rq;fk; tsHj;j jkpo;!

rk];fpUjj;jpw;F "flTsupd; nkhop" vd;w jFjp ,y;iy!

ef;fPud;

(21) 

NguhrpupaH NahH[; `hl; mtHfsJ  fUj;jpd;gb  ,e;jpahtpy; ,uz;Nl ,uz;L nkhopfs;jhd; nrk;nkhop vd;w tiutpyf;fzj;Jf;F xg;g tpsq;Fk; nkhopfshFk;. xd;W jkpo; kw;wJ rk];fpUjk;. ,e;j ,uz;L nkhopfspy; vJ rpwg;G tha;e;jJ? ,g;gbahd Nfs;;tpf;F tpil nrhy;tJ fbdk;.  

ma;Nuhg;ghtpd; kj;jpa fhyj;jpy; ,yj;jPd; nkhopNa mwpthsHfspd; (intellectuals) nghJ nkhhopahf ,Ue;jJ. mJNghyNt  rk];fpUj nkhopNa ,e;jpa mwpthsHfspd; nghJ nkhopahf ,Ue;jJ. Fwpg;ghf fp.gp. 4Mk; Ehw;whz;L njhlq;fp ngUk;ghd;ikahd mwptpay; Ma;T> gilg;Gf;fs; rk];fpUj nkhopapNyNa vOjg;gl;ld. irtj;ijAk; jkpioAk; ,izj;Jg; NgRtJNghy rk];fpUj nkhopiaAk; itjPf rkaj;ijAk; ,izj;Jg; NgRtJ ngUtof;fhf ,Ue;jJ.  

jkpo;nkhop tsHr;rpf;F vt;thW gTj;jk;> rkzk;> fpwpj;jtk;> ,];yhk;> irt rpj;jhe;jk;>1 tprp\;lhj;Jtk;>2  Rj;j mj;Jitjk;3 Nghd;w rkaq;fSk;  Nfhl;ghLfSk; gq;fspg;Gr; nra;jpUf;fpd;wdNth mNjNghy; rk];fpUj nkhop tsHr;rpf;Fk; gTj;jk;> rkzk;> ,aw;nghUs;thjk; (materialism),  Jitjk;>4 mj;Jitjk;5  Nghd;w rkaq;fSk; Nfhl;ghLfSk; gq;fspg;Gr; nra;Js;sd. 

jkpo;> rk];fpUjk; ,uz;bd; tsHr;rp gw;wpAk;> ,uz;L nkhopfsJ ,yf;fpaq;fSf;Fk; ,ilapyhd xw;Wik Ntw;Wik gw;wpAk; NguhrpupaH NahH[; `hl; gpd;tUkhW vOJfpwhH. 

"rk];fpUjj;jpy; vOjg;gl;l ,yf;fpaq;fs; vy;yhk; gpuhkzpak;  gw;wpaJ md;W mtw;wpy; ngUk;ghyhdit kjrhHgw;wit vd;gJ  gyUf;F tpag;ghf ,Uf;Fk;. gTj;jk; rk];fpUj nkhopapy; Vuhskhd Ehy;fisj; Njhw;Wtpj;jJ.  Mdhy;  mtw;wpy; ngUk;ghyhdit mope;J Nghapd. me;j Ehy;fs;jhd; gpuhkzfHfisAk;> gpuhkzpa fyhrhuj;ijAk; fLikahf jpwdha;T nra;jd. "jpt;ate;jd"  vd;w rk];fpUj Ehy; gpuhkzpar; rlq;Ffs;  nghUsw;wit> ke;jpuq;fs; %lHfspd; gpjw;wy; vdf; fLikahfr; rhbapUf;fpwJ. rkzHfSk; rk];fpUj nkhopapy; jq;fs; rka ,yf;fpaq;fis vOjp itj;jhYk;>  ngUk;ghyhdit gpuhfpUjk; kw;Wk; jpuhtpl nkhopfspNyNa ,Uf;fpd;wd. 

eldk;> ehlfk;> ,ir> ghypay;> kUj;Jtk;> Nrhjplk;> ,yf;fzk;> rl;lk;> gy;NtW jj;Jtg; gpupTfs;> mofpay;> rka Ehy;fs;> ,jpfhrq;fs; Nghd;wtw;wpy; xU rpwpJk;  gpuhkzpa cs;sPL ,y;iy. cz;ik vd;dntd;why; rk];fpUj nkhop vy;yhtifahd gilg;Gf;fSf;Fk;  xU fsQ;rpakhf tpsq;FfpwJ. me;jg; gilg;Gf;fspy; ngUk;ghydit rkarhHgw;wit. gpuhkzpaj;NjhL njhlHgw;wit. 

,jpy; jkpo; nkhopapd; epiy vd;d? fw;wwpthsHfsJ nkhop vd;w mbg;gilapy; rk];fpUjk; Nkl;Lf; FbapduJ (elite) tho;f;if kw;Wk; fyhrhuk; ,uz;bidAk; rpj;jupf;fpwJ. mjd; nghUs; gpuhkzpa Nkl;Lf;  FbapdHgw;wp vd;gjy;y. khwhf efuq;fspy; tho;e;j XusT nry;tk; gilj;jtHfisg; gw;wp rpj;jupf;fpwJ.  

njhlf;f fhyj;jpy; my;yhJ gpd;dH rk];fpUjk;  Ngr;Rnkhopahf ,Uf;ftpy;iy. tlGyj;jpy; nkhopfs; cUthfj; njhlq;fpaJk; gy;NtW gpuhfpUj nkhopfs; rk];fpUjj;ij khw;wPL nra;jd.  

ghzpdpahy; tpgupf;fg;gl;l rk];fpUjk; xUNghJk; Ngr;R nkhopahf ,Uf;ftpy;iy vd thjpLfpwhHfs;. "rk];fpUjk;" vd;w ngaNu "nraw;ifahdJ" my;yJ "jpUj;jg;gl;lJ" vd;w nghUs; jUtjhFk;. ,jw;F khwhf "gpuhfpUjk;" vd;why; "nghJ" kw;Wk; ",aw;ifahdJ" vd;w nghUs; jUtjhFk;.  kWGwk; jkpo; Muk;gk; njhlf;fk; r%fj;jpd; rfy kl;lj;jpy; cs;stHfshYk; Ngrg;gl;Lk;> Ngzg;gl;Lk; tUk; nghUz;ik tha;e;j (real)  nkhopahFk;.  

fp.K. %d;whk; Ehw;whz;L njhlf;fk; fiuNahuj;jpy; tho;e;j tzpfHfs; gpuhkp neLq;fzf;if (alphabet) tl ,e;jpahtpy; ,Ue;J njd; ,e;jpahtpw;F vLj;J  te;jhHfs;. ,e;j vOj;J Kiwiaj;jhd; jkpo;g; NgRNthH gpd;gw;wpdhHfs;. rkzNu  ,jid Kjy;Kjyhf jkpo; nkhop vOj;jpd;  xypfSf;Fg; nghUe;jf; $bajhf cUthf;fp ,Uf;fyhk;. ,e;j cUthf;fk; rk];fpUjk; midj;jpe;jpa kl;lj;jpy; fw;wtHfspd; nkhopahf Vw;wk; ngWtjw;F Kd;dH Vw;gl;ljhy; rk];fpUj  nry;thf;F mNefkhf ,y;yhkNyNa jkpo;nkhop tsHr;rp ngw;wJ. mJ fld; thq;Ftjw;Fg; gjpy; jdJ nrhe;jr; nrhw;fisg; gad;gLj;jpaJ. mjd; ,yf;fpak; rk];fpUjj;ij mbnahl;b ,y;yhky; jdJ kz;zpd; ,aw;ifahd gpd;Gyj;jpy; gpwe;jJ.  

,t;thwhf> cyftuyhw;wpy; Kfpo;e;j jiyrpwe;j  ,yf;fpag;gilg;Gf;fspy; xd;whf rq;f ,yf;fpak; kyHe;jJ. GytHfs; jq;fs; gilg;Gf;fis tha;nkhopahfg; ghzHfs;> tpwypaHfs; ghbte;j ghly;fspd; ghzpapy; mikj;jhHfs;. ,Ue;Jk; mit kpf kpf El;khfTk; (elaborate) fbdkhfTk; (complex)  tpag;igj;jUk; EioGyk; (insight)  nfhz;ljhfTk; ,Ue;jd. tpisT? rk];fpUjk; Nghyy;yhJ jkpo; ,yf;fpak; Nkl;Lf; Fbfis kl;Lk; rhHe;jjhf ,Uf;ftpy;iy.  

rq;fg; ghly;fs; rhjhuz kf;fspd; vz;zq;fs;> Nghuhl;lq;fs;> Jd;gq;fs; kw;Wk; vjpHghHg;Gf;fis glk;gpbj;Jf; fhl;Ltjhf cs;sd. ,j;jd;ikahd ghly;fs; rk];fpUj nkhopapy; fhzKbahJ. 

fhyg;Nghf;fpy; rk];fpUj nkhopapd; FKjhagb epiy (status)  mjpfupj;jNghJ rk];fpUj nkhopapy; vOe;j ,yf;fpaj;jpd; nry;thf;F  jkpo; ,yf;fpaj;ij ,aw;ifahfNt ghjpj;jJ. ,Ue;Jk; jkpo; ,yf;fpaj;jpd; mbj;jsk; khwky; ,Ue;jJ.

jkpo; ,yf;fpa tuyhW ePsKk; rhjhuzkhd Fbkf;fsJ  tho;f;if> Jd;gq;fs; ,tw;Wf;F Kjd;ik nfhLj;jijf; fhzyhk;. vdJ ghHitapy; jkpo;> Vd; ,e;jpa ,yf;fpaj;jpy; kpfr; rpwe;j ,yf;fpak; fk;gdpd;  ,uhkhazkhFk;.  ,J thy;kPfp vOjpa ,uhkhaz fhg;gpaj;jpd; rhHG EhyhFk;.

thy;kPfp ,uhkhaz fhg;gpaj;jpd; ngUk;gFjpia ehd; rk];fpUj  %yj;jpy; gbj;jNghJ vd;idg; nghWj;jkl;by; mJ $wpaijf; $Wk; (repetitive),  RitFd;wpa (dull) fw;gidFiwe;j (unimaginative) ftpeakw;w (unpoetic) fhg;gpakhf vdf;Fg; gl;lJ. ,g;gbahd xU cg;Gr; rg;gw;w fhg;gpaj;ij fk;gd; xg;gaHtw;w ,yf;fpakhf khw;wpaikj;jJ (vd;id) jpiff;f itj;Js;sJ.

fk;gd; jdJ fhtpaj;jpd; %yk; jdJ fhyj;J njd;dhl;Lf; fyhrhuj;ij gl;bay; NghLfpwhd;. mtd; gilj;j fhg;gpaj;jpd; gug;G> ftpij El;gk;> gy;Jiwg; Gyik vk;ik kiyf;f itf;fpwJ> ,uhkhtjhuk; (mJjhd; fk;guhkhazj;jpd; rupahd ngaH) jkpo; ,yf;fpaj;ij Kw;whf khw;wp mikj;jJ. fk;gd; kPJ rk];fpUjj;jpd; nry;thf;F ,Ue;jJ. Mdhy; mjw;F <lhf jkpo;g; gz;ghl;bd; nry;thf;Fk; ,Ue;jJ. fk;gdJ fhg;gpaj;jpy; gy;NtW gz;ghLfspd; $w;Wf;fs; rq;fkk; MfpapUf;fpwJ.

Mdhy; jpU. V.Nf. ,uhkD[k; fk;guhkhazj;jpd; "jkpo;kzk;" gw;wpf; $wpaJ Qhgfj;jpw;F tUfpwJ. jkpoHfsJ gz;ghL> jkpoHfsJ cyf  Nehf;F gw;wp  Ntnwe;j ePz;l gilg;Gf;fistpl (GwehDhW> rpyg;gjpfhuk;> jpUf;Fws; ePq;fyhf) fk;guhkhazk; rpwg;ghf vLj;Jr; nrhy;fpwJ vd  mtH epidf;fpwhH. mjid ehd; topnkhopfpNwd;.

fhyg; Nghf;fpy; rk];fpUjj;jpd; nry;thf;F mjpfupj;jJ. mjdhy; rk];fpUjk; gpuhkzpaj;NjhL milahsk; fhZk; epiy Njhd;wpaJ. 15Mk;;> 16Mk; Ehw;whz;Lfspy; rk];fpUjj;jpd; nry;thf;F cr;repiy mile;jJ. mjw;F vLj;Jf; fhl;lhf njYq;F nkhop vOj;jhsH xUtH jhd; vOjpa EhYf;F xg;Gjy; ngWtjw;F mjid rk];fpUjj;jpy; vOjp> njYq;F Ehy; mjd; topEhy; vdr; nrhy;YkhW fl;lhag;gLj;jg; gl;lhH.

rk];fpUjk; "flTsupd; nkhop" vdf; nfhz;lhlg; gl;lJ. Mdhy; me;j nkhopf;F mg;gbahd jFjp ,Uf;ftpy;iy. vj;jidNah  gpioahd fhuzq;fSf;fhf me;j nkhop mg;gbj; njhOJ Nghw;wg;gLfpwJ.

,jdhy; rk];fpUjk; ,e;jpahtpd; rfy  ghfq;fspy; ,Ue;J  gpwe;j mwpthw;wypd; ngl;lfk; vd;w cz;ik xU rpy mwpthsHfs; ePq;fyhf kw;wtHfshy; Gwf;fzpf;fg; gl;lJ. ,jdhy; rk];fpUj nkhopgw;wpa mwpT  mjpfk; ,y;yhjtHfs; gFj;jwpTf;F Kuzhd tifapy; mjid te;jid nra;fpwhHfs;.

,g;gbahd #oNy rk];fpUj nkhopf;F vjpuhdnjhU kdg; Nghf;if jkpoHfs; kj;jpapy; Vw;gLj;jpaJ. ehd; epidf;fpNwd;> ehq;fs; rk];fpUjk; tfpf;Fk; cupa ,lj;ij njupe;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. ,e;jpa fyhrhuj;jpd; tpaj;jF %ykhfTk;> njhFg;ghfTk; rk];fpUjk; ,Uf;fpwJ. mNj rkak; me;j nkhop nraw;if nkhop vd;gjhy; mjd; Nehf;F vy;iy kw;Wk; czHr;rpfspd; ntspg;ghl;L vy;iyia ehk; njupe;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

mg;gbahd gug;Gj; Njhw;wj;ij Gupe;J nfhz;lhy; rk];fpUjk; kw;Wk; jkpo;nkhop ,uz;Lf;Fk; ,ilapyhd goikahd fye;JwT ,uz;L nkhopfspd; tsj;jpw;Fk; cWJizahf ,Ue;jJ njupatUk;.   

      1. ,iwtd; (gjp)> Md;kh (gR)> jis (ghrk;) vd;w %d;Wk; cz;ikapy; cs;sit. 

  2. flTs;> ,aw;if> Md;kh %d;Wk; xd;Nwjhd;. ,aw;ifAk;> Md;khf;fSk; flTspd;        clyhFk;. flTs; me;j clYf;Fs; ciwAk; Md;kh.

     3. flTs;> cyfk;> capH vd;;w %d;iwAk; gpizj;J epw;fr;  nra;tJ jpUtUs; xd;Nw. MfNt       jpUtUNs vy;yhk;.

     4. flTs;> ,aw;if> Md;kh vd;w %d;Wk; jdpj;jdpahdit. epue;jdkhdit.

     5. gpukk; vd;gJk; Md;kh vd;gJk;  ,uz;ly;y. ,uz;Lk; xd;Nw. ,aw;if vd;gJ khia. Md;kh       flTs;Nghy; vq;Fk; epiwe;jJ. vy;yhk; ty;yJ> vy;yhk; mwpe;jJ. Mde;jkakhdJ.  (tsUk;)

 


 

rq;fk; tsHj;j jkpo;!

%Nte;jUk; xU jkpo;f; fy;tpr;rhiyjhDk; Vw;gLj;jtpy;iy

ef;fPud;

(22)

tlnkhopapd; nry;thf;Ff;F xU Kf;fpa fhuzk; mjw;F mur kl;lj;jpy; ,Ue;j MjuNt. mJ itjPf kjj;jpd; nghJnkhopahf ,Ue;jJ kw;nwhU fhuzkhFk;. 

rq;f fhyj;jpNyNa jkpourHfs; gyH Ntj Nts;tp nra;tjpy; ngUk; nghUisAk; Neuj;ijAk; epidg;igAk; nrytopj;jhHfs;.  

Nrhod; FsKw;wj;Jj; JQ;rpa fps;sptstidj; jhaq; fz;zdhH rpwg;gpf;Fk;nghOJ> mtDila ehl;by; vq;Fk; Nts;tp eilngw;wijf; Fwpg;gpLfpd;whH. fupfhw; ngUtsj;jhDk; gy Nts;tp nra;J Kbj;jhd; vdg; GwehDhW (224) $Wfpd;wJ. 

Nts;tpapd; nghOJ Njhy; cil mzptijAk;> nea;nrhuptijAk;> kfspH Jiz GuptijAk;> ,Wjpapy; tpUe;njhd;W eilngWtijAk; %yq;fpohH vd;w GytH Fwpg;gpLfpd;whH.  

vz;zpwe;j ahfq;fs; nra;jjhy; ghz;ba murd; xUtd; "gy;ahfrhiy KJFbkpg; ngUtOjp" vd miof;fg;gl;lhd;.   

,e;j Nts;tpfs; midj;Jk; tlnkhopapy; nra;ag;gl;ld vd;gijr; nrhy;yj; Njitapy;iy. ,J tlnkhop flTs; nkhop vd;w khiaapy; rq;f fhy kd;dHfNs %o;fpdH vd;gjw;Fr; rhd;whFk;. 

gpuhkzHfs; Ntjf; fy;tpia tpUk;gpg; gapd;wdH> mtHfs; guk;giu kuG rpwg;GilaJ> njhd;ikAk; Nkd;ikAk; cila Fbg;gpwg;ghsH> ehw;gj;njl;L Mz;Lfs; tpjpKiwf; fy;tpapy; fopj;jtH> xd;gJ ,io nfhz;l Kg;Gup Ez;Qhz; (fapW) mzpgtH> cr;rpf; $g;gpa ifapdH> ehSk; ehtpy; MnwOj;ij cr;rupf;Fk; caH Fzj;jhsH vdj; jpUKUfhw;Wg;gil (179 - 182) giwrhw;WfpwJ. 

jkpouy;yhj gy;ytH Ml;rpapy; tlnkhopf;Nf Kd;Dupik nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. fhQ;rp> fbfhryk;> gh$H gok;gjp Nghd;w CHfspy; tlnkhopf; fy;tpf; $lq;fs; ,Ue;jd. gh$upy; 14 fiyfSk;> 18 tpj;ijfSk; fw;gpf;fg;gl;ld. kA+urd;kd; vd;w flk;g kd;dd; fhQ;rpapy;jhd; fy;tp gapd;whd;. ,jdhy; NghYk; fhQ;rp  "fy;tpapw; fiuapyhj fhQ;rpkhefH" vdg; Gfog;gl;lJ. 

gy;yt kd;dHfspy; xUtdhd kNfe;jputHkd; "kj;jtpyhrgpufrdk;" vd;w ehlf Ehiy tlnkhopapNyNa vOjpdhd;. Kjyhk; eurpk;ktHkdpd; gl;lg;ngaHfshd khky;yd;> =gud;> =epjp> =Nkfd;> mj;jpae;jfhkd;> mNkakhad; gy;ytupd; tlnkhopg;gw;iwg; giwrhw;Wfpd;wd. gpw;fhyg; gy;ytHfNs jkpo;nkhopia Mjupf;fj; njhlq;fpdhHfs;. fy;ntl;Lf;fisj;  jkpopy; nghwpj;jhHfs;. 

