rPuhHjkpo; Qhdrk;ge;jd;> jkpo;tpufd;> jkpo;nfO tpufpdd;>  vd;W gythW gyKiw $wpf; nfhz;lhH.

Qhdrk;ge;jH ghba 383 gjpfq;fs; xt;nthd;wpYk; 11 ghly;fs; ,Uf;Fk;. ,e;jg; ghly;fs; ngUk;ghYk; xU rPuhd tupirapy; ,Uf;Fk;. vl;lhtJ ghly; fapiykiy vLj;j thsuf;fd; (,uhtzd;) gw;wpajhf ,Uf;Fk;. xd;gjhtJ ghly; gpukDk; tpl;LZTk; NjbAk; mbKb fhzhj rptidg; Nghw;wpg; ghbajhf ,Uf;Fk;. gj;jhtJ ghly; Gwr; rkaq;fshd gTj;jk; (nghjpaHfs;) rkzk; (gpz;baHfs;) ,uz;ilAk; rhLtjhf ,Uf;Fk;. filrpg; ghly; rk;ge;jNu jd;idj; jkpo; Qhdrk;ge;jd;> Kj;jkpo; Qhdrk;ge;jd;> ehd;kiw Qhdrk;ge;jd;> Kj;jkpo; ehd;kiw Qhdrk;ge;jd;> kypfpd;wGfo; epd;w jkpo; Qhdrk;ge;jd; vd mioj;Jj; jd; jkpo;nra; khiy nrg;gty;yhHfs; mwtd; foy; NrHthH> ghtk; nfLk;> ew;fjp milthHfs; vdg; ghLthH.

jkpo;nkhopf;F rq;fj; jkpo;> rq;fkypj; jkpo; vd Ehw;Wf; fzf;fhd milfisj; jkJ Njthug; gjpfq;fspy; gjpT nra;Js;shH.

rkaFutHfspy; xUtuhd Re;juH 'ehSk; ,d;dpirahy; jkp;o; gug;Gk; Qhdrk;ge;jDf;FyftH Kd; jhsk; <e;jtd; ghlYf;F ,uq;Fk; jd;ik ahsid' vd rk;ge;jiur; rpwg;gpf;fpwhH. jkpopir Nfl;Fk; Mtyhy; rptd; Qhdrk;ge;jUf;F nghw;jhsk; nfhLj;jhd; vd;fpwhH.

gpw;fhyr; rhd;NwhHfSk; %tH jkpiog; ghuhl;b ,Uf;fpwhHfs;.

'Njtnuy;yhk; njhor;rpte;j nre;jhs; Kf;fz;
   nrq;fUk;Ng! nkhopf;Fnkhop jpj;jpg;ghf
%tHnrhYk; jkpo;Nfl;Fk; jpUr;nrtpf;Nf
   %lNdd; Gyk;gpa nrhy; Kw;WNkhjhd;'

vdj; jhAkhdtH ghLfpwhH.

gpuhkzuhd Qhdrk;ge;jd; ePr ghirahd jkpiog; GfoyhNkh? Nghw;wyhNkh? $lhNj> mlhNj> ghtkhr;Nr vd Qhdrk;ge;jUf;F vjpuhfg; gpuhkzHfs; NghHf;nfhb Jhf;fpdhHfs;.  (tsUk;)


 

jkpo;nkhop  thuk; xU kPs; ghHit! (4) 

CHg;ngaHfs;. flTsH ngaHfs; tlnkhop kag;gLj;jg;gl;ld!  

jpUkfs;

Qhrk;ge;jUf;F mtuJ 16 tJ mfitapy; jpUkzk; ele;jJ.  mtUila jpUkzg; ge;jy; nfhSj;jg;gl;lJ. mtH jdJ je;ij rpthghj,UijaH>  kidtp kw;Wk; Rw;wj;jhNuhL ngUey;YhHf; NfhapYf;Fr; nrd;W Nrhjpapy; GFe;jij  'kUtpa gpwtp ePq;f kd;D Nrhjpapd; cs; Gf;fhH;' vdg; ngupa Guhzk; (ghly; 1249) nrg;GfpwJ. NfhapYf;Fs; mtHfs; Eise;jNghJ Nrhjp xd;W Njhd;wpaJ vd;Wk; mjpy; mtHfs; fye;J kiwe;J tpl;lhHfshk;. 

Qhdrk;ge;jH jd;idr; nre;jkpo;;ty;y jkpo;Qhdrk;ge;jd; vd;W nrhy;tNjhL epy;yhky;  jkpo;nkhopia rq;fj; jkpo;> rq;fkypj; jkpo; vd tha;f;F tha; Nghw;wpg;  ghbaNjhL jkpo;nkhop topghl;il vjpHj;j gpuhkzHfis 'nre;jkpo;g; gad; mwpahj ke;jpfs;' vdf; fLikahff; fz;bf;fTk; nra;jhH. 

Qhdrk;ge;jH gpuhkzduhf ,Ue;Jk; mtH jkpiog; Nghw;wpdhH tlnkhopia gpd;js;spdhH vd;w ntg;ghuk; fhuzkhfNt gpw;fhy ee;jd; Nghy; mtH capNuhL nfhSj;jg;gl;lhH. me;jf; nfhiyia kiwf;fNt Nrhjpapy; fye;jhH vd vOjp itj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;.

jpUQhdrk;ge;jH gpwe;jjhfr; nrhy;yg;gLk; fTzpa Nfhj;jpuk; ,d;W jkpo;ehl;bNyh my;yJ Ntnwq;fpYNkh ,y;iy! ,J mtuJ re;jjp G+z;NlhL mWf;fg;gl;lijf; fhl;LfpwJ.

'gfthDf;Nf mgr;rhuk; gz;NwNs... Mz;lhs; ahU? khzpf;fthrfH ahU? Mz;lhs; gpuhl;b gf;fj;Jy me;jr; #j;jpud; khzpf;fthrfd; ,Uf;fyhkh? vd;W kd;dhHFb uh[Nfhghy; jPl;rpjH Mapuk; Mz;Lfs; fopj;Jk; ntWg;ig ckpo;fpwhH vd;why; khzpf;fthrfiutpl gygb jkpiog; Nghw;wpa jkpo;Qhdrk;ge;jiu mtH fhyj;Jg; gpuhkzHfs; ,Nyrpy; tpl;bUg;ghHfsh?

,d;W $l Qhdrk;ge;jH ngaiuj; jq;fs; Foe;ijfSf;F ve;jg; gpuhkzDk; itg;gjpy;iy. Qhdrk;ge;jH vd;w ngaiu Mjpapw; irt NtshsHfshapUe;J gpuhkz Mrhuq;fisf; fw;nwhOfpg; gpuhkzHfnsd;W jq;fisf; $wpf;nfhs;Sk; FUf;fs;khHfSf;Fs; kl;Lk; Qhdrk;ge;jH vd;w ngaH toq;fp tUfpwJ.

jpUQhdrk;ge;juJ ngaiuj; jq;fs; Foe;ijfSf;F ve;jg; gpuhkzDk; itg;gjpy;iy vd;gJ kl;Lky;y vQ;rpa rkaFutHfshd jpUehTf;furH> Re;juH> khzpf;fthrfH ngaHfisAk; gpuhkzHfs; itg;gjpy;iy! ,d;W$l ,e;j rka FutH ehy;tUk;  ePr ghi\ahd  jkpopy; Njthu jpUthrfk; ghb ,iwtid topgl;lhHfs; vd;gjw;fhfg; Gwf;fzpf;fg;gLfpwhHfs;.

nrd;w Ehw;whz;by; jkpo;nkhopf;Fk; jkpo;ehl;Lf;Fk; gs;spnaOr;rp ghba kfhftp ghujpahH gpuhkzHfshy; rhjpg; Gwf;fzpg;Gr; nra;ag;gl;L mf;fpufhuj;jpy; ,Ue;J ntspNaw;wg;gl;lhH. gl;bdpahYk; grpahYk; nkype;j ghujpahH jdJ 39tJ tajpNy ,aw;if va;jpdhH. ahk; mwpe;j nkhopfspNy jkpo;nkhop Nghy; ,dpjhtJ vq;Fk; fhNzhk; vd;W ghbj; jdJ ghl;Lj;jpwj;jhNy ,t; itaj;ij ghypj;j me;jf; ftpQdJ ,Wjpr; rlq;fpy; fye;J nfhz;ltH njhif vz;zp 21 NgHjhd;!

