rq;fk; tsHj;j jkpo;

 

,yq;ifapd; goq;Fbfs;      

 

ef;fPud;

 

(31)

 

,uz;lhtJ fly;Nfhs; RkhH fpK 2500 Mz;lstpy; ,lk;ngw;wpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. mf; fly;Nfhspd;NghJ ehfehL vd;W nrhy;yg;gLk;  epyg;gFjpAk; %o;fpg;Nghapw;W. fghlGuKk; Fkupahw;Wf;Fj; njw;Nf ,Ue;j epyKk; %o;fpg; Nghapw;W. ,e;jf; fhyfl;lj;jpNyNa ,yq;if ,e;jpahtpy; ,Ue;J gpupe;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. mg;NghJ ,yq;ifapy; muf;fH> ,af;fH> NtlH> Gype;jH vd;w jpuhtpl ,dj;jtH tho;e;jhHfs;.

 

tlnkhopahsHfSk; gpw;fhyj;jpy; kfhtk;r MrpupaUk; (fpgp 6k; Ehw;whz;L) kf;fspdj;jpw;F mg;ghw;gl;l gjpnzz; fzj;jhUs; muf;fH> ,af;fH ,U fzj;jhuhff; nfhz;ldH.

 

mg;gbr; nrhy;tjw;F kfhtk;r MrpupaH kfhehk NjuUf;F xU cs;Nehf;F ,Ue;jJ. kfhtk;rk; rpq;fs ,dj;Jf;F milahsk; Njbf; nfhLf;fTk; gTj;jj;ij Nkd;ikg;gLj;jTk; vOjg;gl;lJ. kfhtk;rj;jpd; fjhehafdhf mDuhjGuj;ij 44 Mz;Lfs; Ml;rpnra;j  jkpourd; vy;yhsid ntw;wpnfhz;l Jl;l ifKD rpj;jpupf;fg;gl;Ls;shd;.  

 

,uhkhazj;ijg; ghba thy;kPfpahUk; mofhd nghUs; nghjpe;j jkpo;g; ngaHfis vLj;Jtpl;L mjw;F <lhf rpWikg;gLj;Jfpw> ,opthd tlnkhopg; ngaHfis itj;Js;shHfs;.

 

,uhtzdJ Jiztpahupd; ngaH tz;lhHFoyp MFk;. mjhtJ tz;Lfs; nkha;j;J Muthupf;Fk; G+f;fszpe;j $e;jiyAilats; vd;gJ nghUs;. Mdhy; thy;kPfpahH me;jg; ngaiu kz;Nlhjupvd khw;wptpl;lhH.  kz;Nlhjup ngupa tapW cilats; (kz;L - ngupa> cjup - tapW) vd;w ,opTg; nghUisj; jUfpwJ.

 

mJNghyNt #Hg;gdifapd; ,aw;ngaH fhkty;yp MFk;. Mdhy; thy;kPfp '#Hg;g' vd;why; Kwk;> 'efh' vd;why; gy;iyAilats; mjhtJ 'Kwg;gy;yp' vd;W ,opTgLj;jp tpl;lhH.

 

,uhtzdpd; jk;gp Fk;gfHzdpd; ngaH Flf;fhjd; (Fk;gk; Flk;> fHzd; vd;why; fhJfis cilatd;) vdg; gopj;J vOjp tpl;lhH.

 

muf;fHFy murd; ,uhtzd;. ,yq;ifia Mz;lhd;. ,af;fuJ murd; FNgud;. mtdJ jiyefH msif. ,td; khngUk; nry;tdhf tpsq;fpdhd;.

 

jpUePw;wpd; rpwg;igf; $wte;j jpUQhdrk;ge;jH ,uhtzd; NkyJ ePW vd;W ghb mtidr; rpwg;gpj;jpUg;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.

 

jpUQhdrk;ge;jiug; NghyNt vl;lhk; Ehw;whz;by; tho;e;j khzpf;fthrfH  ,uhtzdpd; gl;lj;jurpia "MHfyp R+o;njd;dpyq;if mofkH kz;Nlhjupf;Fg; NguUs; ,d;gk; mspj;j ngUe;Jiw Nkagpuhid  rPupathahy; FapNy njd;ghz;behlidf; $tha;" vdf; Fapy;gj;jpy; rpwg;gpj;Jg; ghbAs;shH.

 

,uhkhazf; fijapd;gb muf;fHFyj;jtH NghHf;fiyapy; rpwg;Gw;W tpsq;fpdhHfs; vd;gJ njupatUk;.

 

muf;fHfSf;Fk; ,af;fHfSf;Fk; ,ilapy; Xahj gif epytp te;jJ. ,Wjpahf %z;l Nghupy; ,af;fH Fyk; NtuWf;fg;gl;lJ. ehfHfs;> ,af;fHfs;> mRuHfs;> ,uhl;rjfHfs; Nghd;NwhNu ,yq;ifapd; G+HtPf Fbkf;fs; vd;gjw;F epiwa Mjhuq;fs; ,Uf;fpd;wd.

tp[aid kze;j FNtdp ,af;fH Fyj;ijr; NrHe;jts;. ,uhkhaz fhyj;jpy;> ,yq;ifapd; Nkw;Ff; fiuNahuj;jpy; ,g;NghJ khNjhl;lk; (kd;dhH) vd;W miof;fg;gLk; khe;ij vd;Dk;  efiuj; jiyefuhff; nfhz;L ehfH  tFg;igr; NrHe;j Xtpa Fyj;jtUk;> Njtrpw;gpAkhfpa tpRtfHkhtpd; tk;rj;jtuhfpa  fk;kpaH  Ml;rpnra;J te;jhHfs;.

 

khe;ijia Mz;l murHfs; fhe;jf;Nfhl;il vd;W gyNjrj;jhuhy;  Nghw;wg;gl;lJk;> Jhq;nfapy; vd;W GwehDhw;wpy; rpwg;gpf;fl;lJkhd ,Uk;Gf; Nfhl;ilia cilatHfshfTk;> thzpgr; nropg;Gw;wtHfshfTk;> tPuk; nfhil> ,ir> rpw;gk;> Xtpak; Nghd;wtw;wpy; rpwg;Gw;wtHfshfTk; tpsq;fpdhHfs;.

 

,yq;if Nte;jd; ,uhtzd; Njtp kz;NlhjupAk;> mtd; rpwpa je;ijahfpa FNgud; Njtp rpj;jpuNuifAk;> ,k;khe;j efiu Mz;l murFy tk;rj;Jg; ngz;fs; MtH.  KUff;  flTshy; Ml;nfhs;sg;gl;l mRuHNfhdhfpa R+ugJkDila Njtp gJkNfhkisAk;  khe;ij efuj;jtNs. gJkNfhkisapd; jhahH kah ehftk;rj;jts; Mths;.

 

,af;fH> muf;fH> mRuH Nghd;w fzq;fistpl ehfHfs; ehfupfk; gilj;jtHfshfr; rpj;jupf;fg;gl;Ls;shHfs;. ,e;jpahtpd; khepyq;fspy; xd;whd ehfyhe;J kf;fs; ,d;W jdpehL Nfhupg; Nghuhb tUfpwhHfs;.

 

fPo;j;jpir ehl;lhH ehf tzf;fKk; ehfKj;jpiuAk; nfhz;bUe;jjhy; ehfH vdg;gl;ldH. mtHfs; ehL ehfehL vdg;gl;lJ. mtUs; ehfupfUk; mehfupfUk; ,Ue;jdH.

 

,yq;ifapd; tlf;F> njw;F> Nkw;Fg; gFjpfis ehftk;r murHfs; Mz;L te;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. Gj;jH %d;WKiw ,yq;iff;F tUif je;jhH vd kfhtk;rk; $WfpwJ.

 

Kjy; Kiw te;jNghJ  Ml;rpAupikgw;wp jq;fSf;Fs; Nkhjpf;nfhz;l ,uz;L ,af;f murHfspilNa rkhjhdj;ij epiy ehl;bdhH vd;W Fwpg;gpLfpwJ.

 

,uz;lhtJ Kiw te;j NghJ Gj;jH ehfjPtpy; ,wq;fp muRupikgw;wp jq;fSf;Fs; NghHGupe;j ,uz;L ehf murHfsJ gpzf;ifj; jPHj;J> me;j murHfs; cupik Ntz;bg; NghHGupe;j kzpj;jtrpy; mkHe;J %d;W Nfhb  ehfHfSf;F Gj;j jUkj;ijg; Nghjpj;jhnud kfhtk;rKk; Gj;jkj fhg;gpakhd kzpNkfiyAk; Fwpg;gpLfpd;wd.

 

%d;whtJ Kiw Gj;jH te;jNghJ ,d;W fsdp vd;W miof;fg;gLk; fy;ahzpapy; murcupikf;fhf rz;ilgpbj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;j kz;Nlhjud; Fz;Nlhjud; vd;w ,uz;L ehf murHfSf;fpilapy; epytpa gpzf;ifg; Nghf;fpdhH vd;W kfhtk;rk; $WfpwJ. Gj;jH ,yq;iff;F te;jhH vd;gJ fl;Lf;fij. Mdhy; ,yq;ifapy; ,af;fH> muf;fH> mRuH> ehfH Nghd;w goq;FbapdH tho;e;jhHfs; vd;gjpy; tuyhw;W cz;ik ,Uf;fpwJ.

 

,yq;iff;F fpgp 400 - 414 ,ilapy; tUif je;j gh fpad; vd;w rPdg; gazp ,yq;ifj; jPitg;gw;wp gpd;tUkhW tptupf;fpwhH>

 

"njhlf;fj;jpy; ,e;j ehl;by; kdpjHfs; thotpy;iy. MtpfSk; ehfHfSNk tho;e;jhHfs;. ,tHfNshL ntspehLfisr; NrHe;jtHfs; thzpfk; nra;jhHfs;. mg;gb thzpfk; nra;  Ak; NghJ mtHfs; Neupy; Njhd;Wtjpy;iy. nghUl;fspd; tpiyiaf; Fwpj;J itj;J  tpLfpwhHfs;. tzpfHfs; Fwpj;j tpiyapd;gb gzj;ijf; nfhLj;J nghUl;fis thq;  fpf; nfhz;L nry;thHfs;."

 

ghfpad; Mtpfs; vd;W Fwpg;gpl;ltHfs; epr;rakhf ,af;fHfshf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.

 

,uhkhazKk; ghujKk; ehfHfs; ,e;jpahtpd; gy gFjpfspYk; ,yq;ifapYk; tho;e;jjhff; Fwpg;gpLfpd;wd. ehfgl;bdk;> ehfjPgk;> ehfHNfhtpy;>> ehfhHr;Rdh Nghd;w ,lg;ngaHfs; ehfHfNshL nfhz;Ls;s njhlHigr; Rl;Lfpd;wd.

 

kfhtk;rk; fpK 6k; Ehw;whz;by; tlf;Nf ehfjPgKk;  Nkw;Nf fy;ahzpAk; (fsdpah) ehfHfsJ MSiff;Fs; ,Ue;jjhff; $WfpwJ.

 

Vw;fdNt Fwpg;gpl;lJNghy fy;ahzpapd; etuj;jpdk; gjpj;j mur  fl;bYf;fhf ehf murd; kNfhjuDk; mtdJ kUkfd; FNyhjuDk; mtutHfsJ NridfNshL Nkhjpf; nfhz;lNghJ Gj;jH mq;F Njhd;wp rz;ilia epWj;jp muRupikr;fhd Nghl;biaj; jPHj;J itj;jhH vd kzpNkfiy $WfpwJ. Ik;ngUk; fhg;gpaq;fspy; xd;whd kzpNkfiy ,uz;lhk; Ehw;whz;by; tho;e;j rPj;jiyr; rhj;jdhH vd;w Gytuhy; ,aw;wg;gl;lJ.

 

NjtH Nfhdpl;l khkzpg; gPbif

gpwg;G tpsq; ftpnuhsp mwj;jif ahrdk;

fPs;epy kUq;fpd; ehf ehlhSk;

,UtH kd;dtH xUtopj; Njhd;wp

vkjjP njd;Nw vLf;f yhw;whH

nrq;fz; rpte;J neQ;R Gif capHj;Jj;

jk;ngUQ; NridNahL ntQ;rkk; Gupehd'

,UQ;nrU xopkpd; vk jPnjd;Nw

ngUe;jt Kdptd; ,Ue;jw Kiuf;Fk;

nghUtW rpwg;gpw; GiuNah Nuj;Jk;

jUk gPbif Njhd;wpa jhq;nfd;        (kzpNkiy 8>  52 - 63)

 

",e;jpudhy; ,lg;gl;l ngUik nghUe;jpa kzpfshd gPbif>  fhz;NghuJ  gok; gpwg;G tpsq;Fjw;F VJthfpa xsp nghUe;jpa mwj;jpidAila Mrdk;>  fPo;j;jpirf;fz; cs;s ehf ehl;bid MSk; kd;dtH ,UtH xUq;F Njhd;wp ,/J vk;KilaJ vk;KilaJ vd;W $wp vLf;fTk; ,ayhtHfsha;j; jk;Kila ngupa tpUg;gk; ePq;FjiyAk; nra;ahjtHfsha;> rpte;j fz;fs; rpdj;jhw; rpte;J kdq;nfhjpj;J>  jk;Kila  ngUQ; NridfSld; nfhba NghH GupAehspy; ePtpH ckJ ngupa Nghiu ePq;Fkpd;  ,/J vk;KilaJ vd;W $wp> ngupa jtKdptdhrpa Gj;jd; ,Ue;J mwk; ciuj;j> xg;gw;w rpwg;gpidAila caHe;NjhHfs; Jjpf;fpd;w> jUk gPbif mt;tplj;jpy; Njhd;wpaJ vd;f."

 

Gj;jupd;  mwTiuiaf; Nfl;L 80 Nfhb ehfHfs; Gj;jkjj;jpw;F  khwpdhHfs; vd kfhtk;r MrpupaH $wpapUf;fpwhH. ,e;j vz;zpf;if kpifg;gLj;jg;gl;l xd;nwd;whYk; goq;fhyj;jpy; ehfHfs; ,yq;ifapd; tlf;fpYk; Nkw;fpYk; nrwpe;J tho;e;jhHfs; vd;gij ,e;jf; fij Rl;;LfpwJ.

 

,yq;ifia cs;slf;fpa ehfHfsJ ehfjPgk; vd;w ,uhr;rpaj;jpd; epyg;gug;G fly;Nfhspdhy; tpOq;fg;gl;l gpd;dH ,d;iwa aho;g;ghzf; FlhehL> mjd; mz;ila jPTfs;> G+efup> td;dp gFjpfs; kl;LNk vQ;rpapUe;jd.  (tsUk;)

 


 

rq;fk; tsHj;j jkpo;!

 

ehf tk;rk;      

 

(32)

kzpNkfiy kzpgy;ytj;ij (aho;g;ghzj;ij) Mz;l ehftk;r murd; thdtdJ  kfs; gPyptisia Nrho murd; njhz;ilkhd; neLKbf; fps;sp kzk; Kbj;jjhff; $WfpwJ. gPyptis fsnthOf;fj;jpy; gpwe;j jdJ Foe;ijia fps;sptstdplk; NrHg;gpf;FkhW xU nrl;baplk; nfhLj;J mDg;g> mtd; nrd;w fg;gy; Gaypy; rpf;fpf; flypy; %o;fptpLfpwJ.  me;jr; nra;jpia jg;gpg; gpioj;j khYkpfs; fps;sptstdplk; njuptpf;f kd;dd; Nrhfj;jpy; Mo;e;J Nghfpwhd;. kzp ,oe;j ehfj;ijg;Nghy kd;dd; flypYk; fiuapYk; jdJ Foe;ijiaj; NjLfpwhd;. ,jdhy; Mz;L NjhWk; ,e;jpuDf;F vLf;fg;gLk; tpohitf; nfhz;lhl kwe;J Nghfpwhd;. ,jdhy; NfhgKw;w kzpNkfyh nja;tk; Nrhodpd; jiyefuj;ij fly; nfhs;SkhW rgpf;fpwhs;. mt;thNw mtdJ cwe;ij efH fly; miyfshy; tpOq;fg;gLfpwJ.

Mdhy; Foe;ij njhz;ilf; nfhbahy; Rw;wg;gl;L> jpiuahy; ms;Sg;gl;L fiuNrHe;jJ vd kzpNkfiy $wpfpd;wJ. ,jd; fhuzkhf mtH njhz;ilkhd; vd;Wk;> ,se;jpiuad; vd;Wk; miof;fg;gl;lhd;.

mtd; Ml;rp Gupe;j gFjp njhz;il kz;lyk; vdg;gl;lJ. ,tNd ngUk;ghzhw;Wg; gilapy; Nghw;wg;gLk; njhz;ilkhd; ,se;jpiuad; Mthd;. kzpgy;ytj;jpy; ,Ue;J Nghe;jtH Mjypd;> gy;ytH jk;ik 'Nghe;jH' vd;Wk; 'gy;ytH' vd;Wk; $wpf;nfhz;ldH.  Mdhy; gy;ytupd; Njhw;wk;gw;wp tuyhw;W MrpupaHfsplk; khWgl;l fUj;Jf;fs; epyTfpwJ.

fpgp ,uz;lhk; Ehw;whz;by; tl ,yq;ifia Mz;l ehfH gyk;ngw;W KO ,yq;ifiaAk; Mz;ljhfj; njupfpwJ. mg;gb ,yq;if KOtijAk; Mz;l ehftk;r murHfspd; ngaiu kfhtk;rk; gl;bay; ,l;bUf;fpwJ.