NtjEhy;fisAk; rhj;jpuq;fisAk; fw;wwpe;j gpuhkzHfs; gg;g gl;lhufHfs;> ey;$H ghHg;gH vd;W miof;fg;gl;lhHfs;.  

gpuhkzHfSf;F jdpf; FbapUg;Gf;fs; cUthf;fg;gl;ld. mit mf;fpufhuk;> rJHNtjpkq;fyk; vdg; ngauplg;gl;ld. mjw;nfd ,iwapyp epyq;fs; tplg;gl;ld. 

ehif> fhQ;rp> =gHtjk;> jhd;a flf; Kjypa ,lq;fspy; gTj;j tpfhuq;fSk;> gTj;j fy;tpf; $lq;fSk; ,Ue;jd. jpUg;ghjpupg;GypA+H> jpUg;gUjjpf;Fd;wk; Nghd;w CHfspy; rkzg; gs;spf;$lq;fs; ,Ue;jd. mtw;wpy; kUj;Jtf; fy;tp gapw;wg;gl;ld. gy;ytHfisg; NghyNt gpw;fhyr; NrhoHfSk; tlnkhopf; fy;tp tsHr;rpf;Nf ghLgl;ldH. jkpiotpl tlnkhopf;F mjpf Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhLj;jhHfs;. Kjyhk; ,uhNre;jpud; ntl;ba fy;ntl;nlhd;W 70 KJepiy khztHfs;;>  270 ,sepiy khztHfs; fy;tp fw;f Ntjg;gs;spia vz;zhapuk; vd;w Cupy; epWtpdhd; vdj; njuptpf;fpwJ. mjpy; Ntjk; fw;gpf;f 10 NguhrpupaHfs; cl;gl 14 NguhrpupaHfs; epakpf;fg;gl;lhHfs;.   

NkYk; jdJ ,uhrFUthd rHtrpt gz;bjUf;Fk;> tlehl;bypUe;j mtuJ khztUf;Fk; Mz;L NjhWk; 2>000 fyk; ney;iy Mrhd; fhzpahf (Mrhupa Nghfkhf) njhlHe;J nfhLj;J te;jhd;.  

,tdJ je;ijahd Kjyhk; ,uhruhrd; ,yhlk;> fhrp> f\;kPH Mfpa ehLfspypy; ,Ue;j Vuhskhd gpuhkzHfis jUtpj;J Nfhapy;fspy; G+ir nra;tjw;F mkHj;jpdhd;. mtHfs; ,Ug;gjw;F Ehw;Wf; fzf;fhd gpukNjaq;fis cUthf;fpdhd;. jpUtpaYhupy; NrhokhHj;jhz;l rJHNtjpkq;fyj;Jg; gpuhkzHfSf;F vilf;F vil nghd; toq;fpdhd;. ,tDila gl;lj;jurp nghw;fUg;ig (,uzpa fHg;gf;) nfhil mspj;jhs;.

%d;whk; FNyhJq;fDf;F murFUthf ,Ue;jtH tpyhl ehl;Lg; gpuhkzH MthH. gpuhkz khzhf;fHfSf;F ghzpzpaj;ijf; fw;gpg;gjw;nfd;Nw tpahfuzjhd tpahf;fpahd kz;lgj;ij mikj;jhd;. mjw;fhf 60 Ntyp epyj;ijf; nfhilaspj;Jf; fhtDhH vd;Dk; gpukNjaj;ij cUthf;fpdhd;.  

jpUKf;$ly; fy;ntl;L> Nfhapy; epHthfj;jpd; fPo; xU fy;Yhup ,Ue;jijAk;> jpUtpil kUJhH> jpUtpilf; fop> mzpA+H> vz;ZhH Nghd;w ,lq;fspy; fhzg;gl;l fy;ntl;Lf;fs; Ntjk;> ,yf;fzk;. kUj;Jtk; Nghd;wit gapw;Wtpf;fg;gl;lijAk; $Wfpd;wd.  gy Ntj ghlrhiyfs; cUthf;fg;gl;L epte;jq;fSk; mspf;fg;gl;ld.

gpw;fhyg; ghz;baH fhyj;jpy; vz;zpwe;j gpukNjaq;fs;  epWtg;gl;ld. tlnkhop Nghw;wg;gl;lJ. Ntj ghlrhiyfs; ,Ue;jd. gpuhkzH fy;tp Nghjpj;jdH. mtHfspd; ey;tho;tpw;nfd gl;l tpUj;jp> rhyhNghfKk; nfhLf;fg;gl;ld. klq;fspYk; Nfhapy;fspYk; Ehyfq;fs; ,Ue;jd. 13Mk; Ehw;whz;by; rpjk;guj;jpy; ru];tjp gz;lhuk; ,Ue;jJ.

jkpofj;jpy; tp[aefu Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpYk;> kJiu> jQ;ir ehaf;fHfs; Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpYk; tlnkhopNahL njYq;F nkhopf;Fk; rpwg;gplk; mspf;fg;gl;lJ. jQ;iria Mz;l kuhl;baH fhyj;jpy; tlnkhop> njYq;F nkhopfNshL kuhj;jpAk; caHT ngw;wJ. ,uz;lhk; ruNgh[p fhyj;jpy; fl;lg;gl;l ru];tjp k`hypy; 22>000 ifnaOj;Jg; gpujpfs; cs;sd. ,Ugj;ijahapuk; tlnkhop  ,yf;fpaq;fs; gjpdhW ,e;jpa nkhop vOj;Jf;fspy; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.

GJf;Nfhl;ilia njhz;ilkhd; vd;w gl;lg; ngaUld;  Ml;rp nra;j FWepy kd;dHfs; njYq;Fg; gl;lg; ngaHfis itj;Jf; nfhz;lhHfs;. Mtzq;fspy; njYq;F nkhopapy; ifnahg;gk; ,l;lhHfs;. fy;ntl;Lf;fisAk; njYq;fpy; nghwpj;jhHfs;. mur Kj;jpiufspy; "=gpufjhk;ghs; rfhaK" vd;w njYq;F  vOj;Nj fhzg;gLfpwJ.

nkhopQhapW NjtNeag; ghthzH jhk; vOjpa "jkpoH tuyhW" vd;w Ehypy; (gf;fk; 311) jkpoupd; fy;tp ,og;igg; gw;wpf; Fwpg;gpLk;NghJ "Ntjk; Kjypa gd;DhnyhL gy;fiyAk;> gpuhkzHf;F CZilAld; Ntj;jpaw; nrytpw; fw;gpf;fg;gl;ld. (Mdhy;) jkpoHf;F %Nte;jUk; xU fy;tpr; rhiyAk; Vw;gLj;jtpy;iy" vdf; fty;fpwhH.

NkYk; jkpoHfsJ Kd;Ndw;wj;Jf;F jilahf ,Ug;gtw;iw mtH gl;bay; Nghl;Lf; fhl;LfpwhH. mitahtd>

 

    (1) kw ,og;G
 

    (2) gFj;jwpT ,og;G
 

    (3) jd;khd ,og;G
 

    (4) neQ;Rukpd;ik
 

    (5) jkpo;g; gw;wpd;ik

njhlHe;J  "nkhopj;Jiwapy; jkpo; rptdpak; khypak;  ,uz;bd; topghl;Lf;Fj; jfhj nkhop vd;W js;sg;gl;lJ. NrhW> jz;zPH  Kjypa Jha jkpo;r; nrhw;fs; fPNohH tof;nfd;W jkpouhYk; gopf;fg;gl;ld. fOtha; (gpuhar;rpj;jk;) #o; (Miz) Kjypa Ehw;Wf;fzf;fhd mUikahd jkpo;r; nrhw;fs; tof;F tPo;j;jg;gl;ld. capH nka; vd;gJ> XuwpTapH Kjy; MwwpTapH tiug;gl;l capnuhL $ba nka; (living thing)   gpuhzp vd;Dk; tlnrhy; tof;fpdhy;> capH nka; vd;Dk; nrhy; jd; nghUis ,oe;jJ. capup vd;nwhU  nrhy;Ye; Njhd;wtpy;iy. G[k; vd;Dk; tlnrhy; tof;fpdhy;> Njhs; vd;Dk; jkpo;r; nrhy; jd; nghUis ,oe;jJ> Njhs;gl;iliaf; Fwpj;J> Rty; vd;Dk; njd; nrhy;iy tof;F tPo;j;jpAk; cs;sJ" vdf; $WfpwhH.

"Mupaf; fUj;Jf;fisg; GFj;jpj; jkpopyf;fpaj;ij Mupa tz;zkhf;Fjw; nghUl;Nl> njhy;fhg;gpaH fhyk; Kjy;> Ehy;fSk; EhYiufSk; gpuhkzj; jkpo;g; Gytuhy; ,aw;wg;gl;Lk; vOjg;gl;Lk; te;jpUf;fpd;wd" vdg; ghthzH Fw;wk; rhl;LfpwhH.

tlnkhop njd;nkhop kPJ Vw;gLj;jpa gz;ghl;Lj; jhf;fj;ij rq;f fhyj; jkpo; kd;dHfs;> jkpo;g; GytHfsJ ngaHfisAk; gpw;fhy jkpo; kd;dHfs;> jkpo;g; GytHfs; ngaHfisAk; xg;G Nehf;fpg; ghHj;jhNy njupe;JtpLk;.  

rq;ffhy kd;dHfs;

Nrukhd; ngUQ;Nrhw;W cjpaQ;Nruyhjd;

Nfhg;ngUQ; Nruy; ,Uk;nghiw

Nrukhd; Flf;Nfh

Nrukhd; ngUq;fLf;Nfh

nrq;Fl;Ltd;

Nrhod; ngUew;fps;sp

,sQ;Nrl;nrd;dp

Nrhod; fupfhw; ngUtsj;jhd;

Nrhod; eyq;fps;sp

Nrhod; FsKw;wj;Jj; JQ;rpa fps;sptstd;

Nrhod; nrq;fzhd;

xy;iyA+Hje;j G+jg;ghz;bad;

gRk;G+z; ghz;bad;

ngUk; ngaHtOjp

,sk;ngUk; tOjp

ghz;bad; rpj;jpukhlj;Jj; JQ;rpa ed;khwd;

ghz;bad; jiyahyq;fhdj;Jr; nrUntd;w neLQ;nropad;

gpw;fhy kd;dHfs;

kNfe;jputHkd;

,uh[rpk;kd;

ee;jptHkd;

,uhruhrd;

,uhNre;jpud;

FNyhj;Jq;fd;

,uh[hjpuhrd;

khwtHkd; FyNrfu ghz;bad;

khwtHkd; Re;ju ghz;bad;

mupNfrup ghuq;Frd;

khwtHkd; mtdp#shkzp

Nfhr;rilad; uzjPud;

mupNfrup ghz;bad;

guhe;jf tPu ehuhazd;

(tsUk;)

 


 

rq;fk; tsHj;j jkpo;!

flTsH ngaUk; tlnkhopkag; gLj;jg; gl;lJ!

(23)

,dp jkpo;g; GytHfsJ ngaHfs; vg;gb rk];fpUj kag;gLj;jg; gl;lijg; ghHg;Nghk;. 

rq;ffhyg; GytHfs;  

muprpy;fpohH

Myj;JH fpohH

mt;itahH

Mjp ke;jpahH

Cl;bahH

<oj;Jg; G+jd; NjtdhH

vapde;ij kfdhH ,sq;fPudhH

xf;$H khrhj;jpahH

fz;zdhH

fzpad; G+q;Fd;wd;

fUq;FoydhH

fhf;if ghbdpahH

fhtw;ngz;L

Fwkfs; ,sntapdp

Nfhg;ngUk;ngz;L

ef;fz;izahH

ey;Ky;iyahH

ey;nts;spahH

gy;FLf;if fz;zpahH

ghup kfspH (mq;fit> rq;fit)

ghiyghba ngUq;fLq;Nfh

G+f;fd; cj;jpiuahH

Nga;kfs; ,sNtzp

nghd;KbahH

Nghe;ijg; grypahH

kJiuf; fzf;fhadhH kfd; ef;fPudhH

khw; kpj;jpahH

khwNwhf;fj;J eg;giryiaH

Klj;jhkf; fz;zpahH

KlNkhrpahH

NkhrpfPudhH

nts;spf; Fapj;jpahH

nts;sp tPjpahH

ntz;fz;zdhH

ntz;zpf; Faj;jpahH 

gpw;fhyg; GytHfs; 

nrak;nfhz;lhH

jpup$luhrg;gf; ftpuhaH

fr;rpag;g rpthr;rhupahH

mUzfpupehjH

FkuFUguH

rptg;gpufhr Rthkpfs;

kPdhl;rpRe;juk;gps;is

,uhkypq;fmbfs;

Ntjhe;j NjrpfH

gtze;jp

uhkgj;jpuH

Rthkpehj NjrpfH

itj;jpaehj NjrpfH

ehkf;fy; ,uhkypq;fk;gps;is

ftpQH Njrpf tpehafk;gps;is

rq;fujhRRthkpfs;

NrhkRe;jug; GytH

Rg;gpukzpa ghujp

ghgehr rptd;

Rj;jhde;j ghujpahH

cLkiy ehuhaz ftp

gl;Lf;Nfhl;il fy;ahz Re;juk;

murH> GytHfsJ ngaHfs; kl;Lky;y CHg;ngaHfSk; tlnkhopg;  gLj;jg;gl;L moF jkpo; xopf;fg;gl;lJ. kapyhLJiw khA+uk; MdJ. kiwf;fhL Ntjhuz;ak;; MdJ. mj;jp kuj;Jf;F ,d;ndhU ngaH MH. MH kuq;fs; epiwe;jJ MHf;fhL. me;jr; nrhy;iy tlnkhopapy; nkhopngaHj;j NghJ nrhy;ypd; nghUs; njupahJ MWfhL vdf; fUjp ,lhuz;ak; vd khw;wptpl;lhHfs;.  

,NjNghy; jpUehTf;furuhy; ghly;  ngw;w  jpUg;godk; Ngr;R tof;fpy; jpUg;gazk; vd;whfp> gpd; tlnkhopahsH jpU vd;gij = Mf;fp gazk; (gpuahzk;) vd;gjw;F ahj;jpiu vdj; jtwhfg; nghUs; nfhz;L gpu];jhdGup vd;W nkhopahf;fk; nra;J jpUg;godj;ij =gpu];jhdGup Mf;fp tpl;lhHfs;.

Nkl;^H cd;djGup MdJ.  KJFd;wk; tpUj;jhryk; MdJ. jpUkapiy kapyhg;G+H MdJ. fPupkiy vd;w jdpj; jkpo;g; ngaH eFNy];tuk; MdJ. ghyhw;iw ~Puejp vd khw;wpdhHfs;. jpUitahW  Ie;J MWfisf; nfhz;lnjd;w nghUspy; gQ;rejp vd khw;wpdhHfs;. ey;yfhykhf mJ jkpo;kf;fsplk; vLglhky; tof;nfhope;jJ.

tlnkhopg;gLj;jYf;F flTsH ngaUk; jg;gtpy;iy.  KUfd; ];fe;jh my;yJ Rg;gpukzpad;  MdhH. mq;faHf;fz;zp kPdhl;rp MdhH. nfhw;wit ghHtjp  MdhH. mofH Re;jNu];tuH MdhH. rptDf;F cupa jpUgod ehjH vd;w ngaiu =gpu];jhdGuP];tuH vd khw;wptpl;lhHfs;.

jkpOf;F ve;jg; ngUikAk; ,y;iy. vy;yhg; ngUikAk; tlnkhopf;Nf cz;nld;gjdhy; te;j tpid ,J. nkhopkhw;wk;$lg; gUthapy;iy. jkpoHfsJ gioa ngaHfis mopj;Jtpl;L ,opthd ngaHfisr; #l;b tpl;lhHfs;.

mit tlnkhopapy; ,Ug;gjhy; jkpoHfSf;F mtw;wpd; nghUs; njuptjpy;iy. ,uhtzd; md;we;j ,yq;ifia Mz;l kwj; jkpod;. Iapuz;L jpir Kfj;Jk; jd; Gfio itj;jtd;.  ",uhtzd; NkyJ ePW" vd;W rk;ge;jH nrhy;tjhy; jpUePWf;Fupa rpwg;Ng mJ ,uhtzd; Nkdpapy; ,Ug;gJjhd;. Mdhy; mtdJ jk;gpf;F tlnkhop ,jpfhrf;fhuH Fk;gfHzd; vdg; ngupl;Ls;sdH. Fk;gk; vd;why; Flk;. fHzd; vd;why; fhJfis cilatd;. Fk;gfHzd; vd;why; Flf;fhjd; mjhtJ Flk;Nghd;w fhJfis cilatd; vd;gJ nghUs;.

,uhtzdpd; JiztpahH  ngaH kz;Nlhjup vd;gJ. mJ mtsJ nrhe;jg; ngauy;y. thd;kPfpahH itj;j ngaH. mtspd; cz;ikahd jkpo;g; ngaH tz;lhHFoyp. tz;Lfs; nkha;j;J Muthupf;Fk; G+f;fszpe;j $e;jiyAilats; vd;gJ nghUs;.

thd;kPfpahH itj;j kz;Nlhjup vd;Dk; ngaupd; nghUs; vd;d? kz;L vd;why; ngupa> cjup-tapiw cilats;. mjhtJ ngupa tapiw cilats; vd ,opthd nghUs;jUk; ngaiu itj;Jtpl;lhH.

,uhtzdpd; mUikj; jq;ifapd; cz;ikahd ngaH fhkty;yp. mtSf;F thd;kPfpahH itj;j ngaH #Hg;gdif. #Hg;g vd;why; Kwk;. efh vd;why; gy;iyAilats;. Mf #Hg;gefh vd;why; 'Kwg;gy;yp' vd;w ,opthd nghUs;.

,d;W jkpoHfs; itj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;fpw ngaHfspy; njhz;ZhW tpOf;fhL tlnkhopg; ngaHfNs. guNk];tud; njhlf;fk; ghHtjptiu> Rg;gpukzpak;  njhlf;fk; Rg;Gy~;kp tiu vy;yhNk tlnkhop Nkyhz;ikapd; jhf;fj;jhy; Vw;gl;l ngaHfs;jhd;. tlnkhopapy; cs;s ngaHfspd; nghUs; njupahky; ,opthd nghUs;jUk; ngaHfisj; jkpoHfs; kpf;f kfpo;r;rpNahL itj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. jq;fs; gps;isfSf;Fk; itj;J tUfpwhHfs;.

Nfrtd; vd;why; kapuhd; vd;gJ nghUs;. tlnkhopapy; Nfrk; vd;why; kapH. 'ypq;fk;' vd;gJ jkpopy; Mz;Fwp vdg;gLk;. ,jid xl;Lr; nrhy;yhff; nfhz;L kfhypq;fk;> rptypq;fk;> ehfypq;fk;> tujypq;fk;> tpRtypq;fk; vd;nwy;yhk; ngaH itj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. NkYk; epNuh[d; vd;why; Nuhrkw;wtd; vd;W nghUs;. epNuh[p vd;why; Nuhrkw;wts; vd;W nghUs;.

nrd;id kUj;Jtf; fy;Yhupapy; NrHe;J gbg;gjw;F tlnkhop xU fl;lha ghlkhf 1935k; Mz;L tiu ,Ue;jpUf;fpwJ. ,J Mq;fpNyaH Ml;rpapYk; tlnkhopf;F ,Ue;j nry;thf;Ff;F vLj;Jf; fhl;lhFk;.

gj;njhd;gjhk; Ehw;whz;by; jkpopy; ntspte;j ehs;> fpoik> jpq;fs; VLfspd; ngaHfs; KOf;f KOf;f tlnkhopg; ngaHfshfNt ,Ue;jd. ,tw;wpy; xd;wpNyDk; kUe;Jf;Fk; jkpo;r; nrhy; ,lk; ngwtpy;iy.

murhq;f tHj;jkhdp (1802)

khrj;jpdr; rupij (1812)

Gdpj [hH[; nfrl; (1832)

,uhrtpUj;jp Nghjpdp (1833)

nghJrdgpurhuzp (1840)

cjajhuif (1841)

ew;Nghjfk; (1849)

jpdtHj;jkhdp (1855)

mkpo;jtrdp (1860)

tpNtfrpe;jhkzp (1860)

NjNrhgfhup (1861)

mUNzhjak; (1863)

rj;jpatHj;jkhdp (1870)

jpuhtpl tHj;jkhdp (1881)

jpNdhja tHj;jkhdp (1882)

NghHr;rj;jk; (1885)

rj;jpa NtjghJfhtyd; (1885)

yypj gpuNrhdjah (1887)

RFzNghjpdp (1888)

kfhtpfl Jhjd; (1888)

,e;J rhjdk; (1889)

ghypaH Nerd; (1891)

Njr ul;rpdp (1892)

gpuk;ktpj;jpah (1894)

RNjrkpj;jpud; (1900)

tpNehj tprpj;jpug; gj;jpupif (1900)

tHj;jkhd juq;fpzp (1904)

RtpNrr gpugy;a tHj;jkhdp (1904)

jkpo; ciueilapy; tlnkhop nfhz;bUe;j Nkyhz;ikia ghuj ntz;gh vd;w Ehypd; Kjw; ghlYf;Fr; nrhy;yg;gl;l fyg;G ciu ed;F vLj;Jf; fhl;LfpwJ.

khnyd;g jhk;gpd;id khy;tiuahd; khy;tpRk;gpd;
khypd; Gay;fhj;j khy;tz;zd;-khyutg;
NgNuhj Nkdpahd; NgNuhj ePHfile;jhd;
NgNuhj Nkdpad; NgH.