Qhdrk;ge;jH #j;jpuH my;yhtpl;lhYk; ehd;kiw Nts;tp ky;fr; nra;jhH vd;whYk;  Ntjnewp jioj;Njhq;f kpFirtj;Jiw tpsq;f> G+jguk;giu nghypag; ghLgl;lhH vd;whYk;  ePr ghi\ahd jkpopy; ghbtpl;lhH vd;gjhy; mtiur; #j;jpudhfNt kd;dhHf;Fb uh[Nfhgy; Nghd;w jPl;rjfHfs; ghHf;fpwhHfs;. Mjp rq;fuH rk;ge;jiu jpuhtpl rpR vd mioj;jhH. mjd; nghUs; Qhdrk;ge;jH #j;jpud; vd;gjhFk;.

,e;jj; jkpo;nkhop ntWg;ngd;gJ mq;fpq;fpd;dhjgb vq;Fk; epiwe;jpUf;fpwJ. nkhd;wpapypy; xU Nfhapy; Fk;ghgpNrf mwptpj;jiyf; FlKOf;nfd;W Jhajkpopy; Nghl;lijf; fz;L ntFz;nlOe;j FUf;fs; Fk;ghgpNrfk; nra;a kWj;Jtpl;lhH.

irtKk; jkpOk; xd;W> irtk; ,d;Nwy; jkpo; ,y;iy vd;W NghLk; tha;g;ge;jYf;F ve;jf; FiwAk; ,y;iy! Mdhy; ,q;Fs;s Nfhapy;fspd; jpUtpoh mwptpj;jy;fisg; (kN`gq;rt tpQ;Qhgdk;)  ghHj;jhy; irtj;jpd; jkpo;nkhop ntWg;Gk; tlnkhop tpUg;Gk; gspr;nrdj; njupAk;!

'Vfhjrp Uj;u k`h kpUj;Ak;[a k`h ahfk;>  Nrhkg;gpuNjh\ fhyk; tiu> Rgk];J> tpg;uj];...... " ,e;j rkw;fpUjk; tpsq;Ffpwjh? ,q;Fs;s ngupa rptd; Myak; ntspapl;l nra;jpj;jhs; mwptpj;jy; ,J!

,e;Jf; flTsHf;F jkpo; tpsq;fhJ vd;w epidg;gpy; G+ir vy;yhk; tlnkhopapy;jhd; ,lk;ngWfpwJ. Mdhy;> KUfDf;Fk; jkpo; tpsq;fhJ vd;W epidg;gJjhd; Vndd;W tpsq;ftpy;iy!

gpuhkzHfisg; nghWj;jstpy; Njthu jpUthrfk; gz;lhug; ghl;Lf;fshFk;. mtw;iw XJk; ghHg;gdHfisg; ghHf;f KbahJ. vdNtjhd; Njthu jpUthrk; XJtjw;F XJthH vd;w Gjpa rhjp cUthf;fg;gl;lJ.

Njthu jpUthrfq;fs; jpUKiwapy; NrHf;fg;gl;L> jpUKiwjhd; irtj;jpd; msit (gpukhzk;) vd;W irtHfs; rpyH cr;rp kPJ itj;J nkr;rpdhYk;> gpuhkzHfisg; nghWj;jstpy; mit gz;lhug;ghl;Lf;fs;jhd;!

jpy;iy Mlyurd; Nfhapypy; (irtHfspd; jha;f; Nfhapy;) jpUr;rpw;wk;gy Nkilapy; epd;W  Njthuk;> jpUthrfk;> rptGuhzk; ghl ahiuAk; jpy;iytho; jPl;rfHfs; ,d;Wk; mDkjpg;gjpy;iy.

kbfl;bf; NfhapypNy
NkYil ,Lg;gpdpNy
tupe;J fl;bg;
nghbfl;b ,y;yhJ
G+rp apUiffl;bg;
gbfl;bj; jkponudg;
gbf;fl;bd; fPo; epd;W
nfhz;LjhNd cs;sdH?

vd;w ,opepiy jkpo;nkhopf;F ,e;jf; fzKk; ePbf;fpwJ!

Njthuk; jpUthrfk; ghl vj;jdpj;j XJthH tp. MWKfrhkpia jPl;rjfHfs; ieag; Gilj;J kUj;Jtkidf;F mDg;gp itj;jhHfs;! if fhy;fSf;Fg; gj;Jg; Nghl;l epiyapy; kUj;Jt kidapy; ,Uf;Fk; mtuJ Gifg;glq;fs; nra;jpj;jhs;fspy; ntspte;jd! 

XJthH tp MWKfrhkp rpjk;guj;ijr;  NrHe;jtH. rpjk;guk; eluhrH Nfhapy; jpUr;rpw;wk;gy Nkilapy; Njthuk;> jpUthrfk;> rptGuhzk; ghLtijNa jdJ tho;tpd; ,yf;fhff; nfhz;ltH. kUj;Jtkidapy; Fzkhfp te;J kPz;Lk; Nfhapypy; ghl mDkjp Nfl;Lk; jpy;iyj; jPl;rpjHfs; mDkjpf;ftpy;iy. typAWj;jpf; Nfl;lNghJ 'xl;lf; $j;jd; ghl;Lf;F ,ul;ilj; jhs;ghs;' vd;gJ Nghy mtH NfhtpYf;Fs; EioaNt jil tpjpj;J tpl;ldH!

,ijaLj;J ePjp Nfl;L XJthH MWKfrhkp  nrd;id caH ePjpkd;wj;jpy; tof;Fg; Nghl;lhH. tof;if tprhupj;j ePjpgjp b. KUNfrd; vy;yh Fbkf;fisg; Nghy MWKfrhkp NfhtpYf;Fs; nry;yyhk; vd;W cj;jutpl;lhH.

irtj;ijAk; jkpioAk; tsg;gtHfs; ahH? ,uz;ilAk; mopg;gtHfs; ahH? jpy;iytho; jPl;rfHfsh my;yJ NtWahUkh?

ehy;tH ghba Njthu jpUthrfq;fisj; jpy;iyf; Nfhapy; miwapy; G+l;b itj;Jf; fiwahDf;F ,iuahf;fpdtHfSk; ,e;jj; jpy;iytho; jPl;rfHfs;jhd;! KjyhtJ ,uhruhrd; my;yJ  NtW xU murd; #o;r;rpahy; mope;jit Nghf vQ;rpaij kPl;lhd;.

,e;jpa nkhopfSf;F vy;yhk; tlnkhopNa jha;nkhop vd;W xU fhyj;jpy;  nrhd;dhHfs;. gf;jpNghij jiyf;Nfwpa jkpoHfSk; mjid Vw;Wf; nfhz;lhHfs;. nkhop ty;YdH KidtH fhy;Lnty; ma;aH jpuhtpl nkhopfspd; xg;gpyf;fzk; (A Comparative Grammar of  Dravidian Languages) vd;w Ma;T Ehiy Mq;fpyj;jpy; vOjp ntspapLk; tiu ,e;jg; gbkk; jkpo; gbj;j GytHfs;> gz;bjHfs; cl;gl vy;yhH kl;lj;jpYk; ,Ue;jJ.

fhy;Lnty; ma;aH maHyhe;jpy; Nk 1814  ,y; gpwe;jtH. ,e;jpahTf;F 1838 Mk; Mz;L rdtup jpq;fs;  te;jtH. nkhj;jk; 54 Mz;Lfs; rkaj; njhz;Lk; jkpo;j; njhz;Lk; Mw;wpa ,g;ngupahH 1892 ,y; fhykhdhH. mtuJ fy;yiw ,d;Wk; ,ilad;Fbj; Njthyaj;jpNy jkpo;j; njhz;bd; rpd;dkhf tpsq;FfpwJ. 