    1. fhyjd;ehfd;                        -   fpK 50  -  44
    2. Nfhuehfd;                          -   fpK 3  -  fpgp 9
    3. kfhjpf;f kfhehfd;                    -  fpgp 66  -  78
    4. ,sehfd;                            -  fpgp 95  -  101  
    5. kfy;yf ehfd; my;yJ kfy;y ehf       -  fpgp 193  - 199
    6. fdp\;l jprh                         -  fpgp 223  -  241
    7. F[;aehfd;                          -   fpgp 241  -  243
    8. FQ;rd;ehfd;                         -   fpgp 243  -  244
    9.  =ehfd; 1                          -   fpgp 244  -  263
    10. nthfupf;f jprh                      -   fpgp 263  -  285
    11. mga ehfd;                         -   fpgp 285  -  293
    12. =ehfd; 11                          -   fpgp 293  -  295
    13. tp[ad;                             -   fpgp 295  -  296

(kfhtk;r MrpupaH tp[ad; tUifia Gj;jupd; gupepHthzj;NjhL (fpK 483) ,izj;J tpl;;ljhy; mtDf;Fg; gpd; Mz;l murHfspd; Ml;rpf; fhyk; Ntz;Lnkd;Nw ePl;lg;gl;Ls;sJ. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf ghz;Lfhgd; Ml;rp 70 Mz;L fhyKk; mtdJ kfd; %j;jrptd; Ml;rp 60 Mz;L fhyKk; ePbj;jjhf vOjg;gl;Ls;sJ)

tl ,yq;ifpapy; xU ehftk;r ,uhr;rpaq;fs; fpK 6k; Ehw;whz;by; ,Ue;J fpgp 3k; Ehw;whz;bd; eLg;gFjptiu ,Ue;jjw;F tYthd rhd;Wfs; cs. mjd; jiyefuk; xd;wpy; fjpukiy (fe;jNuhil) my;yJ khe;ijahf ,Ue;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;.

kfhghujk; gQ;r ghz;ltHfspy; xUtdhd mHr;Rdd; jPHj;j ahj;jpiu Nkw;nfhz;lijg;gw;wpr; nrhy;fpwJ. Muk;gj;jpy; tpahrH ghba ghujf;fij rpy Mapuk; RNyhfq;fisf; nfhz;ljhfNt ,Ue;jJ. gpd;dH  gy ,ilr; nrUf;fy;fs;  Vw;gl;L jw;NghJ RkhH 100>000 RNyhfq;fisf; nfhz;l ,jpfhrkhf tpupe;Js;sJ. ,Ue;Jk; tlnkhopapy; vOjg;gl;l ghujf;fij xg;gPl;lstpy; %yf; fijia xj;jjhf ,Uf;fpwJ. ghujf;fijapy; mHr;Rdd; jPHj;jahj;jpiu NghtJgw;wpa fpisf; fij nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ.

,e;jf; fijapd;gb mHr;Rdd; fypq;f  ehl;ilf; fle;J gy ehL> efuq;fs;> Gdpj jyq;fisr; juprpj;j gpd;dH kzpg;Guj;ij milfpwhd;. mq;F  rpj;jputhfddpd; kfshd rpj;jpuhq;fijiaf; fz;L fhjy;nfhz;L mtis kzf;fpwhd;.  kzpg;Guj;ij ghz;ba ehlhfTk; rpj;jputhfdid xU ghz;ba kd;ddhfTk; ghujf; fijapy; nrhy;yg;gl;lhYk; kzpg;Guk; ehfehnld;Wk;>  rpj;jputhfdd; ehftk;r murd; vd;Wk; nfhs;tNj rupahf ,Uf;Fk; vd ,uhrehafk; KjypahH jhk; vOjpa gz;ila aho;g;ghzk; vd;w Ehypy; Fwpg;gpLfpwhH. rpj;jputhfdd; vd;w ngaH nfhz;l ghz;ba kd;dH vtUk; ghz;b ehl;il Ml;rp nra;atpy;iy vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.

fjpukiyia (,d;iwa fe;jNuhil) Mz;l ehftk;r murdpd; (fpgp 2k; Ehw;whz;L) kfis Nrho murdhd fps;sptstd; kze;jjhf kzpNkfiy MrpupaH Fwpg;gpLfpwhH.   

,NjNghy; tp[ad; (fpgp 483 - 445) FNtdpiaj; Juj;jptpl;L ghz;ba murdpd; kfis kze;jhd; vd;gjw;Fg; gjpy; ehftk;r murd; xUtdpd; kfis kze;jhd; vd;gNj nghUj;jkhf ,Uf;Fk;. fhuzk; ve;j mur ghuk;gupaKk; ,y;yhj tp[aDf;F ghz;ba kd;dd; xUtd; jdJ kfis jpUkzk; nra;Jitf;f Kd;te;jpUf;f khl;lhd;.   

tp[ad; thupR ,d;wp kiwe;jNghJ Xuhz;L fhyk; murH ahUk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. mjd;gpd; rpfGuj;ij (fypq;fk;) Mz;l tp[adpd; ,sty; Rkpj;jdpd; filrp kfd; ghz;LthRNjtd; (fpgp 444 - 414) Ml;rpf;F tUfpwhd;. mtd; gpd; mtdJ %j;j kfd; mgad; (fpgp 414 - 394) mupaiz VWfpwhd;. mgad; capNuhL ,Uf;Fk;NghNj mtdJ rNfhjup rPj;jhtpd; kfd; ghz;Lfhgd; (fpgp 377 - 307) ,af;fHfspd; MjuTld; Ml;rpiaf; ifg;gw;Wfpwhd;. mtd; ,we;jgpd; mtDf;Fk; fpupfe;jrptdpd; kfs; RtHzghspf;Fk; gpwe;j %j;jrptd; (fpgp 307 - 247)  Ml;rpf;F tUfpwhd;.  mWgJ Mz;Lfs; Ml;rp nra;j gpd;dH %j;jrptd; fhykhfpwhd;. mjid mLj;J mtdJ ,uz;lhtJ kfd; Njtek;gpa jPrd; (fpgp 247 - 207) Kb#l;bf; nfhs;fpwhd;.

%j;jrptd; ahiuj; jpUkzk; nra;jhd; vd;gJ nrhy;yg;gltpy;iy. mtd; xU ehftk;r murpiaj; jpUkzk; nra;J ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd ,uhrehafk; mDkhdpf;fpwhH. fhuzk; mtdJ G+l;ld; (kfhehfdpd; Ngud;) fy;ahzp jPrd; fy;ahzpf;F murdhf tUfpwhd;. vdNt Njtek;gpa jPrd; xd;wpy; jkpo; my;yJ ehftk;r murdhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. mtdJ je;ij ngaH %j;j rptd; jkpo;g; ngauhf ,Ug;gJ ftdpf;fj;jf;fJ. Njtek;gpa jPrdJ  cld;gpwg;gpd; ngaH kfhehfd;. kfhehfdpd; kidtp ngaH njupatpy;iy. mts; fy;ahzpiar; NrHe;j ehf murpahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. khfhehfd; fy;ahzpapd; murdhf Kb#l;bf; nfhz;ltd;. mjd; gpd;dH ehfH fyg;Gj; jpUkzq;fs; mjpfupj;jJ. f[ghFtpw;Fg; gpd;dH mupaiz VwpatHfs; Rj;jkhd ehftk;r murHfshtH.

mtHfsJ Ml;rp kfy;yf ehfd; (fpgp 135) njhlq;fp tp[ad; nfhiy nra;ag;gLk; tiu (fpgp 248) ePbj;jJ. mjd; gpd;dH jkpoH ehfH fyg;gpd  yk;gfd;dH tk;r Ml;rp rq;f jPrd; ( fpgp 248) Kjy; nrhj;jp Nrdd; Ml;rptiu (fpgp 434) ePbj;jJ. mjd; gpd;dH gioa fypq;f tk;rj;jpy; Njhd;wpa jhJNrdd; Ml;rpf;F (fpgp 643) te;jhd;.

fpNuf;f GtpapayhsH njhykp (fpgp 150) vOjpa Ehypy; njd;dpyq;ifapy; tho;e;jtHfis ehfNwha; (Nageiroi) vdTk; fpof;fpy; tho;e;jtHfis ehfjpNdha;   (Nagadinoi) vdTk; miof;fpwhH.  

vdNt tlf;Nf ,Ue;j ,uhr;rpak; njhlHr;rpahf ePbj;jNghJ mDuhjGuj;ijj; jiyefuhff; nfhz;L Ml;rp nrYj;jpa muRfNs fypq;fH> jkpoHfs; iffSf;F khwp khwpr; nrd;wd.

Njtek;gpa jPrd; njhlf;fk; kfy;yfh ehfd; tiu ehDhW Mz;L fhy tuyhw;wpay; tlf;Nf ,Ue;j ehfjPgj;ijg;gw;wp kfhtk;rj;jpy; ve;jf; Fwpg;Gk; ,y;iy.

kfhehfdpd; G+l;lNd fhftz;zjPrd; Mthd;. mtd; jpUkzk; nra;jJ fy;ahzpia Mz;l jPrd; vd;gtdpd; kfs; tpfhukhNjtp Mths;.  ,tHfSf;Fg; gpwe;jtNd kfhtk;rj;jpd; fjhehafdhfr; rpj;jupf;fg;gLk; Jl;l ifKD Mthd;. jPrdpd; kfdJ ngaH rptkfhuhrd;. mtdJ ,uhr;rpaj;ijf; fly; nfhz;ljhfr; nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ.

,e;jf; fhyfl;lj;jpy; ehfH> fypq;fH> jkpoH mlq;fpa fyg;gpdk; Njhd;wp tsHe;J jPtpd; Ml;rpahsHfshfTk; Ntshz; FbfshfTk; epiyngw;wJ.

ehfehjH> ehfk;kh> ehfjk;gpuhd;> ehfypq;fk;> ehfuj;jpdk;> ehfkzp Nghd;w ngaHfs; jkpoHfspilNa fhzg;gLtjw;F ,e;jf; fyg;Ng fhuzkhFk;.

efH> efuk;> ehfupfk; vd;w nrhw;fs; ehfH vd;w nrhy;ypy; ,Ue;J gpwe;jitahff; fUjg;gLfpwJ.

rq;f fhyg; GytHfs; gyUf;F ehfH vd;w gpd;ndhl;NlhL $ba ngaHfs; ,Ue;jpUf;fpwJ. KuQ;rpA+H KbehfdhH> kJiug; G+jd; ,sehfdhH> Gwj;jpiz ed;dhfdhH> tpupr;rpA+H ed;dhfdhH> nts;isf;Fb ehfdhH vd;w ngaHfs; mtHfsJ ehftk;r njhlHigf; fhl;Lfpd;wd.

kfhtk;rj;jpy; nrhy;yg;gl;Ls;s jftypd;gb Nrdd; Fj;jpfd; ,UtUNk jkpo;ehl;by; ,Ue;J gilnaLj;J te;J mDuhjGuj;ijf; ifg;gw;wp Mz;l Kjy; jkpo; murHfshtH. ,tHfs; 22 Mz;Lfs; (fpK 177  -  155) Ml;rp nra;jhHfs;. Fj;jpfid Njtek;gpa jPrd; topte;j mNryd; Njhw;fbj;J Ml;rpiaf; ifg;gw;wpdhd;. mjd;gpd; Nrho ehl;by; ,Ue;J gilnaLj;J te;j vy;yhsd; mNryid ntd;W 44 Mz;Lfs; (fpK 145  -  101) jPT KOtijAk; Mz;lhd;.  

Njtek;gpa jPrd; Ml;rpapd; NghNj Gj;jrkak; ,yq;ifapy; fhy;nfhs;fpwJ. kfj ehl;il Mz;l mNrhfr; rf;futHj;jpapd;  gps;isfs; vd;W ek;gg;gLk; kfpe;jd;> rq;fkpj;ij ,UtUNk nts;suR kuj;NjhL te;J mDuhjGuj;ij Mz;L nfhz;bUe;j Njtek;gpa jPridf; fz;L mtidg; Gj;j rkaj;Jf;F khw;WfpwhHfs;.

kfhtk;rk; Njtek;gpa jPrd; Ngrpa nkhop vd;d vd;gijr; nrhy;ytpy;iy. mJ rpq;fskhf ,Uf;f KbahJ. fhuzk; rpq;fsk; vd;w xU nkhop mg;NghJ Njhd;wtpy;iy. Njtek;gpa jPrd; Ngrpa nkhop md;W ehfH> ,af;fH. ,ak;gH> ,uhl;rjH Nghd;w jpuhtpl njhy;FbfsJ nghJnkhopahfpa vY nkhopahFk;. ,e;j nkhopNa jkpo;>  tlnkhop> ghsp Nghd;w nkhopfNshL fye;J rpq;fs nkhopahf cUkhwpaJ. rpq;fsKk; jkpiog; Nghd;W jpuhtpl nkhopf; FLk;gj;ijr; rhHe;jJ vd;gJ ey;YhH Rthkp Qhdg;gpufhruJ KbthFk;. aho;g;ghzf; Flhehl;bd; ,lg;ngaHfs; rpy rpq;fsk; Nghy; fhzg;gLtjw;Ff; fhuzk; mtw;wpd; %yk; vY nkhop vd;gNj. (tsUk;)    

 


 

rq;fk; tsHj;j jkpo;!

aho;g;ghz ,uhr;rpak;       

ef;fPud;

(33)

tlf;fpy; neLq;fhyk;njhl;L ehfH> gpd;dH gy;ytH> NrhoH>  ghz;bauJ Ml;rp epytp te;jhYk; fypq;fkhfd; njhlf;fNk Kiwahd Ml;rp fhy;nfhs;fpwJ. Mupar; rf;futHj;jpfs; vd;W jq;fis mioj;Jf; nfhz;l murguk;giuapdH ehd;F Ehw;whz;L fhyk; kpf tYthd Ml;rpia tlf;fpy; epWtpdhHfs;.  aho;g;ghz ,uhr;rpak; vd;W miof;fg;gl;l ,e;j muR fypq;fkhfd; njhlq;fp ,uz;lhtJ rq;fpyp my;yJ rq;fpypFkhud; tiu ePbj;jJ.

,e;j ,uhr;rpak; aho;g;ghzf; FlhehL> jPTfs;> khNjhl;lk; (kd;dhH)> Gj;jsk;> G+efup> gy;ytuhad; fl;L> td;dp ehL vd;gdtw;iw cs;slf;fpajhf ,Ue;jJ. gjpdhd;fhk; Ehw;whz;by; jpUNfhzkiy td;dpaH aho;g;ghz Mupar; rf;futHj;jpfsJ Nkyhz;ikapd; fPo; ,Ue;jdH.

'aho;g;ghzg; gl;bdk; vd;Dk; efuk; nghd;kakhd nfhbfs; nghUe;jpa epiu epiuahd vopy; kpf;f khspiffisAk; tprhykhd tPjpfisAk; nfhz;L mofhGup vd tpsq;fpaJ" vd;W Nfhfpy re;Nj]a vd;Dk; rpq;fs Ehy; aho;g;ghzg; gl;bdj;ijr; rpwg;gpj;Jf; $WfpwJ.

xU Rje;jpukhd muRf;Fupa jiyefH (rpq;ifefH)> epiyg;gil> ahidg;gil> Fjpiug;gil> muz;fs;> mur khspif> mikr;rH kw;Wk; mjpfhupfsJ ciwtplq;fs;> ePjpkd;Wfs; aho;g;ghz ,uhr;rpaj;jpy; ,lk; ngw;wpUe;jd. epiyg;gilapy; 15>000 NghH tPuHfs; ,Ue;jjhfj; njupfpwJ.

aho;g;ghz ,uhr;rpaj;jpd; Kf;fpa JiwKfq;fshf khNjhl;lk;> Cuhj;Jiw> fhq;Nfrd;Jiw> nfhOk;Gj;Jiw tpsq;fpad. Flhehl;Lf;Fk; td;dpf;Fk; G+efupf;Fk; ,lk;ngw;w Nghf;Ftuj;J nfhOk;Gj;Jiw ClhfNt ,lk;ngw;wJ. Jzp> mgpd;> kQ;rs;> fuhk;G>  jhdpaq;fs; kPJ mur mjpfhupfshy; Rq;ftup mwtplg;gl;lJ.   

1344 ,y; ,yq;if te;j ,Td; gw;Ww;wh vd;w mNugpah ehl;Lg; gazp Mupar; rf;utHj;jpaplk; gyk; nghUe;jpa flw;gil ,Ue;jjhff; Fwpg;gpLfpwhH. rptndhspghj kiyiaj; juprpf;f aho;g;ghzj;ij Mz;l kd;dNd gaz xOq;Ffis nra;J nfhLj;jhd; vdTk;  jd;idr; rptpifapy; itj;J fhtpr; nrd;whHfs; vdtk;  ,Td; gw;Ww;wh jhd; vOjpa gaz Ehypy; Fwpg;gpLfpwhH. kd;ddJ muz;kid Kw;wj;jpy; fl;Lf;fl;lhf fWth fl;b itf;fg;gl;L ,Ue;jjhfTk; mtH vOjp itj;jpUf;fpwhH.

fk;gis muridj; jhf;fpaNghJ Mupar; rf;futHj;jpapd; gilfs; jiutopahfTk; fly;topahfTk; nrd;wd. flw;gil ePHnfhOk;G> rpyhgk;> tj;jis> nfhOk;G. njkl;lf;nfhil> Nfhw;fhdk; Nghd;w ,lq;fisf; ifg;gw;wp ,Ue;jJ vd epfha rq;fpua> uh[typah Kjypa Ehy;fs; Fwpg;gpLfpd;wd.

aho;g;ghz ,uhr;rpaj;jpd; nghUs;tsk; epjptsk;gw;wp> NghHj;Jf;Nfa Mtzq;fs; Fwpg;gpLfpd;wd. 14>030 gjf;fk; fhR> 180 fz;b muprp> 670 fz;b gpwjhdpaq;fs;> ntz;nza;> ghy;> vz;nza;> 36 ahidfis murd; Mz;LNjhWk; jpiwahfg; ngw;whd; vd xU mwpf;if Fwpf;fpwJ.

kd;dhHf; flypy; eilngw;w Kj;Jf; Fspg;G %yk; Mupar; rf;futHj;jpfSf;F mjpf tUtha; fpilj;jJ. 14k; Ehw;whz;by; ,yq;if te;j N[hHld;]; ghjpupahH vz;zhapuk; glFfs; Kj;Jf; Fspg;gpy; <Lgl;ljhfr; nrhy;fpwhH. ,Td; gw;Ww;whTk; jhd; re;jpj;j aho;g;ghz murdplk; juj;jhy; caHe;j ngUe;njhifahd Kj;Jf;fs; ,Ue;jd vd;W Fwpg;gpl;Ls;shH.