"MjpNtjKk; kfhNyhfKk; mz;luz;lKk; mtdpjtOk; Ntjtpahfuz Kd;dpl;l ehd;F fiyfSk; ehd;KfndhLk; jdJ jpUehgpf; fkyj;Nj gpwg;gpj;j gJkehgd; tpf;fpukkhad; rf;fughzp NjtNjtd; ehuhaz Rthkp =ghjq;fis ek];fupj;Njhk; vd;whthW."

ehd; jkpo;g; gs;spapy; gbf;Fk;NghJ tFg;gpy; MrpupaHfis "ek];fhuk;" nrhy;ypj;jhd; tuNtw;Nghk;. ek];fhuk; jdpj; jkpopyy;p tzf;fk; vd khw neLq;fhyk; vLj;jJ.

G+jj;jho;thH ,uz;lhe;jpUte;jhjp mUspatH. mjpy; xU ghlYk; (74) mjd; ciuAk;.

ahNd jtk;nra;Njd; Vo;gpwg;Gk; vg;nghOJk;
ahNd jtKilNad; vk;ngUkhs; - ahNd
,Ue;jkpo;ed; khiy ,izabf;Nf nrhd;Ndd;
ngUe;jkpod; ey;Nyd; ngupJ.
 

"ehNd jg];]_ gz;zpdtdhfpNwd;. jg];]pDila gyKilNaDk; ehNd. jg];]_k; jg];]pDila gyKk; cilatd; ehNd vd;fpwJ. vj;jhNy vdpy;> (ahNdapj;ahjp) tpy\zkhd jkpohfpw khiyiar; NrHe;j jpUtbfspNy nrhd;Ndd;. Mifahy; ngupajkpod;> kpfTk; ey;Nyd;." 

,e;jg; ghlYf;F ngupathr;rhd; gps;is mtHfSk; "t;ahf;fpahdk;" vOjpAs;shH. mJ gy;iy cilf;fpw kzpg;gpuths eilapy; vOjg;gl;bUf;fpwJ.  

",t;thj;khit ];t&ghE&gkhfj;  jpUtbfspNy mbik nfhs;Siff; Fupa vd;Dila epUghjp f]\p ahdtNd! ]fy[d;kq;fspYk; mJ jd;dpy; vy;yh mt];ijfspYk; cd; jpUtbfspNy thrpf ifq;fHak; gz;Zifahfpw  ,g;Ngw;Wf;F mbahd jg];i] gz;zpNdd; ehNd. gz;zpd me;jj; jg];]hy; gypf;Fk; gyj;ijg; ngw;WilNaDk; ehNd. me;jj; jggykhf te;j y\z y\;aq;fspw; Fiwtw;wpUf;Fk; ngUikiaAilj;jha; ]Hthjpfhukha; mj;ae;j tpy\zkhd j;uhtpl ]e;jHg;gq;isr; NrHj;jp aoik Ailj;jhd NjtH jpUtbfSf;Nf  nrhy;yg; ngw;Nwd; ehNd. j;uhtpl ]h];j;uj;jpy; vd;wid mtfh`pj;jhH ,y;iynad;Dk;gb mjpy; Nj]pfdh apUg;ghd; xUj;jd;> mt;tstd;wpf;;Nf. Vjj; ]hk fhae;eh];Nj vd;W ghq;fhd epyj;jpNyapUe;J ghbahb mbik nra;af;flt epj;a Kf;jiug; Nghyd;wpf;Nf. ,q;NfapUe;J ftpghlg;ngWifahNy mtHfspYk; kpfTk; ey;ytdhapUg;ghd; xUj;jd;."  

,ilf; fhyj;jpy; jkpo;nkhop mur Mjutpd;wp tlnkhop nts;sj;jhy; ms;Sz;L Nghfhky; vjpH ePe;jpf; fiu NrHe;jJ tpag;ghf ,Uf;fpwJ. (tsUk;)

 


 

 

rq;fk; tsHj;j jkpo;!

"Ngh[dk;' Mapw;wh? 'epNtjdk;' Mapw;wh?

(24)

Mapuj;J njhshapuj;J ehw;gjhk; Mz;L caHepiyg; gs;spfspy; gapw;W nkhop jkpohf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W muR KbntLj;J fiyr; nrhy;yhf;fj;jpw;F xU FOit mikj;jJ. nrd;id khfhzj; jkpo;r; rq;fr; rhHgpy; xU fiyr; nrhw; gl;baYk;> murpd; rhHgpy; xU fiyr; nrhw; gl;baYk; gs;spfSf;F mDg;gp itf;fg;gl;ld. ,e;j ,uz;by; xd;iw mtutH tpUg;gg;gb gad;gLj;jyhk; vdf; fy;tpj;Jiw mwptpj;jJ. murpd; fiyr;  nrhw;gl;baypy; jkpo; vg;gbf; 'nfhQ;rp' tpisahbaJ njupAkh?

        English                                                     jkpo;

    Interpolation                                mthe;ju fuzk;

    Inverse Ratio                                      tpNyhkjuhjuk;

    Approximation                                       mep\;fH\k;

    Adhesion                                               ];epf;jf;tk;

    Rider                                                      MNuh`fk;

    Buoyancy                                                cd; k[;[dk;

    Crystallization fractional                        gpd;d ];gbfPfuzk;

    Compensated Pendulum                       eptHj;jpNjh\ mtk;gyk;

    Hypotenuse                                             fHzk;

    Positive and negative numbers              jduhrp upzuhrp vz;fs;

    Ratio                               uPjpkhdk;

,e;j nkhop ngaHg;gpy; ,uz;Nl ,uz;L jkpo;r; nrhw;fs; kl;Lk; (khdk;> vz;fs;) gad;gLj;jg; gl;Ls;sd. vQ;rpait tlnkhopr; nrhw;fs;. tlnrhw;fisf; nfhz;L jkpopy; fiyr; nrhw;fis mikg;gjhy; jkpopd; moF nfLk;. ,e;jf; fiyr; nrhw; gl;bay; jahupj;j jkpo;g; giftHfsJ Nkyhz;ik ePbj;jpUe;jhy; jkpo;nkhop jg;gpg; gpioj;jpUf;fNt KbahJ. ghujpahH ftiyg;gl;lgb 'jkpo; nky;yr; nrj;jpUf;Fk;.'

ghujpahH Ehwhz;LfSf;F(1882-1921) Kd;dH tho;e;jtH. fy;tp nkhop jha;nkhopahd jkpopy; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W tpUk;gpatH. ,irj; jkpo; jkpopirahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W nrhd;dtH. ciueil Mq;fpyf; fyg;G ,y;yhJ jkpopy; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; nrhd;dhH. 'Njrpaf; fy;tp' (1920) vd;Dk; fl;Liuapy; Kbthf mtH vOjpapUg;gjhtJ>

"jkpo;ehl;by; Njrpaf; fy;tp eilngw Ntz;Lkhapd; mjw;F mfu Kjy; dfug; Gs;sp ,Wjpahf vy;yh t;at`huq;fSk; jkpo; ghi\apy; elj;j Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ nghUs;.

Muk;g tpsk;guk; jkpopy; g;uRuk; nra;a Ntz;Lk;. ghlrhiyfs; ];jhgpf;fg;gl;lhy; mq;F Ehy;fs; vy;yhk; jko; nkhop thapyhff; fw;gpf;fg;gLtJkd;wp gyif Fr;rp vy;yhtw;Wf;Fk; jkpopNyNa ngaH nrhy;y Ntz;Lk;. '];Nyl;'> 'ngd;rpy;' vd;W nrhy;yf; $lhJ."

ghujpahUf;F Mq;fpyr; nrhw;fis jkpohf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w vz;zk; ,Ue;jJNghy> tlnkhopr; nrhw;fisj; jkpohf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w MHtk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. fhuzk; mtH tho;e;j fhyj;jpy; tlnkhopr; nrhw;fSk; jkpOf;F Ntw;W nkhopr; nrhw;fNs vd;w vz;zk; NghjpasT fw;wtH kj;jpapy; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. mjdhy;jhd;  ghujpahH tlnkhopr; nrhw;fis rpwpjsT Mq;fhq;Nf gad;gLj;jpdhH. gpw;fhyj;jpy; mtuJ ghly;fspd; jiyg;G tlnkhopapy; ,Ue;J jkpo; khw;wk; nra;ag;gl;lJ.

    Ke;jpa jiyg;Gf;fs;           Gjpa jiyg;Gf;fs;

    te;Nj khjuk;                    ehl;L tzf;fk;

    khjhtpd; Jt[k;                 jhapd; kzpf;nfhb

    epfo;fpd;w `pe;J];jhdKk;         Nghfpd;w ghujKk;

    tUfpd;w `pe;J];jhdKk;          tUfpd;w ghujKk;

    GJ tU\k;                      thopa nre;jkpo;

    Rje;jpu jhfk;                    Rje;jpug; gapH

    gp[pj;jPtpNy `pe;J ];jpuPfs;        fUk;Gj; Njhl;lj;jpNy

mwpQH mz;zh mtHfs; jkpo; nkhopf;F xU Gjpa nkUifAk; moifAk; vOj;jpYk; Ngr;rpYk; toq;fpatH. Ngr;R Nkiliaj; jkpo;j; njd;wy; tPRk; Nrhiy  Mf;fpatH. nra;jp VLfisj; Njdilahf;fpatH. vOj;jpy; vJif Nkhid %yk; jkpio ,dpf;fr; nra;jtH. jdpj;jkpio tpUk;gpatH. gpwnkhopr;  NrHf;ifia ntWj;jtH. gpwnkhopr; NrHf;if Gupgtiu jLj;jpl Ntz;Lk; vd;W vLj;Jiuj;jtH.

"ehNd gy jlitfspy; Ngrpahd gpwFk; vOjpahd gpwFk; ,d;dpd;d nrhw;fSf;F ,d;dpd;d jkpo;r; nrhw;fisf; ifahz;L ,Uf;fyhk; vd;W vz;zp tUj;jKWtJ cz;L. vdpDk; jk;gp>vq;fs; %yk; eP ,t;tsTjhd; ngwyhk; - mjpfk; vjpHghHf;fhNj-Mdhy; cd;dhNy KbAk;. ,e;jf; FiwfisAk; fisa ehL cd;dplk; epr;rakhf mjpfk; vjpHghHf;fpwJ.

jkpo; ,dpik ngw ,uty; vw;Wf;Fg; ngwNtz;Lk;? Gs;spf; fyhgk; gilj;j kapYf;F thd;Nfhopr; rpwfhyhd Njhif juNtz;Lkh? fpsp moF ngw mjw;Fg; gr;ir tz;zk; G+r Ntz;Lkh?"

NguhrpupaH c.Nt. rhkpehjH ePUf;Fk;> neUg;Gf;Fk;>  rpjYf;Fk;  ,iuahfpf; nfhz;bUe;j rq;f ,yf;fpa Ehy;fis CH Cuhf miye;J Njbf; fz;L gpbj;J  mtw;iw gjpg;gpj;jtH vd;gJ cz;ikNa. mtH jkpo;nkhopf;F Mw;wpa njhz;Lf;F jkpo; $Wk; ey;Yyfk; vd;Wk; mtUf;F ed;wpAilajhf ,Uf;fpwJ. ,Ue;Jk; mtUf;F jdpj; jkpopy; ek;gpf;if ,Uf;ftpy;iy.

"rq;fj; jkpo; ed;whapUe;j njd;Wk; gpw;fhyj;jpy;  tlnkhopr;  rk;ge;jj;jhy; jkpo; nfl;L tpl;lnjd;Wk; rpyH nrhy;tH. gpw;fhyj;jpy; NtW ghi\fspd; rk;ge;jk; ngw;Wj; jkpo; mjpf ,dpik ngw;wpUf;fpwJ vd;gJ ngupNahH nfhs;if. "

jkpNohL tlnkhopiaf; fyg;gjhy; jkpo; mjpf ,dpik  ngw;wJ vd;gJ  nghUe;jhf; $w;whFk;. mtUf;F jdpj; jkpo;f; nfhs;ifapy; cld;ghL ,y;iy vd;gijNa ,J fhl;LfpwJ.

"NrhW jpd;whah" vd;W xU Vio Ntiyf;fhuidg; ghHj;Jf;  Nfl;fyhk;. Mdhy; mg;gbf; Nfl;gJ jkpod;W. jkpo; kugd;W. "Ngh[dk; Mapw;wh? 'epNtjdk; Mapw;wh? vd;W Nfl;gJk;> Jwtpfis 'gpi\~' Mapw;wh vd;W Nfl;gJk; rk;gpujhaq;fs;.

vd 'vJ jkpo; kuG' vd;Dk; jiyg;gpy; jpUr;rp  thndhypapy;   ciuahw;Wk;NghJ ( 21-09-41) c.Nt. rhkpehjH Fwpg;gpl;lhH. jkpo; kuGf;F mtH nfhLj;j 'tpsf;fk;' ,J. jkpo;ehl;by; $l jkpoHfsJ tPLfspy; "Ngh[dk; Mapw;wh? 'epNtjdk; Mapw;wh?' vd;W ahUk; Nfl;gjpy;iy. ,tw;iw vy;yhk; kdjpy; itj;Jj;jhd; NghYk; mwpQH mz;zh>

"jkpo;ehl;by; gpwe;Jk;> jkpo;nkhop gapd;Wk;> jkponudr; nrhy;ypf; nfhz;l NghjpYk; jkpo; nkhop %yk; gpioj;J te;jhYk; jkpopNy gz;bjnudg; gl;lk; ngw;whYk;> rq;f Ehy;  fw;whYk; ghHg;gdHfs; jkpoplj;jpNy gw;Wf; nfhs;tjpy;iy. mtHfs; jk; jha;nkhopnadf; fUJtjpy;iy. mtHfspd; vz;znky;yhk; tlnkhopahfpa rk];fpUjj;jpy;jhd;." (jpuhtpl ehL> 2-21-1947)

"gpw;fhyj;jpy; NtW ghi\fspd; rk;ge;jk; ngw;Wj; jkpo; mjpf ,dpik ngw;wpUf;fpwJ vd;gJ ngupNahH nfhs;if" vd;fpwhH c.Nt. rhkpehjH. ,e;jf; $w;wpy; cz;ikapUf;fpwjh?

"];j;uPfs; jkf;fp\;lkhd Ngiu tpthfk; nra;J nfhs;syhk;. tpthfk; nra;J nfhz;l GU\Df;F ];j;uP mbikapy;iy> capHj;Jiz tho;f;iff;F Cd;W Nfhy;. [PtdpNy xU gFjp rptDk; ghHtjpAk; Nghy> tp\;ZTk; y\;kpAk; NghNy> tp\;ZTk; rptDk; gu];guk; cijj;Jf; nfhz;ljhff; fij nrhy;Yk; ngha;g; Guhzq;fspNy y\;kpia mbj;jhnud;whtJ> rptd; ghHtjpia tpyq;F Nghl;L itj;jpUe;jhnud;whtJ fijfs; fpilah. rptd; ];j;uPia clk;gpNy ghjpahfj; jupj;Jf; nfhz;lhH..." (ghujpahH fl;Liufs;-gf;fk; )

"ngz;fs; jkf;F  tpUg;gkhd Jiztidj; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;syhk;. jpUkzk; nra;J nfhz;l JiztDf;F ngz; mbikapy;iy> capHj;Jiz tho;f;iff;F Cd;W Nfhy;. capupNy xU gFjp rptDk; cikak;ikAk; Nghy> jpUkhYk; jpUkfSk; NghNy> jpUkhYk; rptDk; xUtiunahUtH  cijj;Jf; nfhz;ljhff; fij nrhy;Yk; ngha;g; Guhzq;fspNy jpUkfis mbj;jhnud;whtJ> rptd; cikahis tpyq;F Nghl;L  itj;jpUe;jhnud;whtJ fijfs; fpilah. rptd; cikia clk;gpNy ghjpahf itj;Jf; nfhz;lhH..." (ghujpahH fl;Liufs;-gf;fk; )

ghujpahupd; ciueilapy; fhzg;gLk; tlnrhw;fis ePf;fp ey;y jkpopy; je;jpUf;fpNwd;. Kd;diutplg; gpe;jpaJ ,dpikahf ,Ug;gij vspjpy; mwpe;J nfhs;syhk;.

jpy;iyr; rpjk;guj;jpy; G+irapd;NghJ 'mk;gyj;Jf;Ff;" fPNo>  jpz;izf;Ff; fPo; epd;Nw XJthHfs; Njthuk; ghlNtz;Lk;. tlnkhop ke;jpuq;fSf;Fupa rkepiy jkpo;j; Njthuj;jpw;Fr; rpjk;guj;jpy; ,y;iy vd;gijf; fhl;lNt ,e;j Vw;ghL.

XJthH tuhj ,lj;J jPl;rjH Njthuk; ghbdhYk; fPo; ,wq;fp epd;Nw ghl Ntz;Lk;. mz;ikapy; MWKfrhkp vd;w rptgf;jH 'mk;gyj;jpy;' epd;W jkpopy;  jpUthrfk; ghl cupik Nfl;Lg; ngupa Nghuhl;lNk elhj;jpdhH. Mdhy; jPl;rjfHfs; xt;nthUKiwAk; mtH ghlte;j NghJ  mtuJ fOj;ijg;  gpbj;J ntspNa js;sp mbj;J cijj;J kUj;Jt kidf;F mDg;gp itj;jhHfs; ('fy;fp' 4-06-2000). jpy;iytho; jPl;rjfHfs; jkpOf;Fr; nra;Ak; 'Kjy; kupahij' ,J.

jpy;iyapy;jhd; khLjpd;Dk; Giyad;  ee;jd; Nrhjpapy; fye;jjhfg; ngupa Guhzk; nrhy;fpwJ. me;j neUg;G ,d;Dk; mizahky; ,Ug;gijNa rptgf;juhd MWKfrhkpf;Ff; fpilj;j 'khiy kupahij' njuptpf;fpwJ.

jpy;iyr; jPl;rjfHfs; mk;gyj;jpy;;; epd;W jkpopy; jpUthrfk;  ghLtij Vd; vjpHf;f Ntz;Lk;? jpUthrfk; gd;dpU jpUKiwapy; vl;lhtJ jpUKiw  Mapw;Nw? jkpOk; rk];fpUjKk; rptdpd; cLf;ifapy; ,Ue;J gpwe;jJ vd;gJjhNd Guhzk;? jkpio mfj;jpaUf;Fk;> rk];fpUjj;ijg; ghzpdpf;Fk; rptd; nrhy;ypf; nfhLj;jhH vd;gJjhNd IjPfk;? mg;gb ,Uf;f jPl;rjfHfs; jkpio kl;Lk; Vd; Gwf;fzpf;f Ntz;Lk;? mk;gyj;jpy; epd;W jpUthrfk; gbj;jhy; rptdhH Nfhgpj;Jf; nfhs;thuh vd;d?

"Mupad; fz;lha; jkpod; fz;lha;
mz;zh kiyAiw mz;zy; fz;lha;"

vd;WjhNd jpUehTf;furH jpUkiwf;fhL jpUj;jhz;lfj;jpy; ghLfpwhH. mtNu jpUthtLJiwj; jpUj;jhz;lfj;jpy; "nre;jkpNohlhupaidr; rPupahid" vdg; Nghw;WfpwhH. NkYk; khzpf;fthrfH "jz;zhH jkpospf;Fk; jz;ghz;b ehl;lhid" vd;W rptidr; rpwg;gpf;fpwhH.