Ntj gpuhkzH jk; ntz;zpwj;ijAk jk; Kd;NdhH nkhopapd; Muthu xypiaAk; jkpourHfspd; NgijikfisAk; nfhilklj;ijAk; kjg; gpj;jj;ijAk; mstpwe;J gad;gLj;jpf; nfhz;L jk;ik epyj;NjtuhfTk; jk; Kd;NdhH nkhopiaj; Njt ghil vd;Wk; mtHfis ek;gitj;jdH. mjdhy; jkpo;nkhop jpUf;Nfhapy; topghl;Lf;Fk; jpUkzk; Nghd;w rlq;FfSf;Fk; nfhs;sj;jf;f nkhop my;y vdj; js;sg;gl;L tlnkhopNa jpUf;Nfhapy; topghl;L nkhopahfTk;> rlq;F nkhopahfTk; (fhJ Fj;jy;> tPLFb G+uy;> jpUkzk;> jptrk; .....)  gpuhkzuhy; Msg;gl;L tUfpwJ. khdk; rpwpJk; ,y;yhj jkpoHfs; jq;fs; jha;nkhop ,t;thW ,opT gLj;jg;gLtij ,l;Lf; nfhQ;rk; $lf; ftiyg;glhJ ,opitNa ngUikahff; fUjp elf;fpd;wdH.

fiythzH vd;.v];. fpU\;zd; ebj;J 1943 ,y; ntspte;j gpughtjp glj;jpy; xU fhl;rp.  mbikj;jdKk; %lj;jdKk; nfhb fl;bg; gwe;j fhyk; mJ.

gLj;jpUf;Fk; mRud; xUtd; jiyia fiythzH fhyhy; kpjpg;ghH.

"Vz;lh vd;id kpjpr;Nr?' Nfhgj;NjhL Nfl;ghd; mRud;.

",g;gbj;jhd; gfthd; thkd mtjhuj;jpNy kfhgypr; rf;utHj;jp jiykPJ fhiy tr;R kpjpr;rhH' vd;ghH fiythzH.

"gfthd; ,g;gbah kpjpr;rhH? mg;g ey;yh kpjp' vd;W $wpj; jiyiaf; fhl;Lthd; mRud;.

jkpoHfsJ ngaH> CHg;ngaH> flTs; ngaiuf; $l gpuhkzHfs; tlnkhop kag;gLj;jpdhHfs;. 

fPupkiy              -     eFNy];tuk;

fhiuefH rptd;Nfhapy;   -    <oj;Jr; rpjk;guk;

kiuf;fhL             -  Ntjhuz;ak; (kiuf;fhL> kiwf;fhL vdg; gpioahfg; nghUs; nfhs;sg;gl;lJ)

ehtyk;nghopy;         -     [k;GjPT

Gspaq;fhL            -     jpz;btdk;

ngUTilahH          -     gpufjP];tuH

gpwtpkUe;jpiwtH       -     gtxs\jP];tuH

Iahw;whH             -     gQ;rejP];tuH

gw;wplq;nfhz;lhH       -     thd;kPfehjH

$LJiwahH           -    rq;fNk];tuH

jlq;fz;zp            -    tprhyhl;rp

jhAkhdtH            -    khj;U G+Nj];tuH

khnjhUghfd;          -    mHj;jehuP];tuH

KUfd;               -    Rg;u`;kz;ad; (gpuhkzDf;F cfe;jtd;)

mq;fay;fz;zp        -    kPdhl;rp

kl;LthH Foy; kq;if   -   Rfe;j $e;jyhk;gpif

ahiog; gopj;j nkhopahs;-   tPzh fhd tpJh\zp

Fuq;fhLJiw          -   fgpj;jyk;

gokiy> jpUKJFd;wk;  -   tpUj;jhryk;

jpUnea;jjhdk;         -   jpy;iy ];jhdk;

jpUTr;rp              -   rptfpup

Gs;spUf;FNtSH       -   itj;jpURtud; Nfhapy;

jpUehzh             -   gthdp

jpUey;yk;            -   NfhNdupuhrGuk;

jpy;iy              -   rpjk;guk;

kapyhLJiw          -   khA+uk;> khatuk;

jpUtuq;fk;            -   =uq;fk; 

jpUg;gUg;gjk;          -   =iryk;

jpUr;Rw;W             -   gpufhuk;

jpUKw;wk;            -    rhe;jp

fUTz;zhop          -    fw;gf;fpufk;

gy;FLf;if ed;fzpahH  -   gf;FLf;fr; rhadh

,lfiy             -    ,lh

gpq;fiy              -   gpq;fsh

RopKid             -   #l;Rkhdh 

ngUq;fijia vOjpatH Fzhl;baH vd;w GytH. ,e;j Eiyr; rkf;fpUjj;jpy; gpuRhfjh vd vOjpa Gytiu igrhr nkhopg;GytH vd;W mioj;jhHfs;.  

vy;yhk; tlnkhop vjpYk; tlnkhop vd;w $g;ghl;bd; ntspg;ghNl jkpo;nkhop thu ciuauq;fpy; 'y\;z vd;w  tlnkhopr; nrhy;ypy; ,Ue;Nj ,yf;fzk; vd;w jkpo;r; nrhy; gpwe;jJ vd;W tpQ;Qhdp ntq;fl;uhkid nrhy;y itj;jJ. mg;gbj;jhd; mtUf;Fr; nrhy;ypf; nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ.  ,yf;fzk; vd;w nrhy; njhy;fhg;gpaH ,aw;wpa njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpNyNa ifahsg;gl;Ls;sJ! (mLj;j fpoik epiwAk;)


 

jkpo;nkhop  thuk; xU kPs; ghHit! (5)

jiyf;nfhU rPiff;fha; jhbf;NfhU rPiff;fhah? 

,d;W cyfpy; Ngrg;gLk; Ie;J njhd;ikahd nkhopfspy; (rPdk;> fpNuf;fk;> muG> fPg;U ) vq;fs; jha; nkhopahd jkpo; nkhopAk; xd;whFk;. ,e;jpaj; Jizf; fz;lj;jpy; toq;Fk; nkhopfspy; jkpo; nkhopkl;LNk ,yf;fpa> ,yf;fzr; rpwg;NghL tpsq;FfpwJ. ,r;rpwg;gpd; VJthf jkpo;nkhop caHjdpr; nrk;nkhop vd ,e;jpa eLtz; muR mwptpj;Js;sJ. jkpo;nkhop NghyNt tlnkhopf;F ,yf;fpa> ,yf;fzr; rpwg;gpUe;Jk; mJ fpwpj;J rfhg;jj;jpw;F Kd;dNu Ngr;R tof;if ,oe;J tpl;lJ.

nrk;nkhop vd;why; nrk;ikAk; njhd;ikAk; ,yf;fpa tsKk; gilj;j nkhop vdg; nghUs;gLk;. jkpo;nkhop Vida gy nkhopfs; Nghy; mope;njhopahJ rPupsikNahL> thdk; mse;j midj;Jk; mse;J> Vo;fly; itg;gpDk; jd; kzk; tPrp> vj;jpirAk; ,ir nfhz;L> thdk; mwpe;j midj;Jk; mwpe;J> Gfo; kzf;ff; nfhY tPw;wpUf;fpwJ. ,jw;;F Kf;fpa VJ mjd; ,Wf;fkhd ,yf;fzf; fl;likg;Ng!

