xU ngsHzkp ,utpd; kuzk;
 

(1)

 

 

mJ xU jpiug;glk;. ngaH "Gw `d;l fYtw" ("xU ngsHzkp ,utpd; kuzk;"). ,e;jg; glj;ij ,af;fp ,Ug;gtH Kw;Nghf;fhd rpe;jid gilj;j rpq;fstH. ngaH gpurd;d tpjhdNf. ,e;jg; glj;jpd; jpiuf;fij =yq;fhtpy; fle;j 16 Mz;L fhykhf jkpoUf;F vjpuhf elhj;jg;gl;L tUk; Aj;jj;ijg; gw;wpaJ. ,J xU jdp kdpjuJ ciog;ghy; cUthd glk;. glj;ijj; jahupg;gjw;F Ntz;ba nryit Ig;ghdpa xypgug;G epWtdk; nfhLj;J cjtpapUf;fpwJ.
 

,e;jj; jpiug;glk; cynfq;fZk; fhz;gpf;fg;gl;L tUfpwJ. Vw;fdNt mnkupf;fh> INuhg;gh> Mrpah ehLfspd; jiy efuq;fspy; ntspaplg;gl;Ls;sJ. ntF tpiutpy; thzpf uPjpapy; gpuhd;rpy; jpiuaplg;gl ,Uf;fpwJ.

 

,e;j Mz;L rpl;dpapy; eilngw ,Uf;Fk; cyfshtpa jpiug;gl tpohtpYk; ,e;jg; glk; fye;J nfhs;s ,Uf;fpwJ. rpq;fg;G+upy; ele;j cyfshtpa jpiug;gl tpohtpy; ,e;jg; glk; Mrpahtpd; rpwe;j jpiuf;fij vdj; njupT nra;ag;gl;lJ. ,e;jg; glj;jpy; ebj;j Nah mgatpf;fpukhtpw;F Mrpahtpd; rpwe;j ebfH tpUJ toq;fg;gl;lJ.

 

tpjhdNf ,af;fpa Kjy; jpiug;glk; ,Jty;y. ,jw;F Kd;dH "neUg;gpy; gdp" (1992)> "Md;khtpd; ,Uz;l ,uT" (1996) kw;Wk; " cl; RtHfs;" (1997) Nghd;w glq;fis ,af;fpAs;shH.
 

1962k; Mz;L gpwe;j tpjhdNf ehlfq;fis ,af;fpa mDgtq;fis itj;Jf; nfhz;L jpiug;gl cyFf;Fs; fhyb vLj;J itj;jhH.

 

ntspehnlhd;wpy; itj;J cyf NrhryPr ,izaj;Jf;F nfhLj;j mtuJ nrt;tpiag; gbj;jNghJ mjid cq;fSlDk; gfpHe;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;w Mir vOe;jJ. ,e;jr; nrt;tpapy; glk; jahupj;j Nehf;fk; mjdhy; Vw;gl;l mDgtq;fis rw;W tpupthff; $WfpwhH.
 

vjw;Fk; ,uz;L gf;fq;fs; cz;nld;ghHfs;. vy;yh ehzaj;jpw;Fk; ,uz;L gf;fq;fs; (jiy> thy;),Uf;fpd;wd. vy;yhf; fijfSf;Fk; ,uz;L gf;fq;fs; (cz;ik> ngha;) ,Uf;fpd;wd. ,yq;ifapy; eilngWk; Aj;jj;jpw;Fk; ,uz;L gf;fq;fs; (rpq;fstH> jkpoH) ,Uf;fpd;wd. ,e;jr; nrt;tp me;jg; gf;fj;ijg; (rpq;fstH) ghHf;f cjTfpwJ. mjid mg;gbNa jUfpNwd;. ,lk; fUjp Kf;fpakw;w rpy gFjpfs; tplg;gl;Ls;sd.

 

xU ngsHzkp ,utpy; kuzk; vd;w glj;jpd; jpiuf;fij kpfTk; rhjhuzkhdJ. njd;dpyq;ifapy; xU ruhrup rpq;fsf; fpuhkj;ijg; Rw;wp fij RoYfpwJ. ,e;jj; jpiuf; fijia mikg;gjw;F rPdhtpd; Ie;jhtJ jiyKiwj; jpiug;glj; jahupg;ghsHfspd; jhf;fk; ,Ue;jjhfr; nrhy;Yk; tpjhdNf ,e;j Ie;jhtJ jiyKiw ,af;FdHfs; khNthtpd; fyhrhug; Gul;rpia mLj;Jj; Njhd;wpatHfs; vd;fpwhH. rPdhtpy; khNthtpdhy; fl;lTo;j;J tplg;gl;l fyhrhug; Gul;rpapd; NghJ ,e;jj; jiyKiw jpiug;glj; jahupg;ghsHfs; rPdf; fpuhkq;fspy; thOkhW fl;lhag; gLj;jg; gl;lhHfs;. mq;Nf mtHfs; ghHj;j fpuhk tho;f;if nra;jpj;jhs;fspYk; Gj;jfq;fspYk; rpj;jupf;fg;gl;ljw;F Kw;wpYk; khwhf ,Ue;jd.

 

vdNt mtHfs; Kw;wpYk; tpj;jpahrkhd> rPd fk;A+dp];l; fl;rp nrhd;dJ NghyNth my;yJ khNth nrhd;dJ NghyNth ,y;yhJ ajhHj;jkhd glq;fisj; jahupj;jhHfs;> mjpy; xU glk; nrd; Nfa;Nf jahupj;j "kQ;rs; G+kp" (Yellow Earth by Chen Kaige).

 

,jpy; Ntbf;ifahd Ntjid vd;dntd;why; xU ngsHzkp ,utpd; kuzk; vd;w ,e;jg; glj;ij =yq;fhtpy; jpiuapl me;j muR kWj;J tpl;lJ. mijapl;L tpjhdNf ftiyg;gltpy;iy. xU ajhHj;jkhd jpiug;glj;ij jahupj;J ,af;fpajpy; mtUf;F xU Mj;k jpUg;jp.
 