"jkpo;r;nrhy; tlnrhy; ntDgpt; tpuz;Lk;
czHj;Jktid AzuYkhNk"

vd jpU%yH jpUke;jpuj;jpy; nrg;GfpwhH. "RlHf;flTs; je;j jkpo; je;jhd;" vd;W fk;gH rptNd jkpioj; je;jtd; vd;fpwhH.

,tw;iwnay;yhk; jpy;iyj; jPl;rfHfs; xj;Jf; nfhs;tjpy;iy. mtHfspd; jkpo;g; gfik Kjyhk; ,uhruhrd; fhyj;jpy; (985-1014) epfo;e;jjhfr; nrhy;yg;gLk; xU epfo;r;rpapdhYk; njupatUfpwJ.

mg;gH> rk;ge;jH> Re;juH Mfpa %tUk; ghba Njthug; gjpfq;fs; nkhj;jk;  96>000 vd;W nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ. ,tw;wpy; xU rpyNt ,uhruhrd; fhyj;jpy; Nfhtpy;fspy;  ghlg;gl;L tof;fpypUe;jd. vQ;rpa gjpfq;fs; mlq;fpa VLfis jpy;iyj; jPl;rfHfs; jpy;iyak;gyj;jpy; XH miwf;Fs; ,l;Lg; G+l;btpl;ldH. ,jid mwpe;Jnfhz;l ,uhruhrd; mt;tiwf; fjitj; jpwf;fr; nrhd;dhd;. jPl;rfHfs; kWj;J tpl;lhHfs;. "%tUk; Neupy; te;jhy; kl;LNk miwf; fjitj; jpwf;f KbAk;" vdr; nrhd;dhHfs;.  ,uhruhrd; xU #o;r;rp nra;J miwf; fjitj; jpwg;gpj;jhd;. rpjy; mupj;j xU Vl;Lf; Ftpay; fhl;rpaspj;jJ. clNd xU thDiu (mruPup) "muNr! ftyw;f> ,f;fhyj;Jf;F Ntz;batw;iw kl;Lk; itj;Jf; nfhz;L> Ntz;lhjtw;iw nay;yhk; ehNk rpjy; mupf;f tpl;Nlk;!" vd;W nrhd;dJ. '#j;jpu' Nte;jd; epyj; Njtiu ,d;WNghy md;Wk; xd;Wk; nra;a Kbatpy;iy.

jpy;iyr; jPl;rjfHfs; jkpio xJf;Ftjw;F cz;ikahd fhuzk; tlnkhop Mjpf;fk; xope;jhy; gpuhkzHfspd; caHrhjp epyikAk;> mtHfspd; nry;thf;Fk;> VfNghf cupikAk; xope;J NghFk; vd;gNj. jkpo; mHr;ridia gpuhkzHfs; vjpHg;gjw;Fk; ,JNt fhuzkhFk;. midj;Jr; rhjpapdUk; mHr;rfuhfyhk; vd;gij gpuhkzHfs; vjpHg;gjw;Fk; ,JNt fhuzkhFk;. ,itnahd;Wk; "rpjk;gu ufrpak;' my;y. ,dTzHTk; jd;khdKk; mw;w jkpoHfs; ,e;j ,opTfis kfpo;r;rpNahL Vw;Wf; nfhs;fpwhHfs;!  "rq;fj; jkpOk; gpw;fhyj; jkpOk; (gf;fk;184)

(tsUk;)

 


 

rq;fk; tsHj;j jkpo;!

rq;f fhyj;Jf;Fg; gpd;dH jkpo; jho;Tw;wJ

(25)

"irtKk; jkpOk;  jkpoHfSf;F ,U fz;fs; Nghd;wJ.   irtk; ,y;iyNay; jkpo; ,y;iy! jkpo; ,y;iyNay; irtk; ,y;iy" vd;W ehSk; nghOJk; Nkilfspy; irtg; gz;bjHfs;> irtg;  GytHfs; Nghd;Nwhupd; Koq;FfpwhHfs;.     

jkpo; ,sik vd;Wk; Fd;whJ thOk; nkhop. rk];fpUjk; ,we;j nkhop. ,Ue;Jk; vd;d? rk];fpUj nkhopNa njhlHe;J 'Njt ghi\' vd;W fhQ;rpGuk; fhkNfhb gPlhjpgjp rq;fuhr;rhupahH n[Nae;jpuru];tjp Rthkpfs; njhlf;fk; rpjk;guk; jPl;rfHtiu ,d;Wk; nfhz;lhlg; gLfpwJ.

,e;jpa muR 1999-2000Mk; Mz;Lf; fhyg; gFjpia  'rk];fpUj' Mz;lhf  mwptpj;jJ. ghyH tFg;Gj; njhlq;fp gy;fiyf; fofk;tiu rk];fpUj nkhop gbg;gjw;F  ghlj; jpl;lk; itf;f Vw;ghLfs; nra;ag;gl;ld.   

,jid ghuj ehl;bd; gpujkH th[;gha; jpy;ypapy; cs;s cyf rk];fpUj khehl;by; NgRk;NghJ njuptpj;jhH. ,e;j khehL 22-04-2001 njhlq;fp 5 ehl;fs; ele;jJ.  NkYk; mtH NgRifapy; "rk];fpUjk; nrj;j nkhop my;y (kupj; ghi\ efp)> 'mKjk;'  Nghd;w nkhop (mkpHj ghi\). rk];fpUjj;ijg; gpugyg; gLj;j muR  jd;dhy; ,ad;w midj;Jk; nra;Ak;. rk];fpUjj;jpy; cs;s ,yf;fzj;ij vspikahf;fp mijg; ghkuUk; Gupe;J nfhs;Sk;  tz;zk; vspa Ngr;R nkhopahf;f Ntz;Lk;" vdf; Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lhH.

xU cz;ikia kl;Lk; gpujkH th[;gha; kiwf;ftpy;iy. rk];fpUje;jhd; ,e;jpa nkhopfs; mj;jidf;Fk;  jha;nkhop jkpioj; jtpu vd;gNj me;j cz;ik. (njYq;F. fd;dlk;> kiyahsk;> JS Nghd;w jpuhtpl nkhopfSf;Fk; rk];fpUjk; jha; nkhop my;y. mit jkpopy; ,Ue;J gpupe;J Nghdit.)

1552Mk; vLf;fg;gl;l kf;fs;njhiff; fzf;fpd;gb ,e;jpahtpy; rk];fpUj nkhop NgRNthH vz;zpf;if vz;zp 555 NgH! 1971 ,y; 2212> 1981 ,y; 6106> 1991 ,y; 49>736  NgUk; NgRtjhf nrhy;yg;gl;lhYk; ,J ,e;jpa kf;fs; njhifapy; ntWk;  0.01 tpOf;fhLjhd;. ,Ue;Jk; rk];fpUjj;jpd; tsHr;rpf;F kj;jpa muR Nfhbf; fzf;fpy; gzj;ijr; nrytopf;fpwJ.

mfpy ,e;jpa thndhypapy; 49>736 kf;fSf;fhf xt;nthU ehSk;  15 epkplq;fs; ePbf;Fk; rk];fpUj nkhopr; nra;jp %d;W Kiw xypgug;gg; gLfpwJ!

jkpo;ehL muR 2001k; Mz;il jkpo; Mz;lhf mwptpf;Fk;gb  jpy;yp muirf; Nfl;lJ. mJ nrtpld; fhjpy; Cjpa rq;fhfptpl;lJ.

mz;ikapy; ,e;jpa uh[rghtpy; jkpo;ehl;ilr; NrHe;j ehlhSkd;w xU cWg;gpdH jkpopy; Ngr Kd;dwptpj;jy; nfhLj;jhH. Mdhy; mtUf;F mitj; jiytH jkpopy; Ngr mDkjp nfhLf;f kWj;J tpl;lhH. khwhf cWg;gpdiu Mq;fpyj;jpy; NgRkhW tw;GWj;jpdhH. mit tpjpfspd;gb jkpopy; Ngrg; NghFk; tplak;gw;wpa gpopit cWg;gpdH Vw;fdNt Mq;fpyj;jpy; vOjpf; nfhLj;jpUe;jhH. ,Ue;Jk; mtUf;Fj; jkpopy; Ngr mDkjp kWf;fg;gl;lJ. jkpo;ehL ehlhSkd;w cWg;gpdHfs; fl;rp Ntw;Wikia kwe;J jkpopy; Ngr mDkjpf;FkhW xU Nghuhl;lk; elj;jpa gpd;dNu njhlHGila cWg;gpdH jkpopy; Ngr mDkjpf;fg;gl;lhH!

ehlhSkd;wj;jpy; xU cWg;gpdH vOe;J epd;W rk];fpUj nkhopapy; NgrpapUe;jhy; mtiu mitj; jiytH jLj;jpUf;f KbAkh vd;gJ IaNk! xUNtis mg;gbj;  jLj;jpUe;jhy; tlehl;L ehlhSkd;w cWg;gpdHfs; nfhjpj;J vOe;jpUg;ghHfs;.

Nkw;$wpait  ,e;jpahtpy; ,we;jgpwFk; rk];fpUjj;jpw;F ,Uf;Fk; nry;thf;ifAk; vd;WKs njd;jkpOf;F ,Uf;Fk; nry;thf;fpd;ikiaAk; Jy;ypakhf vLj;Jf; fhl;LfpwJ.

filr;rq;f fhyj;jpy; Ie;Ehw;Wf;Fk; mjpfkhd jkpo;g;GytHfs; ,Ue;jpUf;fpwhHfs;.  ,jpy; ngz;ghw; GytHfs; gyuhtH. ,J fy;tp ,UghyhUf;Fk; ,Ue;jij vLj;Jf; fhl;LfpwJ. FwpnaapdpahH> ntz;zpf; Faj;jpahH> Fwkfs;  ,sntapdpahH>  Nga;kfs; ,sntapdpahH> fhtw;ngz;L> ghupkfspH> mt;itahH Nghd;NwhHfs; ngz;ghy;  GytHfs; MtH. ftpghLk; jpwk; ,y;yhj  gyUk; rq;f fhyj;jpy; kpFjpahf ,Ue;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. mj;Jizg; goq;fhyj;jpy; ,t;tsT vz;zpf;ifAila ngz;ghy; GytHfs; Ntnwe;jehl;bYk; ,Ue;jpUf;f KbahJ.

md;W mur gs;spfs; ,Ue;jjhf ve;jr; rhd;Wk; ,y;iy. mtw;Wf;F khdpak; nfhLj;jjhfTk; rhd;wpy;iy. GytHfs; jkpio FUFy Kiwapy; jpz;izapYk;> kuj;jbapYk;> CH mk;gyj;jpYk; khzhf;fHfSf;Fr; nrhy;ypf; nfhLj;jhHfs;.  

rq;ffhyg; GytHfsJ ngaHfs; rpy mtHfs; gs;sp MrpupaHfshf ,Ue;jijr; Rl;bf;fhl;Lfpd;wd. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf 'kJiuf; fzf;fhadhH'>  'kJiuahrpupaH ey;yj;JdhH'> 'kJiug;ghyhrpupaH Nre;jq; nfhw;wdhH'> 'kJiug;ghyhrpupaH ew;whkdhH'> 'kJiug;ghyhrpupaH eg;ghydhH'> 'fzpad; G+q;Fd;wf;'> fplq;fpy; Fygjp ef;fz;zdhH' Nghd;NwhHfisf; Fwpg;gplyhk;.

,t;thrpupaHfs; vz;Zk; vOj;Jk; fw;gpj;jdH. jpUts;Stupd; 'vz;nzd;g Vid vOj;njd;g ,t;tpuz;Lk; fz;nzd;g thOk; capHf;F" vd;w Fws;> mt;itahupd; 'vz;Zk; vOj;Jk; fz;nzdj; jFk;' vd;w nfhd;iw Nte;jd;> mjptPuuhk ghz;badpd; 'fw;if ed;Nw fw;if ed;Nw gpr;ir GFdpk; fw;if ed;Nw" vd;w ntw;wp Ntw;if> Mupag;gil fle;j neLQ;nropadpd; "cw;Wop cjtpAk; cWnghUs; nfhLj;Jk; gpw;iw epiy KdpahJ fw;wy; ed;Nw' vd;w Gwg;ghly; (183) Nghd;wit goe;jkpoHfs; fy;tpf;Ff; nfhLj;j rpwg;ig vLj;Jf; fhl;Lfpd;wJ.

jpUehTf;fur ehadhH (fp.gp 7k; Ehw;whz;L) vz;Zk; vOj;Jk; fw;gpf;fg;gl;ld vdf; $Wfpd;whH.

vz; mtd; fhz; vOj;jtd; fhz;
,d;gf; Nfs;tp ,iratd; fhz;          (Mwhk; jpUKiw)

'fw;wJ ifkz;zsT fy;yhjJ cyfsT'> 'fy;tp fiuapy fw;gtH ehs;  rpy'>  "kf;fisf; fy;yh tsutply; jPJ' vd;w GytHfs; $w;Wf;fSk; fy;tpapd; rpwg;ig nrhy;fpd;wd.

NkYk; XNu tapw;wpy; gpwe;jhYk; fy;tpr; rpwg;gpd; fhuzkhf jhapd; kdk; NtWgLk; vd;Wk;> xU Fbg; gpwe;j gy;NyhUs;Sk; %j;Njhd; tUf vd;dhJ mwpTilNahd; nrd;w newpapNyNa muRk; nry;Yk; vd;Wk;> Ntw;Wik njupe;j ehd;F Fyj;Js;Sk; fPo;f; Fyj;jtd; fw;gpd; Nkw;ghnyhUtDk; mtd;fz; gLthd; vd;Wk; mNj Gwg;ghly; (183) njuptpf;fpwJ.

jpUts;StH fy;tp. fy;yhik> Nfs;tp>  mwpTlik>  nrhy;td;ik vdf; fy;tpapd; rpwg;ig jdp mjpfhuq;fs; %yk; tw;GWj;jpAs;shH.

kd;dtDf;F jd; Cupy; kl;Lk; rpwg;G> fw;wtHf;F nrd;wtplk; vy;yhk; rpwg;G vd;w $w;Wk; fy;tpahy; xUtd; cyfg; Gfo;ngw KbAk; vd;gij vLj;Jf; fhl;LfpwJ.

"fy;yh xUtd; Fyeyk; NgRjy; ney;ypDs; gpwe;j gjuhFNk" vd;w $w;W fy;tpiaf; fw;fhj xUtd;> jdJ Fyj;jpd; ngUikiag; gw;wpg; NgRtJ>  new;gapupy; Njhd;wpa gjHNghyg; gadw;wjhFk; vd ,fog;gLfpwJ.

goq;fhyj;jpy; Ngnuz;fisf; Fwpf;f  jhkiu> nts;sk;> Mk;gy; vd;w nrhw;fis Mz;ldH. tpy;tpGj;Jhuho;thH gilapd; vz;zpf;ifiaf; Fwpf;f gj;Jnts;sk; vd;w nrhy;iyg; gad;gLj;JfpwhH. xd;W Kjy; Nfhbtiu vz;z mwpe;jpUe;jdH.

rpw;nwz;fis fhy; (1/4)  miuf;fhy; (1/8)  tPrk;    my;yJ khfhzp (1/16), kh (1/20) fhzp (1/80) Ke;jpup (1/320) ,k;kp (1/320x1/7) vdf; Fwpg;gpl;ldH. ,k;kpapy; Vopy; xU gq;if mZ vd;Wk;> mjpy; gjpndhd;wpy; xU gq;if Kk;kp vd;Wk;>  mjpy;  xd;gjpy; xU gq;iff; Fdk; vd;Wk; Fwpj;Jf; fzf;fpl;ldH.

goq;fhyj;jpy; gidNahiyapy; vOj;jhzpahy; vOjpdH. mjdhy; Xiyf; filfNs md;W ,Ue;jpUf;fpd;wd. xU Gytupd; ngaH Xiyf;filaj;jdhH. mtH Xiyf;fil itj;jpUe;jjhy; me;jg; ngaH mtUf;F te;jJ.

Xiyr;Rtb>  vOj;jhzp> czT> cil  mspj;jiyr; rpwe;j mwkhf gjpnzz;fzf;F Ehy;fspy; xd;whd Vyhjpr; nra;As; Fwpf;fpwJ.

nrd;id mur fPo;j;jpirr; Rtbfs; Ehyfj;jpy; 400 Mz;Lfs; goik tha;e;j jpUf;Fws; mw;iwQhd;W ciuAld; ghJfhf;fg; gl;bUf;fpwJ. jpUf;Fwis kpFe;j nghWg;GlDk; mf;fiwAlDk; vOj;jhzpahy; Xiyfspy; vOjpitj;Jg; ghJfhj;jij ,J fhl;LfpwJ.

,g;gbg; GytHfshYk; fw;wtHfshYk; jpUf;Fws;> njhy;fhg;gpak; Nghd;w  Ehy;fs; Nghw;wpf; fhf;fg;gl;ljhy; mit moptpypUe;J jg;gpd. mg;gbg; Nghw;wg;glhj  Vl;Lr; Rtbfs; fhy nts;sj;;jpy; mope;J Nghapd. Mdhy; jpUf;Fws; Nghd;w Ehy; ngUk;ghd;ikf; fy;tp fy;yhj nghJkf;fisr; nrd;wilatpy;iy. GytHfNshL epd;W tpl;lJ.

fw;NwhH gyUk; kdg; ghlkhfNt gy Ehw;fisf; fw;W itj;jpUg;gH. vdNt xUtuplj;jpy; cs;s ghlk; ,d;ndhUtUf;Ff; fpilg;gJ mupjhf ,Ue;jJ. fw;gtH xd;Wf;F Nkw;gl;l MrpupaHfsplk; nrd;W fw;f Ntz;bapUe;jJ.  

gpw;fhyj;jpy; fy;tp nghJf; fy;tpahfTk;> nghJkf;fs; fy;tpahfTk; tsutpy;iy. INuhg;gpaH tuT tiu fy;tp vd;gJ rk];fpUj fy;tpahfTk;> mJ  gpuhkzHf;Nf cupa fy;tpahfTk; ,Ue;jJ. nghJ kf;fsplk; mJ Ngha;r; NruNt ,y;iy.

rq;f fhyj;jpYk; rq;fk; kUtpa fhyj;jpYk;  fw;w jkpoH  gpw;fhyj;jpy; fw;fhky; Nghdjw;Ff; fhuzk; jkpofk; te;j MupaH jkpoH fy;tp ngwhky; ,Uf;FkhW ghHj;Jf; nfhz;ldH!

1947 Mk; Mz;L ,e;jpah Rje;jpuk;ngw;w NghJ jkpo;ehl;by; vOjg; gbf;fj; njupe;j jkpoHfsJ tpOf;fhL 10 tpOf;fhL kl;LNk!

fy;tpapw; ngupa fk;gd;> ntz;ghtpw;Fg; GfNoe;jp>  xl;lf;$j;jH>  jpUr;rpw;wk;gyf;  ftpuhaH> Nrf;fpohH> mUzfpup Nghd;NwhH ,Ue;jdH. Mdhy; ,tHfs; Gweil. nghJeil my;y.

jkpo;ehl;by; fy;jr;rHfshy; ntl;lg;gl;l fy;ntl;Lf;fspy; mNef vOj;Jg; gpiofs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. mjw;Ff; fhuzk; mij vOjpatHfSf;Fg; Nghjpa fy;tp mwpT ,y;yhikNa!

(tsUk;)


 

rq;fk; tsHj;j jkpo;!

jkpopd; ,d;iwa kPl;rp

(26)

 

MWKf ehtyH jkpio Kjypy; (1846) jdJ tPl;Lj; jpz;izapNyNa nrhy;ypf; nfhLf;fj; njhlq;fpdhH. jkpo; fw;gpf;Fk; mthtpdhy; khzhf;fHfsplk; ve;j NtjdKk; thq;fhJ ghlq;fisr; nrhy;ypf; nfhLj;jhH. mjd; gpd;dNu tz;zhHgz;izr; irtg;gpufhr tpj;jpahrhiy irtj;jkpo;f; fy;tpapd; Nkk;ghl;Lf;fhf Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ.