,yf;fzk; vd;gJ xU nkhopiag; gpioawg; NgrTk; vOjTk; cjTtJ. jdpNa mJ vOj;J nkhopf;F kl;Lk; ,yf;fzk; nrhy;tjpy;iy. Ngr;R nkhopf;Fk; ,yf;fzk; nrhy;y Ntz;Lk;.

jkpopy; Ngr;R tof;if cyf tof;nfd;Wk; vOj;J tof;if nra;As; tof;nfd;Wk; toq;FtH.

jkpo;nkhopapy; ,d;W fhzg;gLk; Ehy;fspy; kpfg; gioikahdJ njhy;fhg;gpaH ,aw;wpa njhy;fhg;gpak; vDk; ,yf;fz Ehy; MFk;.

njhy;fhg;gpak; jkpou; jk; nkhop> ,yf;fpak;> ,yf;fzk; gw;wp kl;Lk; my;yhJ jkpoupd; mftho;T> Gwtho;T> fiy> gz;ghL> ehfupfk; Nghd;wtw;iwAk; vLj;Jf;fhl;Lk; xU rpwe;j tuyhw;W EhYkhFk;.

njhy;fhg;gpaH nghUsjpfhuj;jpy; Fwpg;gpLk; FwpQ;rp> Ky;iy> kUjk;> nea;jy;> ghiy Ie;jpiz kf;fs; tho;f;if Kiwik  goikahd gz;lkhw;Wf; fhyj;jpaJ. 

rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fs; %yk; FwpQ;rp epy kf;fs; Njd;> %q;fpy; muprp Nghd;wtw;iw  Ky;iyepy kf;fSf;Fg; gz;lkhw;whff; nfhLj;J mjw;F <lhf  ghy;> japH> NkhH Mfpatw;iw nfhz;lhHfs;. Ky;iy epy kf;fSk; mt;thNw kUj epy kf;fsJ muprpf;F <lhf ghy;> japH> NkhH Mfpatw;iwf; nfhLj;J thq;fpdhHfs;. ,t;thNw Ie;jpiz kf;fSf;F ,ilapy; gz;ilkhw;W KiwapNyNa nfhLg;gJk; nfhs;tJk; eilngw;wJ.  

njhy;fhg;;gpak; ,aw;wg;gl;l fhyk; vJntd;W mwpjpapl;Lr; nrhy;yKbahJ ,Uf;fpd;wJ. fp.K. Ie;J Ehw;whz;L fhyj;jJ vd;gJ mwpQHfs; gyH xg;Gf;nfhz;l fUj;jhFk;. ,jidtpl njhy;fhg;gpak; goikadJ mJ Kjy;> ,il> filr; rq;fq;fspy; ,ilr; rq;;fj;ijr; rhHe;j Ehy; vd;W $WthUk; csH.

vJ vg;gb ,Ug;gpDk; njhy;fhg;gpak; jkpo;kf;fspd; kpfg; goikahd xU rKjhaf;  fl;likigg; glk;gpbj;Jf; fhl;Ltjhy; mJ cz;ikapNyNa xU njhd;ikahd Ehy; vd;gjpy; vJtpj ma;aKk; ,y;iy.

njhy;fhg;gpak; Njhd;wpa fhyj;jpy; ,e;jpa nkhopfspNyh> NtW ve;j cyf nkhopfspNyh mJNghd;w xU ,yf;fz Ehy; Njhd;wtpy;iy vd;W Jzpe;J nrhy;yyhk;. tlnkhop ,yf;fz Ehyhd ghzpdpak; njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpw;Fg; gpe;jpajhFk;.

gpwnkhopAk;> gpwgz;ghLk; jkpo; nkhopNahLk; jkpo;g; gz;ghNlhLk; cwT nfhs;sj; njhlq;fpa fhyj;jpy;jhd; njhy;fhg;gpak; Njhd;wpapUf;fpwJ. jkpo; nkhopapd; jdpj;jd;ikfisAk;> jkpo; kf;fsJ gz;ghl;bd; jdpj; jd;ikfisAk; ghJfhj;J mtw;wpw;F NtypNghlTk;> gpwnkhopahsHfSk;> gpwgz;ghl;lhsHfSk; jkpo;nkhopiag; gw;wpAk;> jkpo;kf;fsJ gz;ghl;ilg; gw;wpAk; mwpe;J nfhs;Sk; Nehf;fpYk; njhy;fhg;gpak; cUthf;fg; gl;bUf;fpwJ vd;W nrhy;yyhk;.

vs;spy; ,Ue;J vz;nza; gpwg;gJ Nghy; ,yf;fpaj;jpy; ,Ue;Nj ,yf;fzk; gpwf;Fk;. ,jd; mbg;gilapy; njhy;fhg;gpaj;Jf;F Kd;dH Vuhskhd ,yf;fpa ,yf;fz Ehy;fs; jkpo; nkhopapy; ,Ue;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ GydhfpwJ.

vy;yhr; nrhw;fSf;Fk; nghUs;jhd; mbg;gil. nghUis tpsf;fr; nrhw;fs; Njitg;gLfpd;wd. mr; nrhw;fs; vOj;Jf;fshy; Mdit. nghUspyf;fzk; nrhy;tjw;Fj;jhd; njhy;fhg;gpaH nrhy;ypzf;fj;ijAk; nra;Aspyf;fzj;ijAk; nrhd;dhH vdj; njupfpwJ.

jkpo; ,yf;fzk; kpf kpf El;gKk; njwpTk; cilaJ. nghUs; ,yf;fzk; jkpOf;Nf cupaJ.

njhy;fhg;gpaH vOj;J> nrhy;> nghUs; %d;iwAk; jdpj;jdp mjpfhuq;fspy; nrhy;fpwhH. mjpfhuq;fs; xt;nthd;Wf;Fk; xd;gJ ,ay;fis mikj;Js;shH. ,e;j mikg;G njhy;fhg;gpak; xU fl;Lf;Nfhg;ghd ,yf;fz Ehy; vd;gijf; fhl;LfpwJ.

khj;jpiu vd;gJ xU fhy msT. fz; ,ikg;gJ> if nehbg;gJ xU khj;jpiu msT vdf; fzf;fpl;lhHfs;. xU khj;jpiu vt;thW gpwf;Fk; vd;gij njhy;fhg;gpaH jdf;F Kd; ,Ue;j ,yf;fz MrpupaHfis Nkw;Nfhs; fhl;b tpsf;FfpwhH.

'cs;sy; fhNy cWj;jy; miuNa
KWf;fy; Kf;fhy; tpLj;jy; xd;Nw'

,t;thNw fhy; khj;jpiu> miu khj;jpiuf;Fk; njhy;fhg;gpaH tpsf;fk; nfhLf;fpwhH.

mwptpay; tsuhj fhyj;jpy; fhyj;ij msf;f jkpoH ifahz;l Kiwik tpag;igj; jUfpwJ.

njhy;fhg;gpak; topEhy; vd;Wk; mjd; Kjy; Ehy; mfj;jpak; vd;Wk; nrhy;yg;gLtJ cz;lhapDk; mjw;Fj; njhy;fhg;gpag; ghapuj;jpNyh my;yJ njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpNyh rhd;Wfs; ,y;iy. Mdhy; mfj;jpaH ngaupy; xU ,yf;fz Ehy; ,Ue;J gpd;dH kiwe;J tpl;lJ.

njhy;fhg;gpaH fhyj;jpy; Ml;rpapypUe;j rpy nrhw;fs; gpd;dH tof;nfhope;J Nghapd. cjhuzk; ",Njhsp"> "mNjhsp"> "cNjhsp"> "vNjhsp" vd;w nrhw;fs; ,d;W tof;fpy; ,y;iy.