NghHj;Jf;NfaH fpgp 1505k; Mz;L ,yq;iff;F fhyb vLj;J itj;jNghJ %d;W ,uhr;rpaq;fs; ,Ue;jd vd;gJ njupe;jNj. Nfhl;il> fz;b> aho;g;ghzk; vd;gitNa mit MFk;. ,it %d;Wk; jdpj;jdpahf Msg;gl;ld. ,f;fhye; njhl;Nl jkpo; - rpq;fs kf;fs; ,ilNa  ,ilntsp Vw;glj; njhlq;fpaJ. murpay;> r%fk;>  nghUshjhuk;> nkhop Nghd;w jsq;fspy; jdpj;Jtkhd tsHr;rp Njhd;wpaJ.

,e;j %d;W ,uhr;rpaq;fspYk; aho;g;ghz ,uhr;rpaNk 14k; Ehw;whz;by; kpFe;j gyj;NjhL tpsq;fpaJ. fp.gp. 1353y; ,lk;ngw;w gilnaLg;gpd; fhuzkhf ehY Nfhwiy> khj;jis Nghd;w gpuNjrq;fs; aho;g;ghz kd;ddJ Neub Ml;rpf;Fs; te;jJ. jkpo; kd;ddJ flw;gil ghze;Jiwtiu nry;thf;fr; nrYj;jpaJ.

aho;g;ghz kd;dHfsJ mjpfhupfs; nfhOk;G> fk;gy Nghd;w ,lq;fspy; tup mwtpl;lhHfs;. njw;NfAs;s fWthj; Njhl;;lq;fis jkpo; ,uhr;rpaj;jpd; gpbapy; ,Ue;J ghJfhf;Fk; nghUl;Nl kiyg;gFjpapy; ,Ue;j jiyefH  Nfhl;ilf;F khw;wg;gl;lJ.

,e;jf; Nfhl;iliaf; (n[atHj;jdGuk;) fl;batd;  moff;NfhdhH vd;gtd; Mthd;.  ,td; Nruehl;bd; kPJ K];ypk; gilnaLj;jNghJ tQ;rpGuj;jpy; ,Ue;J  ,yq;iff;F Xbte;j eprq;f moNfRtud; vd;w tzpfdJ  tk;rj;ijr; NrHe;jtd;. moNfRtud; my;yJ moff;NfhdhH guk;giu ehsiltpy; fk;gisia Mz;l rpq;fs kd;dHfNshL kzTwT nfhz;L  kpFe;j nry;thf;NfhL tpsq;fpaJ. jkpoHfshd mtHfs; rpq;fstHfshf khWtjw;F Kjy;gbahf Gj;j kjj;ijj; jOtpdhHfs;. Nfhl;ilia Mz;l 5tJ GtNdfghFtpd; (fpgp 1372 - 1408) Ml;rpapd;NghJ cz;ikahd Ml;rp mjpfhuk; eprq;f moNfRtud; guk;giuapy; te;j moff;NfhdhH ifapy; ,Ue;jJ.

,tNd aho;g;ghzj;ij Mz;l nrfuhrNrfud; Nfhl;il kPJ jiutopahfTk; fly;topahfTk; Nkw;nfhz;l gilnaLg;ig Kwpabj;J njd;dpyq;if kPJ Mupar; rf;futHjpfs; nrYj;jpa Nkyhz;ikf;F KbT fl;bdhd;. ghze;Jiwapy; jiuapwq;fpa Mupar;rf;futHj;jpapd; fly;gil mopf;fg;gl;L vupA+l;lg;gl;lJ.  nfhOk;G> rpyhgk;> tj;jis> ePHnfhOk;G Mfpa ,lq;fspy; ,Ue;j Muprar;rf;futHj;apd; jsq;fs; moff;Nfhdhupdhy; ifg;gw;wg;gl;ld.

moNf];tu Aj;ja> epaq;fk; gha rhrdk; Kjyhdit Mupar; rf;futHj;jpapd;  gilfisj; Njhw;fbj;J rpq;fs ,uhr;rpaj;ijf; fhg;ghw;wpdhd; vd ,tid kpfTk; Gfo;e;J ciuf;fpd;wd.  

njd;dpyq;if kPJ ,uz;lhtJ KiwAk; Mupar;rf;futHj;jpapd; gilnaLg;G Nkw;nfhz;;ljhfj; njupfpwJ. jiutopahfr; nrd;w gil khj;jisf;Fr; nrd;W epiy nfhz;lJ. mg;NghJ fk;gisia Mz;l GtNdfghF mq;fpUe;J Xbtpl;lhd;. moff;Nfhdhupd; kUkfdhd tPuthF Nkw;nfhz;l Kaw;rpahy; Mupar;rf;futHj;jpapd; gilnaLg;G Kwpabf;fg;gl;lJ. GtNdfghF nry;thf;Fk; mjpfhuKk; ,of;f tPuthF Ml;rp mjpfhuj;ijf; ifg;gw;wpf; nfhz;lhd;.   

aho;g;ghz ,uhr;rpaj;jpd; tuyhw;wpy; mbgLfpw ,d;ndhU ngaH rg;Gkhy; Fkhua. ,tDk; moff;Nfhdh; guk;giu NghyNt Nruehl;by; ,Ue;J ,yq;iff;Ff;Ff; FbngaHe;j gzpf;fd; vd;w NghH tPudpd; kfdhthd;.  ,tdJ ,aw; ngaH nrz;gfg; ngUkhs;! ,td; Nfhl;ilia Mz;l Mwhk; guhf;fpukghFtpd; tsHg;G kfd;.

fdf#upa rpq;ifahupad; (fp.gp. 1440 - 1450)  aho;g;ghzj;ij Mz;L nfhz;bUe;jNghJ mjd; kPJ guhf;fpukghF gilnaLj;jhd;. me;jg; gilnaLg;Gf;F nrz;gfg; ngUkhNs jiyik jhq;fpr; nrd;whd;. Kjy; gilnaLg;gpd; NghJ nrz;gfg;ngUkhs; vy;iyf; fpuhkq;fisj; jhf;fptpl;L jpUk;gpdhd;. ,uz;lhtJ gilnaLg;gpd;NghNj ntw;wp ngw;whd;. Nghupy; Njhw;w fdf#upa rpq;ifahupad; kidtp kf;fSld; jkpo;ehl;Lf;Fj; jg;gpNahbdhd;.

Mupar;rf;futHjpfspd; mupahrdj;jpy; tPw;wpUe;J aho;g;ghzj;ij 17 Mz;Lfs; nrz;gfg; ngUkhs; murgpujhdpfsJ MjuNthL Ml;rp nra;jhd;. ,tNd ey;YhHf; fe;jrhkp Nfhtpiyj; fl;batd; my;yJ Gjpg;gpj;jtd;.  ,d;Wtiu mf; Nfhtpypy; fhiyapy; Xjg;gl;LtUk; fl;bak; mjw;Fr; rhd;whf ,Uf;fpwJ. nrz;gfg; ngUkhs;gw;wp ifyhakhiyapy; fhzg;gLk; jdpr; nra;As; xd;Wk; fe;jNtl;Ff; Nfhtpy; fl;batd; GtNdfghF vd;w gl;lg;ngaNuhL Ml;rp nra;j nrz;gfg; ngUkhs; vd;gij cWjp nra;fpwJ.

",yf;fpa rfhg;j nkd;Zhw;
  nwOgjh khz;l njy;iy
myHnghyp khiy khHg
  dhk;Gt Ndf thF
eyk;kpFk; aho;g;ghzj;
  efupfl; Ltpj;J ey;iyf;
Fytpa fe;j Ntl;Ff;
 NfhapYk; fl;Ltpj; jhNd."

Mwhk; guhf;fpukghF jd; filrpf; fhyj;jpy; KbJwe;J jd; kfs; topg;NguDk; cyFila Njtpapd; kfDkhfpa [atPu guhf;fpukghF vd;Dk; ,sturid Nfhl;il ,uhr;rpaj;jpd; murdhf Kb #l;b tpl;L 1467y; fhykhdhd;. ,tw;iw mwpe;j nrz;gfg; ngUkhs; aho;g;ghzj;jpy; ,Ue;J gilfis mioj;Jf; nfhz;L Nfhl;il nrd;W [atPu guhf;fpukghFitj; Njhw;fbj;J Ml;rpiaf; ifg;gw;wpdhd;. mtDila mjpfhuj;ij xg;Gf;nfhs;s kWj;j rpq;fsg; gpujhdpfs; fyfk; nra;jhHfs;. Mdhy; nrz;gfg; ngUkhs; jdJ jk;gp mk;Gyhfy Fkhudpd; JizNahL fyfq;fis mlf;fp =rq;fNghjp GtNdfghF vd;w gl;lg; ngaNuhL Nfhl;il ,uhr;rpaj;ij Ml;rp nra;jhd;.

nrz;gfg; ngUkhs; aho;g;ghzj;ij tpl;Lr; nrd;wJk; fdf#upa rpq;ifahupad; ehL jpUk;gp Ml;rpiaj; jpUk;gTk; ngw;Wf; nfhz;lhd;.

Mupar;rf;futHj;jpfsJ Ml;rp tp[a $sq;ifr; rf;;futHj;jp njhl;L filrp kd;dd; ,uz;lhtJ rq;fpyp my;yJ rq;fpypFkhud; (1240 - 1619) tiu ePbj;jJ. nkhj;jk; 18 murHfs; Mz;bUf;fpwhHfs;. fdf#upa  rpq;ifahupadJ Ml;rpf;Fg; gpd;dH gl;lj;Jf;F te;jtHfs; Mupar; rf;futHj;jp vd;w milnkhopia jq;fs; ngaNuhL ,izj;Jf; $Wtijf; iftpl;L tpl;lhHfs;.

Mupar;rf;futHjpfsJ Ml;rpapy; jkpOk; tlnkhopAk; Mjupf;fg;gl;ld. mupa Vl;Lr; Rtbfis jkpo; ehl;by; ,Ue;J nfhz;L te;J Ehy; epiyaj;jpy; itj;jpUe;jhHfs;. ,uhrKiw> guuhrNrfud; cyh> ,uFtk;rk; Nghd;w Ehy;fs; ,f;fhyj;jpy; vOjg;gl;ld. ,jpy; ,uhrKiw guuhrNrfud; cyh ,uz;Lk; ,d;W fpilj;jpy. nfsKjp vOjpa MRftp f. NtYg;gps;is (1860 - 1944) ,e; Ehy; ,uz;ilAk; jhd; vOjpa EhYf;F Mjhukhf vLj;jhz;l Kf;fpa Ehy;fspd; gl;baypy; NrHj;jpUf;fpwhH.

Muparf;futHj;jpfs; fhyj;jpy; ,yf;fpak;>  kUj;Jtk;> Nrhjplk; Nghd;w Jiwfspy; Ehy;fs; vOjg;gl;ld.

aho;g;ghz ,uhr;rpak; ,Uf;ftpy;iy vd;Wk;> mg;gbr; rpwpJ fhyk; ,Ue;jhYk; mJ rpq;fs muRfSf;Ff; fPo; ,Ue;j rpw;wuR vd;Wk; njd;dpyq;if mwpTg;gpiog;ghsHfs; vOjpAk; NgrpAk; tUfpwhHfs;.

tlf;Fk; fpof;Fk; jkpoupd; jhafk; vd;w Nfhl;ghl;il kWjypf;fNt ,e;j tuyhw;Wj; jpupG Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;L tUfpwJ. mtw;Wf;F RUf;fkhf gjpy; ,Wf;fNt ,yq;ifapd; G+Ht Fbfs;gw;wpAk;> ehfHfs; gw;wpAk;> aho;g;ghz ,uhr;rpak; gw;wpAk; NkNyhl;lkhf vOj NeHe;jJ.  NkYk; gbj;J mwpa tpUk;GNthH kfhtk;rk;> #stk;rk;> uh[thypa> itah ghly;> ifyhakhiy> aho;g;ghz itgkhiy> kl;lf;fsg;G khd;ak;> nfsKjp>  aho;g;ghz ,uhr;rpak; (gjpg;ghrpupaH fyhepjp rpw;wk;gyk;) aho;g;ghzk; njhd;ik tuyhW (fyhepjp rpw;wk;gyk;)> Ancient Jaffna (Mudaliyar C. Rasanayagam), Jaffna Kingdom (S.Pathmanathan),  A History of Sri Lanka (K.M. De Silva), The Early History of Ceylon (G.C. Mendis); History of Ceylon (M.G.Francis)   Nghd;w Ehy;fisg; gbj;J mwpaTk;.

,yq;if Nte;jd; ,uhtzd; fhye;njhl;L> rq;f fhyj;J <oj;Jg; G+jd;NjtdhHtiuAk; mjw;Fg; gpd;dUk; ,yq;ifapy; jkpoUf;F xU ePz;l neba tuyhW ,Ue;J tUfpwJ. mLj;j fpoik njhlf;fk; gy;ytH> Nru> NrhoH> ghz;baH tuyhw;iwg; ghHg;Nghk;. (tsUk;)  

 


 

rq;fk; tsHj;j jkpo;!

njhz;ilehl;il Mz;l gy;ytH        

(35)

%Nte;jH tuyhNw jkpof tuyhW vd;W nghJthff; $wg;gl;lhYk; cz;ikapy; mJ ehy;Nte;jH tuyhW vd;gNj rupahdjhFk;. me;j ehyhtJ Nte;jHfs; jkpo;ehl;il  fpgp 200 Kjy; 900 tiu Mz;l gy;ytHfs; MthHfs;. gy;ytH  vd;wTld; mNefUf;F khky;yGuk; Qhgfj;Jf;F tUk;. kiyfisf; File;J Filtiuf; Nfhtpy;fs;  kw;Wk; fw;Wspfis nrJf;fpatHfs; Kjyhk; kNfe;jputHkDk; mtdJ kfd; khky;yd; vd;w gl;lg; ngaiuf; nfhz;l Kjyhk; eurpk;ktHkd; (fpgp 630 - 668) MthHfs;. ,d;Wk; khky;yGuf; flw;fiuf; Nfhtpy; kw;Wk; rpw;gq;fs; gy;ytuJ fl;blf; fiyf;F fl;baq;$wp epw;fpd;wd.  

,e;jg; gy;ytH  Njhw;wk;gw;wp jpl;ltl;lkhd tuyhw;Wf; Fwpg;Gfs; fpilj;jpyJ. ,tHfsJ Njhw;wk;gw;wp ,uz;Ltpjkhd fUj;J epyTfpd;wd. xd;W ,tHfs; ,e;jpahtpw;F ntspapy; ,Ue;J te;J FbNawpa ntspehl;ltH.  ,uz;L ,tHfs; cs;ehl;ltH. cs;ehl;ltH vd;W $WgtHfsplj;jpYk; fUj;J xw;Wik ,y;iy. gy;ytH tlehl;by; ,Ue;J te;jtHfs; vd;wnjhU fUj;Jk;>  ,y;iy  mtHfs; jkpo; kz;zpy; Njhd;wpatHfNs vd;w kw;nwhU fUj;Jk; epyTfpd;wd.

gy;ytHfisg;gw;wpa Fwpg;G rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fspy; ,y;iy. ,jdhy; gy;ytH fhyj;jhy; rq;f fhyj;Jf;Fg; gpe;jpatHfs; vd;gJ njspthfpwJ.

kzpgy;ytj;ij Mz;l ehftk;r murd; thdtdJ  kfs; gPyptisia  Nrho murd; njhz;ilkhd; neLKbf; fps;sp kzk; Kbj;jjhfTk;>  gPyptis fsnthOf;fj;jpy; gpwe;j jdJ Foe;ijia fps;sptstdplk; NrHg;gpf;FkhW xU nrl;baplk; nfhLj;J mDg;g> mtd; nrd;w fg;gy; Gaypy; rpf;fpf; flypy; %o;fptpl  Foe;ij kl;Lk; njhz;ilf; nfhbahy; Rw;wg;gl;L> jpiuahy; ms;Sg;gl;L fiuNrHe;jJ>  ,jd; fhuzkhf mtH njhz;ilkhd; vd;Wk;> ,se;jpiuad; vd;Wk; miof;fg;gl;lhd; vd kzpNkfiy $Wtij Kd;dNu Fwpg;gpl;Nlhk;.

mtd; Ml;rp Gupe;j gFjp njhz;il kz;lyk; vdg;gl;lJ. njhz;il kz;lyk; vd;gJ mUth ehL> mUth tljiy ehL vdg;gLk; gFjpfisf; nfhz;l tlngz;iz Kjy; njd;gz;iz tiu cs;s epyg;gug;ghFk;.

,tNd ngUk;ghzhw;Wg; gilapy; Nghw;wg;gLk; njhz;ilkhd; ,se;jpiuad; Mthd;. kzpgy;ytj;jpy; ,Ue;J Nghe;jtH Mjypd;> gy;ytH jk;ik 'Nghe;jH' vd;Wk; 'gy;ytH' vd;Wk; $wpf;nfhz;ldH.