 

ehtyuJ khzhf;fHfspy; xUtH tpj;JtrpNuhkzp nghd;dg;gygps;is.   ,tH ehtyuJ kUkfDk; MthH. ehtyupd; gpd; tpj;jpahrhiy mjpguhf ,Ue;jtH. ,tuJ Gfo; mg;NghJ ngUkstpw; FlhehL kw;Wk; jkpo;ehL  vq;Fk; gutp ,Ue;jJ. jkpo;ehl;by; ,Ue;J mtuplk; fy;tp fw;f khzhf;fHfs; te;J nrd;whHfs;. me;jf; fhyj;jpy; nghd;dk;gygps;is ,lk; ghlk; Nfl;fhj gbj;jtHfs; ,y;iynad;Nw nrhy;yyhk;. mtH fy;tp fw;gpf;Fk; Kiwapidg; gpd;tUk; $w;W tpsf;FfpwJ>  

 

"nghd;dk;gygps;is elkhLk; rHtfyhrhiyahf tpsq;fpdhH. njUf;fs;> jpz;izfs;> Fsf;fl;Lfs;> kuepoy;fs; vy;yhk; nghd;dk;gygps;is ghlk; nrhy;Yk; ,lq;fs;."

 

ehtyUf;Fg; gpd;dH irtj; njhz;Lk; jkpo;j; njhz;Lk; Mw;Wk; tha;g;Gf; fpilj;jtH m. Fkhurhkpg; GytH MthH. ,UgJ Mz;Lfs; mt;tpj;jpahrhiyapy; njhz;lhw;wpatH. GytuJ tPl;by; ,Ue;J tpj;jpahrhiy MW fy; Jhuj;jpy; cs;sJ. mtH mq;F NghFk;NghJk; tUk;NghJk; khztH Gil#o;e;J ghlq;Nfl;l tz;zkpUg;gH. mjdhy; mtiu "elkhLk; fiyf; fsQ;rpak;' vd vy;NyhUk; me;jf; fhyj;jpy; mioj;jdH.

 

tp;j;jpahrhiyapy; ,Ue;J nfhf;Ftpy; tiu Fjpiutz;bapy; Vw;wpr; nrd;W ,wf;Fk;tiu rghuj;jpd KjypahH Gytuplk; jkJ ,yf;fpa> ,yf;fzr; re;Njfq;fisf; Nfl;ghH. nfhf;Ftpypy; ,Ue;J jhtbtiu NtNwhH $l;lk; ghlk; Nfl;Fk;. gpd; mq;fpUe;J kUjapdhH klk; tiu ghlq; Nfl;Fk;. kUjapdhH klj;jpy; ,Ue;J  Rd;dhfk; NghFk; tiu ghlq;Nfl;NghH ,y;yhjjhy; nra;As; ,aw;Wtjpy; <LgLthH.

 

me;jf; fhyj;jpy; Kjypy; jpz;izg; gs;spf;$lk; gpd;dH tpj;jpahrhiy vd;gNj tof;fkhf ,Ue;jJ. fy;tp fw;wy; Jd;gkhf ,Ue;jJ. ehs; NjhWk; gy fy; njhiyT elf;f Ntz;bapUe;jJ. njhiytpy; cs;s fhiujPtpy; ,Ue;J$l  khzhf;fHfs; ele;J te;J ghlk; fw;whHfs;.

 

jpz;izg; gs;spf;$lj;jpy; rl;lk;gpahH jdJ khzhf;fHfSf;Fg; gbg;gpj;Jf; nfhLj;j ghlq;fs; vit? fe;jGuhzk;> ngupaGuhzk;> ,yf;fzk;> epfz;L> jHf;fk;> fzpjk; Nghd;w ghlq;fs; nrhy;ypf; nfhLf;fg;gl;ld. ehs;NjhWk; xU jpz;izg;gs;spapy; Ik;gJ NgUf;Ff; Fiwahky; tFg;Gfspy; gq;Fnfhz;L fy;tp  gapd;wdH.

 

ehtyH fhyj;jpNy jkpo;nkhopapd; epiyik ngUikg;glf; $bajhf ,Uf;ftpy;iy. Vl;Lr; Rtbfshf ,Ue;j Ehy;fs; tpj;Jthd;fs;> gz;bjHfs;> GytHfs;> MjPdq;fspd; jk;gpuhd;fs; Nghd;Nwhuplk; Klq;fpf; fple;jd. khztHfs; Ehy;fisg; ngw;Wg; gbg;gJ vd;gJ tpy;yq;fkhf ,Ue;jJ.

 

VLfis itj;jpUe;NjhH mtw;wpd; nghUspid mwpahjNghJk; mtw;iwf; fw;NghUf;Fk; nfhLf;f kdkpy;yhJ ,Ue;jhHfs;. kpFe;j rpukg;gl;L mtHfsplk; VLfis thq;fpNahH mtw;iw $ba kl;Lk; gpio gLj;jptpl;Nl jpUg;gpf; nfhLj;jdH.

 

xU GytNuh my;yJ tpj;JthNdh jhd; fw;Fk; fhyj;jpy; vOjp itj;j Ehw; Fwpg;Gfisr; rhFk; jWthapy;  jkf;F Kd;Nd nfhz;L te;J vupj;Jg; NghlNtz;Lk; vd;W vupg;gpj;;J me;jf; fhl;rpiaf; fz;fshy; fz;l  gpd;dNu capiu tpl;ldH.  

 

jkpo;ehl;by; jkpo; Xiyr; Rtbfis itif> fhNtup Mw;Wg; ngUf;fpd;NghJ mjpy; vwpe;jdH. mg;gbr; nra;jy; Nghfpw ,lj;Jf;Fg; Gz;zpak; vd;W jkpo;g; giftHfs; nrhy;ypf; nfhLj;jjhy; tpise;j NfL ,J.

 

goq;fhyk; njhl;L ,d;Wtiu %d;W epiyfspy; jkpo; tsHe;jpUf;fpwJ. mit:

 

    (1) fhL tsHj;j jkpo;

 

    (2) ifths; tsHj;j jkpo;

 

    (3) ehL tsHj;j jkpo;

 

fhL vd;gJ KdptHfs; rpj;jHfisf; Fwpf;Fk;. jj;Jtk;> ePjp> kUj;Jtk; Nghd;w Jiwfspy; mtHfs; mf;fiw nrYj;jp tsHj;jdH.

 

ifths; vd;gJ murHfisf; Fwpf;Fk;. murHfs; jq;fs; Gfo; fhuzkhfTk;> el;Gf; fhuzkhfTk; GyNthiu Mjupj;jdH. jq;fs; kPJk;  jhk; tpUk;Gk; flTsH kPJk; gpuge;jq;fs; vOjr; nra;jdH.

 

ehL vd;gJ MF ngaH. kf;fisf; Fwpf;Fk;. kf;fs; ghb kfpo;e;j ehl;Lg; ghly;fs;> jhyhl;L> CQ;ry;> Fk;kp> xg;ghup Kjypad jkpio tsHj;jd.

 

gy;ytUk; NrhoUk; tlnkhopf; fy;tpf;F Cf;fk; mspj;jJNghy; jkpo;nkhopf;F Cf;fk; mspf;fhtpl;lhYk; jkpo;nkhop tsuNt nra;jJ.

 

tp[aefu ehaf;fuhl;rp jkpofj;jpy; epytpaNghJ jkpio tsHf;f jkpo;g; GutyH ,Uf;ftpy;iy. Ms;NthH njYq;F nkhopf;Nf Vw;wk; nfhLj;jdH. vdNt maytH Ml;rpapy; jkpo; rka klq;fsplk; jQ;rk; mile;jJ. mq;fpUe;J rka ,yf;fpaKk;> jj;Jt Ehy;fSk;> jyGuhzq;fSk; Njhd;wpd.

 

,e;jg; gzpapy; jpUthtLJiw MjPdk;> jUkGu MjPdk;> jpUg;gde;jhs; MjPdk;> kJiu MjPdk; tfpj;j gq;F Nghw;Wjw;FupaJ. ,k;klq;fisr; rhHe;J mike;j fy;tp epiyaq;fspy; gyH jkpOk; rkaKk; fw;W caHe;jhHfs;. khjtr; rptQhd Nahfpfs;> kPdhl;rp Re;juk;gps;is> c.Nt. rhkpehja;aH Nghd;NwhH ,k;klq;fspy; ,Ue;J jkpo; tsHj;jdH.  mJ kl;Lk; my;yhJ gioa Vl;Lr; Rtbfisf; fhj;j ngUikAk; ,k; klq;fisNa rhUk;.

 

,JfhWk; $wpatw;why; jkpo;nkhop njhd;ik Kd;ik> Jha;ik tha;ik> ,sik tsik> cz;ik Ez;ik> jdpik ,dpik tha;e;jnjd;Wk;  mjidg; GytHfSk; ftpQHfSk;> ehad;khHfSk; Mo;thHfSk;> mUzfpupahUk; FkuFUguUk; Kj;jkpo; ew;wkpo;> nre;jkpo; ige;jkpo;>  tz;lkpo; jz;lkpo;> xz;lkpo; jz;zhH jkpo;> jPe;jkpo; G+e;jkpo;>  Njd;jkpo; thd;jkpo;>  ,d;jkpo; njd;jkpo;> ge;jkhHjkpo; re;;jkhHjkpo;> mUe;jkpo; ,Ue;jkpo; vd;nwy;yhk; jkpiof; nfhQ;rpf; Fyhtpaijg; ghHj;Njhk;.

 

rq;f fhyj;jpy; jkpo; ngw;wpUe;j Vw;wKk;> gpw;fhyj;jpy; tlnkhopapd; Mjpf;fj;jhy; njd;jkpo;nkhop mile;j jho;r;rpAk;> gpd;dhy; ghujp> ghNte;jH ghujpjhrd;> kiwkiy mbfs;> fy;Lnty; Nghd;Nwhuhy; nre;jkpo;  ngw;w kPl;rpiaAk; fz;Nlhk;. ,dp jkpo; ,yf;fpa tuyhWgw;wp tpupthfg; ghHg;Nghk;.  mjw;F Kd;dH jkpo;ehl;bd; tuyhWgw;wp xU gUe;Jg; ghHit. ,yf;fpa tuyhw;iw jkpo;ehl;bd; tuyhw;Wg; gpd;Gwj;jpy; itj;Jg; ghHg;gJ nghUj;jkhfTk; rpwg;ghfTk; ,Uf;Fk; vd;W epidf;fpNwd;.

 

jkpo;ehl;bd; tuyhW njhlHr;rpahfTk; NfhHitahfTk; vOjg;gltpy;iy vd;gJ xU frg;ghd cz;ik. jkpo;ehLgw;wpa tuyhW kl;Lky;y ,e;jpa tuyhW$l xOq;fhf vOjg; gltpy;iy. tuyhw;W epfo;r;rpfis VLfspy; vOjp itf;Fk; gof;fk; fw;wwpe;j GytHfsplk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. cyfpd; kpfr; rpwe;j ,yf;fpaq;fisAk; ciufisAk; vOjp itj;j GytHfs;> GyikahsHfs; tuyhw;W epfo;r;rpfisf; Fwpj;J itf;fhjJ tpag;ghf ,Uf;fpwJ.

 

ehl;bd; tuyhw;iw kl;Lky;y> Mz;l kd;dHfs;> ghly;fs; ,aw;wpa GytHfs;> ciuahrpupaHfs;gw;wpa Fwpg;Gf;fs;> Fbkf;fspd; tho;f;ifKiw Ehy; tbtpy; ,y;yhky; ,Uf;fpwJ.

 

thd;Gfo; ts;StHgw;wpa tuyhW$lj; njupahky; ,Uf;fpwJ. mtH gpwe;j CNuh> mtH gpwe;j Mz;Nlh> mtH fhyj;jpy; jkpofj;ij Ml;rp nra;j Nru> Nrho> ghz;ba kd;dHfsJ ngaHfNsh njspthfj; njupahky; ,Uf;fpwJ.

 

jpUts;StH$l mtuJ ,aw; ngaH kiwe;J mtuJ Fyg; ngauhy; kl;LNk ,d;W Fwpf;fg;gLfpwhH. ,uz;lhapuk; Mz;LfSf;F Ke;jpa my;yJ gpe;jpa ts;Stiug;gw;wp kl;Lky;y> gd;dpuz;L>  gjpd;%d;whk; Mz;Lfspy; tho;e;j mt;itahH> Nrf;fpohH> fk;gH> xl;lf;$j;jH> GfNoe;jp> fr;rpag;g rpthr;rhupahH MfpNahuJ tho;f;if tuyhWk; ruptuj; njupahky; ,Uf;fpwJ.

 

fpNuf;fHfSf;F my;yJ cNuhkHfSf;F tuyhw;W czHT ,Ue;jJNghy jkpoHfSf;Fk; ,e;jpaHfSf;Fk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy.

 

kfh myf;rhd;lH (fp.K. 356-323) vfpg;J> ghurPfk;> ,e;jpah kPJ gilnaLj;Jg; NghdNghJ jd;NdhL mup];NjhGY]; (Aristobulus)  vd;w tuyhw;W MrpupaH xUtiuAk; mioj;Jg; NghdhH. ,tNu kfh mnyf;rhd;lH gw;wpa tuyhw;iw fp.K. 300 Mz;lstpy; tpupthf vOjp itj;jhH. ,d;ndhU Gfo;ngw;w tuyhw;whrpupaH INahdpah (Ionia) efupy; gpwe;j nkf];jPd]; (Megasthnes) MthH. ,tuJ fhyk; fp.gp. 340-282. ,e;jpahtpd; Gfo;ngw;w murHfspy; xUtdhd re;jpuFg;j kTupadpd; muz;kidapy; fpNuf;f ehl;bd; JhJtuhf ,Ue;jtH. ,e;jpahtpd; tuyhW> gz;ghL> rkak; gw;wp ,tH vOjpa tuyhw;iwg; gbj;Nj Nkw;Fyfk; md;iwa ,e;jpah gw;wp mwpe;J nfhz;lJ.  

 

nghJthfg; ghHf;Fk;NghJ fpNuf;fHfSf;F ,Ue;j tuyhw;W czHT Vida ,dj;jtUf;F ,Uf;ftpy;iy. "tuyhw;wpd; je;ij" vd;W tHzpf;fg;gLgtUk; xU fpNuf;fNu. mtuJ ngaH nfNwNjhj;J]; (Herodutus). ,tH fp.K. 484 Mk; Mz;lstpy; gpwe;jtH. vg;NghJ ,we;jhH vd;gJ njupatpy;iy. tho;ehspd; ngUk;gFjpia Vjd;]; efupy; fopj;jhH. ,tH ghgpNyhdpah> vfpg;J> ghurPfk; Nghd;w ehLfSf;F epiwag; gazk; nra;J jhd; fz;L Nfl;ltw;iw tuyhwhw;W Ehyhf vOjpdhH.

 

,e;jpa tuyhw;iw vOJtjw;F mup];NjhGY]; kw;Wk; nkf];jPd]; vOjp itj;j Fwpg;Gf;fs; ngupJk; Jiz nra;Js;sd.

 

jkpo;ehl;bd; tuyhWgw;wp vOjg;gl;l Ehy;fs; Kjypy; Mq;fpy nkhopapNyNa ntspte;jd. gpd;dH jkpopy; mtw;iwj; jOtpNah my;yJ nkhopahf;fk; nra;Njh Ehy;fs; ntspte;jd. jkpo;ehL jdpnahU khepykhfg; gpupe;j gpd;dUk; mjd; tuyhW jkpopy; ntsptutpy;iy.

 

mz;ikf;fhyj;jpy;jhd; jkpopy; goe;jkpofj;jpd; kuG> ghz;ghL> ,yf;fpak; nkhop gw;wpa tuyhw;W Ehy;fs; ntsptuj; njhlq;fpAs;sd. (tsUk;)

 

 


 

rq;fk; tsHj;j jkpo;!

 

tuyhw;Wr; rhd;Wfs;  

 

(27)

 

xU fhyj;jpy; tuyhW vd;gJ ehl;il MSk; kd;dHfsJ tho;f;if tuyhwhf vz;zg;gl;lJ. mtHfsJ gpwg;G> tsHg;G> ,wg;G> gilnaLg;Gf;fs;  Nghd;wtw;wpd; Mz;Lthupahd gjpT tuyhwhff; fUjg;gl;lJ. gpd;dH r%f> nghUshjuj; jsq;fspy; ,Ue;J tuyhW Nehf;fg;gl;;lJ. mg;NghJ tuyhW vd;gJ kd;dHfisg;gw;wpaJ kl;Lky;y mJ kf;fsJ tho;f;ifKiw gw;wpaJ vd;w Gjpa Nfhl;ghL cUthfpaJ.  

 

khHf;]; VQ;ry; Nghd;w nghJTlikr; rpe;jidthjpfs; tuyhW vd;gJ  nghUs; cw;gj;jpAk; mjd; gz;lkhw;wKk; gw;wpa cwTfs; vd;W tuyhw;Wf;Fg; Gjpa tiutpyf;fzk; tFj;jhHfs;.

 

nghUs; Kjy;thj mbg;gilapy; tuyhW vd;gJ flTs;> kd;dHfs;> kdpjHfs; gw;wpa fijay;y. nghUs; Kjy;thj mbg;gilapy; kdpj tuyhw;iwg; ghHf;Fk;NghJ mjid ,Wj;pahfj; jPHkhdpg;gJ nghUshjhuk; kl;LNk.

 

tuyhW  vd;gJ kdpjd; xU r%f mikg;gpy; ,Ue;J ,d;ndhU  r%f mikg;gpw;F khWk; Kd;Ndw;wkhFk;. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf epyg; gpuGj;Jt r%f mikg;gpy; ,Ue;J Kjyhspj;Jt r%f mikg;gpw;F khWk; Kd;Ndw;wk;. ,e;j Kd;Ndw;wk; njhopy; El;gj;jpy; Vw;gLk; khw;wk;> nghUs; cw;gj;jpf;F xOq;fikf;Fk; Kiwfspy; Vw;gLj;Jk; khw;wk; Nghd;wtw;wpdhy; cz;lhfpwJ.

 

xU tPL epyj;jpd; fPo; Nghlg;gLk; mbj;jsj;jpd; gyj;jpy; epw;gJNghy xU r%f mikg;gpd; mbj;jsk; nghUshjhuk; MFk;. mjhtJ murpay;> rl;lk;> ePjp> fy;tp> rkak;> fiy> ,yf;fpak; Nghd;wit rKjhaj;jpd; nghUs; cw;gj;jp rf;jpfSk;  cw;gj;jp cwTfspd; mbj;jsj;jpd;  NkNyNa fl;b vOg;gg; gLfpwJ.

 

Kjyhspj;Jt r%fk;  "mwptpay; rkTlik"f;F (Scientific  Socialism) topNfhYk;. Kbtpy; njhopyhsHfspd; ty;yhl;rp (Dictatorship of the Proletariat)       Vw;gLk;NghJ muR thbtjq;fp mjd; ,lj;jpy; tHf;f Ngjkw;w rKjhak; Njhd;Wk; vd;gJ khHf;rpa rpj;jhe;jk;.

 

Mdhy; r%f khw;wk; khHf;fpaf; Nfhl;ghL (Theory)  mWjpapl;Lr; nrhd;dJNghy ,lk;ngwtpy;iy. mjdhy; khHf;fpa rpj;jhe;jk; ,d;W tYtpoe;J tpl;lJ. Nrhtpaj; xd;wpaj;jpd; kiwT mjw;F ey;y vLj;Jf;fhl;lhFk;.

 

tuyhW vd;gJ NghHf;fsq;fspy; tPuk; vd;w ngaupy; vz;zpwe;j  kf;fspd; kuzq;fs;> ,lHg;ngaHTfs;> #iwahly;fs;> nfhs;isfs;> gopf;Fg; gopthq;fy;fs;  ,tw;wpdhy; mur tk;rq;fspd; vOr;rpAk; tPo;r;rpAk; mile;j fij vd;why; fp.gp. 600 Mz;Ltiu jkpo;ehl;Lf;F tuyhW vd;W miog;gjw;F xd;Wk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy.

 

kWGwk; tuyhW vd;gJ kf;fspd; rka tho;T>  fhjy; tho;T> fiy> ,yf;fpak;> cs;ehl;L- ntspehl;L thzpfk;> kd;dHfspd; khl;rp ,tw;wpd;  nkJthd $Hjyw tsHr;rp (Evolution) vd;why; jkpo;ehl;Lf;F tuyhW ,Uf;fpwJ.