,e;jg; glj;jpd; jpiuf; fijAk;> fijapy; tUk; rk;gtq;fSk; cz;ikahf ele;jit. ,e;jg; glj;jpd; jpiuf;fijapy; tUk; fpuhkk; ,yq;ifapd; gioa jiyefukhd mDuhjGuj;ij mz;baJ. mDuhjGuk; ,d;W Gdpj efuhfg; gpufldg;gLj;jg; gl;Ls;sJ. rpq;fs-ngsj;j ,dthjj;jpd; Nfhl;ilahfTk; mDuhjGuk; ,d;W tpsq;FfpwJ. Mdhy; mq;Fs;s epyikf;Fk; mjid mz;bAs;s fpuhkj;jpy; elg;gitf;Fk; ghupa NtW ghL ,Ue;jJ. ,e;jf; fpuhkj;jpy; %d;W Mz;Lfs; njhlHr;rpahf kio nga;atpy;iy. vdNt fpuhkj;jpd; KJnfYk;ghd fkj; njhopy; eilngwtpy;iy. mq;Fs;s ,isQHfSf;F xNunahU khw;W topjhd; ,Ue;jJ. xd;wpy; ,uhZtj;jpy; NrHtJ my;yJ efuj;ij Nehf;fpr; nrd;W Ntiy NjLtJ. ,uhZtj;jpy; NrHe;jhy; rhf NeupLk; vd;gJ me;j ,isQHfSf;Fj; njupAk;. mtHfsJ ngw;NwhHfSf;Fk; njupAk;.
 

Mdhy; ngw;NwhHfs; jq;fs; gps;isfs; ,uhZtj;jpy; NrUtijj; jLf;f tpUk;gtpy;iy. fhuzk; mtHfs; ,we;jhYk; mtHfsJ thuPRfSf;F muR ,og;gPL nfhLf;Fk; vd;w ek;gpf;if ,Ue;jJ. ,isQHfisg; nghWj;jstpy; jq;fs; jha; je;ij FLk;gk; thoNtz;Lk; vd;why; jhq;fs; ,we;Jjhd; Mf Ntz;Lk; vd;w fl;lhak;.

 

,e;jg; glj;jpw;F " xU ngsHzkp ,utpd; kuzk;" vd;w Vd; ngaH R+l;lg; gl;lJ?

 

ngsj;jHfisg; nghWj;jstpy; ngsHzkp vd;gJ ,uT kl;Lk; my;y mJ gfYe;jhd;. rka mDl;lhdq;fisf; filg;gpbf;Fk; ehs;. nghJ tpLKiw ehs;. ,e;jg; glk; rkaj;Jf;Fk; r%fj;Jf;Fk; cs;s njhlHig gupNrhjpj;Jg; ghHf;f KaYfpwJ.

cz;ikapy; glj;jpd; Muk;gNk ngsj;j FUkhH gpupj; XJtNjhL njhlq;FfpwJ. mDuhjGu efupy; cs;s xt;nthU Gj;j tpfhiufspYk; ehs; jtwhJ fhiyapy; gpupj; Xjg;gLtijf; Nfl;fyhk;. Mdhy; ,e;j gpupj; XJjYf;Fk; ,we;j ,uhZtj;jpdupd; gpNujg; ngl;bfs; fpuhkj;Jf;F tUtjw;Fk; ,ilapy; ngupa Kuz;ghL fhzg;gl;lJ.

 

Gj;jkjk; xU epWtdkhFk;. Gj;j gpf;Ffs; rpq;fs-ngsj;j Ngupdthjj;jpw;Fj; jiyik jhq;FfpwhHfs;. ehl;bd; ahg;G Gj;jkjj;Jf;F Kf;fpa ,lj;ij nfhLj;jpUf;fpwJ. 1972k; Mz;L epiwNtw;wg;gl;l murpay; ahg;ig cUthf;fpatH lhf;lH nfhy;tpd; MH b rpy;th. mtHjhd; Gj;jkjj;jpw;F Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhLf;Fk; tpjpia ahg;gpy; NrHj;Jf; nfhz;ltH.
NrhryPrj;ijf; fhl;bf; nfhLj;j mtH xU fhyj;jpy; nuh];fpathjpahf (Trotskyist) tpsq;fpatH. rpq;fs-ngsj;j Ngupdthjpfs; Gj;j kjj;jpw;Ff; nfhLf;fg; gl;Ls;s Kf;fpaj;Jtk; mg;gbNa ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W tpUk;GfpwhHfs;. Gj;jkjk; xU epWtd kjkhf ,Ug;gjhy; mJ jdf;F Vw;wtifapy; kw;wtHfis tisj;Jg; NghLfpwJ. kw;wtHfis mlf;fp xLf;FfpwJ.
glj;jpd; xU fl;lj;jpy; Gj;jgpf;F xUtH taJ te;j je;ijf;Fr; nrhy;fpwhH "cdJ kfd; xU khtPud;. mtdJ epidthf xU Ng&e;J jupg;gplk; fl;LNthk;." mJjhd; me;jf; fpuhkj;jpd; ajhHj;jk;. rpq;fsf; fpuhkg; gFjpfspy; ,g;gb Aj;jj;jpy; ,we;Jgl;l ,uhZtj;jpdH epidthff; fl;lg;gl;l Ng&e;J jupg;gplq;fs; epiwa ,Uf;fpd;wd. Gj;j rkaj;jtHfs; ,g;gb ehl;Lf;fhf ,wg;gtHfsplk; ngUj;j kupahij itj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. Mdhy; ,e;jj; je;ij nfhQ;rk; Gj;jprhyp. mtH nrhy;fpwhH " Ng&e;J jupg;gplk; vg;gbAk; (kw;wtHfshy;) fl;lg;gl Ntz;baJjhNd." vdNt ehd; Gj;jrkaf; fpupiffis Rw;Wyhg; gazpfisf; ftHtjw;F my;yhky; mtw;iw fz;bf;fg; gad;gLj;jpNdd;.