Mdhy; rq;f fhyj;jpy; njhz;il kz;lyg; gFjpia Ml;rp Gupe;j ,sq;fps;sp> ,se;jpiuad; Nghd;NwhHf;Fk; rpt];fe;jtHkd;> Gj;jtHkd; Nghd;w Kw;fhyg; gy;ytUf;Fk; VJk; njhlHG ,Ug;gjhfj; njupatpy;iy.  

gy;ytHfis Kw;fhyg; gy;ytH (fpgp 200  -  436)> ,ilf;fhyg; gy;ytH (fpgp 436 - 580)> gpw;fhyg; gy;ytH (fpgp 580  -  900) vd %d;whfg; gpupf;fpd;wdH. Kw;fhyg; gy;ytH jq;fs; gl;laq;fis gpuhfpUj nkhopapNy ntspapl;Ls;sdH. ,tHfs; rq;f fhyj; njhz;ilkhd; ,se;jpiuaidj; njhlHe;J te;jpUg;gpd; jkpOf;F Vd; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhLf;ftpy;iy?

,ilf;fhyg; gy;ytH tlnkhopf;F Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhLj;jtHfs;. ,tHfs;  jkpo;g; GytHfSf;F Kf;fpak; nfhLf;fhJ tlnkhopg; GytHfshd jz;b> ghutp Nghd;wtHfSf;F Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhLj;jJ mtHfisj; jkpoHfshff; fhl;ltpy;iy.

gpw;fhyg; gy;ytH fpue;j> jkpo; nkhopapy; gl;laq;fis ntspapl;ltHfs;. ,/J ,tHfs; gf;jp ,af;fk; fhuzkhf jkpOf;F Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhLf;f Ntz;bapUe;jijf; fhl;LfpwJ. mtHfs; jkpoHfs; vd;gijf; fhl;ltpy;iy.

vdNt gy;ytHfs; tlf;fpy; ,Ue;J jkpofj;Jf;Fs; GFe;J njhz;il kz;lyj;ij  murhz;ltHfs; vd;gJk;> ehsiltpy; mtHfs; jkpoHfshf khwpdhHfs; vd;gNj nghUj;jkhFk;.  mtHfsJ tlnkhopg; ngaHfs; mjw;fhd Kf;fpa rhd;whFk;. gy;ytHfs; tuyhWgw;wp mwpa cjTk; gl;laq;fspy; Kw;fhyg; gy;ytHfshy; ntspaplg;gl;l 'kQ;rpfy;Y' fy;ntl;L> 'Ntre;jh nrg;Gg; gl;lak;' KjyhditAk;> ehfhHr;Rdnfhz;lhtpy; fpilf;fg;ngw;w ,f;\;thF gjpTfSk; Kf;fpakhdit.

,ilf;fhy gy;ytHfs; 12 tlnkhopg; gl;laq;fis ntspapl;Ls;sdH. ,jpy; goikahdJ ];fe;jtHkdpd; 35tJ Ml;rp Mz;by; ntspaplg;gl;l 'Xq;NfhL' gl;lak; MFk;.

rpk;ktp\;Ztpd; (fpgp 580  -  610) gs;sq;Nfhtpy;  nrg;NgLjhd; jkpo; nkhopapy; ntspaplg;gl;l Kjy; nrg;NgL MFk;. rpk;ktHkDk; rpk;ktp\;ZTk; je;ijAk; kfDk; vd;W ,e;jr; nrg;NgL ciuf;fpd;wJ.

rpk;ktp\;Ztpd; fhyj;jpy;jhd; gy;ytHfspd; murpay; fiyg;gzpfs;  njhlq;fpd. Nrho kz;lyj;ijf; ifg;gw;wpatd; ,tNd vd;Wk;> fsg;gpuHfisAk; %d;W jkpo; kd;dHfisAk; ,yq;if muridAk; Njhw;fbj;jhd; vd;Wk; $wg;ngWfpwJ.

rpk;ktp\;Ztpd; kfdhd kNfe;jputHkd; (fpgp 610  -  630) jd; je;ijia ''gy;ytFyk; vd;w cyifj; jhq;Fk; Fykiy Nghd;wtH. EfHr;rpg; nghUs;fs; midj;ijAk; cilatH> gy ehLfs; ntd;wtH> tPuj;jpy;  ,e;jpuidg; Nghd;wtH> nry;tj;jpy; FNguid xj;jtH> ''murH VW''  vd tlnkhopapy; jhd; vOjpa kj;j tpyhrj;jpy; kpf caHthfr; rpwg;gpj;Jf; $Wfpwhd;.

Kw;fhy> ,ilf;fhyg; gy;ytHfspy; gyH jkJ Ml;rpf; fhyk; KOJk; Fg;jH> thfhlfH> flk;gH> rhSf;fpaH> NrhoH Nghd;wtHfSld; Xa;tpd;wpg; NghH nra;jdH. ,jdhy;  jiyefH cl;gl  Nguurpd; gFjpfs; giftH ifkhwpd.

rpk;ktp\;Z fsg;gpuH> kwtH> NrhoH> ghz;baH MfpNahiu ntw;wp nfhz;L fhtpup tiuAs;s jkpofj;ijf; ifg;gw;wp gy;yt Nguurpid epWtpdhd;.

rpk;ktp\;Z kw;Wk; kNfe;jputHkd; cUtr; rpiyfs; khky;yGuj;jjpy; MjptuhfH  Nfhtpypy; cs;sd. ,r;rpiyfspd; Nky; cs;s fy;ntl;Lf;fs; gy;yt  -  fpue;j vOj;Jf;fshy; vOjg;gl;Ls;sd.

gy;ytH vd;wTld; clNd epidtpw;F tUtJ Kjyhk; kNfe;jputHkd; ngauhFk;. njd;dfj;jpd; fl;blf; fiy cyfnkyhk; Nghw;wg;gLtjw;F Kjyhk; kNfe;jputHkNd fhuzk; vd;why; mJ kpifahfhJ. 'fy;ypNy Nfhtpy; fl;LtJ Jf;fj;jpd; KbthFk;' vd;w %lf;nfhs;ifia %l;il fl;b itj;Jtpl;L fy;ypNy fiytz;zk; fz;L "Gul;rp nra;jtd; kNfe;jputHkd;>  ,tNd  rpw;gf;fiy> eldf;fiy> ehlff;fiy> Xtpaf;fiy Mfpa Ez;fiyfis tsHf;f ngUk; MjuT je;jtd;.

filr;rq;f fhyj;jpd; gpw;gFjpapy; Nfhtpy;fs; ,Ue;jd. Mdhy; mit nrq;fy;> Rz;zhk;G> kuk;> cNyhfk; Nghd;w mopaf;$ba nghUl;fshy; fl;lg;gl;lit MFk;. kNfe;jputHkdJ kz;lfg;gl;Lf; fy;ntl;L mjid cWjpg;gLj;JfpwJ.

rhSf;fpa kd;dd; ,uz;lhk; GypNfrp> ik#iu Mz;l flk;gHfs;> fq;fthbia Ml;rpnra;j fq;fHfs;. yhlh ehl;il Ml;rpnra;j yhlHfs;> esthbia Ml;rpnra;j esH ,dj;jtH ,td; fhyj;jtuhtH. mNjNghy ,yq;ifia Mz;l mf;fpuNghjp ,tdJ rkfhyj;jtd; Mthd;. njd; gFjpiar; Nru> Nrho> ghz;baH Ml;rp Gupe;jdH.

kNfe;jputHkd; Kjypy; rkz rkaj;jtdhf ,Ue;J gpd;dH jpUehTf;furuhy; irt rkaj;Jf;F khw;wg;gl;ltd;. rkzd; Mf ,Ue;jNghJ rkzHfspd; Jhz;Ljypd; Ngupy; jpUehTf;furUf;F gy nfhLikfs; ,ioj;jtd;. jpUehTf;furH ghba Njthug;ghly; ''ehkhHf;Fk; Fbay;Nyhk; ekid mQ;Nrhk;>  eufj;jpy; ,lHg;gNlhk;> eliyapy;Nyhk;>.......'' kNfe;jputHkdJ murgpujhdpfs; kd;ddJ fl;lisg;gb mtiuf; ifJ nra;a te;jNghJ ghba jpUj;jhz;lfk; ,JthFk;. mNjNghy>

khrpy; tPizAk; khiy kjpaKk;>
tPR njd;wYk; tPq;fpo NtdpYk;>
%R tz;liw ngha;ifAk; Nghd;wNj
<rd; ve;ij apizab epoNy.  

vd;w ghlYk; kNfe;jputHkd; ehTf;furiu ePw;wiwapy; milj;jNghJ ghba Njthug; ghlyhFk;.

jpUg;ghjpupA+upy; ,Ue;j rkzg; gs;spfisAk; ghopfisAk; ,bj;J mf;fw;fisf; nfhz;L jpUtjpifapy; rptd; Nfhtpiyf; fl;b mjw;F Fzgu tPr;ruk; vdg; ngaupl;lhd;. jpUr;rpapy; fhzg;gLk; xU  fy;ntl;L ''ypq;fj;ij topgLk; Fzgud; vd;Dk; ngaH nfhz;l murd; ,e;j ypq;fj;jpdhy; Gwr; rkaj;jpypUe;J jpUk;gpa Qhdk;> cyfpy; ePz;l ehs; epiy epw;gjhf'' vd;W kNfe;jputHkidf; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ.  

Kjyhk; kNfe;jputHkd; fhyj;jpYk; khky;yd; fhyj;jpYk; Filtiuf; Nfhtpy;fs; mjpf mstpy; nrJf;fg;gl;ld. ,tw;wpy; kNfe;jputHkd; fhyj;jpy; nrJf;fg;gl;l kz;lfg;gl;bYs;s  ,yr;rpajhadf; Filtiu> gy;yhtuj;jpYs;s gQ;rghz;ltH Filtiu> Fuq;fzpy; Kw;wj;jpYs;s fy;kz;lgk;> ty;yj;jpYs;s tre;NjRtuH kz;lgk;> khkz;^upYs;s cUj;jputhyPRtuH kz;lgk;> kNfe;jputhbapYs;s  Fiff;Nfhtpy;> jsthDHf; Fiff;Nfhtpy;> jpUr;rpuhg;gs;sp kiyf;NfhtpYs;s yypjhq;Fud; kz;lgk;> tpshk;ghf;fj;jpYs;s gQ;rghz;ltH kz;lgk;> rPakq;fyj;jpYs;s mtdpagh[d gy;yNtRt fpufk; Mfpait kNfe;jputHkdpd; fiyr; rpwg;gpidf; fhl;Lgit. rpj;jd;dthry; Fiff;Nfhtpy; ,td; fhyj;jJ vdTk; ghz;baH fhyj;jJ vdTk; ,U fUj;Jf;fs; cs;sd.

kNfe;jputHkd; ntl;Ltpj;j 'FLkpahkiyf; fy;ntl;L' mtdJ ,irg; Gyikf;Fr; rhd;W gfHfpwJ. '',e;jf; fy;ntl;L ,ir khztH ed;ikf;fhfg; gz;fis tFj;Jj; je;j cUj;jpuhrhupahH vd;gtH khztdhd murd; fl;lisg;gb ntl;lg;gl;lJ'' vd;W Fwpj;Js;sJ. 'rpj;jk; ekr;rptha' vd;W njhlq;Fk; gy;tifg; gz;fisAk; jhs tiffisAk; tpsf;fpf; $wp ,Wjpapy; ',e;j vl;bw;;Fk; Vopw;Fk; cupa' vd;W $wg;gl;Ls;sJ  gy;yhtuk; Fiff;Nfhtpy; fy;ntl;by; kNfe;jputHkd; jd;idr; 'rq;fPuz rhjp' vd;Wk; kj;j tpyhrj;jpy; ',ir vd;Dila nry;tk;'' vd;Wk; $wpAs;shd;.

Njthug; ghly;fspd; %yk; mf;fhyj;jpy; aho;> Foy;> fpd;dup>  nfhf;fup>  rr;rup> tPiz> jf;if> Kotk;> nkhe;ij> kpUjq;fk;> kj;jsk;> Je;Jgp> jkUfk;> Jbjhsk;> cLf;if> nfhbnfhl;b> jj;jyk;> FlKoh> Kurk; Kjypa ,irf; fUtpfs; ,Ue;jpUg;gij mwpayhk;.

Njthug; ghly;fs; gy ,e;jsk;> rPfhkuk;> jl;lghil>  FwpQ;rp>  tpahof; FwpQ;rp> Gw ePHik> nrt;top> nfhy;yp Nghd;w jkpo;g; gz;fspy; ghlg;gl;Ls;sd.  

kNfe;jpdpd; tlnkhopg; Gyikapid vLj;Jf; $WtJ khkz;^Hf; fy;ntl;;by; Fwpf;fg; ngw;w ke;jtpyhrg; gpurd;dk; vd;Dk; EhyhFk;. ,tdJ fhyj;jpy; rkzk;> gTj;jk;> fhghypfk;> ghRgjk;  Kjypa kjq;fs; ,Ue;j epyikia ,e;Ehy; tpsf;FfpwJ. ,e;Ehypy; rkziug;gw;wp ,opj;Jf; $wg;ngWtjhy; kNfe;jputHkdpd; kjkhw;wj;jpd; gpd;dH ,e;Ehy; vOjg;gl;ljhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.

kNfe;jputHkDf;F gy tpUJg; ngaHfs; #l;lg;gl;ld. mitfspy; Fzgud;> tprpj;jpu rpj;jd;> eNue;jpud;> Nrj;jfhup> fyfg;gpupad;> kj;jtpyhrd;> rq;fPurhjp> euthfdd;> kfhg;gpLF> gpurpUjg; gpupad;> Nghj;jiuad;> tpf;fpukd;> rpj;jpuf;fhug;Gyp> jf;fz rpj;jpu Nghd;wit Fwpg;gplj;jf;fit. (tsUk;)

  


 

rq;fk; tsHj;j jkpo;!

fy;ypy; fiy tz;zk; fz;l gy;ytH          

ef;fPud;

(36)

kNfe;jputHkd; Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpy; gy;ytH  -  rhSf;fpaH ,ilNa NguuR Mjpf;fg; Nghl;b Muk;gkhfpaJ. Nkiyr; rhSf;fpaH fpof;Nf Ntq;fptiu jk; Nguuir tpupj;Jg; gy;ytUld; Nghupl Maj;jkhapdH. ,tHfSf;F ,ilNa ele;j Nghupid 'ma;nf`hNsf; fy;ntl;L' tpsf;fpf; $Wfpd;wJ.  ,e;jf; fy;ntl;L ,uz;lhk; GypNfrp kNfe;jputHkid ntd;wjhff; $Wfpd;wJ.  GypNfrpapd; ngUk; gilapidf; fz;L mQ;rp kNfe;jputHkd; fhQ;rpf; Nfhl;ilf;Fs; GFe;J nfhz;lhd; vd;W me;jf; fy;ntl;Lf; $WfpwJ.

Kjyhk; kNfe;jputHkdpd; kiwTf;Fg; gpd;dH mtdJ  kfd; Kjyhk;  eurpk;ktHkd; (fp.gp. 630  -  668) mupaiz Vwpdhd;. gy;yt ehl;bd; jiyefuhf fhQ;rp tpsq;fpaJ. ,e;j  eurpk;kNd thjhgp nfhz;l eurpk;kgy;ytd; vd;W rpwg;gpf;fg;gl;ltd; Mthd;. gy;ytUf;F vjpuhd rhSf;fpaH Nghupd; mLj;j fl;lk; ,tdJ fhyj;jpy; Muk;gkhfpwJ. gupayk;> kzpkq;fyk;> #ukhuk; Kjypa ,lq;fspy; NghH eilngw;w nra;jpiag; gl;laq;fs; $Wfpd;wd. ,e;jg; NghHfspy; ,uz;lhk; GypNfrp Njhw;W XbaNghJ mtidj; Juj;jpf; nfhz;L nrd;W rhSf;fpaupd; jiyefuhd thjhgpia gy;ytH gil  ifg;gw;wpaJ. .