njhy;fhg;gpak; jkpoHfSf;F fpilj;j GijayhFk;. mjd; rpwg;Gf; fhuzkhfNt Vida gy rq;f ,yf;fpa> ,yf;fz Ehy;fs; fhynts;sj;jpy; ms;Sz;L mope;njhope;J Nghfj; njhy;fhg;gpak; jg;gpg; gpioj;jJ.

njhy;fhg;gpaj;Jf;Fg; gpd;dH Ehw;Wf;Fk; mjpfkhd ,yf;fz Ehy;fs;> gy topEhy;fshf> vOjg; gl;Ls;sd. mtw;wpy; xd;NwDk; njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpd; nfhLKbia vl;bg; gpbf;f Kbatpy;iy.

njhy;fhg;gpaH  cyfj; Njhw;wk; gw;wpAk; capHfspd; Njhw;wk; gw;wpAk; tpag;ghf ,Uf;fpwJ. Mdhy; mt;thW Muha;r;rp nra;j jkpoH; gpw;fhyj;jpy; mtw;iw tsHf;fTk; Nkk;gLj;jTk; jtwptpl;lhd;>

jkpoH>  nrhHf;fk;> eufk;> tPLNgW>  Ngupd;gk;> ght Gz;zpak;> ahfk; Nts;tp> Ntjhe;j rpj;jhe;j Muha;r;rpapy;  ,wq;fp "tho;thtJ khak;> kz;zhtJ jpz;zk; vd;w jpz;izg; Ngr;Rg; Ngrp mwpahikapy; %o;fpdH. 

murpay; gz;ghl;Lj; jsj;jpy; jha;j; jkpofk; 700 Mz;Lfs; me;epauhy; mbik nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. Nra;j; jkpofk; 400 Mz;Lfs; me;epa Ml;fpf;F mbikg;gl;lJ. ,jdhy; jkpopdk; fyg;gpdkhfp tho;Tk; tsKk; ,oe;jJ.

jkpopdk; ,d;W jd;id kPo; fz;L gpbf;Fk; Kaw;rpapy;> Gfo; G+j;j jdJ gioafhy tuyhw;iwg; jpUg;gpg; ghHf;f tpUk;GfpwJ. mjd; Nehf;fk; ,we;j fhyj;jpy; ,Ug;gjw;fhf md;W> ,we;jfhyk; Gfl;Lk; ghlj;ijg; gbj;J vjpHfhyj;ij nrg;gdplNt jkpoHfs; njhy;fhg;gpak;> kw;Wk; rq;ffhy ,yf;fpaq;fis nfhQ;rk; Kaw;rp nra;J gbf;f Ntz;Lk;. jkpodJ murpay; kWkyHr;fpf;F mj;jifa ,yf;fz ,yf;fpa tuyhw;W czHT ifnfhLf;Fk;.

njhy;fhg;gpak; ,yf;fz Ehy; vd;gjhy; mijj; njhl tpUk;ghjtHfs; ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. Mdhy; njhy;fhg;gpaj;ij jkpoHfsJ nkhop ehfupfr; rpwg;ig mwpa cjTk; fhyf; fz;zhb vd;w czHNthL gbj;jhy; njhy;fhg;gpak; epr;rak; ,dpf;Fk;.

nkhop vd;gJ kf;fs; rKjhaj;jpd; $l;Lg; gilg;ghFk;. rKjhaj;jpd; fUj;Jg; gupkhwYf;F nkhop xU fUtpahfg; gad;gLfpwJ. mjw;F Nkyhf mJ gz;ghl;bd; NfhykhfTk; jpfo;fpwJ. rKjhak; tsHr;rp milAk; NghJ $lNt nkhopAk; tsHr;rp milfpwJ. nkhop tsHr;rpapd; xU gbepiyahf vOj;Jj; Njhd;WfpwJ. mjd; gpd;dH ehNlhb tha;nkhop ,yf;fpaq;fs; vOj;jpy; tbf;fg; gLfpd;wd. ,e;j ,yf;fpaq;fisr; nrk;ikg; gLj;jp xOq;fikf;f ,yf;fz Ehy;fs; Njhw;wk; ngWfpd;wd. nkhopia xU kuj;Jf;F xg;gpl;lhy; ,yf;fzk; mjd; tpOJfshFk;. Mykuk; Nghd;W tsHe;j jkpo; nkhopf;F gy Ehw;Wf; fzf;fhd ,yf;fz tpOJfs; Njhw;wk; ngw;wd.

njhy;fhg;gpak; vOj;J> nrhy;> nghUs; gw;wpf; $Wk; ,yf;fz EhyhdhYk; m/J "jkpo;nkhopapd; rPupa> $upa> ,dpa> nky;ypa xypaikg;GKiw> mjd; GzH epiyahy; xyp khw;w mikg;G> nrhy;ypd; rpwg;G> jpiz ghy; Kjypa capHg;gFg;G>  capupy;gFg;G> jkpoH ehfupfr; nrhw;wpiwikAk;> xt;nthU nrhy;Yk; fhuzj;NjhL mikf;fg;gLtJk;> kf;fspd; kd ,ay;ghfpa mfKk; tPuKk;> vz;ghd; RitfSk;> ctkq;fSk;> kuGKiw"" Kjypa ahTk; xUq;Nf tpsf;fpf; fhl;LtjhFk;. goe;jkpoupd; nkhopr;rpwg;G> mftho;f;if> Gwtho;f;if> muR> gil> nfhb> nry;tk;> khdk; ,tw;iwAk; njhy;fhg;gpak; tpupthf vLj;Jr; nrhy;fpwJ.

njhy;fhg;gpaH fhyj;jpy; tlnkhop jkpopy; fye;J tpl;lnjd;Wk; njhy;fhg;gpaNu njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpy; jw;gtk; jw;rkk; gw;wpf; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;shH vd;Wk; jkpo; thu ciuauq;fpy; xUtH njuptpj;jhH. njhy;fhg;gpaH njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpy; jw;gtk; jw;rkk; vd;w nrhy;yhl;rpiaf; ifahstpy;iy. jtpHf;f Kbahj VJthy; tlnrhy; xd;iwg; gad;gLj;j Neupby; jkpo;nkhopf;F ,ire;jthW vt;thW mjid  mikj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;F kl;Lk; njhy;fhg;gpaH ,yf;fzk; nrhd;dhH. njhy;fhg;gpak; gw;wpr; rw;W tpupthf vOJtjw;F mJNt VJthFk;.

njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpy; tlnkhopf; fyg;G kpf kpff; FiwT. cyfk;> fhyk;> khjk; Nghd;w nrhw;fs; tlnkhopr; nrhy; vd;ghH NrdhtiuaH. ,J mtH fhyj;jpy; tlnkhopNa vy;yhk; vd;w kaf;fj;jhy; nrhy;yg;gl;lJ. njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpy; Vwj;jho 35 tlnrhw;fNs fhzg;gLfpd;wd. ,Y 0.05 tpOf;fhlhFk;.

njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpy;  fhzg;gLk; rhjp> itrpfd;  Nghd;w nrhw;fs; ,ilr; nrUf;fyhFk;. itrpfd; vd;w nrhy; rq;f ,yf;fpaj;jpy; ifahsg;gltpy;iy. vdNt me;jr; nrhy; njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpy; tUtjw;F tha;g;Ng ,y;iy.

gpd;dhy; te;j ,yf;fz MrpupaH Gj;jkpj;jpudhH  (11 Mk; Ehw;whz;L) vOjpa tPuNrhopaj;jpy;  tlntOj;Jf; fythj jkpo;r; nra;ANs ,dpik jUk; vd typAWj;JtH.

'rhHe;j tof;nfhL jg;gh tlntOj; ije;jtpHe;J
NjHe;JzH thf;Fk; ,dpikia je;J nra;fspYk;..'

,yf;fpak; ,yf;fzk; vd;w nrhw;fs; njhd;W njhl;Nl jkpopy; toq;fp tUfpd;wd.