 

glj;jpy; ,e;jj; je;ij ,og;gPl;il thq;f kWj;Jtpl;L GijFopapypUe;J gpNujg; ngl;biaj; Njhz;LfpwhH. ,J rhjhuzkhf elf;fpw rk;gtkh?

 

,y;iy. ,J rhjhuzkhf elf;fpw rk;gtk; ,y;iy. Mdhy; ehd; Vd; mg;gb me;jj; je;ij nra;apwkhjpup fijia mikj;Njd;? ahuhtJ rtg; ngl;biaj; jpwe;jhy; mtHfSf;Ff; nfhLf;fg;gLfpw ,og;gPl;il mtHfs; ,of;f Ntz;bapUf;Fk;. tpjpKiwfs; mg;gbj;jhd;. vdNt vdJ glj;jpy; me;jj; je;ij me;jg; rtg; ngl;bia cilf;fpwhH. mjdhy; ahUf;Fk; ,og;gPL fpilf;fhky; Ngha;tpLfpwJ.

 

,e;jg; glj;ijg; ghHj;j xU ,isQH vd;dplk; te;J "me;jr; rtg;ngl;bf;Fs; xU ,uhZt rPUilAk; ,Ug;gJ Nghyf; fhl;bapUf;fyhk;. my;yhtpl;lhy; ,uhZtj;jpy; NrHtjw;F ,isQHfs; gpd;thq;FthHfs;" vd;whH. ehd; nrhd;Ndd; mq;F (=yq;fhtpy;) cz;ikahf vd;d elf;fpwJ vd;gijg; glj;jpy; fhl;LtNj vdJ Nehf;fk;. ,uhZtk; rup> muR rup ,uhZtr; rPUilia itf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W ftiyg;gLtNj ,y;iy. mtHfs; rtg; ngl;b fdkhf ,Uf;Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;fhf kuf; fl;ilfisAk; fw;fisAk; Nghl;L mDg;gp tpLfpwhHfs;. ,Jjhd; frg;ghd mNjNeuk; ahjhHj;j epiy.

 

jkpoUf;fhd ,e;j Aj;jj;ij vjpHf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w vz;zk; cq;fSf;F vg;NghJ te;jJ?

 

njhlf;fj;jpy; ,Ue;J> gps;isg; gpuhaj;jpy; ,Ue;J. vdJ jha;-je;ijaH> Fwpg;ghf vdJ je;ij me;jf;fhyj;jpy; rk[kh[p];l; fl;rpapd; - mJ nuh];fp];l; fl;rpahf ,Ue;j fhyj;jpy; - nfhs;if Nfhl;ghl;by; <Hf;fg;gl;lhH. mjd; jhf;fk; vd;dpYk; gbe;jJ. ehd; gs;spapy; gbf;Fk; NghJ jkpo;> rpq;fs> guq;fp khztHfNshL NrHe;J gbj;Njd;. mg;NghJk; Ngupdthjpfs; gs;spf;$lj;jpy; ,Ue;jhHfs;. Mdhy; ehd; ,isikapypUe;J jkpo; kf;fs; fyhrhu uPjpahf xLf;fg; gLfpwhHfs; vd;gij murpay; Clhfj; njupe;jpUe;Njd;. aho;g;ghzj;jpypUe;J ntspte;j Saturday Review gj;jpupifia ehd; gbg;gJz;L. me;jg; gj;jpupif N[.MH. n[atHj;jdhtpd; Ml;rpapy; vd;d elf;fpwJ vd;gij mk;gyg;gLj;jpaJ. 1978k; Mz;L> 1983k; Mz;L ,lk;ngw;w ,df;f ytuq;fisAk; ehd; Neupy; ghHj;Njd;. jkpo; kf;fs; fyhrhu uPjpapYk; nghUshjhu uPjpapYk; xLf;fg;gLtjhy; vdJ mDjhgk; mtHfs; gf;fk; ,Ue;jJ.

 

,e;jg; glj;jpy; Gj;jgpf;Fthf ebg;gtH cz;ikapy; me;jf; fpuhkj;J Gj;jgpf;Fjhd;! ,jpy; G+rhupahf tUgtH me;jf; fpuhkj;Jg; G+rhupjhd;! ,J glj;jpd; ajhHj;jj;jpw;F nkU$l;baJ.

 

,e;jg; glj;jpy; tUk; je;ijapd; kfs; tpgrhuj;jpy; <LgLtjhf tUfpwNj? ,ij tpsf;f KbAkh?

 

FLk;gj;jpd; ,isa kfSf;F Milfs; jahupf;Fk; njhopw;rhiy xd;wpy; Ntiy fpilf;fpwJ. 1982 -1994k; Mz;Lf; fhyg;gFjpapy; rdhjpgjp gpNukjhrh xt;nthU fpuhkj;jpYk; xU Milj; njhopw;rhiyia Muk;gpj;J itj;jhH. mtuJ vz;zk; vd;dntd;why; efuj;ij fpuhkg;Gwj;Jf;F vLj;Jr; nry;y Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ. mjd; tpisT fpuhkj;jpYk; njhopyhs tHf;fk; xd;W cUthfj; njhlq;fpaJ. glj;jpy; mtsJ fhjyd; mts; nrhd;dij ek;ghky; jhNd njhopw;rhiyf;Fg; Ngha;g; ghHf;fpwhd;. mq;F ,uhZtj;jpdH ngz;fSf;fhf miytijg; ghHj;J Mj;jpuk; nfhs;fpwhd;. mtd; je;ijiag; ghHj;Jr; nrhy;fpwhd; " eP cdJ kfidg; gw;wpf; ftiyg;gLfpwha;. Mdhy; cdJ kfs; tpgr;rhuj;Jf;Fs; js;sg;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUf;fpwhs;!"