NtYhHg; ghisa gl;laq;fs; ''eurpk;ktHkd; jd; giftiu mopj;J thjhgpapd; eLtpy; jd;ntw;wpj; Jhiz ehl;bdhd;'' vd;W giwrhw;Wfpd;wJ.

eurpk;ktHkdpd; gilf;F jiyik jhq;fp elj;jpr; nrd;wtH mtdJ jsgjpahd guQ;NrhjpahH. ,tH  thjhgpiaf; ifg;gw;wp mq;fpUe;J ngUk; nry;tj;ijf; ftHe;J nfhz;Lte;jhH.  ,tNu gpw;fhyj;jpy;  rpWj;njhz;lH vd;W miof;fg;gl;l ehadhH MthH. gd;dpuz;lhk; Ehw;whz;by; vOjg;gl;l Nrf;fpohupd; ngupaGuhzk; vd;W toq;fg;gLk; rpWj;njhz;lH Guhzk; guQ;NrhjpahH tlGyj;J thjhgp Nky; gil elj;jpr; nrd;wijAk; gupRfisAk; nry;tf; Ftpay;fisAk; eurpk;ktHkDf;F mspj;jhH vdr; nrhy;fpwJ.

kd;dtHf;Fj; jz;LNgha; tlGyj;J thjhgpj;
njhy; efuk; Jfs; Mfj; Jis - neLq;if tiu cijj;Jk;
gd; kzpAk; epjpf; FitAk; gfl;bdKk; gupj; njhifAk;
,d;id vz;zpy; ftHe;Nj ,fy; murd; Kd; nfhzHe;jhH.
  (3670)

jz;LNgha;            -    gilAld; nrd;W>
njhy; efuk;           -    gioa efuk;>
gfl;bdKk;            -    ahidf; $l;lk;
gupj; njhifAk;        -    Fjpiuf; $l;lk;

,fy;                -    Nghupy; rpwe;j

epjpf; Fitia kl;Lky;y jsgjp guQ;NrhjpahH  fzgjp  rpiyiaAk; jkpo;ehl;Lf;F nfhz;L te;J NrHj;jhH. mJKjNy fzgjp tzf;fk; jkpo;ehl;by; fhy;nfhz;lJ. thjhgpapy; ,Ue;J nfhz;Ltug;gl;l fhuzj;jhNyNa thjhgp fzgjp vd;w ngaH tof;fpy; te;jJ.

eurpk;ktHkdpd; fhyj;jpy; rhSf;fpaHfSk;> fpU\;zh Mw;Wf;F Nkw;Nf fq;fHfSk; njw;Nf NruHfs; ghz;baHf;F mlq;fpAk;> jpUth&H ciwA+Hg;  gFjpfisr; NrhoUk; jQ;rhT+H> nfhLk;gh@H gFjpfis fsg;gpuH gy;ytHfSf;F mlq;fpAk; ghz;baHfs; kJiug; gFjpiaAk; jkpofj;jpy; Ml;rpGupe;J te;jdH. ghz;ba ehl;il epd;wrPH neLkhwd; ty;yikNahL Ml;rpGupe;J te;jhd;.

eurpk;ktHkd; gy;yt ehl;il Mz;lnghOJ ,yq;ifapy; khdtHkDf;Fk; ml;ljj;jd; vd;gtDf;F k; ,ilNa mupaizg; Nghl;b Vw;gl;lJ. Nghupy; Njhw;w khdtHkd; eurpk;ktHkdplk;  milf;fyk; GFe;jhd;. thjhgp gilnaLg;gpd;NghJ khdtHkd; gy;ytg;gilf;F cjtp nra;jhd;. mjw;Ff; ifkhwhf eurpk;ktHkd; xU ngupa fg;gw;gilnahd;iw khdtHkDf;F cjtpahfH ,yq;iff;F mDg;gp itj;jhd;. Mdhy; ,yq;ifia mile;j gy;ytH gil eurpk;ktHkd; cly; eykpd;wp ,Uf;fpwhd; vd;w tje;jpia ek;gp Nghupy; <Lglhky; ehL jpUk;gpaJ. vdNt khdtHkd; kPz;Lk; fhQ;rpf;Fj; jpUk;gpdhd;.

kPz;Lk; ,yq;if kPJ gy;ytH gilnaLg;G ele;jJ. ,k;Kiw jPuj;Jld; Nghupl;l  gy;yt tPuHfs; ,yq;if mupaizia khdtHkDf;F kPl;Lj; je;jdH. ,t; ntw;wpia fhrf;Fb gl;lak;  'eurpk;kd; ,yq;ifkPJ NghH njhLj;Jg; ngw;w ntw;wp ,uhkd; mile;j ntw;wp Nghd;wJ' vd;W Gfo;fpwJ!

Kjyhk; eurpk;ktHkd; fhyj;jpy;jhd; rPdhitr; NrHe;j gTj;j gpf;F Athd;Rthq; fhQ;rpf;F tUif je;jhH. fy;tpapw; rpwe;j fhQ;rp efiuf; Fwpg;gpLk;NghJ 100 Gj;jklq;fs; ,Ue;jd> 15>000 gTj;j gpf;Ffs; tho;e;jdH> irt> itzt> rkzf; Nfhapy;fs; Vwj;jho 80 ,Ue;jd vd;fpwhH. ehye;jh gTj;j gy;fiyf; fofj;jpd; Nguhrpupauhf ,Ue;jtH fhQ;rpiar; NrHe;j jHkghyH ,Ue;jhH   Nghd;w nra;jpfisAk; mtH Fwpg;gpLfpwhH.

eurpk;ktHkd; khky;yGuj;jpy; xNu fy;ypy; ,ujq;fisf; Filtpj;J khky;yGuj;ijf; fhynky;yhk; epiyj;J epw;Fk; fiyf;Nfhapyhf Mf;fpdhd;. khky;yGuj;jpy; cs;s NfhtHj;jd kiyia  fz;zd; Ve;jp epw;Fk; rpw;gk;> mUr;Rdd; jtf;Nfhyk;  fq;iff; fhl;rp Nghd;wit Fwpg;gplj;jf;fd. eurpk;ktHkDf;Fg; gpd;dH fy;iyf; fiyahf;fpa Nte;jHfs; ahUkpy;iy vd;Nw $wyhk;.

NguhrpupaH fy;fp vOjpa 'rptfhkpapd; rgjk;' tuyhw;W ehty; Kjyhk; kNfe;jputHkd;> Kjyhk; eurpk;ktHkd; fhyj;ij mbg;gilahff; nfhz;L gilf;fg;gl;ljhFk;. mjpy; tUk; rpw;gp MadH> mtH kfs; rptfhkp fy;fp gilj;j fw;gidg; ghj;jpuq;fs;. tuyhW gbf;f Neuk; ,y;yhjtHfs; fy;fp vOjpa rptfhkpapd; rgjj;ijahtJ gbf;f Ntz;Lk;.

fy;ypy; fiytz;zk; fz;l eurpk;ktHkd; khky;yd;> =gud;> =epjp> =Nkfd; mj;jpae;jfhkd; Nghd;w gy rpwg;Gg; ngaHfisf; nfhz;bUe;jhd;.

Kjyhk; eurpk;ktHkd; kiwTf;Fg; gpd;dH mtdJ kfd; ,uz;lhk; kNfe;jputHkd; mupaiz Vwpdhd;. ,td; tuyhW $Wk; gl;laq;fs;> nrg;NgLfs; fpilj;jpy.

rhSf;fpaH gl;laq;fSk;> gy;ytH gl;laq;fSk;  ,U mur tk;rj;jtUf;Fk; ,ilapy; epytpa gifikia  vLj;Jf; fhl;Lfpd;wd. rhSf;fpaH gl;laq;fs; rhSf;fpaH  ngw;w ntw;wpfisAk;> gy;ytH gl;laq;fs; gy;ytH <l;ba ntw;wpfisAk; giwrhw;Wfpd;wd. Kjyhk; eurpk;ktHkd; thjhgpia mopj;J ntw;wp nfhz;lij gopf;Fg; gopthq;Fk; Kfkhf  Kjyhk; tpf;fpukhjpj;jd; gy;yt ehl;bd; kPJ gilnaLj;J ,uz;lhk; kNfe;jputHkidg; Nghupy; Njhw;fbj;J fhQ;rpiaf; ifg;gw;wpdhd;. ,e;jg; Nghupy; ,uz;lhk;  kNfe;jputHkd; nfhy;yg;gl;lhd;.

fhQ;rpiaf; ifg;gw;wp njw;F Nehf;fp  Kd;Ndwpa rhSf;fpaH gilia ghz;bad; neLkhwd; nea;Ntyp vd;w ,lj;jpy; ele;j Nghupy; Njhw;fbj;jhd;. ,jidr; Re;juH jhd; vOjpa jpUj;njhz;lH Guhzj;jpy; Fwpg;gpLfpd;whH.

jpiwnfhz;l rpe;ijahd; ney;Ntyp ntd;w
epd;wrPH neLkhwd;> mbahHf;F mbNad;.

,uz;lhk; kNfe;jputHkDf;Fg; gpd; mtd; kfd; Kjy; guNkRtutHkd; (fp.gp. 670 - 685) Ml;rpf; fl;by; Vwpdhd;. ,td; fhyj;jpy; gy;yt  -  rhSf;fpa NghH njhlHe;jJ.

guNkRtutHkd; rpwe;j rptgf;jd;. gy Nfhapy;fis fl;bdhd;. gytw;iwg; GJg;gpj;jhd;. $uk; vd;w rpw;Whupy; rptd; Nfhapy; xd;iwf; fl;Ltpj;jhd;. Nfhapy;fspy; ghujf; fij  gbf;Fk; tof;fk; ,td; fhyj;jpNyNa njhlq;fpaJ. ,td; khky;yGuj;jpy; xNu fy;ypy; fNzrH Nfhapy; xd;iw mikj;jhd;. NkYk; ,uhkhD[H kz;lgj;ijAk;> jHkuhrH Njupd; %d;whk; mLf;ifAk; fl;b Kbj;jhd;. ,it ahTk; rptd; Nfhtpy;fshFk;. guNkRtHkd; Kjyhk; kNfe;jputHkidg; NghyNt tlnkhopapy; kpfTk; Gyik ngw;W tpsq;fpdhd;.

,tDf;Fg; gpd;dH Ml;rpf;F te;jtd; ,uhrrpk;ktHkd; (fp.gp. 685 -705)  Mthd;. fhQ;rpapy; ,d;Wk; Gfo;ngw;W tpsq;Fk; fapyhrehjH Nfhapy;> fhQ;rp IuhtNjr;RuH Nfhapy; ,uz;ilAk; vOg;gpa kd;dd; ,tNd. khky;yGuj;jpy; flw;fiuf; NfhapiyAk; gdkiyf;  NfhapiyAk; mikj;J xt;nthU NfhapypYk; jd; tpUJg; ngaHfis ntl;Ltpj;jhd;. fapyhrehjH Nfhapypy; kl;Lk; Vwj;jho 250 tpUJg; ngaHfs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.

,uhrrpk;ktHkd; fhyj;J tlnkhopg; Gytuhd jz;b vd;gtH khky;yGuk; flw;fiuf; Nfhapiyg;gw;wpf; $wpapUg;gJ mwpaj;jf;fJ. flw;fiu Xukhf xU fy;njhiytpy; rhStd; Fg;gj;jpy; cs;s Gypf;Fif> mjpuz rz;ld; kz;lgk; ,td; fhyj;jpy; fl;baitahFk;. ,uhrrpk;kd; ehlff; fiyapYk; rpwe;J tpsq;fpdhd;.

,uhrrpk;ktHkd; fhyj;jpYk; gy;ytH - rhSf;fpaH NghH njhlHe;jJ. fPo;f;fz;l gl;bay;  Nghupy; <Lgl;l gy;yt   -   rhSf;fpa tk;r kd;dHfsJ ngaHfisf; fhl;LfpwJ.

              gy;ytH                                    rhSf;fpaH

    Kjyhk; kNfe;jputHkd;                            ,uz;lhk; GypNfrp

    Kjyhk; eurpk;ktHkd;                             ,uz;lhk; GypNfrp

    ,uz;lhk; kNfe;jputHkd;                           Kjyhk; tpf;fpukhjpj;jd;   

    Kjyhk; guNkRtutHkd;                           Kjyhk; tpf;fpukhjpj;jd;

    ,uz;lhk; eurpk;ktHkd; (,uhrrpk;kd;)                 tpeahjpj;jd;

    ,uz;lhk; guNkRtutHkd;                          ,uz;lhk; tpf;fpukhjpj;jd;

    ,uz;lhk; ee;jptHkd;                              ,uz;lhk; tpf;fpukhjpj;jd;

,uz;lhk; guNkRtutHkd; ,uz;lhk; tpf;fpukhjpj;jid gy NghHfspy; re;jpj;jtd; vd;W fy;ntl;Lfs; Fwpg;gpLfpd;wd.

,tNd fhQ;rp itFe;jg; ngUkhs; Nfhapiyf; fl;batd; Mthd;.  ,tNdhL rpk;ktp\;Z kuG mw;Wg;Ngha; Gjpa kugpidr; NrHe;j ,uz;lhk; ee;jptHkd; gl;lk; ngw;wjhf cjNae;jpug; gl;lak; thapyhf mwpaf;fplf;fpwJ.

,uz;lhk; ee;jptHkd; ghz;b ehl;bd; kPJ  gilnaLj;Jg;  NghdNghJ ,uz;lhk; tpf;fpukhjpj;jd; fhQ;rpiaj; jhf;fp mjid mopf;f Kw;gl;lhd;. Mdhy; ifyhrehjH Myaj;jpd; mofpy; kdijg; gwpnfhLj;J gy;yt kd;did kl;Lk; xopf;fj; Njbaiye;jhd;. tpf;fpukhjpj;jdpd; kfdhd fPHj;jptHkd; ,uz;lhk; ee;jptHkidj; Njhw;fbj;jhd;. Mdhy; ,e;j ntw;wp epiyj;J epw;ftpy;iy. ,uz;lhk; tpf;fpukhjpj;jidAk; fPHj;jptHkidAk; ,uz;lhk; ee;jptHkd; jiyikapyhd gy;ytHgil fhQ;rpapy; ,Ue;J tpul;b mbj;J Ntq;fptiu Juj;jpr; nrd;W Kwpabj;jd.

fq;fH ghz;baH gilfspd; JizNahL ntk;ig vd;w ,lj;jpy; ele;j Nghupy; gy;ytH gil rhSf;fpaiuj; Njhw;fbj;jJ. mjpy; ,uz;lhk; fPHj;jptHkd; (fp.gp.756 ,y;) nfhy;yg;gl;lhd;. mtDld; rhSf;fpa tk;rk; mope;J Nghapw;W. (tsUk;)  

 


 

rq;fk; tsHj;j jkpo;!

gy;ytH fhyj;J gf;jp ,yf;fpaq;fs;            

(37)

,uz;lhk; ee;jptHkd; kiwe;jgpd; mtdJ kfd; je;jptHkd; (fp.gp.796  -  846) kzpKb #l;bf;nfhz;lhd;. ,tdJ Ml;rpapd;NghJ tlf;fpy; ,uh\;bu$lupd; nry;thf;F caHe;J nfhz;LNghdJ. njw;Nf tprahya Nrhodpd; guk;giu jiyJhf;f Muk;gpj;jJ. gy;yt murpd; Gfo; kq;fj;njhlq;fpw;W.

je;jptHkdpd; kietp fjk;g Fyj;jtshd mf;fsepk;kb vd;gts; tapw;wpy; gpwe;jtd; %d;whk; ee;jptHkd; (fp.gp. 846 - 869).  je;jptHkDf;Fg; gpwF ,tNd Ml;rp gPlk; Vwpdhd;.

%d;whk; ee;jptHkd; ,uh\;bu$l ,sturp rq;fh vd;gtis  kze;jpUe;jhd;. ,ts;  tapw;wpy; gpwe;j epUgJq;fd; %d;whk; ee;jptHkd; ,we;jgpd; Kb#l;bf; nfhz;lhd;. ,tDld; gpwe;j jk;gpapd; ngaH fk;gtHkd; vd;gJ. %d;whk; ee;jptHkdpd; ,d;ndhU kidtpahd fz;ld; khwhk;ghit vd;ghs; tapw;wpy; gpwe;jtd; mguh[pj tpf;fpuktHkd;. ,td; muRupik Nfhup epUgJq;fd;  kPJ NghH njhLj;J (R.fp.gp. 895) jpUg;Gwk;gak; vd;w ,lj;jpy; mtid ntw;wp nfhz;lhd;. mguh[pjd; 18 Mz;Lfs; Ml;rp nra;jhd; (fp.gp.895 - 913). mtDila Ml;rp njhz;ilkz;lyj;jpy; njd;gFjp tiuapw;whd; vl;b ,Ue;jJ.

mguh[pjDf;Fg; gpwF je;jptHkdpd; ,sty; fjk;gtHkd; Ml;rpf;F te;jhd;. ,td; fhyj;jpy; gy;yt muR gy FWepy kd;dHfspd; iff;F khwpaJ. ,Wjpapy; fp.gp. 949Mk; Mz;L jl;Lj; jLkhwp gyk;Fd;wp kiwe;J Nghapw;W.

jkpoHfspd; ehfupfj;Jf;Fk; gz;ghl;Lf;Fk; Gwk;ghdtHfshd gy;ytHfs; jkpofj;ij Msj; njhlq;fpa gpd;dH jhq;fSk; jiouhf khwptpl;ldH. Kw;fhyg; gy;ytH tlnkhopia Ml;rp nfhz;bUe;jhHfs;. Mdhy; mtHfSf;Fg; gpd;dH Ml;rp nra;jtHfs; tlnkhopNahL jkpioAk; Ml;rp nkhopahf;fpf; nfhz;ldH.

fhLntl;b ehlhf;fp Fsk; Njhz;b tsk; ngUf;fpa gy;ytH jkpof tuyhw;wpy; RlHtpl;L xsptpLfpwhHfs;.

gy;ytH Ml;rpapd;nghOJjhd; jkpofj;jpy; gf;jp ,af;fk; (fp.gp. 5Mk; Ehw;whz;L njhlf;fk; 8Mk; Ehw;whz;Ltiu)  fiuGuz;L xbaJ.