'xUtiuf; $Wk; gd;ikf; fpstpAk;
xd;widf $Wk; gd;ikf; fpstpAk;
tof;fp dhgpa caHnrhw; fpstp
,yf;fz kUq;fpw; nrhy;yh wy;y' 
     (njhy;. 510)

vd;Dk; njhy;fhg;gpa Ehw;ghtpy; ,yf;fzk; vd;w nrhy; te;jpUf;fpwJ!

,yf;fzk; vd;w jkpo;r; nrhy; y\ vd;w tlnrhy;ypy; ,Ue;J te;jJ vd;W jkpo; thuj;jpy; KidtH ntq;fluhkd; nrhd;dijg; ghHj;Njhk;.

y\ vd;w nrhy; milahsk; my;yJ Fwpapidf; Fwpf;f tUk;. mJ y\;zk; vd;whfp jkpopy; ,yl;rzk; ,yf;fzk; vdj; jpupe;jJ vd;gJjhd; Mupak; ed;W jkpo; jPJ vd;gtHfSila nrhy;yhly; MFk;.  jkpopidg; gopj;Jk; ,opj;Jk; Jhw;wpAk; nrj;j tlnkhopf;F nja;tPfj;jd;ik Vw;wpg; Nghw;WtJk; ,ilf;fhyj;jpy; fw;NwhupilNa NgusT tof;fhapUe;jJ.

'jkpo;r; nrhy;ypw; nfy;yhk; tl EhNy jhahfp epfo;fpd;wikapd; mq;Fs;s tof;nfy;yhk; jkpOf;Fk; ngWk;' vd;W tPuNrhopa ciuahrpupaH ngUe;NjtdhH nrhy;tJ ,ilf;fhyj;jpy; tlnkhop ngw;w Vw;wj;jpd; ntspg;ghNl.

'tlnkhop jkpo;nkhop vd ,U nkhopapDk; ,yf;fzk; xd;Nw vd;Nw vz;Zf' vd ,yf;fzf; nfhj;J MrphpaH Rthkpehj NjrpfH ghbapUf;fpwhH. ,tNu jkpo;nkhop 'Ie;njOj;jhy; Md xUghil vd;W miwaTk; ehZtH mwpTilNahNu Mifahy; ahDk; mJNt mwpf' vd;W jkpiog; gopj;jtH.

jkpo;nkhop tlnkhop ,uz;Lf;Fk; ,yf;fzk; xd;Nw vd;why; gpd; vg;gb tlnkhopiaj; nja;t nkhop vd;Wk; tlnkhopg; Gytiu nja;tg; GytH vdTk; ghuhl;lyhk;? xj;j ,yf;fzk; cila jkpo; nkhopAk; nja;tnkhopahfTk; jkpo;g; GyNthUk; nja;tg; GytuhfTk; ghuhl;lg; ngwhik Vd;?

,yf;F vd;w jkpo;r; nrhy; kpfTk; goikahdJ. mJ Fwp vd;W nghUs;gLk;. mr;nrhy;iy mbahff; nfhz;L gpwe;jNj ,yf;fzk; MFk;. ,yf;F mz;kpaJ ,yf;fzk; MFk;. 

cs;Siw nja;tk; xope;jjij epyd;vdf;
nfhs;Sk; vd;g Fwpawpe;NjhNu    ( mfj;jpiz 47)

vd;w Ehw;ghtpy; ,yf;fzj;ijf; Fwpnadf; Fwpj;jpUg;gJ kdk; nfhs;sj;jf;fJ. ',yf;fzj;Jf;F mzq;fk; vd;Wk;> ,yf;fpajjpw;F mzq;fpak; vd;Wk; nghUSz;L' vdg; ghthzH Fwpg;gpLfpwhH. (gz;ila jkpo; ehfupfk; - gf;fk; 133)

NkYk; Gwg; nghUs; $Wk; nghUisAk; ,yf;fzk; vd;w ngauhNyNa miof;fg;gLfpwJ. tlnkhopahsH ,tw;iwnay;yhk; y\zk; vd;w xU nrhy;yhy; kl;Lk; toq;FtH. ,yf;fzj;ijAk; ,yf;fpaj;ijAk; Fwpf;f> tpahfuzk; (tpahfuz) rhfpj;jpak; (]hfpj;pa) vd;Dk; nrhw;fisNa tlnkhopahsH Ms;fpd;wdH.

njhy;fhg;gpaH tlnrhy;iy vt;thW jkpopy; vOj Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;F ,yf;fzk; tFj;Js;shH. tlnkhop xypfis ePf;fp  jkpo; vOj;Jf;fNshL mikf;f  Ntz;Lk; vd;ghH.  

tlnjhw; fpstp tlntOj; njhuP,
vOj;njhL GzHe;j nrhy;yhFk;Nk
  (njhy; 884)

tlnrhw;fspd; xypapid ePf;>fp jkpo; vOj;Jf;fNshL mike;j nrhw;fs; tl nrhy;yhFk;.  `up- mup> `ud;-mud;> uhkd; - ,uhkd;> uh[uh[d; - ,uhr,uhrd;>  uhN[e;jpud; - ,uhNre;jpud;. NkYk; tlnrhw;fs; rpije;J tupDk; ( gpuahzk; - gazk;> up\p - ,Ub) ePf;f Ntz;bajpy;iy vd;fpwhH.  njhy;fhg;gapH fhyj;jpy; my;yJ mjw;F rw;W Kd;jhd; tlnkhop jkpopy; fyf;fj; njhlq;fp ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.

gpw;fhyj;jpy; gTj;jk;> rkzk;> itjPfk; Nghd;w gpw rkaq;fs; jkpo;ehl;by; GFe;jjhy; tlnrhw;fs; gpuhfpUj (ghyp> kfuh\;l;up> kfjp Kjypa) tbtpy; jkpopy; toq;fpd. g;ujpkh - gbik> ]kuzh - rkaH> ,\;lk;- ,l;lk;> e\;lk;> G\gk; - Gl;gk;>  - el;lk;> tp[;Qhgjk; - tpz;zg;gk;. 

tlnrhw;fs; jkpopy; xyp NtWghL ,y;yhJ toq;FtJ jw;rk tlnrhy; vd;Wk;> NtWghL mile;J toq;FtJ jw;gt tlnrhy; vd;Wk; gpupj;Jf; $WtH.

mkyk;> fkyk;> Fq;Fkk;> NkU> fhuzk; fhupak; jw;rkr; nrhw;fshFk;.

tlnkhopf;Nf cupa xypAs;s vOj;Jf;fshy; mike;j  Nuhrh (Nuh[h)> fapl;lk; (f\;lk;) j\pzk; Mfpad  jw;gt nrhw;fshFk;.

Mdhy; tlnkhopr; nrhw;fis ePf;fp jkpo;r; nrhw;fisNa ehk; gad;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. el;lk; - ,og;G> Gl;gk; - G+ my;yJ kyH>  ,l;lk; - tpUg;gk;.

tlnkhopf; fyg;Gf;F njhy;fhg;gpaj;ij Nkw;Nfhs; fhl;bj; jg;gpf;f Kidaf; $lhJ.  

jhkiu> Fk;gk;> rq;fk;> thuzk; vd;gd Jha njd; nrhw;fs; vd;gJ ghthzH kjkhFk;.

tlnkhopr; nrhw;fis mwNt ePf;fpj; jdpj; jkpopy;  vOj KbAk; vd;gJ kiwkiy mbfhshH> ngUQ;rpj;jpudhH Nghd;w jkpowpQHfs; kjkhFk;.

Kd;dNu $wpathW jkpo;nkhop thuk; jkpo; khztHfs; jkpo; gbf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w tpopg;GzHit Vw;gLj;Jtjpy; ntw;wp fz;Ls;sJ. Mdhy; jkpopd; gad;ghl;il Cf;Ftpg;gjpy; Njhy;tp fz;Ls;sJ.