 

ehd; 1997y; ,e;jj; jpiug;glj;ij jahupj;jNghJ mDuhjGupg; gFjpapy; tpgr;rhuk; Muk;gpf;fj; njhlq;fp tpl;lJ. ,g;NghJ =yq;fhtpy; nfhOk;Gf;F mLj;jgbahf Gdpj efukhd mDuhjGuj;jpy;jhd; Mff; $ba tpgr;rhu tpOf;fhL fhzg;gLfpwJ. tlf;fpy; ,Ue;J tpLg;gpy; tUk; ,uhZtj;jpdH mDuhjGuj;jpy; ,uz;L ehl;fs; jq;FfpwhHfs;. ,jdhy; tpgr;rhuk; xU ngupa njhopyhf khwptpl;lJ. Milj; njhopw;rhiyfspy; nfhLf;fg;gLk; $yp kpff; FiwthfNt ,Uf;fpwJ. ,jdhy; rpy ngz;fs; cly;gpbj;JtpLk; $lq;fSf;Fg; NghfpwhHfs;. mq;fpUe;J mtHfs; tpgrhutpLjpfSf;Fj; js;sg; gLfpwhHfs;.

 

ehd; xU cz;ikr; rk;gtk;gw;wpf; Nfs;tpg;gl;Nld;. xU ,sk; ,uhZtj;jpdDf;F tpgrhutpLjpapy; ,Ue;j vy;yhg; ngz;fisAk; fhl;LfpwhHfs;. mq;Nf mtd; jdJ nrhe;j jq;if ,Ug;gijf; fhz;fpwhd;. Mj;jpuk; mile;j mtd; tpgrhutpLjpapd; nrhe;jf;fhuidAk; mtdJ rNfhjupiaAk; nfhiy nra;a Kaw;rpf;fpwhd;. mtid mLj;j miwf;F mioj;Jg;Ngha; MRtrg;gLj;jpa tpLjpf;fhud; ,d;ndhU ,sk; ngz;iz nfhLf;fpwhd;.
 

,g;g ghHj;jPHfsh? ,e;j Aj;jk; vg;gb mbg;gil kdpj tpOkpaq;fisAk;> =yq;fh ngsj;j ehfupfj;Jf;F Gfo;Nghd ehL vd;gijAk; ghobj;J tpl;lJ vd;W?

 

glj;jpy; tUk; je;ijapd; Aj;j vjpHg;G nkj;jdkhfTk; mg;ghtpj;jdkhfTk; ,Uf;fpwJ. ,Jjhd; ajhHj;jkh? my;yJ fpuhkkf;fs; kw;Wk; rpW fkf;fhuHfs; ,e;jg; Nghiu kdg;G+Htkhf vjpHf;fpwhHfsh?

 

glj;jpd; %yk; ,e;j Aj;jj;jpw;F vdJ vjpHg;igf; fhl;l tpise;Njd;. Mdhy; ehd; mg;gbnahU ghj;jpuj;ijg; gilf;Fk;NghJ cz;ikiar; nrhy;y Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; epidj;Njd;. Nghupd; jhHg;gupaq;fisg; Gupe;J nfhs;Sk; mstpw;F me;jj; je;ij ,Uf;ftpy;iy. mJ mtuJ Mw;wYf;F mg;ghw;gl;lJ. mijj;jhd; glk; fhl;LfpwJ.

 

 

   


 

 

Gj;jupd;  mfpk;irj;  jj;Jtj;jpw;F  rhTkzp  mbf;Fk; ngsj;jkj gPlhjpgjpfs;!

 

(2)

 

 

njhlHe;J vOJ Kd; jpiug;glj; jahupg;ghsHfs;> murpay;thjpfs;> kdpjTupikthjpfs; vy;yhtw;wpw;Fk; Nkyhf rhjhuz jpiug;gl NeaHfisg;; ngupJk; ftHe;Js;s xU ngsHzkp ,utpd; kuzk; vd;w jpiug;glj;ijg; gw;wpa gpe;jpa nra;jpia cq;fSld; gfpHe;J nfhs;syhk; vd epidf;fpNwd;. ,e;jj; jpiug;glk;  mTj;jpNuypah ehl;L  nky;NghHd;> rpl;dp> gpwp];Ngd; Nghd;w efuq;fspy; cs;s jpiuauq;Ffspy; Nghl;Lf; fhl;lg;gl;Ls;sd. vy;yhj; jpiuauq;FfSk; Gyk;ngaHe;j kf;fshy; epuk;gp tope;jJ. mg;gb xU mNkhf tuNtw;G xU ngsHzkp ,utpd; kuzk; vd;w jpiug;glj;Jf;F ,Ue;jJ.

 

xU fhyj;jpy; njd;dpe;jpa jpiug;glq;fSk; mjd; ,af;FeHfSk; jpiuAyfpy; Nkyhz;ik nrYj;jpa (=yq;fhtpy;) fhyk; ,Ue;jJ. Mdhy; me;j Nkyhz;ikia ,af;FeH  ny];uH gPup]; ,af;fpa Nuf;fth> fk;ngnuypah Nghd;w glq;fs; jLj;J epWj;jp glj; jahupg;gpy; Gjpa xU rfhg;jj;ij Muk;gpj;J itj;jd.

 

xU ngsHzkp ,utpd; kuzk; jpiug;glk; Xba jpiuauq;Ffspy; mjd; ,sk; ,af;FeH gpurd;dh tpjhdNf Neupy; Njhd;wp glf;fij> ,af;fk;> ebfHfs; gw;wpa jfty;fis nrhd;dhH.  