Kf;jpf;F top ,iwtdplk; khwhj md;G G+z;L xOfNy vdg; gf;jp ,af;fk; $wpaJ. fw;Wizg; G+l;bNahH flypy; gha;r;rpDk; ew;WizahtJ ekr;rpthaNt vd;Wk; mQ;nrOj;J ke;jpuj;ij cr;rupj;jtHf;F mghak; xd;Wk; ,y;iy vd;Wk; $wg;gl;ld.  

gf;jp nts;sj;jpy; rq;f fhyj;Jf;Fg; gpd;dH Nt&d;wp mur nry;thf;Fg; ngw;wpUe;j rkzKk; gTj;jKk; mbj;Jf;nfhz;L Nghfg;gl;ld.

rkzk; re;jpuFg;j nksupaH fhyk; Kjw;nfhz;Nl njd;dfj;jpy; gut Muk;gpj;jJ. mNj fhy fl;lj;jpy; gTj;jKk; njd;dhl;by; Nt&d;wp tsHr;rp ngw;wJ. Mdhy; rkzk; tsHr;rpngw;w msTf;F mJ tsHr;rp ngwtpy;iy. mjw;F Kf;fpa fhuzk; mtHfs; rkanewpapy; ,Ue;J jtwp Mlk;gu tho;f;ifapy; <Lgl;lNj. Kjyhk; kNfe;jputHkd; vOjpa kj;jtpyhr gpufrdk; vd;w Ehy; mjw;Fr; rhd;W gfUfpwJ.

gf;jp ,af;fj;jpd; %ytHfshf rk;ge;jH> mg;gH> Re;juH  khzpf;fthrfH   (,tH fhyj;jhy; gpe;jpatH) Nghd;NwhUk;> gd;dpU Mo;thHfSk; ehSk; jkpopirahy; irtrka fUj;Jf;fisAk; itztrkaf; Nfhl;ghLfisAk; gug;gpdH. Njthu jpUthrfq;fs; ghba ehad;khHfSk;> ehyhapu jpt;a gpuge;jk; ghba Mo;thHfSk; $l;lhf ,ize;J rkzj;ijAk; gTj;jj;ijAk;  thJf;F ,Oj;J  nrhw;fshy; rhb mit jkpofj;jpy; ,Ue;J kiwAk;gb nra;jdH.  rk;ge;jNuhL nrhw;NghH epfo;j;jpj; Njhw;w Mapuf;fzf;fhd rkzH nfh^ukhd Kiwapy; fONtw;wg;gl;ldH.

rkzk; nfhy;yhik> fs;Sz;zhik> ngha;ahik> Cd; cz;zhik Nghd;w mwq;fis kpfTk; jPtpukhf tw;GWj;jpaJ. ,y;ywj;ijtpl Jwtwk; NkyhdJ vd vLj;Jiuj;jJ. Jwtwj;Jf;Fj; jilahfg;  ngz;fs; ,Uf;fpwhHfs; vd;gjhy; mtHfis gopj;Jk; ,opj;Jk; $wpaJ.

rkzk; gTj;jk; ,uz;Lk; fLikahd fl;Lg;ghLfisg;  Nghjpj;jd.  vy;yh capHfsplj;Jk; md;Gk; mUSk; fhl;lg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd typAWj;jpd. rkzHfs; jiuapd; Nky; elf;Fk;NghJ <> vWk;Gf;Fk; vt;tpj CWk; NeuplhjthW kapw;gPypapdhy; $l;bf; nfhz;Nl  elg;gH.  ,utpy; tpsf;Nfw;wp itj;jhy; tpsf;fpy; tpl;by; G+r;rpfs; tpOe;J ,we;JtpLk; vd;gjhy;  tpsf;F itf;F Kd;dNu czT cz;Zk; tof;fj;ij nfhz;bUe;jdH. Rthrpf;Fk; fhw;wpy; Ez;ZapHfs; ,Uf;Fk; vd;gjhy; %f;ifj; Jzpahy; %bdhHfs;. jz;zPiu tbj;Jf; Fbj;jhHfs;.

jq;fSf;fhf nfhy;yg;gl;l Cid cz;zhJ tpyf;fpdH. NtW ahNuDk; nfhd;W rikj;j Cd; czit cz;zf; nfhLj;jhy; mjid thq;fp cz;zyhk; vd;w nfhs;ifia itj;jpUe;jdH. fhuzk; me;jf; fhyj;jpy; rkz gTj;j Jwtpfs; gpr;ir vLj;Nj cz;ldH. Cd; czT nfhLj;jhy; mjid kWf;Fk; epiyapy; mtHfs; ,Uf;ftpy;iy.

rkzk; gTj;jk; ,uz;Lk; ,e;j cyfj;ijg; gilj;J> fhj;J> mopf;Fk; xU rf;jp jdpNa cz;L vd;w Nfhl;ghl;NlhL  cld;ghL ,y;yhky; ,Ue;jd. . Gj;jH flTs; cz;L ,y;iy vd;w Nfs;tpf;F Neubahf tpil ,Wf;ftpy;iy. mJ Njitaw;w tprhuiz vd;W $wptpl;lhhH.

rkzHfs; Kjy; jPHj;jjq;fuiu mUff; flTs; vd;w ngaupy; tzq;fpdH. Md;kh> kWgpwg;gpy;  ek;gpf;if itj;jpUe;jhHfs;. Mdhy; gTj;jk; Md;kh cz;nld;gij kWj;jJ. kWgpwg;ig kl;Lk; Vw;Wf; nfhz;lJ.

,jdhy; rhjhuz kf;fSf;F rkzj;jpYk; gTj;jj;jpYk; gw;W Vw;gLtjw;F top ,y;yhky; ,Ue;jJ. ,y;ywj;jpy; ,Ug;gtDf;F tPL NgW ,y;iy vd;Dk; tpjpia Vw;Wf; nfhs;Stjw;F Vw;wjha; ,y;iy. NkYk; topghl;LKiwapy; fl;Lg;ghby;yhky; jhuhskhd Rje;jpuj;ij mDgtpj;j kf;fSf;F fl;Lg;ghLfs;> jpzpg;Gf;fs; gpbf;fhky; Nghapw;W.

rq;ffhyj; jkpoHfs; fhjiyAk; tPuj;ijAk; ,U fz;fshfg; Nghw;wp tho;e;jtHfs;. murHfs; Kjy; GytHfs; tiu fs; Fbj;jdH. ''fs; ngupjhf ,Ue;jhy; mjid Kjypy; vqfSf;Fj; je;J kpFjpia eP cz;gha;. fs; rpwpjhf ,Ue;jhy; mjid vq;fSf;Nf je;J tpLtha;'' vd;W GytH ghbdH. Cd; cz;L kfpo;e;jdH. mit Fw;wkhff; nfhs;sg;gltpy;iy. tho;f;ifapd; gad; vd;d vd;gij njhy;fhg;gpaH kpf mofhff; Fwpg;gpLfpwhH.

fhkk; rhd;w filf; Nfhl; fhiy
Vkk; rhd;w kf;fnshL Jtd;wp
mwk;Gup Rw;wnkhL fpotDk; fpoj;jpAk;
rpwe;jJ gapw;wy; ,we;jjd; gaNd  
             
(njhy;. nghUs;. fw;gpay; 51)

',y;yw tho;f;ifapd; ,Wjpf; fhyj;J. ngUik nghUe;jpa kf;fSld; epiwe;J> mwj;jpid tpUk;gpa Rw;wj;NjhL jiytDk;> jiytpAk;> rpwe;jjhfpa nrk;nghUis ,iltplhJ epidj;jy; kidawj;jpd; fle;j fhyg; gadhFk;.'' vd;gJ ,jd; nghUs;.

gf;jp ,af;fk; rkzj;ijAk; gTj;jj;ijiAk; Gwk;fhz rq;f fhyj;Jf; fhjiy> ,y;ywj;ij> ,iria> eldj;ij> jkpo;nkhopiaf;  ifapy; vLj;jJ.

ehad;khHfs; JwtpDila rpwg;ig vs;sTk; Fiwf;fhky; 'flTs;  JwtpaHf;F vy;yhk; Jwtp>' mtH 'ghfk; ngz;ZUthdtd;'' 'Vopiraha; ,irg; gadha; ,Ug;gtd;' vd mtd; Gfo; ghLtjw;F ,iriag; gad;gLj;jpdH. ehSk; Njd; kJuj; jkpopirNahL ghf;fs; ghb  kf;fsJ  kdj;jpYk;> epidtpYk;> neQ;rj;jpYk;> fz;zpYk; ,iwtid epWj;jpdH.

fiyfis ntWj;j rkzk;> gTj;jk; ,uz;bdJ Nfhl;ghLfSf;F khwhf ',iwtid eld nrh&gdhfNt'  ehad;khHfs; cUtfg; gLj;jpdhHfs;.

rq;ffhyj; jiytd; jiytp mfg;nghUs; ,yf;fzj;J cwT  Kiwia  ,iwtid ehafdhfTk; me;j ehafdJ  md;Gf;F Vq;Fk; capiu ehafpahfTk; khw;wp mikj;jhHfs;. ,jid  - 

Kd;dk; mtDila ehkk; Nfl;lhs;
    %Hj;jp mtdpUf;Fk; tz;zk; Nfl;lhs;
gpd;id mtDila M&H Nfl;lhs;
   NgHj;Jk; mtDf;Nf gpr;rp ahdhs;
md;idiaAk; mj;jidAk; md;Nw ePj;jhs;
   mfd;whs; mfyplj;jhH Mrhu uj;ij
jd;id kwe;jhs; jd; ehkk; nfl;lhs;
   jiyg;gl;lhs; eq;if jiytd; jhNd !     (mg;gH Njthuk;   -   6501)

Fj;J tpsf;nfupaf; Nfhl;Lf;fhy; fl;by;Nky;
kj;njd;w gQ;r radj;jpd; NkNywp
nfhj;jyH G+a; Foy; eg;gpd;id nfhq;ifNky;
itj;Jf; fple;j kyHkhHgh! tha;jpwtha;
ikj;jlq; fz;zpdha;! ePAd; kzhsid
vj;jid NghJk; Japnyo xl;lha;fhz;
vj;jid NaYk; gpupthw;w fpy;yhahy;
jj;Jt kd;W jfNtNyhH vk;ghtha;.          (Mz;lhs; jpUg;ghit)

mg;gUk; Mz;lhSk;  ghba ghly;fs; tpsf;Ffpd;wd.

rka topghl;by; khWjy; Vw;gl;lJ. ,iwtDf;F fl;blf; fiyapd;> rpw;gf; fiyapd; rpwg;ig tpsf;FkhW ngUq;Nfhapy;fs; vOe;jd.

mfg;nghUs; ,yf;fzj;Jf;Fg; gpd;dzpahf ,Ue;j ,aw;if tHzid ,iwtdpd; jpUj;jyj;ij tHzpf;fg; gad;gLj;jjg;gl;lJ. rq;f fhyj;Jf; nfhil> tPuk;> Mw;wy; ,iwtdpd; fUiz> jpUTUt moF> jpUtpisahly;> jpUtUl;nray; ,tw;iwg; Nghw;wp kfpog; gad;gLj;jg;gl;ld.   

irt ehad;khHfspd; gf;jp ,af;fj;ijg; Nghd;Nw gd;dpU Mo;thHfSk; rkzj;Jf;Fk; gTj;jj;jpw;Fk; vjpuhf itztj;Jf;F Gj;JapH mspj;jhHfs;.

njhz;lubg; nghbaho;thH rkz Kz;lHfisNah gTj;jHffisNah fz;lhy; nfhiy nra;Ak;gb ntwpAld; $WfpwhH. ''ntWg;NghL rkzKz;lH tPjpapy;............ jiyia Mq;Nf mWg;gNj fUkk; fz;lha;!'' vd;fpwhH.  

ehad;khHfsJ Njtuq;fSk; Mo;thHfspd; ghRuq;fSk; gf;jp ,af;fk; vd;w cUtpy; rka kWkyHr;rpf;F tpj;jpl;ld. gpw;fhyj;jpy;  ehad;khHfsJ Njthuq;fs; ek;gpahz;lhH ek;gpahy; Kjy; VO jpUKiwahfj; njhFf;fg;gl;ld. Mo;thHfspd; ghRuq;fs; ehjKdpahy; ehyhapujpt;a gpuge;jkhfj; njhFf;fg;gl;lJ.

,t;thW gy;ytH fhyk; Filtiuf; Nfhapy;fs;> fw;wspfs;> rpw;gq;fs;> Xtpaq;fs;> ,ir> eldk;> ehlfk;rka ,yf;fpak; vd vy;yhj;JiwfspYk; jkpofk; rpwe;Njhq;f toptFj;jJ. mLj;j thuk; NruH gw;wpg; gbg;Nghk;. (tsUk;)  

 

 


 

rq;fk; tsHj;j jkpo;!

 

Nrukiy ehl;by; thSKld; Ntl;l

rPyp Fw thl;b kzthsh

 

(38)

 

jkpopy; ,d;W fpilj;Js;s kpfg; gioa Ehyhd njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpy; jkpofj;ij Mz;l %Nte;jHgw;wpa Fwpg;Gf;fs; fhzg;gLfpwJ.

 

NkNyhH %tHf;Fk; GzHe;j fuzk;

fPNohHf;fhfpa fhyKk; cz;Nl.              (njhy;. nghUs;. fw;gpay; 3)

 

'Nru> Nrho> ghz;bah; vd;w  NguurH %tHf;Fk; cupa tJitr; rlq;Ffs;> gpd;G kf;fSf;F Mfpa fhyKk; cz;L.'

 

Nru> Nrho> ghz;baH vd;W tupirahfr; nrhy;Yk; kuG njhy;fhg;gpaH fhyk; njhl;L njhlHe;J tUfpwJ.

 

jz;lkpo; %tH KuR nfLjhid %tH

 

vdj; jkpo; ,yf;fpaq;fs; rpwg;gpf;fpd;wd.  NruH vjw;fhf Kjypy; itj;J miof;fg; gLfpwhHfs; vd;gJ njupatpy;iy.

 

Nruehl;bd; gioa ngaH  kiyehL. Nru ehl;ilAk; ghz;ba Nrho ehLfisAk; Nkw;Fj; njhlH kiyfs; gpupf;fpd;wd. mg;gbg; gpupj;jhYk; rq;f fhyj;jpy; Nru ehL jkpo; $Wk; epyg; gFjpahfNt fUjg;gl;lJ.

 

jkpofj;jpd; vy;iyfis njhy;fhg;gpak;>

 

tl Ntq;flk; njd;Fkup Mapilj;

jkpo; $Wk;ey; cyfk;

 

vd tiuaiw nra;fpwJ. tlNtq;flk; ,d;W Me;jpu khepyj;jpd; xU gFjpahfg; gwpNgha;tpl;lJ.

 

xU goe; jkpo;g; ghly; Nruehl;bd; vy;iyfis  tlf;Nf godp> fpof;Nf jpUr;nrq;NfhL (Njthuk; Fwpg;gpLk; 'nfhbkhlr; nrq;Fd;wk;' kw;Wk; rpyg;gjpfhuk; Fwpf;Fk; 'neLNts; Fd;wk;') Nkw;Nf Nfhopf;NfhL  (fs;spf;Nfhl;il)> njw;Nf  fly; vdf; $WfpwJ.

 

rpyg;gjpfhuk; ,aw;wpa ,sq;Nfh mbfs;  kJiuf; fhz;lk; fl;Liu fhijapy; gj;jpdpj; nja;tk; fz;zfp Nkw;wpir Nehf;fpr; nrd;wij>

 

fPoj;jpir thapw; fztNdhL GFe;Njd;

Nkw;wpir thapy; twpNad; ngaH nfd

 

vdf; Fwpg;gpLfpwhH.

 

fz;zfp Nkw;wpir Nehf;fpr; nrd;W> kiy ehl;il mile;J mjpYs;s jpUr;nrq;Fd;W vd;Dk; kiyNawp> xU Ntq;if kuj;jpd;  epoypy; epd;W> gjpdhd;fhtJ jpdj;jpy; gfy; nrd;w gpd;G> mq;Nf nja;t  tbtj;NjhL te;j Nfhtyidf; fz;L fspj;J> mtDld; tpkhdj;jpy; Vwpj; NjtHfs; Nghw;w thDyfk; nrd;wjhf rpyg;gjpfhuk; njuptpf;fpwJ. fz;zfpf;F vOg;gpa kq;fyNjtp fz;zfp Nfhl;lk; nkhoptop khepyq;fs; gpupf;fg;gl;l NghJ Nfush vy;iyf;Fs; gwpNgha;tpl;lJ.

 

ngupaGuhzk; Nruehl;il kiyehL vdf; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ. fy;ntl;Lf;fspYk; kiy ehL> kiykz;byk; vd;W Fwpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

 

mNrhfdpd; (fpK 272 - 237) ghiwf; fy;ntl;L vz; %d;wpy; NruehL 'Nfjy Gj;uk;' (Nfus Gj;uk;) vd;w ngauhy; miof;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

 

Nruehl;il Mz;l kd;dHfs; Nruh;> NruyH> Nruyhjh;>  FltH> Fl;LtH> NfusH> MjH> cjpaH> thdtH> nghiwaH> G+opaH  vd;w (gl;lg;) ngaHfshy; miof;fg;gl;ldH.

 

nghiw vd;why; kiy mLf;F vd;Wk; NruyH vd;why; Nruehl;il cilatH vd;Wk; nghUs;.  

 

Nrud;> Nruyhjd; Mz;l ehL Nruyk;. Nruyk; (H) ehsiltpy; Nfusk; (H) Mapw;W. ,it jkpo;r; nrhw;fNs. ,e;j cUkhw;wj;ijf;  FyNrfu ngUkhs; (8 Mk; Ehw;whz;L) mUspr; nra;j ngUkhs; jpUnkhop tpsf;FfpwJ.

 

 ,d;dKJ Cl;LNfd; ,q;Nfth igq;fpspNa!

 njd;duq;fk; ghlty;y rPHngUkhs;  -   nghd;dQ;

 rpiy NrH EjypaHNts; NruyH Nfhd; vq;fs;

 FyNrfud; vd;Nw $W.

 

''gRikahd fpspNa! mofpa jpUtuq;fj;jpy; tpsq;Fk; jpUkhiyg; Gfo;e;J ghlty;y vq;fs; Nrukd;duhfpa  FyNrfud; vd;Dk; ngaiuf; $Wthahf. mg;gbf; $wpdhy;  cdf;F ,dpa mKjj;ij Cl;LNtd;!''