Gweil ePq;fyhf Clfj;Jiw ,jw;Fr; rhd;whf cs;sJ. ,Ue;Jk; jkpo;ehl;by; ghHg;gdHfsJ fl;Lg;ghl;Lf;Fs; ,Uf;Fk; Clfj;JiwNahL xg;gpLk;NghJ fdba Clfj;Jiwapd; tlnrhy; gad;ghL FiwT vd;Nw nrhy;y Ntz;Lk;. FKjk;> fy;fp> Mde;jtpfld;> jpdkyH> jpdkzp Nghd;wit tlnkhopAk;  Mq;fpyKk; NrHe;j fyg;G eilapy; vOjpj; jkpOf;F ,uz;lfk; nra;fpd;wd.  mtw;iw khdk; rpwpJk; ,y;yhj jkpoHfs; gzk; nfhLj;J thq;fpg; gbf;fpwhHfs;.

tlnkhop cl;gl gpwnkhopf; fyg;gpd;wp Jha jkpopy; vOJtJ> jkpo;f; Foe;ijfSf;Fj; jdpj;jkpo;g; ngaH #l;LtJ> jpUf;Nfhapy;fspy; jkpopy; topghL elj;JtJ> jkpoH jpUkzq;fis jkpopy; elj;JtJ Mfpatw;iw eilKiwg;gLj;jhJ tpl;lhy; jkpo; kf;fspilNa jkpo; czHit tsHj;jy; ntw;wpngwhJ. jkpo; czHTs;s ngw;NwhHfNs jq;fs; gps;isfs; jkpo;g; gbf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gjpy; Kidg;NghL ,Ug;gH.

jdpj;jkpo; ciueil> jdpj;jkpo;g; ngaHfs;> jkpo;topghL> jkpo;j; jpUkzk; ,tw;Wf;F jdp thuq;fs; nfhz;lhlg;gLk; vd;W $WtJ jiyf;nfhU rPiff;fha; jhbf;nfhU rPiff;fha; vd;w gonkhop NghyNt ,Uf;Fk;.

,ijg; gbj;Jtpl;L 'Rk;kh fple;j ehr;rpahUf;F xU gzj;Jj; jhyp fhzhNjh?' vd;W rpyH Nfl;gJ vd; fhjpy; tpOfpwJ. jkpo; khztH jkpo; gbf;fj; jkpo;thuk; nfhz;lhbaij  tuNtw;Nw Mf Ntz;Lk;! ,y;yhtpl;lhy; xd;Wk; eilngwhJ!  (Kw;Wk;)

 


   

nkhop vd;gJ xU ,dj;jpd; ehfupfk;> gz;ghL> fiy Mfpa tpOkpaq;fis ntsp fhl;Lk; fUtp! 

jkpo;nkhop  thuj;jpy;  ef;fPud;  

 

ngupNahHfNs jha;khHfNs cld;gpwg;Gf;fNs cq;fs; vy;NyhUf;Fk; vdJ jkpo;  tzf;fj;ij Kjw;fz; njuptpj;Jf; nfhs;fpd;Nwd;.

 

jkpo; thuj;jpd; Kjy; ehs; epfo;r;rpf;F tUif je;jpUf;Fk; cq;fs; midtiuAk;tUf tUf vd tuNtw;gjpy; msg;gupa kfpo;r;rp milfpd;Nwd;.

 

jkpo;f; fiy njhopy; El;gf; fy;Yhup fdbaj; jkpo; kf;fs; ,ilNa jkpo;nkhop gw;wpa tpopg;GzHit cUthf;f ,d;W njhlq;fp A+iy 02 tiu jkpo;nkhop thuj;ij vopNyhLk; vOr;rpNahLk; nfhz;lhLfpwJ.

 

nkhop vd;gJ fUj;Jg; gupkhw;wj;Jf;F kl;Lk; Njitg;gLk; fUtp ,y;iy.    mjw;Fk; Nkyhf nkhop vd;gJ xU ,dj;jpd; ehfupfk;>  gz;ghL> fiy Mfpa tpOkpaq;fisAk; ntspfhl;Lk; fUtp MFk;. jkpo; nkhop vd;gJ vq;fs; CNdhLk; capNuhLk; ,uz;lwf; fye;J epw;Fk; czHthFk;.

 

Md fhuzj;jhNyNa jkpOf;F mKnjd;W ngaH me;jj; jkpo; ,d;gj; jkpo; vq;fs; capUf;F  NeH vd;W Gul;rpf; ftpQH ghujpjhrd; Kof;fk; nra;jhH.

 

jkpo;nkhop thuk; gy gupkhzq;fisf; nfhz;lJ. mjd; jiyaha Nehf;fk; jkpo;nkhop gw;wpa tpopg;GzHit cUthf;Fjy; MFk;. Fwpg;ghf  ,sk; jiyKiwapdH ,e;jehl;by; rpWtajpy; ,Ue;Nj jkpo;nkhop fw;gjd; Njit> mjd; Kf;fpaj;Jtk;> mjpy; ngw;Nwhupd; gq;F gw;wpa tpopg;GzHit cUthf;FtjhFk;.  jkpo;  khztHfs; jkpiog; gbj;Jg; gy;fiyf; fof Eiotpw;F Ntz;ba 30 jpwik   rpj;jpfspy; 4 jpwik rpj;jpfis jkpo;nkhop gbj;Jg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;syhk;.  ,jidf; fUg; nghUshff; nfhz;L ,d;W Kjy; mLj;j tUk; ehl;fspy; ciuahlYk; fUj;Jg; gupkhwYk; ,lk; ngWfpd;wd. ,jpy; ngw;NwhHfshfpa ePq;fs; fye;J     nfhz;L cq;fs; fUj;Jf;fis Kd; itf;f Ntz;Lk;. cq;fs; ma;aq;fSf;F    tpsf;fk; Nfl;L njspT ngWjy; Ntz;Lk;.  

 

cq;fSf;Fj; njupAk; fdlh xU gd;Kf gz;ghl;il (multi-culturism ) Cf;Ftpf;Fk; ehL. me;j tha;g;igf; fdbaj; jkpoHfshfpa ehk; vkJ nkhop   gz;ghl;ilg; ghJfhf;fTk; tsHf;fTk; ed;F gad;gLj;jpf; nfhs;sy; Ntz;Lk;.

 

jkpo;nkhop tpopg;GzHT vd;gJ jkpo;kf;fspd; tho;tpaypd; midj;Jj; jsq;fspYk; JiwfspYk; $WfspYk; vkJ jha;nkhopahfpa jkpo;nkhopf;F Kjd;ik nfhLg;gjhFk;. ,y;iyNay; Ke;jpa fhyk; Nghy; jkpo;nkhop ,q;Fk; mope;njhope;J tplf;$ba mghak; ,Uf;fpwJ.

 

,w;iwf;F 200 Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH jkpo;ehl;by; ,Ue;Jk; md;iwa ,yq;ifapy; ,Ue;Jk; njd; Mgpupf;fh> kNyrpah> gpA+[p> nkhNw\pa];> wpA+dpad;> Nkw;fpe;jpa jPTfs; Mfpa ehLfSf;Fg; Gyk;ngaHe;j jkpoHfs; fhyg; Nghf;fpy; jq;fs; jha;  nkhopia kwe;J>  jq;fs; Kftupiaj; njhiyj;J jq;fs; ,d milahsj;ij  ,oe;jhHfs;.  

 

mz;ikf; fhykhfNt ,e;j ehLfSf;Fg; Gyk;ngaHe;j jkpoHfspd; ,d;iwa jiyKiwapdH jq;fs; Ntiuj; NjLtjpYk; cwitj; NjLtjpYk; ,oe;j nkhopia kPl;gjpYk; mf;fiw fhl;b tUfpwhHfs;.