 

xU ngsHzkp ,utpd; kuzk; NghH-mikjp vd;w #oypy;  xU kdpjdpd; ftiy fye;j tho;f;ifg; Nghuhl;lj;jpd; nfhLikiar; nrhy;Yk; jpiug;glkhFk;.  jdJ kfd; ,d;Dk; capNuhL ,Uf;fpwhd; vd;W ek;Gk; xU taJ Nghd je;ij> fpuhkj;J NghypkdpjHfs;> murpay; rYiffs;> cs;ehl;L  Aj;jj;jpd; Nfhuq;fs; ,tw;iw vy;yhk; capHj;Jbg;NghL nts;spj;jpiuapy; nfhz;LtUtjpy; ,af;FdH gpure;jh tpjhdNf ntw;wp ngw;Ws;shH vd;gjpy; Iakpy;iy. glj;jpy; tUk; rhtPl;Lf; fhl;rpfs; ghHg;Nghupd; fz;fspy; ePiu tUtpj;jd.

 

,e;jg; glk; jpiuapy; 70 tpehbNa  XLfpwJ. Mdhy; me;j 70 tpdhbAk; glk; ghHg;Nghiu MlhJ mirahJ itj;jpUg;jpy; ,ad;FdH   ntw;wp ngw;Ws;shH vd;gJ kl;Lk; cz;ik.

 

,e;jg; glj;ijg; ghHf;Fk;NghJ ,yq;ifapd; ,aw;iff; fhl;rpfs;> mikjpahd fpuhk tho;f;if> kio> tul;rp> kuk;> nrb nfhb gw;wpa gioa epidtiyfs; kdjpy; vOtij jLf;f Kbatpy;iy. ,e;j tifapy; tpjhdNf  xU glj;jahupg;ghsH> ,af;FdH vd;w Kiwpay; Gjpa guk;giuiar; NrHe;jtuhff; fhzg;gLfpwhH. nrf;F khl;ilg; Nghy; nrd;w ghijapy; nrd;W nfhz;buhky; Gjpa ghl;ilapy; eil NghLfpwhH.

 

,e;jg;glk; tpiutpy; fdlhtpYk; fhz;g;gpf;fg;gl ,Uf;fpwJ. mg;NghJ ,e;jg; Gfo;khiyf;nfy;yhk; me;jg;glk; jFjp ngw;wJjhdh ,y;iyah vd;gij Neupy; ghHj;Jj; njupe;J nfhs;syhk;. rpq;fs nkhopg; glk; vd;whYk; mTj;jpNuypah Nghy ,q;Fk; epiwaj; jkpoHfs; me;jg;glj;ijg; ghHg;ghHfs; vd;W vjpHghHf;fyhk;. ,dp Gj;jupd; jj;Jtk;gw;wpa tpsf;fj;Jf;Fg; Nghfyhk;.

 

,e;j ehd;F (Nkj;ij> fUiz> Kjpij> cNgi\)  jpahdj;Jld; mRgghtidiaAk; nra;jy; Ntz;Lk;. mRgghtid vd;gJ clk;gpd; ,opj;jd;ikiar; rpe;jpj;Jg; ghHj;jy;. capH gpupe;J  Nghd clk;ghdJ tPq;fpg; Nghjy;> fWj;Jg; Nghjy;> GOj;Jg;Nghjy; Kjypa gj;Jtifahd mopTj;jd;ikailtijr; rpe;jpj;Jg; ghHj;Jg; gw;wWj;jy;.

 

,t;thW Nahf jpahdq;fspdhNy Qhdk; mile;j gpf;FthdtH gpuhzhahkk; (%r;R epWj;jy;) nra;a Ntz;Lk;. gpuhzhahkk; nra;tjd; %yNk gpf;FthdtH rkhjp epiyia milfpwhH. ,e;j rkhjp epiy ehd;F tifg;gLk;. mit N]hjhgj;jp epiy> ifjhfhkp epiy> mehfhkp epiy> mH`j epiy vd;gd.

 

N]hjhgj;jp epiyia mile;jtH fhkk;> ntFsp> kaf;fk; vd;Dk; %d;W Fw;wq;fisAk; ePf;fpatH MthH.

 

ifjhfhkp epiyia mile;jtH xNu gpwg;ig cilatH MthH. mehfhkp epiyia mile;jtH ,dpg;gpwthj epiyia mile;jtH MthH.

 

mH`j epiyia mile;jtH ,e;jg; gpwg;gpNyNa epHthz Nkhl;rj;ijg; ngw;wtH MthH.

 

,JNt Njuthj (fPdahd) rkaj;jpd; jj;Jtk; MFk; (,jd; tpupit kzpNkfiy 30tJ fhijapy; ghHf;fTk;).

 

jj;Jtq;fs; vy;yhk; nkj;j ed;whfNt ,Uf;fpd;wd. Mdhy; ,e;jj; jj;Jtj;ij vj;jid Jhuk; Gj;jupd; rPlHfs; filg;gpbf;fpwhHfs; vd;gijf; fz;lwpa m];fpupa> ky;tj;ij> mkuGu> uhkz;z Gj;jkj gPlhjpgjpfisg; ghHj;jhNy njupe;J tpLk;. kdpjHfspy; caHT jho;T ,y;iy> rhjp ,y;iy vdg; Gj;jkjk; Nghjpg;gjw;F Kw;wpYk; khwhf ,e;j Gj;jkj gPlq;fs; rhjp mbg;gilapy;  mike;jpUg;gJ =yq;fhtpy; fhzg;gLk; Gj;jkjk; vg;gbr; rPuope;J Ngha;f; fplf;fpwJ vd;gjw;Fg; Nghjpa rhl;rpahFk;.

 

Gj;j rkak; ,e;jpa tuyhw;wpYk;> ,e;jpa r%jhaj;jpYk; ghupa khWjy;fis Vw;gLj;jpaJ vd;gjpy; ,Utpj fUj;Jf;fs; ,Uf;f KbahJ.  xU fhy fl;lj;jpy;> Kf;fpakhf mNrhfr; rf;futHj;jpapd; Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpy; ,e;jpahtpy; kl;Lky;y ,e;jpahtpw;F ntspapYk; Gj;jkjk; gutpr; nropj;J tsHe;jJ. fpof;Nf [g;ghd;> rPdh> tpal;ehk;> jha;yhe;J> fk;Nghbah> ,e;Njhdprpah Nghd;w ehLfspy; ngsj;jkjk; gutpapUe;jJ.