 

gz;ila NruehL ghz;ba Nrho ehLfistpl mstpw; ngupajhf ,Ue;jJ. ,d;W mjd; gug;gsT 38>863 r.fp.kP.  MFk;.  kf;fs; njhif 29>000>000. jkpo;ehl;bd; gug;gsT 130058 r.fp.kP. kf;fs; njhif 61>000>000.

 

,d;iwa NruehL jdJ nkhop> gz;ghL> njhd;ik tuyhW ,oe;J Kw;wpYk; jdpehlhf tpsq;FfpwJ.

 

nfhq;fz ehL fd;dlk; toq;Fk; ehlhfTk;> NtzhL> Fl;lehL FlehL Mfpad kiyahs nkhop toq;Fk; gFjpfshfptpl;ld.

 

Nruehl;bd; Nkw;F kiyj; njhlupy; Njhd;Wfpd;w MWfs; gy. ,d;W  fd;dlj;Jf;Fk; jkpo;ehl;Lf;Fk; ,ilapy; vOe;Js;s gifikf;Ff; fhuzkhd fhtpup Nrudpd; FlF ehl;by; Njhd;wpaJjhd;. itif njd; kiyahs ehl;by; Njhd;WtJ. ngupahW Nruehl;bNyNa cw;gj;jpahfp Nruehl;bNy glHe;J gpwe;j kz;Zf;F gad; jUtJ.  

 

 nebNahd; khHgpy; Muk; Nghd;W

 ngUkiy tpsq;fpa NgupahW

 

vd ,sq;Nfh mbfs; rpyg;gjpfhuk; tQ;rpf; fhz;lj;jpy; Ng(ng) upahw;iw Gfoe;J ghbapUf;fpwhH.

 

rq;f ,yf;fpaj;jpy; GytHfs; Fwpg;gpLk;  nghjpakiy> Fjpiukiy> Neupkiy> ehQ;rpy;kiy> vopy;kiy> nfhy;ypkiy Kjypad md;iwa Nruehl;bd; kiyfshFk;.

 

NruDf;F ,d;ndhU ngaH 'nfhy;ypr; rpyk;gd;.' rpyg;gjpfhuk;

 

 thoPaH tpy;nyOjpa ,ka new;wpnahL

 nfhy;ypahz;l FltH NfhNt

 

vd;W Fwpg;gpLk;. mfehDhW nfhy;yp kiyia Xup vd;w FWepy kd;dd; Mz;lhd; vd;Wk;>  fhup vd;gtd; NruDf;F  Jiz epd;W Xupiag; Nghupy; ntd;W nfhy;ypkiyia NruDf;Ff; nfhLj;jhd; vd;Wk; $WfpwJ.

 

 Ks;sH kd;dd; fonehbf;fhup

 nry;yh ey;ypir epWj;j ty;ypy;

 Xupf; nfhd;W NruyHf;F <e;j

 nrt;NtHg; gytpd; gaq;nfO nfhy;yp.

 

KUfd; ts;spia kzk;nra;jJ njhz;ilehl;L Nkw;ghb vd;Dk; CUf;F mUfpYs;s ts;spkiyapy; vdf; fe;jGuhzKk; jzpifg; GuhzKk; $Wfpd;wd. ts;spkiy Kjypy; Nruehl;bd; xU gFjpahf ,Ue;J gpd;dH njhz;ilehl;bd; xU gFjpahapw;W vd;gH. mUzfpupehjH jhk; ghba jpUg;Gfopy;

 

 Nrukiy ehl;by; thSKld; Ntl;l

 rPyp Fw thl;b kzthsh

 

vd;Wk;>

 

 ts;sp glHfpd;w ts;sp kiy nrd;W

 ts;spia kze;j ngUkhNd

 

vd;Wk; ghbapUf;fpwhH.

 

Guhzq;fs; Nruehl;il ,uhkhaz fhyj;jpy; ,uhkdplk;  Njhw;w guRuhkd;  jd; $l;lj;NjhL njw;F Nehf;fp te;jNghJ Nru kd;dd; mtHfis tuNtw;W 64 FLk;gq;fSf;Fk; 64 CHfisg; guprhff; nfhLj;jhd; vd;Wk; mtHfs; top te;jtNu ,d;iwa Nfus ehl;bd; ek;G+jpupfs; vdTk; fUjg;gLfpd;wdH.

 

Nrud; guprhff; nfhLj;j 64 CHfSf;Fk; 'guRuhk Nrj;jpuk;' vdg; ngaH #l;lg;gl;lJ. gpd;dH mJ NruehL KOtijAk; Fwpf;Fk; nrhy;yhapw;W.

 

,d;ndhU Guhzf;fij guRuhkd; JS ehl;Lf;F  te;jhd;  vd;Wk; jdJ kO MAjj;ij njw;F Nehf;fp tPrpdhd; vd;Wk; clNd fly; efHe;J ,lk; mspj;jJ vd;Wk; me;j ,lk;jhd; guRuhk Nrj;jpuk; vd;Wk; $WfpwJ.

 

gz;ila ehspy; jkpo; Nruehl;by; murpay; nkhopahfTk;> ehl;L nkhopahfTk; ,Ue;jJ. guRuhkd; $l;lj;jpdH te;J FbNawpajhYk; mtHfisj; njhlHe;J NkYk; Mupaf; Fbfs; te;J FbNawpajhYk; Mupankhopf; fyg;gpdhy; jkpo;nkhopapd; Jha;ik nfl;L kiyahz;k my;yJ kiyaha;k vd;w nkhop gpwe;jJ. gpd;dH nkhopapd; ngaNu ehl;bd; ngaH (kiyahsk;) Mapw;W.  

 

,f;fhyj;jpy; Nf.Nf. gps;is> lhf;lH V Rthkpehjd; Nghd;w jkpof tuyhw;W MrpupaHfs; jkpof tuyhw;iw vOJk;NghJ gy;ytH> NrhoH> ghz;baiug;gw;wp vOjptpl;L NruH tuyhw;iw vOjhJ tpl;L tpLfpd;wdH.

 

gjpNdohk; Ehw;whz;by; vOj;jr;rH vd;gtH tlnkhopAk; jkpOk; fye;j xU GJ nkhopia cUthf;fpdhH. kiyahs nkhopia xOq;F gLj;jp mjw;fhd Ehy;fisAk; vOjpdhH. (tsUk;)

 


 

rq;fk; tsHj;j jkpo;! (39)

 

Ve;J Gfo;g; Nghe;ij Ntk;Ng MH vd t&ck;

 

ef;fPud;

 

jkpofj;jpd; gioa tuyhw;iw rq;f ,yf;fpak;  vd;w rhusk; topahfNt ghHj;Jj; njupe;J nfhs;s Ntz;bAs;sJgw;wp mt;tg;NghJ Fwpg;gpl;Ls;Nsd;. rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fshd vl;Lj; njhifAk; gj;Jg;ghl;Lk; fpilj;jpuhJ tpl;bUe;jhy; jkpoHfspd; gioa tuyhW ,Us; kakhf ,Ue;jpUf;Fk;.

 

rq;f ,yf;fpaj;ijtpl NruHfsJ tuyhw;iw njupe;J nfhs;tjw;Fj; Jizahf ,Ug;git>

 

rpyg;gjpfhuk;

kzpNkfiy

ngupa Guhzk;

jpUtha; nkhop

Kj;njhshapuk;

kiyahs ,yf;fpaq;fs;

fy;ntl;Lf;fs;

gl;laq;fs;

may;ehl;lhH Fwpg;Gf;fs;

 

ghz;ba Nrho kd;dHfSf;F ,y;yhj rpwg;G NruHfSf;F cz;L.  njhy;fhg;gpak; %tupy; Nruiu Kjy; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ.

 

ntwpawp rpwg;gpd; nty;tha; Ntyd;

ntwpahl;L maHe;j fhe;jSk;> cWgif

Nte;jpil njupjy; Ntz;b Ve;J Gfo;g;

Nghe;ij Ntk;Ng MH vd t&ck;                      (njhy;. nghUs; 60)

 

Nghe;ij      -    NruH mzpAk; gdk; G+khiy>

Ntk;Ng       -    ghz;baH mzpAk; Ntg;gk; G+>khiy

MH          -    NrhoH mzpAk; Mj;jp khiy

 

vl;Lj; njhif Ehy;fspy; xd;whd gjpw;Wg;gj;jpy; Nru kd;dHfisg; gw;wpg; GytHfs; ghba 100 ghly;fs; cs;sJ.

 

,jpy; Kjy; gj;Jk; filrpg; gj;Jk; ,g;NghJ fpilf;ftpy;iy. vQ;rpa vl;Lg; gj;Jk; vl;L Nru kd;dHfs; gw;wpa Fwpg;Gf;fisj; jUfpd;wJ. xt;nthU gj;Jf;Fk; gpw;NrHf;ifahfg; gjpfk; xd;W cs;sJ. ghly;fspy; ,y;yhj tuyhw;iw gjpfk; nrhy;fpwJ. gjpw;Wg; gj;J xd;Wjhd; Nru kd;dHfsJ tuyhw;iw tupirg;gb vLj;Jf; $WfpwJ.

 

gjpw;Wg; gj;ij njhFj;j Gytupd; ngaNuh njhFg;gpj;j kd;ddpd; ngaNuh fpilf;ftpy;iy.

 

gjpw;Wg; gj;jpy; Fwpf;fg;gl;Ls;s Nru kd;dHfsJ ngaHfSk; (2 - 9) Ml;rpf; fhyKk; mtHfisg; ghba GytHfspd; ngaHfSk; (2 - 9) gpd;tUkhW.

 

,katuk;gd; neLQ;Nruyhjd;        (58 Mz;Lfs;)      Fkl;^H fz;zdhH

gy;ahidr; nry; nfOFl;Ltd;       (25 Mz;Lfs;)      ghiyf; fTjkdhH

fsq;fha;f; fz;zp ehHKbr;Nruy;     (25 Mz;Lfs;)      fhg;gpahw;Wf; fhg;gpadhH

fly;gpwNfhl;ba nrq;Fl;Ltd;        (55 Mz;Lfs;)      guzH

MLNfhl;ghl;Lr; Nruyhjd;       (38Mz;Lfs;)    fhf;ifg;ghbdpahH er;nrs;isahH                                                   

nry;tf; fLq;Nfhthopahjd;         (25 Mz;Lfs;)       fgpyH       

jf^H vwpe;j ngUQ;Nruy;

,Uk;nghiw                     (17 Mz;Lfs;)       muprpy;fpohH

 

Flf;Nfh ,sQ;Nruy; ,Uk;nghiw    (16 Mz;Lfs;)       ngUq;Fd;WhH fpohH

 

gjpw;Wg; gj;J Nruehl;Lj; JiwKfq;fs;> CHfs;> Ml;rpKiw> NghHf;fsq;fs;>  tlGyg; gilnaLg;Gg; Nghd;w nra;jpfisj; jUfpd;wJ.

 

rpyg;gjpfhuk; (tQ;rpf; fhz;lk;) Nrud; nrq;Fl;Ltd; gw;wpa nra;jpfisj; jUfpwJ. mjidg; ghba ,sq;Nfh mbfs; jd;id nrq;Fl;Ltdpd; ,sty; vdf; Fwpg;gpLfpwhH.

 

ngupaGuhzk; mWgj;J %d;W ehad;khHfspy; xUtuhd tpwd;kPz;l ehadhH gw;wpf; $WfpwJ.

 

ehyhapuj; jpt;ag; gpuge;jj;jpy; ,lk;ngw;Ws;s jpUtha; nkhop gd;dpU Mo;thHfspy; xUtuhd FyNrfug; ngUkhs; (fp.gp. 800 - 820)  ,aw;wpaJ.  

 

NtjKk; tpahr ghujKk; NruHfisf; Fwpg;gpLfpd;wd. jUkH ,uhr#a ahfk; nra;jNghJ Nru> Nrho> ghz;baH te;jpUe;jpdH vd tpahrH $WfpwhH. (tpahrH vOjpa %y Ehypy; ,e;jf; Fwpg;G ,y;iy vd;Wk; gpd;dhy; nkhopngaHg;Gf;fspd;NghJ  nra;ag;gl;l ,ilr; nrUf;fy; ,J vd;Wk; rpyH $WfpwhHfs;.)   

  

kiyahsj;jpy; vOjg;gl;l Kjy; ciueil Ehy; (12Mk; Ehw;whz;L)  fTby;aupd; mHj;jrhj;jpuj;Jf;F vOjg;gl;l ciuahFk;.

 

kiyahs ,yf;fpak; 14k; Ehw;whz;bNyNa Njhw;wk; ngWfpwJ. kiyahsj;jpy; nkhopngaHf;fg;gl;l Kjy; ,jpfhrk; fz;zr;r ,uhkhazk;.

 

Kjy; vOjg;gl;l ,yf;fz kw;Wk; ,yf;fpa Ehy; 14 Mk; Ehw;whz;by; kzpg;gpuths (ghjp kiyahsk; ghjp tlnkhop)  eilapy; vOjg;gl;l yPyhjpyfk; MFk;. mijj; njhlHe;J 15Mk; Ehw;whz;by; nrWNrup ek;G+jpup vd;gtH vOjpa fpU\;z fjh vd;w nkhopngaHg;G ,jpfhrk; vOjg;gl;lJ.

 

gjpdhwhk; Ehw;whz;L   etPdkiyahs ,yf;fpaj;jpd; je;ij vd tHzpf;fg;gLk; vOjr;rd; rfhg;jkhFk;. mtH ,uhkahzk; kw;Wk; ghujk; ,uz;ilAk; kiyahsnkhopapy; vOjpdhH.  gjpndl;lhk; Ehw;whz;Ltiu kiyahs ,yf;fpaj;jpd; tsHr;rp  ftpijf;Fk; fjfsp eldj;Jf;Fk; ,ilapyhd cwit mj;jpthukhff; nfhz;bUe;jJ.  

 

kzpNkfiy Nruehl;by; gTj;jk; NkNyhq;fp ,Ue;jjij vLj;Jf;fhl;LfpwJ. kTupa Nguurpd; rf;futHjp mNrhfd; gTj;jk; njw;Nf guTtjw;F fhuzkhf ,Ue;jhd;. gTj;jk; rk;ge;jH mg;gH fhyj;J gf;jp ,af;fj;jpd; jhf;fj;jhy; eype;J Nghdijg; ghHj;Njhk;. gy jkpo;g; gTj;jHfs; irtj;jpd; mlf;FKiwf;F mQ;rp Nruehl;Lf;Fk; <oj;Jf;Fk; Xbj; jg;gpdhHfs;. gTj;jkj ngz;fs; irtf; Nfhapy;fspy; Njtjhrpfshfg; gzpGupa epHg;ge;jpf;fg; gl;lhHfs;.

 

Nruehl;Lf;F Xbte;j jkpo;g; gTj;jHfs; gy tpfhiufisAk; klq;fisAk; fl;bdhHfs;. jpUr;#H tlFzehjd; Nfhapy;> fpuq;fDhH FUk;g gftjp mk;kd; Nfhapy;> gUtr;Nrup JHf;if mk;kd; Nfhapy; Nghd;wit xU fhyj;jpy; gTj;j tpfhiufshf ,Ue;jitNa.

 

,uz;L Ehw;whz;Lfs; (fpgp 650 - 850)  gTj;jk; Nru ehl;by; nropj;J tsHe;jJ. Ma; ehl;il Mz;l tuFzd; (fpgp 885 - 925)  vd;w murdpd; nrg;NgL gTj;j tpfhiuf;F epyf;nfhil nfhLj;j nra;jpiar; nrhy;fpd;wJ.

 

gTj;jk; vl;lhk; Ehw;whz;by; Nruehl;by; FbNawpa ek;G+jpupg; gpuhkzHfspd; tUifahy; tPo;r;rpAwj; njhlq;fpaJ. mj;itj Ntjhe;jj;jpd;  jiykfdhd Mjp rq;fuH rk;ge;jH ghzpapy;  gTj;jHfis thJf;F ,Oj;J mtHfisj; Njhw;fbj;J  ,e;J rka kWkyHr;rpf;F tpj;jpl;lhH.

 

gTj;jHfisg; gpd;gw;wpNa  Mjp rq;fuH Jthufh>  G+up> gz;lupehj;> rpUq;Nfup rq;fu klq;fis epWtpdhH. mtuJ mj;itj Ntjhe;jj;jpw;F ,d;ndhU ngaH gTj;j gpurd;dk;. ,d;W ,e;Jf; Nfhapy;fspy; ,lk;ngWk; NjHj; jpUtpoh kw;Wk; cw;rtq;fs; gTj;j topghl;bd; vr;rq;fs; vd;W ek;gg;gLfpwJ.

 

rq;f fhyr; NruH gw;wp fpNuf;f> cNuhkHfs; vOjpa Fwpg;Gf;fs; fpilj;Js;sd. njhykp kw;Wk; gpspdp Nghd;w Nkiy ehl;L MrpupaHfs; Nruehl;bd; Nkw;Ff; fiuapy; Krpup vd;w JiwKfg; gl;bdk; ,Ue;jjhf Fwpg;gpl;Ls;sdH. ,z;bf;fh vd;w Ehiy vOjpa tuyhw;whrpupaH nkf];jPd]; (fpK 340 - 282)  NruHgw;wpf; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;shH. ,tH kTupa rf;futHj;jp re;jpuFg;jdpd; (fpK 322  - 298) muz;kidapy; fpNuf;f rf;futHj;jp KjyhtJ nrYf;f]; (Seleucus 1) kd;ddpd; (,td; kfh mnyf;rhe;jupd; jsgjpfspy; xUtd;) JhJtuhf ,Ue;jtH. kfj ehl;bd; (,d;iwa gQ;rhg;) jiyefuhd ghby;aGuj;jpy; 10 Mz;Lfs; tho;e;j ,tH vOjpa ,z;bf;fh vd;w EhNy ,e;jpahitg;gw;wp Nkw;F ehl;ltH mwpa mbg;gilahf ,Ue;jJ.   