 

vdNt ehq;fs; tpopg;ghf ,y;yhtpl;lhy; ehq;fSk; vq;fs; nkhopiaAk; ,d milahsj;ijAk; ,oe;JtpLk; mghak; ,Uf;fpwJ. ,g;NghNj ,e;j kz;zpy; thOk;ngUk;ghd;ikahd jkpo;g; gps;isfs; jq;fs; jha;nkhopia Ntfkhf kwe;J tUfpwhHfs;. kwe;J tpl;lhHfs;.

 

ehd; Vw;fdNt $wpaJ Nghy; ,jw;fhd fhuzpfisf; fz;lwpe;J mjw;;Fg; gupfhuk; fhz;gJNt jkpo;nkhop thuj;jpd; Fwpf;NfhshFk;.

 

xU nghUs; mopahJ ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;why; me;jg; nghUisg; gad;gLj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. gad; gLj;jhj gz;lk; Fg;igapy; vd;gJ gonkhop. xU nkhopAk; mg;gbj;jhd;. jkpo; nkhopiag; gad;gLj;jpdhy; kl;LNk mjd; mopit ehq;fs; jtpHf;fyhk;. jkpo;nkhopiag; gad;gLj;jhJ jkpo; xU njhd;ikahd nkhop> nja;tPfnkhop vd;W nrhy;ypf; nfhz;bUe;jhy; jkpo;nkhop mope;njhope;J tpLk;. fle;j fhyj;jpy; nkhopf; fyg;ghy; jkpo;nkhop njYq;F> fd;dlk;> kiyahsk; vdj;

jpupe;Js;sJ.

 

jkpo;nkhopiag; Gyk;ngaHe;j kz;zpy; fhg;ghw;wTk; tsHf;fTk; gy topfs; vq;fSf;F cz;L. mtw;iw ,q;F Neuj;jpd; mUik fUjpr; RUf;fkhff;       Fwpg;gpl tpUk;GfpNwd;.

 

     (1)   jkpo;nkhopia tPl;L nkhopahfg; gad;gLj;Jq;fs;. tPl;by; vg;nghOJk;  jkpopy; cq;fs; Foe;ijfNshL; ciuahLq;fs;.   

 

    (2)   xUtuJ ngaH mtuJ ,dj;jpd; FwpaPlhFk;. vdNt cq;fs; rkak; vJthdhYk; cq;fs; Foe;ijfSf;Fg; gpwnkhopg; ngaHfs; itg;gijf; iftpl;Lj; Jha  jkpo;g; ngaHfisr; #l;Lq;fs;.  Vw;fdNt tlnkhopapy; itj;j ngaHfisj; jkpopy; khw;w Kaw;rp nra;Aq;fs;.  jkpopy; mofhd    rpd;dr; rpd;d tz;z tz;zg; ngaHfs; Ehw;Wf; fzf;fpy; ,Uf;fpd;wd.

 

    (3)  cq;fs; cwTKiwfis lb kkp> mq;fps; Md;up vd;W Mq;fpyj;jpy; nrhy;yhjPHfs;. jkpopy; mg;gh mk;kh> khkh khkp vd;W nrhy;Yq;fs;. mt;thNw ngw;Nwhupd; ngw;Nwhiug; ghl;ld; ghl;b vd;W mioAq;fs;. vy;NyhiuAk; Kiw nrhy;yp mioAq;fs;.

 

    (4)   cyfg; nghJkiwahd jpUf;Fwis cq;fsJ jkpo;g; gz;ghl;Lf; ifNalhfTk; jkpopd vjpHfhy topfhl;bahfTk; itj;Jf; nfhs;Sq;fs;.

 

    (5)   tPl;Lf;nfhU jkpo; Ehyfk; njhlq;Fq;fs;. jpUkzk;>  gpwe;j ehs; tpohf;fspy; jkpo; Ehy;fisf; fhR nfhLj;J thq;fpg;  guprhff; nfhLq;fs;.

 

    (6)   cq;fs; gps;isfSf;F ts;Stupd; jpUf;Fws;> mt;itahupd; Mj;jp #b>  ghujpahupd; Gjpa Mj;jp #b Nghd;w mw Ehy;fis tPl;by; nrhy;ypf; nfhLq;fs;.

 

    (7)   ,ir> eldk; Nghd;w Ez; fiyfisf; fw;gpf;Fk; MrpupaHfs; Mq;fpy   nkhop %yk; mtw;iwf; fw;gpg;gijf; iftpl;Lj; jkpopy; fw;gpAq;fs;. mg;gbr; nra;jhy; jkpo; thOk;. tsUk;.

 

    (8)   jpUf;Nfhapy; topghl;ilj; jkpopy; nra;Aq;fs;.  ePq;fs; tzq;Fk; flTsiuj; jkpopy; topgLq;fs;. mg;gbr; nra;jhy; jkpo; caUk;. epkpUk;.  

 

    (9)   cq;fs; tPl;Lj; jpUkzq;fisr; nre;jkpopy; jkpoH kuGg;gb nra;Aq;fs;.

 

    (10) cq;fs; ez;gHfisr; re;jpf;Fk; nghOJk; mtHfNshL NgRk; nghOJk; '`Nyh'tpw;F khw;whf tzf;fk; vd;W jkpopy; nrhy;Yq;fs;. 'jhq;];' vd;   gjw;F khw;whf ed;wp vd;W nrhy;Yq;fs;.

 

    (11) nkhop> fiy> ,yf;fpak; njhlHghd tpohf;fSf;F Kbe;j kl;Lk; jkpo;j;  Njrpa cil mzpe;J nry;Yq;fs;. jha;khHfs; ,jid nrhy;yhkNy nra;fpwhHfs;. ehd; nrhy;tJ je;ijkhHfis MFk;.

 

    (12) ClftpayhsHfs;> vOj;jhsHfs; Kbe;j kl;Lk; tlnkhop> Mq;fpyk; fyf;fhj jkpopy; vOj Ntz;Lk;.  nrt;tpiag; Ngl;b vd;Wk; rpwg;ig tpNrlk; vd;Wk; nryit tp[ak; vd;Wk; Fbkfidg; gpui[ vd;Wk; vOJtijAk; nrhy;tijAk; iftpl;Lj; jkpopy; vOJq;fs;> jkpopy; nrhy;Yq;fs;.  

 

    (13) jkpoHfs; elj;Jk; mq;fhbfs;> epWtdq;fs; Mfpatw;wpd; ngaHfis    Kbe;j kl;Lk; Jha jkpopy; vOJq;fs;. ngaHg;gyiffspy; Mq;fpyj;Jf;Fr; rkkhd ,lj;ijj;  jkpOf;Fk; nfhLq;fs;.  

 

fdlhit Kd;khjpupahff; nfhz;L jkpo; nkhop thuj;ij Vida Gyk;ngaH ehLfspy; thOk; jkpoHfSk;  nfhz;lhl Ntz;Lk; vd ,e;j Neuj;jpy; Nfl;Lf;nfhs;fpNwd;.

 

ehd; ,Jtiu nrhd;dJ cq;fisg; Nghd;w jkpo; czHthsHfSf;F my;y. cq;fSf;F czHT ,Ug;gjhy;jhd; ,q;F te;Js;sPHfs;. ehd; nrhy;tJ cq;fs; Clhf ,e;j epfo;r;rpf;F tuhjtHfSf;F. ePq;fSk; Fiwe;jJ ,uz;L ez;gHfs; %d;W cwtpdHfSf;Fr; nrhy;Yq;fs;. mtHfisAk; ,dg;gw;Wk; nkhopAzHTk; cs;s jkpoHfshf khw;Wq;fs;!

 

Kbthf jkpo;nkhop thuj;ij Mz;L KOJk; nfhz;lhLq;fs;. xt;nthU ehSk; nfhz;lhLq;fs;. ,e;j thuj;NjhL epWj;jp tplhjPHfs;!

 

kPz;Lk; cq;fs; tuT ey;tuT MFf vdf; $wp tpilngWfpNwd;. ed;wp. tzf;fk;.