 

Gj;j kjk; njhlf;fj;jpy; xU kjkhf ,Uf;ftpy;iy. Gj;jH xU rkathjp vd;gijtpl xU jj;Jtthjp> rpe;jidahsH vd;W kl;Lk; vz;zg;gl;lhH. jdJ Nghjidfs; rkaj;Jf;Fupa Nfhyq;fisg; ngWnkd;Nwh> jhNd flTshf caHj;jg;gLthH vd;Nwh> jdJ gy;> vYk;G> kapH Nghd;wit Gdpj topghl;Lf;Fupa nghUl;fshf khWk; vd;Nwh mtH vz;zp,Uf;f khl;lhH.

 

jdJ jj;Jtq;fisg; Nghjpg;gjw;Nf  kQ;rs; mq;fp mzpe;j rPlHfis cUthf;fpdhH. mtHfs; tho;f;ifapy; filg;gpbj;J xOf Ntz;ba fLikahd xOf;fq;fis  tFj;jhH.

 

ngsj;j gpf;Ffs; ngz;zhir> kz;zhir> nghd; Mir ,tw;iwj; Jwe;J ml;lhq;f khHf;fj;jpy; nrhy;yg;gl;l Nfhl;ghLfSf;F  mika thoNtz;Lk; vd;whH. mg;gb tho;tNj xU ngsj;j gpf;F jdJ tho;f;ifapy;  Nkw;nfhz;L Nghw;w Ntz;ba ,yl;rpakhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W Gj;jH Nghjpj;jhH.   ngsj;jgpf;Ffspd; tho;f;ifia> xOf;fj;ij newpg;gLj;j mtHfSf;nfd xU mikg;ig cUthf;fpdhH. mg;gb cUthf;fg;gl;l mikg;Ng ngsj;j rq;fkhFk;.

 

,e;j ngsj;j rq;fNk ngsj;j rkaj;jpd;  Jhz;fspy; xd;whf ,Ue;jJ. jd;dykpy;yhj> xOf;Ks;s nghsj;j Jwtpfs; C&uhfr; nrd;W ngsj;jkjg; gug;Giu nra;jdH. murUk;> nry;tUk;> tzpfUk; mtHfs; tho;tjw;F  tpfhiufisAk; FiffisAk; mikj;Jf; nfhLj;jdH. mjpy; tho;e;j ngsj;j Jwtpfs; rKjhaj;jpd; vy;yh kl;lj;J  kf;fSf;Fk; fy;tp nrhy;ypf; nfhLj;jhHfs;. rka NghjidAk; ey;fpdhHfs;. fhzhH> NfshH> KltH> VjpyhH> twpNahH Nghd;wtHfsJ grpg;gpzpia Nghf;Ftjw;F czT mspj;jhHfs;. cly; gpzpAw;NwhHf;F kUe;J nfhLj;J itj;jpak; nra;jhHfs;. tUz NtWghl;ilAk;>  mjd; cl;gpupthd rhjp Ntw;WikfisAk; ntWj;jdH. gpwg;ghy; NkNyhH fPNohH ,y;iynad;Wk; njhz;bdhy; kl;LNk xUtH caHe;NjhH Mfyhk; vd;wdH. ,jdhy; ngsj;jk; kpf Ntfkhf ,e;jpahtpYk;> jkpofj;jpy; tsHr;rp fz;lJ. Fwpg;ghf fsg;gpuH Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpy; (fp.gp. 3k; Ehw;whz;L) ngsj;jk; rpwg;gplk; ngw;W ,Ue;jJ.

 

gpw;fhyj;jpy; ngsj;j rq;fj;jpd;  mikg;G Kiwia Vida rkaq;fs; gpd;gw;wpf; nfhz;lJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. xd;gjhk; Ehw;whz;bd; ,Wjpapy; Nfushtpy; cs;s fhyb vd;Dk; fpuhkj;jpy; gpwe;jtUk;  mj;itj  Ntjhje;jj;jpd; (,uz;by;iy  xd;Wjhd;. gpukk; kl;LNk cz;ik) je;ijAkhd Mjprq;fuH ,e;j Gj;j kjgPlq;fisg; gpd;gw;wpNa fHehlfj;jpy; rpUq;Nfup klKk;> xuprhtpy; G+up klKk;> F[uhj;jpy; Jthuhfh klKk;> ,khyaj;jpy; gj;uPehj; klKk; ,e;jpahtpd; ehw;jpirfspYk; epWtpdhH.  

 

xU tpjj;jpy; md;iwa (fp.K. Mwhk; Ehw;whz;L) rKjhaj;jpy;  Mjpf;fk; nrYj;jpa   tHzhr;rpuk jHkj;Jf;F ( ehy;tHzk; - gpuhkzH> rj;jpupaH>  itrpfH> #j;jpuH>   Mr;rpuk jHkk; - gpukr;rhup> fpuf];jd;> rd;dpahrp> thdg;gpu];jd;) vjpuhf> me;j rKjha mikg;gpd; Nky; jl;by; ,Ue;Jnfhz;L Mjpf;fk; nrYj;jpa gpuhkzUf;F vjpuhd rj;jpupaupd; ,af;fkhfNt Gj;jkjk; Muk;gkhfpaJ vd;W nrhy;yyhk;. ehy;tUz rKjha mikg;gpy; fhzg;gl;l caHT - jho;it> Mz;lhd; - mbik Kiwia vjpHj;J nghsj;j ,af;fk; Fuy; vOg;gpaJ.

 

mj;Jld; gpuhkz kjk; my;yJ rehjd kjk; Nghjpj;J te;j jj;Jtq;fSf;F vjpuhfg; Gjpa gpugQ;rf; fz;Nzhl;lj;ijAk; Gj;jkjk; Kd;itj;jJ. Gjpa jj;jtq;fisAk;> rpe;jidfisAk;> nfhs;iffisAk; ntspg;gLj;jpa Gj;jH jdJ jiyikapy; mjidg; Ngupaf;fkhf cUthf;fpdhH.