 

Nruehl;il Mz;l  kd;dHfs;  ,U fpisapduhff; fhzg;gLfpd;wdH.  xUtH cjpad; Nruyhjd; topte;jtH. kw;wtH ,Uk;nghiw topte;jtH.

 

Kd;dtH tQ;rpiaj; jiyefuhff; nfhz;l  Nruehl;bd; cl;gFjpia Mz;ldH. gpd;dtH njhz;biaj; jiyefuhff; nfhz;l flNyhug; gFjpia Mz;ldH.

 

rq;f fhyj;jpy; Nru ehL NtzhL> G+opehL> fw;fhehL>  rPjehL> Fl;lehL> FlehL vd nkhj;jk; MW gFjpfshfg; gpupf;fg;gl;bUe;jJ.

 

gpw;fhyj;jpy; G+opehL (JSehL) FlehL (FlF) kq;fshGuk;  (kq;f@H) Fsj;JehL (rpuf;fy; gioaq;fhb) ts;StehL (njw;F ePyfpup) vuehL (Nfhopf;NfhL) fw;fh (ghiyf;fhL) Fl;lk; (nfhr;rp> vHzhf;Fsk;) ntq;fhehL (fhaq;Fsk;) NtzhL (jpUthq;$H) ehQ;rpy;ehL (ehfHNfhapy;) vdg; gpupf;fg;gl;ld.

 

gjpw;Wg; gj;J 8 Nru murHfisg; gw;wpa nra;jpfisj; jUfpwJ vd;gijf; fz;Nlhk;. Mdhy; gpw rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fs; (Gwk;> mwk;> ew;wpiz> Ie;FW EhW) thapyhf 25 Nru murHfs; Nruehl;il Ml;rp nra;jhHfs; vd;w cz;ik njupatUfpwJ.

cjpad; Nruyhjd; topapy; MW murHfs; Ml;rp nra;Js;shHfs;.  mtHfsJ ngaHfs; gpd;tUkhW.

 

cjpaQ; Nruyhjd; my;yJ ngUQ;Nrhw;W cjpaQ;Nruyhjd;

,katuk;gd; neLQ;Nruyhjd;          c.jpadpd; %j;j  kfd;  - fhyk; fpgp 42 - 100)

gy;ahidr; nry;FO Fl;Ltd;         (cjpadpd; ,isa kfd;  -  fhyk; fpgp 47 - 72)

fsq;fha;f; fz;zpehH Kbr;Nruy;       (,katuk;gd; kfd; -  fhyk; fpgp 72 - 97)

fly; gpwNfhl;ba nrq;Fl;Ltd;        (,katuk;gd; kfd;)

ML Nfhl;ghl;Lr; Nruyhjd;           (,katuk;gd; kfd;)

 

cjad; neLQ;Nruyhjdpd; Kd;NdhH ahH vd;w jfty; njupatpy;iy. ,Uk;nghiw topte;jtH ehy;tH Ml;rp nra;jhHfs;. mtHfsJ ngaHfs; gpd;tUkhW.

 

Nrukhd; me;JtQ;Nruy; ,Uk;nghiw

nry;tf; fLq;Nfh thopahjd;           (,Uk;nghiwapd; kfd;  - fhyk; fpgp 47 - 72)

jf^H vwpe;j ngUQ;Nruy; ,Uk;nghiw    (nry;tf; fLq;Nfh thopahjd; kfd;)

,sQ;Nruy; ,Uk;nghiw       (Fl;Ltd; ,Uk;nghiwapd; kfd; -  fhyk; fpgp 132 - 148)

 

mLj;j fpoik ,e;jg; Gfo; G+j;j Nru kd;dHfsJ tuyhW gw;wp nfhQ;rk; tpupthfg; ghHg;Nghk;.  (tsUk;)

 


 

rq;fk; tsHj;j jkpo;! (40)

 

'ngUQ; Nrhw;W kpFgjk; tiuahJ nfhLj;Njha;!''

 

ef;fPud;

 

cjpaQ;Nruy; my;yJ ngUQ;Nrhw;W cjpaQ; Nruyhjd; Gfo;ngw;w Nru murHfspy; xUtd;. ,td; ,katuk;gd; neLQ;Nruyhjd;> gy;ahidr;nry;nfO Fl;Ltd; ,UtuJk; je;ij Mthd;. rq;fg; GytHfspy; xUtuhd KuQ;rpA+H KbehfdhH ng.c. Nruyhjd;gw;wp GwehDhw;wpy; xU ghly;(2) ghbapUf;fpwhH.  

 

me;jg; ghlypy; ,k; kd;dd; epyk;> ePH> tpRk;G> fhw;W> jP vd;w Ik;ngUk; G+jq;fspd; ,aw;ifNghyg; nghiw> #o;r;rp> typ> njwy;> msp vd;w Ie;Jk; cilatd; vd;Wk; ghujg; Nghupy; ghz;ltH ItUf;Fk; fTutH EhWtUf;Fk; NghHf;fsj;jpy; ngUQ;NrhW tiuahJ ,l;lhd; vd;Wk; $WfpwhH. ,jd; fhuzkhfNt ,tDf;F ngUQ;Nrhw;W cjpad; vd;w ngaH te;jjhfj; njupfpwJ.

 

thd tuk;gid ePNah ngUk

myq;F cisg; Gutp ItnuhL rpid,

epyk; jiynfhz;l nghyk; Ge; Jk;if

<iuk; gjpd;kUk; nghUJ fsj; njhopag;

ngUQ;Nrhw;W kpFgjk; tiuahJ nfhLj;Njha;

ghmy; ................................"                       (Gwk; 2  12 - 16)

 

GytuJ $w;W Nruyhjid epfo;fhyj;jpy; Neupy; tpopj;Jf; $Wtjhf ,Uf;fpwJ. ,J cz;ikahdhy; ,td; ghujf;fijf; fhyj;jpy; tho;e;jtdhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy; ghujf;fij epfo;e;j fhyNkh Fiwe;jJ fp.K. 1>000 Mz;Lf;F  Ke;jpa fhykhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ng.c. Nruyhjd; kfd;fshfpa ,katuk;gd; neLQ;Nruyhjd; kw;Wk; gy;ahidr;nry;FO Fl;Ltd; fhyk; fp.gp.250 - 225 vd;W fzpf;fg;gLfpwJ.

 

vdNt GytH cjpaQ; Nruyhjdpd; Kd;Ndhd; xUtd; tiuahJ nfhLj;j nfhilia ,td;Nky; Vw;wpg; ghb ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. my;yJ GytH Fwpg;gpLk; ''ItUk;'' ''<iuk; gjpd;kUk;'' NtW kd;dHfSf;F ,ilapy; ele;j Nghiuf;  Fwpg;gjhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. my;yJ ,e;j ,uz;Lk; ,y;yhJ ghujg; NghNu fl;Lf;fijahf ,Uf;fNtz;Lk;.

 

NkYk; 'ghy; Gspj;jhYk; gfy; ,Uz;lhYk; Ntjnewp jpupe;jhYk; ,tNuhL cwtpy; khWglhj; jd;ikaH ,tUila Rw;wj;jhH. ,j;jifa Rw;wj;Jld; ,ka kiyAk; nghjpa kiyAk; Nghy mirtpd;wp tho Ntz;Lk;'' vd;W KbehfdhH Nruyhjid tho;j;JfpwhH. GytH kh%ydhh; ng.c. Nruyhjid mfehDhw;Wg; ghly; 65 ,y; 'ehL fz; mfw;wpa cjpaQ; Nruw; ghbr; nrd;w guprpyH' vd;W Fwpg;gpLfpwhH. mNjNghy; Nfhl;lk;gyj;J JQ;rpa Nrukhd; mfg;ghly;  168 ,y; 'cjpad; ml;by;  Nghy xyp vOe;jJ' vdf; Fwpg;gpLfpwhH. GytHfs; ,sq;fPudhH> ,sq;Nfh mbfs; MfpNahUk; ,tidg; Gfo;e;J ghbapUf;fpwhHfs;.

 

Nruyhjd; FO%H vd;w ,lj;jpy; ngUk;NghH elj;jp mjid Nru ehl;NlhL ,izj;jhd;.

 

gjpw;Wg;gj;jpd; Kjy; gj;J ng. c.Nruyhjidg; ghbapUf;fyhk; vd;W Cfpf;fg;gLfpwJ.  

 

,katuk;gd; neLQ;Nruyhjd; gjpw;Wg;gj;jpd; ,uz;lhk; ghlypy; Fkl;^Hf; fz;zdhH vd;Dk; Gytuhy; rpwg;gpj;Jg; ghlg; ngw;wtd;. NkYk; GwehDhw;wpy; %d;Wk; (62> 63> 368) mfehDhw;wpy; %d;Wk; (127> 347> 396) ,tidg;gw;wpf; Fwpf;fpd;wd. ,tdJ kidtp MtpaH Fbiar; NrHe;j gJkd; vd;gtdpd; kfshths;. ,tdJ kf;fs; nrq;Fl;Ltd;> jhHKbr; Nruy; kw;Wk; ML Nfhl;ghl;Lr; Nruyhjd; Mfpa %tH MtH.

 

,katuk;gd; neLQ;Nruyhjd; ,kaj;jpy; tpw;nfhb nghwpj;jhd; vd;gij ,kpo; fly; Ntypj; jkpofk; tpsq;fj; jd;Nfhy; epwP, vdg;  gjpw;Wg;gj;J ,uz;lhk; gjpfk; $WfpwJ. ,e;jr; nra;jp ,uz;lhk; gj;jpy; Fwpg;gplg;gltpy;iy.

 

neLQ;Nruyhjd; mkH fle;J kiye;j Jk;igg; giftH> NghH> gPL> mopj;j nrUg; Gfy; Kd;g! vdTk; $w;W  ntFz;L tupDk; khw;Wk; Mw;wiyNa  vdTk; Nghw;wg;gLfpwhd;.  

 

,katuk;gd; neLQ;Nruyhjd; gw;wp gjpw;Wg;gj;J 11 Mk; ghly; ,t;thW $WfpwJ.

 

mzq;Fil mTzH Vkk; GzHf;Fk;

FUil KOKjy; jbj;j NgH,ir>

fLQ;rpd tpwy; Nts; fspW CHe;jhq;F............

 

gtH nkhrpe;J Xk;gpa jpus; G+q; flk;gpd;

fbAil KOKjy; Jkpa Vva;>

ntd;W vwp Koq;F giznra;j nty;NghH

ehH mup ewtpd;> MukhHgpd;>

NghHmL jhidr; Nruyhj!..........

 

tyd; caH kUg;gpd; gop jPH ahidg;

nghyd; mzp vUj;jNky; nfhz;L nghype;j epd;

gyHGfo; nry;tk; ,dpJ fz;bFNk............

 

MupaH Jtd;wpa NgH ,ir ,kak;

njd; mk; FkupnahL Mapil

kd; kPf; $WeH kwk; jgf; fle;Nj  (gjpw;Wg;gj;J 11> 4 - 6> 12 - 16> 18 - 20> 23 - 25)

 

'mTzHfs; $bf; fhty; Gupe;j flYf;Fs; nrd;W  #ugJkidf;  nfhd;w KUfNts; ahidNky; Vwp cyh te;jJ Nghy> giftH gyH$bf; fhty; Gupe;j flk;g kuj;ijg; gpse;J> mjdhy; KuR nra;J nfhz;L  ahid Nky;  cyhte;j NruyhjNd! MupaH $bthOk; ,kaj;jpw;Fk; njd;Fkupf;Fk; ,ilapYs;s kd;dHfspy; tPuk; njhiyar; nra;J> ahid Nky; cyh te;j cdJ nry;tj;ij ehk; ,dpJ fz;Nlhk;!'  NkYk; gjpw;Wg;gj;J 12 Mk; ghly; Nruyhjid ,t;thW Gfo;fpwJ.

 

'gifaurH eLq;f mtHfsJ flk;g kuj;ij ntl;b  tPo;j;jpa Nte;jNd! rpq;fk; cyhTk; kiyr;rhuypy; gpw tpyq;Ffs; mQ;rp xLq;FtJ Nghy> ehy; jpirapy; thOk; murH cdf;F mQ;rp eLq;fpdhHfs;. ,j;jifa cdJ tPug; Gfo; Nfl;gjw;F ,dpajhFk;.

 

'cd; GfioAk; nry;tj;ijAk; Nfs;tpg;gl;l ,utyH $l;lk; gy Fd;Wfisf; fle;J te;J> cdJ muz;kidapy; jq;fpaJ> eP ,utyH grpiaj; jPHj;J gl;lhilAk; mzpfyDk;  guprhfj; je;jha;. cdJ murpUf;if ,utyHfspd; Mly; ghly;fshy; ngupa Muthuk; cilajha;> mDgtpg;gjw;F kpfTk; ,dpjhf mike;jJ.

 

',t;thW cdJ GfOk; nry;tKk; Nfl;gjw;F ,dpaJ.  cdJ ehNshyf;fj;jpy; elf;Fk; Mly; ghly; tpNehjq;fs; mDgtpg;gjw;F ,dpJ." NkYk;

 

khup ngha;f;FtJ MapDk;>

Nruyhjd; ngha;ayd; eirNa!

 

vdTk;

 

Ek;Nfh ahH?'' vd tpdtpd;> vk; Nfh

,UKe;ePHj; JUj;jpAs;

KuzpNahHj; jiyr;nrd;W

flk;G  Kjy; jbe;j fLQ; rpd; Kd;gpd;>

neLQ;Nruyhjd;> tho;f> mtd; fz;z;p!

 

vdTk; gythW gjpw;Wg; gj;jpy; Nghw;wg;gLfpwhd;.  GytH Kbehfdhuplk;  ,td; fy;tp gapd;whd;. ,katuk;gd; ,d;iwa kiyahs tuyhw;wpy; ,katHkd;  vdg;  ngaH khw;wk; nra;ag;gl;L miof;fg;gLfpwhd;.

 

',UKe;ePHj; JUj;jp'  vd;gJ mugpf; flypy; cs;s gy rpW jPTfs;. mq;Ff; flk;g kuj;ijf; fhty; kukhff; nfhz;L Mz;l flk;gd; vd;w murid neLQ;Nruyhjd; jhf;fpf; nfhd;W  mtdJ fhty; kuj;ij ntl;b tPo;j;jp mjidf; nfhz;L NghH KuR nra;jhd;. mfehDhW (ghly; 347) flk;gNuhL Nkw;nfhz;l Nghiuf; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ.

 

rhy; ngUe; jhidr; Nruyhjd;

khf;fly; Xl;b> flk;G mWj;J> ,aw;wpa

gz;zik Kurpd; fz; mjpHe;jd;d

..................................................''

,e;jg; ghliyg; ghbatH kh%ydhH.  ,jdhy;  kh%ydhUk; ,uz;lhk; gj;Jg; ghba Fkl;^Hf; fz;zdhUk; xj;j fhyj;jtH vd;gJ GydhfpwJ.

 

rpyg;gjpfhuj;jpy; ,sq;Nfh mbfs; flk;G ntl;b tPo;j;jpa nra;jpiaAk; ,kaj;jpy; tpw;nfhb nghwpj;j nra;jpiaAk; ,izj;J xU ,lj;jpy; nrq;Fl;Ltdpd; nray; vd;Wk; ,d;NdhH ,lj;jpy; khe;juQ;Nruy; ,Uk;nghiwapd; nray; vd;Wk; ,izj;Jg; NgRfpwhH.

 

,uz;lhk; gj;Jg; ghba Fkl;^Hf; fz;zdhUf;F ,katuk;gd; Nruyhjd; 'ck;gw; fhl;L (,d;iwa Midkiyg; gFjpahf ,Uf;fyhk;. ck;gy; -  ahid) Ie;EhW CH gpuk;kjhak; nfhLj;J Kg;gj;njl;L Mz;L njd;dhl;Ls; tUtjdpw; ghfk; nfhLj;jhd;' vdg; gjpfk; njuptpf;fpwJ.  

 

,td; 58 Mz;Lfs; (fp.gp.42 Kjy; fp.gp. 100) Ml;rp nra;jhd;  vdg; gjpfk; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ.

 

Nrho Nte;jd; Ntw;g/wlf;ifg; ngUew;fps;spf;Fk; neLQ;NruyhjDf;Fk; NghH vd;Dk; ,lj;jpy; ele;j Nghupy; Nru Nrhog; gilfs; kl;Lky;y ,U ngUk; Nte;jUk;  Ntw;Nghupy; <Lgl;L tPo;e;jdH. neLQ;Nruyhjd; NghHf;fsj;jpy; fple;j fhiyapy; mtid re;jpj;j fohj;jiyahH vd;w GytUf;F jdJ fOj;J khiyiaf; nfhLj;jhd; vd;gij mtNu Gwehw;Wg; ghlypy; (62) $WfpwhH. NkYk;

 

'nrUKdpe;J> mwj;jpd; kz;ba kwg;NghH Nte;jH jhKk; kha;e;jdH. mtiu epoy; nra;j FilfSk; jsHe;jd. mtH jk; ntw;wpAk; FilAk; EtYk; KurKk; tPo;e;jd.  NghH kwtH jhKk; vQ;rhJ tPo;e;jikapd; mkUk; cld; tPo;e;jJ. ,tHjk; ngz;bUk; gr;irapiy jpd;dhuha;> FspHe;j ePupy; %o;jy; Kjypa ifk;ikr; nray;fis tpUk;ghJ ,tHjk; khHgfk; nghUe;J mf; fsj;jpd; fz;Nz capH ePj;jdH' vd;fpwhH.   (tsUk;)