 

murHfspd; tho;f;iff; Fwpg;Gf;fs;> mtHfs; gil elj;jp ntd;w ehLfs;> efuq;fs;>  NghHf;fsq;fs; ,tw;iw kl;Lk; tpsf;fpf; $Wk; tuyhWfs; ,d;W nry;thf;F ,oe;J tpl;ld. kf;fspd; tho;f;ifKiw gz;ghLfs; gw;wpa tuyhNw ,d;W nry;thf;Fg; ngw;Ws;sJ.

 

jkpof tuyhw;iw XusT jFe;j Mjhuq;fNshL Kjy;Kiw njhFj;J vOjp ntspapl;l ngUik rp. fdfrigg; gps;isiar; rhUk;. mtH vOjpa "Mapuj;J vz;ZhW Mz;LfSf;F Ke;jpa jkpoHfs;" (The Tamils of eighteen hundred years ago) vd;w EhNy ,j;Jiwapy; topfhl;bahFk;.

rp. fdfrigg; gps;isiaj; njhlHe;J jkpo;ehl;L tuyhw;iw Muha;r;rpf; fz;Nzhl;lj;NjhL vOjpatHfspy; lhf;lH Nf. Nf. gps;is mtHfs; Fwpg;gplj;jf;ftH MthH.

 

jkpof tuyhW kf;fSk; gz;ghLk; jkpo;kf;fspd; r%ftpay; tuyhW njd; ,e;jpahTk; ,yq;ifAk; Nghd;wit lhf;;lH gps;is mtHfs; vOjp ntspapl;l Ehy;fspy; rpythFk;.

,j;Jiwapy; NkYk; gy mwpQHfs; Ehy;fis vOjp ntspapl;Ls;sdH. mtHfspy; Fwpg;gpl;Lr; nrhy;yf; $batHfs;>

 

gp.b. =dpthr Iaq;fhH        -  jkpoHfspd; tuyhW (History of the Tamils)

               -  MupaHfSf;F Ke;jpa jkpo;g; gz;ghL (Pre Aryan Tamil
                                                              Culture)
 
Nf.V. ePyfz;l rh];jpupahH     -  ghz;ba muR ( The Pandyan Kingdom)

            - NrhoHfs;  (The Cholas)

                          -  jkpoHfspd; tuyhWk; gz;ghLk;  (The History and
                                                             Culture of Tamils)                                          
        

vk;. ,uhrkhzpf;fk;           -  gy;ytH tuyhW (History of the Pallavas)

                          -  NrhoH tuyhW    (History of Cholas)

b.tp. rjhrptg; gz;lhuj;jhH     -  jkpo; ,yf;fpa tuyhW>

                    -   ghz;baH tuyhW>       

                    -   gpw;fhyr; NrhoH tuyhW

kapiy rPdp Ntq;flrhkp      -   rkzKk; jkpOk;>

                          -  gTj;jKk; jkpOk;

v];. itahGup gps;is        -  jkpoH gz;ghL

                          -  jkpo;nkhop> ,yf;fpa tuyhW (The History of Tamil
                                                              Language and Literature )

tp.MH.MH. jPl;rfH            -  Studies in Tamil Literature and History

 

m. ,uhftd;                -  gz;ilajkpofj;jpd;NghHf; fUtpfs;

 

                         -  Mjpr;r ey;YhUk; nghUientsp ehfupfKk;

,uh.fpU\;z%Hj;jp           -  ghz;baH ngUtOjp ehzaq;fs;

 

lhf;lH kh.uh. ,uhrkhzpf;fdhH -  jkpo;nkhop ,yf;fpa tuyhW

                 -  jkpoH ehfupfKk; gz;ghLk;

                 -  jkpoff; fiyfs;

                 -  jkpof Ml;rp

fh.Rg;gpukzpad;             -  jkpopyf;fpa tuyhW

                         -  jkpoH rkak;

                         -  rq;ffhyr; rKjhak;

Qh. NjtNead;             -  jkpoH ehfupfKk; gz;ghLk;

 

m.fp. gue;jhkdhH            - kJiu ehaf;fH tuyhW

 

nj.ngh. kPdhl;rpRe;judH       - jkpo; kzk;

 

lhf;lH K.tujuhrd;          - jkpo; ,yf;fpa tuyhW

 

vk;.MH. milf;fyrhkp        - jkpo; ,yf;fpa tuyhW

 

lhf;lH m. jl;rzh%Hj;jp      - jkpoH ehfupfKk; gz;ghLk;

 

fyhepjp R.tpj;jpahde;jd;      - jkpoH rhy;G

 

lhf;lH V. Rthkpehjd;        - jkpof tuyhWk; gz;ghLk;

 

jkpoz;zy;                - jkpo; ,yf;fpa tuyhW

 

fyhepjp rp.f. rpw;wk;gyk;      - gz;ila jkpofk;

 

jkpof murpd; rhHgpy; "njhy; goq;fhyk;" njhlq;fp "ghz;bag; ngUNte;jH fhyk;" tiu vl;Lf;Fk; Nkw;gl;l tuyhw;W Ehy;fs; ntspaplg;gl;Ls;sd.

 

jkpoPo tuyhw;iw nrhy;Yk; Ehy;fspy; Ie;jhk; nrfuhrNrfud; fhyj;jpy; (fp.gp. 1380-1414)itahGupg; GytH vOjpa itahghly; (,tH vOjpa guuhrNrfud; cyh> guuhrNrfud; ,uhrKiw ,d;W fpilj;jpyJ)>

 

kapy;thfdg; GytH vOjpa aho;g;ghz itgtkhiy  Fwpg;gplj;jf;fit.

 

gpw;fhyj;jpy; vOjg;gl;l Ehy;fs; gpd;tUkhW-

 

KjypahH nr.,uhrehafk;   - aho;g;ghzr; rupj;jpuk; (Ancient Jaffna)

 

Rthkp Qhdg;gpufhrH       - Kings of Jaffna  

 

fy;yb Nf. NtYg;gps;is   - aho;g;ghz itgt nfsKjp

 

fyhepjp rp.f. rpw;wk;gyk;    - aho;g;ghzk; -njhd;ik tuyhW

              - aho;g;ghz ,uhr;rpak;

 

tpj;Jthd; F.X.C.  eluhrh  -  kl;lf;fsg;G khd;kpak;

 

K.R. rptg;gpufhrk;         - ntbaurd; tuyhW

 

fyhepjp v];. gj;kehjd;     - The Jaffna Kingdom    

 

O.M.da Silva Cosme                 -   Fidalgos in the kingdom of Jaffnapatnam

 

V. Kj;Jj;jk;gpg;gps;is      - aho;g;ghzr; rupj;jpuk;

 

rp.v];. etuj;jpdk;          - Tamils and   Ceylon                              

 

tp.tp. rjhrptg;gps;is       - aho;g;ghz itgtk;                         

 

rr;rp nghd;dk;gyk;          - Sri Lanka The National Question and the Tamil Liberation
                                                         
Struggle”

 

R.,uhruj;jpdk;             -  jkpoPok; ehLk; muRk;

 

g. .G\;gul;zk;             -  G+dfup njhy;nghUsha;T

 

nghd;dk;gyk; ,uFgjp       -  Early Settlements in Jaffna (An Archeological Survey)

 

Vfehafpts;sp rptuhrrpq;fk;   - Eelam The Memories Of A Nation

 

nry;tj;Jiu kNdhfud;      -  The Untold Story of Ancient Tamils in Sri Lanka”

 

,e;j Ehy;g; gl;bay; KOikahdjy;y. jkpof> jkpoPo tuyhw;iw tpupthfg;  gbj;J mwpe;J nfhs;s tpUk;Gk; thrfHfSf;F

 

cjTKfkhfNt ,e;jg; gl;bay; jug;gl;Ls;sJ.

 

jkpof> jkpoPo tuyhw;iw Kiwg;gLj;jp vOJtjw;F gy mfr;rhd;Wfs; Gwr;rhd;Wfs; Jiz epw;fpd;wd. mtw;Ws; Fwpg;gpl;Lr; nrhy;yf; $bait>

 

    njhy;fhg;gpak;

 

    rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fs;

 

    Ik;ngUq;fhg;gpaq;fs;

 

    gd;dpUjpUKiwfs;

 

    Nfhtpw; Guhzq;fs;

 

    fw;fhy <kr; rpd;dq;fs;

 

    mfo;thuha;r;rp

 

    GijnghUl; rpd;dq;fs;

 

    fy;ntl;Lf;fs;

 

    nrg;NgLfs;

 

    gz;ila ehzaq;fs;

 

    gpwehl;Lg; gazpfs;> vOj;jhsHfs; vOjp itj;Js;s Fwpg;Gf;fs;. (tsUk;)

 

 


 

rq;fk; tsHj;j jkpo;!

 

jkpopdj;jpd; %yk;   

 

(28)

cyfpd; gy;NtW gFjpfspy; fz;nlLf;fg;gl;l kdpj vYk;Gf; $Lfs;> Fwpg;ghf kz;il XLfs; gbKiw tsHr;rpapy; kdpj ,dk; mile;jpUf;Fk; cUkhw;wj;ij tpsf;Ffpd;wJ vdyhk;. Fuq;Fk; kdpjDk; xU nghJ %jhijapy; ,Ue;Nj ,w;iwf;F 200 ,yl;rk; Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH gpupe;J jdpj; jdpf; $Wfshf tsuj;  njhlq;fpd. ,Ue;Jk; Fuq;fpd; Njhw;w mikg;G kdpjid tpl;L ePq;f RkhH 40 ,yl;rk; Mz;Lfs; Njitg;gl;ljhk;. jw;fhy kdpjdpd; Njhw;w mikg;G 40>000 Mz;LfSf;F rw;W Kd;gpd;dhf njhlq;fp ,Ue;jpUf;Fk; vd khdpltpayhsHfs; fUJfpd;wdH.

 

,j;jifa tbtj;ij "NfhNkhrg;gpad;];" (Homosapiens) vd khdpltpayhsHfs; miof;fpd;wdH. ,jd; nghUs; rpe;jpf;fj; njupe;j kdpjd; vd;gjhFk;. ,j; jpwe;jhd; kdpjid NtW capupdq;fspy; ,Ue;J gpupj;J mtdJ jdpj;Jtj;ijf; fhl;baJ. ,e;jr; rpe;jidj; jpwNd kdpjd; #otpUe;j cyifg; gbg;gbahf jd; trg;gLj;jTk;> Gjpa cw;gj;jp Kiwfisf; fw;Wf; nfhs;sTk;> Gjpa MAjq;fisf; fz;L gpbf;fTk;> ehfupfk; milaTk; mbg;gilahf ,Ue;jJ.

 

tuyhw;W MrpupaHfs; jkpoHfspd; (jpuhtplHfspd;) Njhw;wk;gw;wp Fiwe;jJ ehd;F tpjkhd Nfhl;ghLfs; cz;L.

 

    (1) njd;dpe;jpahtpd; G+HtPf Fbfs;.

 

    (2) MupaHfspd;(ngUk;ghYk; ,uhdpaH)   FbNaw;wj;ij mLj;J tl Nkw;F ,e;jpahtpy; ,Ue;J njd;jpirf;F ,lk;ngaHe;jtHfs;.

 

    (3)  kj;jpa fpof;fpy; ,Ue;J ( Lower Mesopotamia)  ,e;J ejpg; gs;sj;jhf;Fg; gFjpfSf;Ff; FbngaHe;jtHfs;.

 

    (4) ,e;jpahtpw;Fj;  njd;ghy; ,Ue;j Fkupf; fz;lk; (nyNkhupah) flypy; %o;f tlf;F Nehf;fpg; gazg;gl;L ,e;jpah KOJk; gutp tho;e;jtHfs;.

 

,e;jf; Nfhl;ghLfs; midj;Jk; mDkhdq;fNs. ,jpy; vjidAk; rup my;yJ jtW vd;W vJtpj Iaj;Jf;Fk; mg;ghy; cz;ikg;gLj;Jk; rhd;Wfs; vJTk; ,Jtiu fpilf;ftpy;iy. jkpoHfspd; kuGf; $Wfs; mtHfs; ngUk;ghYk; xU fyg;gpdk;  Mf ,Uf;fyhk; vd;W fUj itf;fpwJ.  

 

"tuyhw;Wf;F  Kw;gl;l fhyj;jpy; jkpofj;jpy; tho;e;jpUe;j kf;fs; ngupa ngupa ngUq;fw;Fopfspy; (ghopfspy;) ,we;j cly;fisg; Gijf;Fk; tof;fj;ij Nkw;nfhz;bUe;jdH. ,f;Fopfspy; gytifahd ,Uk;Gf; fUtpfSk; rf;fuj;ijf; nfhz;L tidag;gl;l kl;ghz;lq;fSk; Gijf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. ,j;jifa GijFopfs; Nkw;fhrpa ehLfspYk;> tl Mgpupf;f ehLfspYk;> rpy INuhg;gpa ehLfspYk; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. mtw;Wf;Fk; jkpofj;Jf; FopfSf;Fk; gy xw;Wikfs; Njhd;Wfpd;wd. Mjpr;rey;YhupYk; Gjpr;Nrupg;gFjpapYk; fz;nlLf;fg;gl;l GijnghUs;fSk; gy irg;gpu]; jPtpYs;s 'vd;Nfhkp' vd;Dk; ,lj;jpYk;>  ghy];jPdj;jpYs;s fh]h> n[uhH vd;Dk; ,lq;fspy; fz;nlLf;fg;gl;l GijnghUs;fs; NghyNt fhzg;gLfpd;wd. ,tw;iwnay;yhk; nfhz;L goe;jkpo; kf;fspd; tho;f;if epiyfisAk; Fbg; ngaHr;rpfisAk; xUthW Edpj;jwpayhk;" vdf; Nf.Nf. gps;is Fwpg;gpLfpwhH (jkpof tuyhW kf;fSk; gz;ghLk; - gf;fk; 4).

 

tuyhw;Wf;F Ke;jpa gFjp tuyhw;Wf; fhyj;Jf;F Kw;gl;l fhyk;  (,e;jpahtpy; RkhH Ie;J ,yl;rk; Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH. <oj;jpy; xd;Nwfhy; ,yl;rk; Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH) vdg;gLfpwJ. ,t; tuyhw;Wf;F Kw;gl;l fhyr; rhd;Wfis Muha;e;j mwpQHfs; ,jpy; ,U gpupTfis ,dq;fz;L nfhz;Ls;sdH. ,jpnyhU gpupT kdpjd; vOj thrpf;fj; njupahJ fhl;Lkpuhz;bahf ehNlhbahf ,lk;tpl;L ,lk; jpupe;j fhyk; MFk;. ,it ngUk;ghYk; fw;fhyq;fisNa cs;slf;Fk;. kw;iwa gpupT tuyhw;Wf; fhyk; (,e;jpahtpy; fp.K. 500 Mz;LfSf;Fg; gpd;dH> <oj;jpy; Njtek;gpa jPrdpd; Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpy; ,Ue;J. fp.K. 250) kyUtjw;F top tFj;j tuyhw;Wj; njhlf;f fhykhFk;.

 

nghJthff; fw;fhyk; %d;W gpupTfshfg; gpupf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. gioafw;fhyk; (Palaeolithic)  ,ilf;fw;fhyk; (Mesolithic) Gjpafw;fhyk; (Neolithic) vd;gdNt me;j %d;W gpupTfshFk;.

 

fp.K. 50>000 njhlq;fp fp.K. 10>000 Mz;Ltiuahd fhyk; gioa fw;fhyk;. ,ilf; fw;fhyj;jpd; Muk;gk; fp.K. 10>000 Mz;L vd mwpQHfs; nfhs;fpwhHfs;. Gjpa fw;fhyj;Jf;fhd jlaq;fs; fp.K. 4000 Mz;ltps;jhd; Muk;gkhfpaJ. ngUq; fw;fhyj;jpd; Njhw;wj;ij fp.K. 1>000 Mz;nld epHzapj;Js;shHfs;.

 

,f;fw;fhyj;jpy; fw;fNs Kjd;ikahd %yg;nghUshf tpsq;fpaNghJk;> kuk; vYk;G Nghd;wtw;iwAk; jdJ md;whl Njitfis epiwT nra;Ak; fUtpfshf kdpjd; gad;gLj;jpdhd;. ,Uz;l fz;lk; vd;W miof;fg;gLfpw Mgpupf;fhNt fhyj;jhy; Ke;jpa fw;fhyf; fUtpfs; fz;L gpbf;fg;gl;l ,lkhf ,d;W fUjg;gLfpwJ.

 

gioa fw;fhyj;jpy; Ntl;ilj; njhopNy  Kjd;ikj; njhopyhf ,Ue;jJ. ,ilf; fhyj;jpy; Ntl;ilahLjy;> kPd;gpbj;jy; Mfpatw;NwhL  czitr; Nrfupj;jy;> czTj; jhdpaq;fis cw;gj;jp nra;jy; gw;wp kdpjd; mwpe;jpUe;jhd;. ,Ue;Jk; Gwr; #oYf;Fg; gae;J> ,aw;ifapd; ,ufrpaq;fisg;gw;wp vJtpj tpsf;fkpd;wp mbikahf tho;e;jhd;.

 

,ilf; fw;fhyj;jpy; #oiy kdpjd;  xUthW mwpe;J nfhs;s Kw;gl;lhd;. gioa ,ilf; fw;fhyg;gFjpfspy; kpUfq;fisf; nfhd;W  mtw;iw czthf kl;LNk gad; gLj;jpdhd;. Mdhy; Gjpa fw;fhyj;jpy; ntWk; Ntl;ilahLgtdhf> ehNlhbahf> miye;J jpupe;j kdpjd; Xuplj;jpy; epue;jukhfj; jq;fp Gwr;#oiyj; jdJ Kd;Ndw;wj;jpw;Fg; gad;gLj;jj; njhlq;fpdhd;.

 

fhl;L kpUfq;fis tPl;L kpUfq;fshf;Ftjd; %yk; mjd; ghiyr; rpwe;j czthfg; ngw;whd;. NfhJik> ney;> ghHyp Nghd;wtw;iw jpl;lkpl;Lg; gapuhf;fp mWtil nra;aTk;> mWtil nra;j jhdpaj;ij clNd cz;Ltplhky; mtw;iwr; Nrkpj;J itf;fTk; kdpjd; fw;Wf; nfhz;lhd;. ,jdhy; ke;ij tsHg;G> gapH cw;gj;jp Kjd;ikg; nghUshjhu eltbf;ifahf khwpaJ.

 

r%fj;jpd; mbg;gil mk;rkhf> mr;rhzpahf FLk;g mikg;G cUthd fhyk; ,JNt MFk;. mjid mLj;J epyTlikr; rKjhak; cWjp ngw;wJ. RUq;ff; $wpd; kdpjid r%fg; gpuhzp Mf;fp tof;ff;fq;fs;> kuGfs;> ew;gz;Gfs; Njhd;wTk; mLj;j  re;jjpfs;gw;wpr; rpe;jpf;fTk; itj;jJ. ,tw;why; kdpj ehfupfk; kpff; FWfpa fhyj;jpy; tsHr;rp milaj; njhlq;fpaJ.

 

kdpjdpd; ePz;l gbKiw tsHr;rpapy; fw;fhyk;> mjhtJ vOj thrpf;fj; njupahj tuyhw;Wf;F Kw;gl;l fhyk; (pre-history) 99 tpOf;fhlhFk;. kpFjp xU tpOf;fhl;Lg; gFjpapNyNa kdpjd; fy;tp fw;fTk;> vOj thrpf;Tk;> ehfupfk; milaTk; Kbe;jJ.   

 

,e;jpa ehfupfj;jpd; mbj;js fHj;jhf;fs; ,ilf;fhyj;ijr; rhHe;j x];uNyhapl; (Austroloid) my;yJ NtNlhapl; (Veddoid)  kf;fs; vdTk;> njd;dpe;jpa Gjpa fw;fhyj;jpd; %yfHj;jhf;fshff; jpuhtplNu tpsq;fpdH vd;Wk; njhy;ypayhsH nfhs;tH. ngUq; fw;fhyg; gz;ghl;il tsHj;njLj;jtHfSk; ,tHfNs. fw;fhy kf;fNs jkpofj;jpy; ,Ue;J <oj;Jf;Fk; gutpdH.