 

Kd;dH $wpaJNghy; gpd;dhy; te;jtHfNs me;j ,af;fj;ij xU kjkhf khw;wp tpl;lhHfs;.  ngsj;j gpf;Ffs; me;j kjj;jpd; G+rhupfshf jq;fis epakpj;Jf; nfhz;lhHfs;. mg;gbr; nra;tjw;F mtHfs; mzpe;jpUe;j kQ;rs; mq;fpAk;> KONeu ciog;Gk;> NrHe;jpUe;j rq;fKk; NgUjtpahf ,Ue;jd. Gj;jupd; Nfhl;ghl;il rkakhf;fpaJ kl;Lk; my;yhJ flTis kWj;j Gj;jiuNa flTshf;fp tpl;lhHfs;! ,jd; %yk; Gj;jupd; gFj;jwpTf; nfhs;ifiaAk; Nfhl;ghl;ilAk; GijFopf;F mDg;gp tpl;lhHfs;. Gj;jupd; mfpk;ir jj;Jtjw;F rhTkzp mbj;J tpl;lhHfs;. (njhlUk;)
 
 


 

 

xU ngsHzkp ,utpd; kuzk;

 

Gj;jkjf; Nfhl;ghLfspd; ,wg;G!
 

(3)

rhjhuz ngsj;jHfis tpl;LtpLNthk;. jpdKk; Kk;kzpfis tzq;fp Gj;jk; ruzk; fr;rhkp> jHkk; ruzk; fr;rhkp> rq;fk; ruzk; fr;rhkp vd tho;j;jp mtw;wpy; milf;fyk; GFk; Gj;j NjuHfs;> Gj;jkj gPlhjpgjpfs; Gj;jupd; ml;lhq;f khHf;fj;ij Gwf;fzpj;J mjw;F Ntl;L itg;gJNghy; ele;J nfhs;fpwhHfs;.

,iwr;rp> kPd; cl;gl gj;Jtiff; fwpNahL mWRit tpUe;Jz;L> Nrhkghdk; mUe;jp> gQ;rizapy; gLj;Jwq;fp> ngd;]; fhupy; nrhFRg; gazk; nra;J> tq;fpapy; gzj;ijg;Nghl;L> Nga;> gpy;yp> R+dpak;> ke;jpu je;jpuj;jpy; <Lgl;L> murpay; Nkilfspy; rpq;fs-ngsj;jHfSf;F Fuy; nfhLj;J jkpoHfSf;F vjpuhfj; JNt\j;ijf; ff;Fk; Gj;jupd; rPlHfisNa ehk; ghHf;fpNwhk;. "vg;NghJk; vy;yh capHfsplj;jpYk; md;igAk; ey;nyz;zj;ijAk; tsHf;f Ntz;Lk;" vd;W Nghjpj;j Gj;jupd; rPlNfhbfs; " ehq;fs; Kjypy; rpq;fstH. mg;Gwe;jhd; ngsj;j NjuHfs;" vdf; nfhQ;rk;$l ntl;fk; Jf;fkpd;wp gfpuq;fkhfg; giwaiwfpwhHfs;.

nfhiyf;Ff; fhuzkhd fj;jp> <l;b> ths;> mk;G Kjypa MAjq;fis tpw;gJ Gj;j kjj;jpy; jLf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. Mdhy; =yq;fhtpy; Gj;jupd; rPlHfs; NghHf;fsk; nrd;W gpupj; XJtJk;> nfhiy MAjq;fis MrPHtjpg;gJk;> ,uhZtj;Jf;F fpuhkq;fspy; rpq;fs ,isQHfisj; jpul;bf; nfhLg;gJk;> ,dg;gpur;rpidf;F Aj;jNk xNu topnad Aj;jj;Jf;F Jhg jPgk; fhl;LtJk; "xU ngsHzkp ,utpd; kuzj;ij" kl;Lk; my;yhJ "Gj;j kjf; Nfhl;ghLfspd; ,wg;igAk;" cyFf;Fg; giwrhw;Wfpd;wJ.

,g;NghJ kPz;Lk; Kd;dH $wg;gl;l ml;lhq;f topia rpwpJ tpupthfg; ghHg;Nghk;. ml;lhq;f topapy; ew;fhl;rp ey;nyhOf;fk; Mfpa ,uz;bdhNy Qhdk; (gQ;Qh) cz;lhfpwJ. ey;tha;ik> ew;nra;if> ey;tho;f;if Mfpa ,k;%d;wpdhNy ey;nyhOf;fk; (rPyk;) Vw;gLfpwJ. ed;Kaw;rp> ew;filg;gpb> ew;wpahdk; Mfpa %d;wpdhNy kd mlf;fk; (rkhjp) Vw;gLfpwJ.
,e;j ew;fhl;rp> ey;nyhOf;fk;> Qhdk; ,tw;iw ,l;L Gj;jkjj;jpw;Fk; rkzkjj;jpw;Fk; gykhd xw;Wik ,Ug;gJ ftdpf;fj;jf;fJ.

ngsj;jk; rkzk; vd;w ,U kjj;jtHfSk; nghJ kf;fSf;F rhj;jpujhdk;> fy;tpjhdk;> kUe;J jhdk; Kjypaitfis nfhLj;J cjtpdH> jq;fs; gs;spfspy; (gs;sp vd;w ghyp nkhopr; nrhy;iy jkpopy; tof;fj;jpw;Ff; nfhz;L te;jtHfs; rkzHfNs) rpWtHfSf;Ff; fy;tp fw;W nfhLj;jhHfs;. NehahspfSf;F ,ytr kUe;J nfhLj;J Neha; jPHj;jdH. gpwg;gpdhy; caHT jho;T ghuhl;ltpy;iy. nfhiyAk; Gyhy; cz;gijAk; ,e;j ,uz;L kjq;fSk; fLikahff; fz;bj;jd (,e;j kjq;fspd; jhf;fj;ijj; jpUf;Fwspy; guf;ff; fhzyhk;).