 

fw;fhyj;ijj; njhlHe;J tUk; fhyk;  ngUq;fw;fhyk; my;yJ ,Uk;Gf; fhyk; vd miof;fg;gLfpwJ. ngUq;fw;fhyr; fyhr;rhuk; vd;why; ,we;Njhiu mlf;fk; nra;tjw;F ngUq;fw;fshy; Md <kr;rpd;dq;fisg; gad;gLj;jpaijf; fhl;LtjhFk;. vdpDk; ,f; fhy kf;fs; KOf;f KOf;f fw;fshy; kl;Lk; jkJ <kr; rpd;dq;fis mikf;ftpy;iy. jhopfspYk;> FopfspYk; ,we;Njhiu mlf;fQ; nra;jtHfSk; ,tHfNs. ngUk;ghd;ik fw;fshYk;> rpWghd;ik jhopfspYk;> FopfspYk; ,we;Njhiu mlf;fk; nra;jjhy; ,f;fhyk; ngUq;fw;fhyf; fyhr;rhuk; vdg; ngaH ngw;wJ.

 

tlnkhopapy; jpuhtpl vd;w nrhy; cs;SHthrpiaf; Fwpf;fg; gad;gLj;jpa nrhy;yhFk;. njd;dhl;L kf;fisAk; nkhopiaAk; Fwpf;Fk; nrhy;yhf> rk];fpUj nkhopEhy; MrpupaHfshy; toq;fg;gl;l nrhy; ,JNt.

 

njw;fhrpahtpy; thOk; kf;fspy; ngUk;ghNyhH jpuhtplHfNs. Ntjnewpapd; nry;thf;Ff; fhuzkhfTk;> tlnkhopf; fyg;ghYk; jhq;fs; jpuhtplHfs; vd;gij rpyH kWf;ff;$Lk;. Mdhy; njd;dpe;jpaHfs; cUt xw;Wikapy; xj;J ,Ug;gijf; fhzyhk;.

 

"gpd;tUk; gTz;l;uPfH> xl;luH> jpuhtplH> fhk;Ngh[H> atdH> rhrH> ghujH> gf;ytH> rPdH> fpuhjH> jujH> f]H vd;w \j;jpupa ,dj;jtH rpwpJ rpwpjhf Ntj cupikfis ,oe;Jk;> gpuhkzHfspd; njhlHig ,oe;Jk; tp\hyH vd miof;fg;ngWk;  ,ope;j ,dj;jtuhfp tpl;ldH" vd;W kD $WfpwhH.

 

gpw;fhyj;jpy; gpuhkz nkhop Ehy; MrpupaHfspd;  ntWg;Gf;F cs;shfpa fhuzj;jhy; jpuhtpl nkhopfs; midj;JNk gprhr;rp (igrhr) nkhop vdg; ngaH ,l;L ,opj;J ciuf;fg; gl;lJ.

 

jpuhtplHfs; kj;jpa Mrpahtpy; ,Ue;J  ,e;Jntsp gs;sj;jhf;Ff;F FbngaHe;jtHfs; vd;W vz;Ztjw;F ,d;Wk; tl ,e;jpa-ghfp];jhdpa gpuNjrj;jpy; thOk; rpWghd;ik nkhopapdH jkpio xj;j nkhop NgRtijr; Rl;bf; fhl;Lfpd;wdH.

 

Nfhz;l;:- gz;L> Nfhz;Ltdk; vd;W miof;fg;ngw;w> kiyAk; fhLk; kz;bg; gue;J fplf;Fk; kj;jpa ,e;jpahtpy; thOk; goq;Fb kf;fs; toq;Fk; nkhop 'Nfhz;l;' vd;w ,dg; nghJg; ngaH ,l;L miof;fg;ngWk;.

 

'$' my;yJ 'Nfhe;j;':-Nfhe;j; nkhop NgRgtHfs; '$' my;yJ 'Nfhe;jH' vd miof;fg;gLfpd;wdH. ,tHfs; xuprh ehl;bd; kiyg;gFjpapy; tho;fpwhHfs;. tlf;fpy;> epyNeHf;NfhL 22 tJ ghiff;F mg;ghy; mtHfs; fhzg;gl;byH. 1911Mk; Mz;bd; kkf;fs; njhif fzf;nfLg;gpd;gb> 15>27>157  Nfhe;jHfs; tho;e;jhHfs;.

 

',uhh[;k`hy;'my;yJ 'khyH':- tq;fhsj;jpy; cs;s ,uh[;k`hy; kiyapd; goe;Fb kf;fshfpa g`hupaupd; nkhop ,J. nkhopEhy; ty;YeH gyupd; Muha;r;rpfs;> ,k;Kbit mspf;fpd;wd. ,k;nkhop NgRNthH 64>875 (1911) NguhtH.

 

Xupad;:- #baehfGupapYk;>ij mLj;Js;s ehLfspYk; thOk; XupaH> ,tHfsJ vz;zpf;if 8>000>328 (1911) MFk;. jpuhtplj; jd;ikia Iakwf; nfhz;ljhd xU nkhopapd; %yq;fis XupaHfSk; nfhz;Ls;sdH. Xupaupd; gof;f tof;fq;fs;> mtHfisf; nfhq;fzj;jtNuhL njhlHG gLj;Jfpd;wd. gy jiyKiwfshfg; ghl;dhit  mLj;Js;s kiyehLfspy; jhq;fs; tho;e;jpUe;jjhfTk;> mq;fpUe;J Juj;jg;glNt> xU gFjpapdH ,uh[;k`hy; kiyehL te;J tho> kw;nwhU fpisapdH njd;fpof;F topahfr; nrd;W #ba ehfGupia mile;jjhfTk; mtHfs; cWjpahf ek;Gfpd;wdH. khyHfSk; XupaHfSk; Xupdj;jtNu vd;gij ,g;gof;f tof;fq;fspy; fhzyhk;. (tsUk;) 

 


 

rq;fk; tsHj;j jkpo;!

 

rpe;Jntsp ehfupfk;    

(29)

 

kj;jpa khfhzj;jpYk; tq;fhsj;jpYk; toq;Fk; goq;Fb nkhopfs; ,uz;by;> njspthd jpuhtplj;jd;ik tha;e;j %yq;fs; ,lk; ngw;wpUg;gJ  ,t;thW cWjp nra;ag;glNt> jpuhtpl ,dj;jtH> fq;iff; fiutiu ,y;iy vd;whYk; tq;fhsj;jpd; tljpir ehL tiuAk; tho;e;jpUe;jikiaf; fhzyhk;. ,jdhy; jpuhtpl ,dk; xU  fhyj;jpy; ,e;jpag; ngUepyg; gug;gpy; gutp tho;e;jpUe;jJ vd;w nfhs;if epiy ehl;lg; ngw;wJ.. (jpuhtpl nkhopfspd; xg;gpyf;fzk; - gf;fk; 63-65)

 

ghujf; fijapy; gQ;rghz;ltH Gjpjhff; fhl;il ntl;b m];jpdhGuj;ij cUthf;fpaNghJ mq;F tho;e;j goq;Fb kf;fis tpul;bj; Juj;jpdhHfs; vdf; Fwpg;gplg; gl;Ls;sJ. ,tHfs; MupaH tUiff;F (fp.K.1500 mstpy;) Kd;dH tho;e;j goq;Fbapduhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.

 

ghYrp];jhdpy; (Baluchistan) gpuFa; (Brahui) nkhop NgRfpw kf;fs; tho;fpwhHfs;.  ghfp];jhd;- tl ,e;jpah ,uz;bYk; Ngrg;gLfpw jpuhtpl nkhopfspy; ,JNt Kf;fpa nkhopahff; fUjg;gLfpwJ.

 

gpuFa; nkhop NgRNthH ,dj;jhy; tl jpuhtplH MtH. ,tHfs; NgRk; nkhop jkpo;nkhopia xj;jpUf;fpwJ. RkhH 2.2 kpy;ypad (22 ,yf;fk; - 1998) kf;fs; gpuhFa; nkhopiag; NgRfpwhHfs;. ngUk;ghNyhH fyl; - [hytd;  gFjpapy; tho;fpwhHfs;. Mg;fdp];jhd;> JUf;kpdp];jhd; (Turkmenistan) rpe;J> rhnghy; kw;Wk;  ,uhd; Nghd;w ehLfspYk;  ,e;j nkhop NgRfpwtHfs; tho;fpwhHfs;.

 

neLq;fhykhf gpuhFaH jdpikg;gLj;jg; gl;Lg;Nghdjhy; gNyhr;Nrh nkhop kw;Wk; gz;ghl;bd; nry;thf;F gpuhFaH ,ilNa kpFe;J  fhzg;gLfpwJ. ,d;W gpuhFa; nkhopapy; 15 tpOf;fhNl jdp gpuhFa; nrhw;fshFk;. kpFjp ghurPfk;> muhgp> gNyhr;rp> ,e;Njh-Mupa nkhopr; nrhw;fshFk;. gpuhFa; nkhopf;F jdpj;j neLq;fzf;F (nkhopapd; vOj;Jj; njhFjp) ,y;iy vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. vOJtjw;Fg; ghurPf- muhg; vOj;Jf;fs; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd. ghfp];jhdpy; ,sq;fiyg; gl;lj;Jf;Fg; gbg;NghH gpuhFa; nkhopiaf; fl;lah ghlkhf vLj;J NjHT vOj KbAk;.

 

fhyg; Nghf;fpy; gNyhr;rpaUk; ,d;ndhU ghurPf ,dj;jtuhd g];Jhd;]; kf;fisg; Nghy; nry;thf;NfhL tpsq;fpdhHfs;.

 

tuyhW kw;Wk; nkhopr; rhd;WfSf;F khwhf gNyhr;rpaH jhq;fs; ghurPf ,dj;ijr; NrHe;jtHfs; my;y> jq;fs; G+HtPfk; nrkpl;upf; (Semitic) ,dk; (muhgpaH> A+jH) vd ek;GfpwhHfs;.

 

,e;jpahtpw;Fs; tlNkw;F topahf MupaHfs; GFe;jNghJ jpuhtplupy; gyH njd;jpirf;Fg; Gyk; ngaHe;jNghJ rpyH tlf;fpy; jq;fp ,Ue;Jtpl;lij gpuFa; nkhop NgRNthH cWjpg;gLj;J fpd;wdH.

Mapuf;fzf;fhd Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH kj;jpa Mrpahtpy; gy nkhopfs; Ngrg;gl;ld. gpdpf;> JUf;fp> nkhq;Nfhypad;> my;jha;f; mtw;wpy; rpythFk;. ,jpy; my;jha; nkhopfs; ( gpdp\;> gioa fq;Nfupad; Nghd;wit) jkpo;nkhopNahL njhlHGilait. ,jidf; fPo;f;fhZk; nrhw;fshy; mwpe;J nfhs;syhk;.

  

jkpo;            gpdp\;      fq;Nfupad;

md;id          md;ah         -         

mg;gd;           mg;gp         ,g;gh         

Mj;jhs;          Mj;jh          

fl;L              -            nfhl;        

Nfs;             Nfsd;         

QhapW             -           epahH          

gpb              gplhd;          -

gpw              ngw            -

ntspr;rk;          -       ntyfh                              

NtW gy nrhw;fSk; jkpNohL njhlHGiladthff;  fhzg;gLfpd;wd.  vLj;Jf; fhl;lhff; Nfhop> jP> kid> kuk;>

 

,d;ndhU tpag;ghd nra;jp ahnjdpy;  gpdp\;  nkhop  INuhg;ghtpy; Ngrg;gl;lhYk;> gpdp\; kw;Wk; my;jha;f; nkhopfs; ,e;Njh-INuhg;gpa nkhopf; FLk;gj;NjhL (gpuQ;R> n[Hkd;> Mq;fpyk;>,e;jp> gQ;rhgp> F[uhj;jp) NrHf;fg;gLtjpy;iy.

 

mT];jpNuypa goq;Fb kf;fs; Mapuf;fzf;fhd Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH ,e;jpahtpy; ,Ue;J ,lk;ngaHe;J mq;F FbNawpatHfshtH. Njhw;wj;jpy; ,tHfs; jpuhtpl ,dj;ijr; NrHe;jtHfs;NghyNt fhzg;gLfpwhHfs;. ,tHfis khdpltpayhsHfs; "x];uNyhapl; (Austroloid)  ,df;FOtpdH vd miof;fpd;wdH. Mdhy; ,tHfs; mz;il ehlhd epA+rPye;J ehl;L khxup]; (Maoris) kf;fistpl NtwhdtHfs;. ,yq;ifapy; tho;e;j Mjpf;Fbfshd ,uhl;rjH> ehfH> NtlH KjyhNdhH x];NuhNyhapl; ,df; FOitr; rhHe;jtHfs; vd;gJ <z;L Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.  

 

MupaHfSk; jpuhtplHfSk; nkhop mbg;gilapy;  ntt;NtW gpuptpduhf ,dq;fhzg;gl;lhYk; ,tHfs; vy;NyhUk; Caucasiod (Europoid)  vd;w  ,df; FOitj; rhHe;jtHfshff; fUjg;gLfpwhHfs;.

 

,q;fpyhe;J> NghHr;Rf;fy;> ];ngapd;> gpuhd;];. RtPld;> fUq;flypd;  fPo;f;fiu ehLfs;> tl Mgpupf;fh> fhf;Nfrpa ehLfs;> ghy];jPdk;> <uhd; Mfpa ,lq;fspy; fpilf;Fk; ngUq;fw; GijFopfs; mLj;Jj; njd;dpe;jpatpw;Fs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. cyfpy; Ntnwq;FNk mtw;iwf; fhzKbahJ. ,f; fhuzj;ijf; nfhz;L kj;j;pa jiuf;fly; kf;fs; njd;dpe;jpahtpw;Ff; FbngaHe;J te;jtHfs; vd;W Cfpf;fg;gLfpwJ.

 

Nkf;uhd;> ghYhrp];jhk;> rpe;J Mfpa jiug; gFjpfisf; fle;Jk;> fly; topahfTk; njd;dpe;jpahtpw;F te;J FbNawpatHfs; jpuhtpl ,dj;jtH vd;W rpy Ma;thsHfs; fUJfpd;wdH.

 

Nkw;fhrpa kf;fSf;Fk; jpuhtplUf;Fk; ,ilNa fhzg;gLk; gof;ftof;fq;fspYk; <uhd;> nkrg;nghlkpah Mfpa ehl;L CHg;ngaHfspYk; jpuhtplupd; CHg; ngaHfspYk; gy xw;Wikfs; mike;jpUg;gJ ,jw;Fr; rhd;whff; fhl;lg;gLfpwJ.

 

RNkupaHfSf;Fk; jkpoHfSf;Fk; tuyhw;Wf;F Ke;jpa fhye;njhl;L thzpfj; njhlHG ,Ue;J te;jpUf;fpwJ. Nruehl;Lj; Njf;F kuq;fs; RNkupa ehl;L kd;dHfspd; jiyefukhd 'CH" vd;w ,lj;jpy; fz;nlLf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. ,jd; fhyk; fp.K. 4000 Mz;LfshFk;.

 

Agpul;b]; kw;Wk;  ijf;fpwp]; MWfspd; ,ilNa ,Ue;j gpuNjrk; nkrg;nghl;Nlhkpah vd miof;fg;gl;lJ. ,JnthU fpNuf;fr; nrhy;Y. ,uz;L MWfSf;F ,ilapyhd ehL vd;W nghUs;. ,d;iwa ,uhf;> Fitj; kw;Wk; njd; rTjp mNugpahit cs;slf;fpaJ. Nkw;Fyf tuyhw;W MrpupaHfs; ,q;F tho;e;jtHfis RNkupad;]; vd mioj;jhHfs;. mtHfs; Ngrpa nkhop NtW ve;j nkhopNahLk; xj;J ,Uf;ftpy;iy. gpd;dH mJ jpuhtplnkhopNahL njhlHGilajhf ,Ug;gjhf KbT nra;jhHfs;.

 

RNkupaH gOg;G epwk; cilatHfs;. ePz;l fUj;j Kb itj;jpUe;jhHfs;> CHfspy; FbapUe;jhHfs;. murHfs; Mz;lhHfs;. gy flTsiu tzq;fpdhHfs;. murHfisAk; flTsuhf topgl;lhHfs;. fspkz;zpy; vOj Kjypy; fz;Lgpbj;jtHfs; ,tHfNs. ehl;fhl;biaf; fz;L gpbj;jtHfSk; ,tHfNs. Gjpa fw;fhyj;jpy; tho;e;j kf;fspy; RNkupaH ehfupfk; gilj;jtHfshff; fUjg;gLfpd;wdH.  fPg;GU ,dj;jpd; je;ij vd  tHzpf;fg;gLk; Vg;ufhk; CH vd;w jiy efupy; ,Ue;J te;jtH vd;W nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ. fp.gp. 2000 Mz;lstpy; ,e;j ,dk; jpBnud kiwe;J Nghapw;W. my;yJ rpjWz;L NtW ehLfSf;F Gyk;ngaHe;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;.

 

RNkupaHfs; njd;dhL ngaHe;jhHfs; vd;gjw;F khwhf jkpofj;jpy; ,Ue;J nrd;w xU $l;lj;jpdNu RNkupaupd; Kd;NdhH vd NguhrpupaH ,uhkre;jpu jPl;rjH vOjpAs;s 'jkpoupd; Njhw;wKk; gutYk;' (Origin and Spread of the Tamils) vd;Dk; Ehypy; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;shH.

 

RNkupaHfsJ ehfupfj;Jf;Fk; `ug;gh - rpe;Jntsp ehfupfj;Jf;Fk; ,ilapy; xw;Wik ,Ug;gjhff; fUjg;gLfpwJ.

 

rpe;Jntsp ehfupfr;  rpd;dq;fs; 1920 ,y; `ug;ghtpYk; 1922 ,y; nkhfQ;rjhuhtpYk; mfo;e;J vLf;fg;gl;ld. mit gw;wpa tpguq;fis NrH [hd; khH\y; 1931 ,y; ntspapl;lhH.

 

rpe;Jntsp ehfupf Kj;jpiu vOj;Jf;fs; jkpo; my;yJ jkpo; rhHe;j nkhopahfj;jhd; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;

vd Ma;thsHfs; fUJfpwhHfs;. Mdhy; ,jpy; xj;j fUj;J ,d;Dk; Vw;gltpy;iy.  

 

rpe;Jntsp kf;fs; MupaHfs; ifgH fztha; topahf MLkhLfis Nka;j;Jf; nfhz;L ,e;jpahtpw;Fs; EisAk; Kd;dH ehfupfr; rpwg;NghL tho;e;jtHfs; vd;gjpy; ve;j IaKk; ,y;iy. ,tHfisNa MupaHfs; jq;fs; Ntjq;fspy; muf;fHfs;> mRuHfs;> ,uhl;rjHfs;> fe;jUtHfs;> al;rfHfs;> gprHrHfs; vd;W ,fo;e;Jiuj;jdH vd;W Ntjnkhop kw;Wk; rk];fpUjnkhop ty;Yduhd khyjp N[. nrz;LNf vd;gtH 1977,y; vOjpa "ehfupf muf;fHfs; - upf; Ntjj;jpy; `ug;gh kf;fs;" vd;Dk; tpupthd Ehypy; epWTfpwhH. mk;kf;fNshL ePz;l fhyk; NghH nra;Jk;> #o;r;rpfs; nra;Jk; MupaHfs; ntw;wp ngw;wikia upf; Ntjj;jpy; tpupthff; $wpAs;sdH.   

 

rpe;Jntspj; jkpoHfis (jpuhtplHfis) xopg;gjpy; Kd;dzpapy; epd;w Mupaj; jiytd;jhd;gpd;dH ,e;jpud; vd;Dk; ngaupy; xU flTs; Mf;fg;gl;lhd;. ,e;jpud; vd;why; Nfhl;ilia mopg;gtd; vd;W nghUs;. ,e;jpudhy; nfhy;yg;gl;l "mRuHfs;" my;yJ "jhrHfs;" gl;baiy upf; Ntjk; Nghl;Lf; fhl;LfpwJ.  

 

`ug;ghtpy; Mapuf;fzf;fhd Mtzq;fs;  fz;nlLf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.  mtw;iw Kj;jpiufs; (Seals) vd miof;fpwhHfs;. ,J jkpo;nkhopNahL njhlHGilaJ vd ek;gg;gLfpwJ. Mdhy; mjw;fhd rhd;Wfs; ,Jtiu vz;gpf;fg;;gltpy;iy. fhuzk; vfpg;jpa Xtpa vOj;ij gbf;f  Kbe;jJNghy `ug;gh Kj;jpiufspd; fhzg;gLk; vOj;Jf;fis ahUk; ,d;Dk; rupahfg; gbf;ftpy;iy.

ehyhapuj;Jf;Fk; mjpfkhd `ug;gh  Kj;jpiufis mWgJf;Fk; mjpfkhd ,lq;fspy; fz;L gpbj;Js;shHfs;. mjd; tuptbtk; 419 FwpaPLfisf; (signs) nfhz;Ls;sd.  ,e;j vOj;Jf;fs; ngupJk; nrk;gpdhy; Md Kj;jpiufspy; nghwpf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.

 

RNkupad;> <okapw;> jpuhtpl> kd;bq; nkhopfs; xNu FLk;gj;ijr; rhHe;j nkhopfs; vdg; gLfpwJ. mtw;wpd; mikg;G> ,yf;fzk; xd;whf ,Uf;fpd;wd.

 

`ug;gh Kj;jpiufs; gy me;j kf;fs; ,iwtdplk; ahrpj;j Ntz;Ljy;fisf; Rl;bf;fhl;Lfpd;wd.

mitahtd

 

    (1) ey;tho;T

    (2) Md;ktsk

    (3) mwk;

    (4) mlf;fk;

    (5) tplhKaw;rp

 

nkhfQ;rjhNuhtpy; fhzg;gl;l miwfs; xt;nthd;wpYk; ,e;jj; jhaj;Jf;fs; fz;nlLf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. ,tw;iw kf;fs; ghtpj;j mwpFwpfs; njd;gLfpd;wd. Jis Nghl;l ,e;jj; jhaj;Jf;fis fOj;jpy; my;yJ ,Lg;gpy; mtHfs; fl;b ,Ue;jpUf;fyhk;.

 

rq;f fhyj;jpy; kfspUk;> NghH tPuHfSk; fhypy; rpyk;G> fhjpy; NjhL mzpe;jpe;jpUe;jjhf ,yf;fpaq;fs; njuptpf;fpd;wd.  mz;ikf; fhyk;tiu aho;g;ghzj;jpy; fhYf;F fhg;G> ryq;if> fhjpy; NjhL my;yJ fLf;fd; mzpAk; tof;fk; Mz; ngz; ,UrhuhuplKk; ,Ue;jpUf;fpwJ. (tsUk;)  

 


 

rq;fk; tsHj;j jkpo;!

nfhLq;fly; nfhz;l Fkupf; fz;lk;     

(30)

 

jkpoHfspd; gpwe;jfk; njd;kh thupapy; KOfpg; Nghd FkupehNl vd;gJ jkpof  tuyhw;W MrpupaHfshd gp.b. rPdpthiraq;fhH> tp.MH. ,uhkr;re;jpu jPl;rpjH fUj;jhFk;. nkhopQhapW NjtNeag; ghthzUk; ,Nj fUj;ijf; nfhz;ltH. jkpoH MupaHNghy; ntspehl;bypUe;J te;jtupd; topapdH vd;gij ,tHfs; kWf;fpd;whHfs;.

 

jkpoH njd;dhl;Lg; goq;Fb kf;fNs vd;Dk; cz;ikia gp.b. rPdpthiraq;fhH vOjpa jkpoupd; tuyhW (History of Tamils) ,e;jpahtpy; fw;fhyk; (Stone Age in India) vd;Dk; Ehy;fspYk; kw;Wk; ,uhkr;re;jpu jPl;rpfH vOjpa jkpoupd; Njhw;wKk; gutYk; (Origin and Spread of the Tamils)  tuyhw;Wf;F Ke;jpa njd;dpe;jpah ( Pre-Historic South India) vd;Dk; Ehy;fspYk; epiy epWj;j Kad;Ws;shHfs;.

 

jkpoHfspd; gpwe;jfkhd FkupehL flypy; %o;fpg; Nghdikahy; njhy;nghUl;rhd;W (Archaeological evidence) ,d;W mwNt ,y;yhJ Nghapw;W.

 

,e;jpahitg; nghWj;jtiu rpe;Jntsp ehfupfk;jhd; kpfTk; goik tha;e;jJ. Mdhy; mjw;Fk; Kd;Njhd;wpa %j;j ehfupfk; jkpoHfspd; ehfupfk;.

 

Fkupf; flypd; mbapy; cs;s ny%upah fz;lk; vd;w Fkupf; fz;lj;jpy;jhd; cyfpd; Kjy; kdpjd; Njhd;wpdhd; vdr; nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ. ny%H vd;why; $Hjy; mwj;jpy; (Evolution) Fuq;fpw;Fk; kdpjDf;Fk; ,ilg;gl;ltd; vd;gJ nghUshFk;.

 

Fkupapd; fly; nfhz;l ,lk; 49 Mapuk; rJu iky;fs; vd;fpwhHfs;. fly; nfhz;l Fkupf; fz;lj;jpd; Nkw;F vy;iy mT];jpNuypah. fpof;F vy;iy Mgpupf;fh. njw;F vy;iy njd;JUtk;.

 

G+kpapd; Nkw;gug;G XL Nghd;wJ. mJ efHe;J nfhz;L ,Ug;gjhf kz;ZhyhsHfs; (Geologists) fz;L gpbj;Jr; nrhy;yp ,Uf;fpwhHfs;.

 

1915 Mk; Mz;by; n[Hkd; kz;ZhyhsH my;gpul; ntn[ndH (Alfred Wegener) mtHfs;jhd; Kjd; Kjypy; ,e;jf; Nfhl;ghl;il (Theory) Kd;itj;jhH. Mrpa> Mgpupf;f> mT];jpNuypa fz;lq;fspy; fhzg;gLk; Gijgbtq;fs; (fossils) ,jid vz;gpf;fpwJ.  

 

RkhH 300 Nfhb Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH G+kpapd; Nky;ghfk; nfl;b;gl;lJ. Mdhy; mjd; fPo;g;ghfk; Kd;diug;NghyNt nfl;bahf ,y;yhjjhy; ,e;j Nky; XL efuj; njhlq;fpaJ. ,e;j XL ghiwfspdhy; Mdit. 80-400  iky;fs; jbg;ghdJ. ,e;j efHT Kd;Dk; gpd;Dk; gf;fthl;bYk; ,lk;ngWfpwJ. ,jdhy;  G+kpapd; Njhw;wk; khw;wk; mile;J tUfpwJ. gag;gl Ntz;lhk;. ,e;j efHtpd; Ntfk; Mz;nlhd;Wf;F 1-10 nrd;b kPl;lH Jhuk; kl;LNk. mNj rkak; ,kakiyj; njhlUk; jpngj;jpa kiyNkLk; xU Ehw;whz;Lf;F xU kPl;lH cauk; caHe;J tUfpd;wd. ,d;Dk; 40 ,yl;rk; Mz;LfSf;Fg;gpd; tl mnkupf;fhtpd; fyp/NghHdpahg; gFjp jdpj; jPthfp tplyhk;.

 

mjpf Jhuk;NghthNdd; RkhH 500 Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH mjhtJ  fp.gp. 1450 Mk; Mz;by; Vw;gl;l gaq;fu fly; nfhe;jspg;ghy; jkpofj;jpd; njd;gFjp flypy; %o;fpd. ,g;gbj; jkpofj;jpd; epyg;gug;gpy; ,Ue;J Jz;bf;fg;gl;l gpuNjrj;jpy; fr;rjPT cl;gl 11 jPTfs; cUthfpd.  fr;rjPT ,uhNkRtuj;jpy; ,Ue;J 12 iky; njhiytpYk;> aho;g;ghzj;jpy; ,Ue;J 13 iky; njhiytpYk; ,Uf;fpwJ. ,g;gbj; Njhd;wpa jPTfs; vy;yhk; ,uhkehjGuk; NrJgjp kd;dHfSf;Fr; nrhe;jkhf ,Ue;jd.

 

epyg;gFjpapy; fhzg;gLk; Xl;iltpl ngUq;flw;gFjpapy; fhzg;gLk; xl;bd; ,af;fk; my;yJ mirT $Ljyhff; fhzg;gLfpwJ. ,e;j efHNt epyeLf;fk; vupkiy epfo;tjw;Ff; fhuzk; vd kz;zpayhsHfs; $WfpwhHfs;.

 

Fkupf; fz;lj;jpd; njd;Nfhbapy; gdpkiyj;njhlH NghYk; gd;kiyaLf;fj;Jf; Fkupkiyj; njhlUk;> mjdpd;W gha;e;Njhba g/Wsp vd;w MWk; ,Ue;jikf;F ,yf;fpar; rhd;Wfs; cs;sd. ,d;W $l Fkup khtl;lj;jpy; tpstd;NfhL> mjd;NfhL> Mz;LNfhL> ,ilNfhL> nkf;NfhL> nel;ld;NfhL> jpUtpjhq;NfhL> guNfhL> nts;isf;NfhL vd;w CHg;ngaHfs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.

 

Mgpupf;ff; fz;lj;jpw;F mUNf cs;s klfh];fH vd;w jPtpw;F FkH vd;w ngaH ,Uf;fpwJ. mq;F thOk; kf;fs; nfhk;up vd;W miof;fg;gLfpd;wdH.

 

FkupNa gok;ghz;b ehL vdg;gLfpwJ. me;j ehl;il Mz;l kd;dHfspy; xUtd; ngaH nebNahd;. ,td; ghz;bad; gy;ahfrhiy KJFLkpg; ngUtOjp vd;w Nte;jdpd; Kd;Ndhd; Mthd;. ,e;jr; nra;jpia Gwg;ghly; xd;W njuptpf;fpwJ.  

 

MTk; Mdpaw; ghHg;gd khf;fSk;
ngz;bUk; gpzpAil aPUk; Ngzpg;
njd;Gyk; tho;eHf;F mUq;fld; ,Wf;Fk;
nghd;Nghw; Gjy;tHg; ngwhm jPUk;
vk; mk;G fbtpLJk; Ek; muz; NrHkpd;vd
mwj;J MW EtYk; G+l;if kwj;jpd;
nfhy;fspw;W kPkpir nfhbtpRk;G epow;Wk;
vq;Nfh thopa FLkp!jq;Nfhr;
nre;ePg; gRk;nghd; tapupaHf;F <j;j
Ke;ePH tpotpd; nebNahd;
ed;dPHg; g/Wsp kzpypDk; gyNt.
      (Gwk; -9)

 

,g;ghliyg; ghbatH nel;bikahH vd;w GytH. "vq; Nfhthfpa FLkp Ke;ePHf; flw; nja;tj;jpw;F vLj;j tpohtpidAila nebNahdhy; csjhf;fg;gl;l ey;y ePupidAila g/Wsp vd;Dk; Mw;wpd; kzypYk; ePz;l neLehl;fs; eP tho;thahf!" vdg; ghz;bad; ngUtOjpia tho;j;JfpwhH. ,jdhy; nebNahd; ghz;ba Nte;jUs; kpfg; gioNahdhf ,Ue;jpUf;fpwhd; vdg; ngwg;gLk;.  

 

mJ kl;Lk; my;yhJ ghz;bad; nebNahd; fhyj;jpUe;j g/Wspahw;iw nel;bikahH Fwpg;gpl;L mjd; kzypYk; gy;yhz;L tho;f vd  tho;j;Jtjhy; mg; g/WspahW nel;bikahH fhyj;Jk; ,Ue;jnjd;gJ ngwg;gLk;. NkYk; ,tuhy; ghlg;ngw;w ngUtOjpAk; fly;Nfhs; fhyj;Jf;F Kw;gl;ltd; vd;gJ cWjpahfpwJ.   

 

Fkupf; fz;lj;jpy; g/Wsp MW Xbajhf tuyhW. Fkup khtl;lj;jpy; gusp MW XLfpwJ. g/Wspjhd; guspahf kUtp ,Uf;fyhk;. mJNghy; gioahw;wpd; FWf;Nf fl;lg;gl;Ls;s Kjy; mizf;fl;by; g/Wsp MW mizf;fl;L vd;Nw Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ. vdNt fly; nfhz;l Fkupf; fz;lj;jpy; Xbajd; epidthf gusp MW vd;W ngaupl;bUf;fyhk;. my;yJ ,e;j MNw mq;Fk; Xb ,Uf;fyhk;.  

1960Mk; Mz;L Fsr;ry; gFjpf; flypy; Muha;r;rp nra;jNghJ mjd; mbapy; kiyfisf; fz;ldH. mJ Nkw;Fj; njhlHr;rp kiyahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. fly; nfhs;Stjw;F Kd; kiy mT];jpNuypah tiu gutp ,Ue;jJ vdf; $wg;gLfpwJ.  

 

,d;ndhU Gfo;G+j;j ghz;ba kd;ddhd jiyahdq;fhdj;Jr; nrUntd;w ghz;bad; neLQ;nropaid khq;Fb kUjdhH vd;w GytH "nghye;jhH khHgpd; nebNahd; ck;gy;" (kJiuf; fhQ;rp 61) vd;gjhYk; nebNahdpd; goikia mwpayhk;. NkYk; nebNahd; gw;wpa nra;jpfs; fypj;njhif> rpyg;gjpfhuk; Kjypa Ehy;fspYk; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. ew;wpizapy; ,td;ghba ,uz;L ghly;fs; cs;sd. fstpay; ciu ,tid ftpauq;Nfwpa ghz;bad; vdf; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;sJ. ,td;  njhy;fhg;gpaH fhyj;jtd; vd;gij njhy;fhg;gpag; ghapuj;jhy; mwpe;J nfhs;syhk;. njhy;fhg;gpaH fhyk; fpK 300-500 vdf; fzpf;fg;gLfpwJ.  

 

nebNahd; fhyj;jpNyh mjd; gpd;Ngh xU ngUq; fly;Nfhs; epfo;e;jJ. mjd;NghJ g/WspahWk; mjd; fiuapw; fl;lg;gl;l njd;kJiu cs;spl;l gok; ghz;behl;bd; ngUk;gFjp flypy; %o;fp tpl;lJ. ,JNt jkpo; ,yf;fpak; $Wk; Kjw; flw;NfhshFk;.  

 

,e;jf; fly;NfhSf;Fj; jg;gpa my;yJ gpw;gl;l ghz;bad; xUtd; tljpir Nehf;fpg; gil elj;jp> mq;NfAs;s gdpkiyiaAk; (,kakiy) fq;ifahw;iwAk; mfg;gLj;jp> jhd; ,oe;j Fkupkiyf;Fk; g/Wspahw;wpw;Fk; <L nra;J nfhz;lhd; vd ,sq;Nfh mbfs; rpyg;gjpfhuj;jpy; ghbapUf;fpwhH.

 

mbapy; jd;dsT murHf;F czHj;jp

tbNty; vwpe;j thd;gif nghwhJ

g/Wsp ahw;Wld; gd;kiy mLf;fj;Jf;

Fkupf; NfhLq; nfhLq;fly; nfhs;s

tljpirf; fq;ifAk; ,kaKq; nfhz;L

njd;wpir ahz;l njd;dtd; thop!                (rpyg;G fhLfhz;. 17-22)

 

NkYk; rpyg;gjpfhuk; tho;j;Jf; fhijapy; (29) fz;zfp Njt tbtpNy  Njhd;wp Nrud; nrq;Fl;LtidAk;  gpwiuAk; tho;j;Jk;NghJ>

 

FkupnahL tltpkaj;J

xUnkhop itj;J cyfhz;l

Nruyhjw;Fj; jpfo;xsp Qhapw;Wr;

Nrhod; kfs; <d;w ike;jd;>

nfhq;fH nrq;fsk; Ntl;Lf;>

fq;iff; NgHahw;Wf; fiuNafpa

nrq;Fl;Ltd;> rpdk; nrUf;fp

tQ;rpAs; te;J ,Ue;j fhiy......

 

,sq;Nfh mbfspd; ,e;j tupfs; ,katuk;gd; neLQ;Nruyhjd; njw;F vy;iyf;fz;Zs;s FkupKidNahL> tlf;fpd; fz;Zs;s ,kaj;JtiuAk;> xUnkhopNa (jkpo;nkhopNa) murnkhopahf epyTkhW Vw;gLj;jp itj;J> ,t;Tyfpid Mz;Lte;jtd; vdj; njupfpwJ. neLQ;Nruyhjd; kzKbj;j NrhokfSf;Fg; gpwe;jtNd Nrud; nrq;Fl;Ltd; Mthd;.  

 

g/Wsp MWk; Fkupf;NfhLk; flypy; %o;fpaNghJ tlf;Nf fq;ifAk;  ,kaKk; Gjpjhf vOe;jnjd;Wk; ciu nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ. "FkupnahL tltpkaj;J xUnkhop itj;J cyfhz;l Nruyhjd;" vd;gJ ,sq;Nfh mbfs; caHT etpHr;rpahfr; nrhy;ypajhf vLj;Jf; nfhz;lhYk; jkpo;nkhop rq;f fhyj;jpy; ,kak;tiu gutp ,Ue;jJ cz;ikahf ,Uf;fyhk;.

 

fq;if ehl;by; Fkupehl;bdpd;W nrd;w jkpoNu FbNawpdhHfs; vd;gjw;F> mq;F fhzg;gLk; CHg;ngaHfs; ngUk;ghYk; CH> efH> Guk;> Gup vdj; jkpoPW te;Js;sij NjtNeag; ghthzH Rl;bf; fhl;LfpwhH. Guk; vd;gJ NfhGuk; cs;s efiuAk;> Gup vd;gJ Nfhl;il cs;s efiuAk; Fwpj;jd. tq;fj;jpw; FbNawp  fq;iff; fiuapw; fhsp NfhtpYld; mikj;j efNu fhspf;Nfhl;lk;. fhsp ghiy epyj; jkpo;j; nja;tk;. fhsp Nfhl;lk;  vd;gNj Mq;fpyr;nrhy; topahfj; jpupe;J fy;fj;jh vd miof;fg;gLfpwJ.

 

fly;Nfhs; mr;rj;jpdhy; kl;Lky;yhJ> thzpf epkpj;jkhfTk; jkpoH tlf;Nf nrd;W fq;if ehl;bw; FbNawp ,Uf;fyhk;.

 

Fkupf; fz;lk; flypy; %o;fpagpd; tljpir nrd;w ghz;bad; fghlk; (fjtk;) my;yJ miytha; (tlkJiu) vd;w Gjpa jiyefuj;ij Njhw;Wtpj;jhd;. gpd;G mijAk; fly; nfhz;lJ. ,J ,uz;lhtJ flw;NfhshFk;.

 

,e;j ,uz;lhtJ fly;NfhSf;Fj; jg;gpa ghz;bad; vQ;rpapUe;j jd; Fbfisr; Nrho ehl;bYk; Nru ehl;bYk; rpy gFjpfisf; ifg;gw;wp mjpy; FbapUj;jpdhd;. ,jid>

 

kypjpiu A+He;Jjd; kz;fly; Ntstypd;
nkyptpd;wp Nkw;nrd;W NkthHehL ,lk;glg; GypNahL
tpy;ePf;fpg; Gfo;nghwpj;j fpsH nfz;il
typapdhd; tzf;fpa thlr;rPHj; njd;dtd;.

 

vd;W Ky;iyf;fyp (104: 1-4) $Wk;. 'Nrho ehl;nly;iyapNy Kj;JhHf; $w;wKk;> Nrukhdhl;Lf; Fz;^Hf; $w;wKk; vd;Dk; ,tw;iw ,oe;j ehl;bw;fhf Mz;l njd;dtd;" vd mbahHf;F ey;yhH jdJ ciuapy; Fwpg;gpLfpwhH.  

 

NkYk; mbahHf;F ey;yhH ,uz;L flw;NfhspdhYk; tpOq;fg;gl;l epyg; gug;G vOEhw;Wf;fhtjthW (Vwj;jho <uhapuk; iky;) vd;Wk;> me;epyg;gug;Gg; gFjpfis "Vo;njq;f ehLk;> Vo;kJiu ehLk;> Vo;Kd;ghiy ehLk;> Vo;gpd;ghiy ehLk;> Vo;Fd;w ehLk;> Vo;Fzfhiu ehLk;> Vo;FWk; gid ehLk; vd;Dk; ,e;j ehw;gj;njhd;gJ ehLk;> Fkup> nfhy;yk; Kjypa gd;kiy ehLk; fhLk; ejpAk; gjpAk;" vdf; $WfpwhH. (tsUk;)