kf;fspd; tho;f;if ey;topapy; nry;y ey;Qhdk; (right belief)> ey;ywpT ( right knowledge )> ey;nyhOf;fk; ( right action) vd;w Kf;fpa %d;W %d;W Nfhl;ghLfisAk; filg;gpbf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W kfhtPuH vLj;Jf; $wpdhH.

kdpj capHfs; kl;Lkpd;wp tpyq;Ffs;> gwitfs;> nrb nfhbfs; MfpadTk; capUs;sitNa vd epidtpy; nfhs;SkhW kfhtPuH tw;GWj;jpdhH. ,itahTk; mZf;fshy; MfpanjdTk; mtw;wpw;F Md;kh cz;nld;Wk; rkzk; nrhy;ypaJ.

nfhy;yhik

Gyhy; cz;zhik

fs; cz;zhik

rpw;wpd;gk; ntWj;jy;

Nghd;w ey;nyhOf;fq;fis kf;fs; filg;gpbf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; tw;GWj;jg;gl;;lJ. ,jdhy; rq;fk; kUtpa fhyj;jpy; mJtiu ,Ue;j mfk; Gwk; ,yf;fpaq;fNshL mw ,yf;fpaKk; mjpf mstpy; Njhd;wpd. ngsj;j - rkz kjf; Nfhl;ghLfs; ,t;tpyf;fpaq;fspd; Clhf kf;fisr; nrd;wile;jd.
md;G> fUiz> khdplk;> rkj;Jtk; Nghd;w nfhs;iffis ,e;j ,uz;L kjq;fSk; Nghjpj;jd> Ntjfhy ahfq;fs; fz;bf;fg;gl;ld. ahfq;fspy; gypaplg;gl;l kpUfgyp fz;bf;fg;gl;lJ. gpwg;ghy; caHT jho;T Vw;gLtjpy;iy vdTk; kdpjHfsJ nray;fNs mtHfsJ caHT jho;Tfis epHzapf;fpd;wd vdg; ngsj;jk; vLj;Jf; $wpaJ. xUtH gpwg;ghy; my;yhJ xOf;fj;jhNyNa gpuhkzdhf KbAk; vd;gJ Gj;jupd; NghjidahFk;.

"jHkj;jpd; rhHghf vd; FLk;gj;jpy; ,JfhWk; tof;fkhfr; nra;ag;gLk; Ntjr; rlq;Ffis Njitahdtw;iwg; ngWk; nghUl;L ehd; mtw;iwr; nra;jhf Ntz;Lk; vd;W ePq;fs; Nfl;Lf; nfhs;tjhy; mjw;F ehd; gjpy; $WfpNwd;. ve;jtif capHg;gypiaAk; ehd; mq;fPfupf;ftpy;iy. kw;w tpyq;Ffs; gLk; Jd;gj;ijf; fz;L ehd; vt;tpj ,d;gj;ijak; ngw khl;Nld;. mj;jifa ,d;gk; vdf;F mwNt Njitapy;iy" vdg; Gj;jH $WfpwhH.

khdplj;JaH fz;L rfpahJ mtHfspd; tho;f;ifia ft;tpa Jd;gq;fisj; Jilj;J> ey;top fhl;Lgtuhf Gj;jH fUjg;gLfpwhH. MfNt ,e;j ,uz;L kjq;fSk; r%fj;jpy; epytpa caHT jho;it ePf;fp> kf;fis rPHjpUj;jp mtHfs; ey;nyhOf;fj;ijf; filg;gpbj;J NeHtopapy; nrd;wpl mw ,yf;fpaq;fs; topahTk; tha;nkhop thapyhfTk; jkJ kjf; fUj;Jf;fisg; gug;gpd.
rkz-ngsj;j kj fUj;Jf;fis jj;JtQhdp ,uhjhfpUl;bdd; gpd;tUkhW njhFj;Jj; jUfpwhH.
rkzk; jUk; fUj;Jf; Nfhit

    (1) capHtij nra;jy; $lhJ

    (2) ngha; nrhy;yf; $lhJ

    (3) jdf;nfd xUtuhy; nfhLf;fg;glhjij vLj;Jf; nfhs;sf; $lhJ

    (4) fw;igg; ghJfhj;jy;

    (5) Gw cyf tho;f;ifapdhy; tUk; ,d;gj;ij jpahfk; nra;jy;

    (6) td;Kiw kw;Wk; ve;jnthU rpW capUf;Fk; jPq;F nra;ahik

ngsj;jk; jUk; fUj;Jf; Nfhit -

"kdpjdpd; kpf caHe;j epiy> Fwpf;Nfhs;> %g;gw;wepiy> gakpd;ik> gpzpapd;ik> gpwg;gpd;ik> ftiyapd;ik Mfpa ,e;epiyfis miltNjahFk;."

NkNy ml;lhq;f khHf;fj;jy; ew;fhl;rp> ey;nyhOf;fk; Mfpa ,uz;bdhNy Qhdk; cz;lhfpwJ. ey;tha;ik> ew;nra;if> ey;tho;f;if Mfpa ,k;%d;wpdhNy ey;nyhOf;fk; Vw;gLfpwJ. ed;Kaw;rp> ew;filg;gpb> ew;wpahdk; Mfpa %d;wpdhNy kd mlf;fk; Vw;gLfpwJ vd;gijf; fz;Nlhk;.

ehd;F tha;ikfis mwpe;J ml;lhq;f khHf;fj;jpy; xOFk; Gj;j gpf;F xUtH epHthz Nkhl;rk; miltjw;F Qhdk;> jpahdk; Mfpa ,uz;ilAk; mila Ntz;Lk;.

"Qhdk; (nka;awpT) ,y;yhjtUf;Fj; jpahdk; ,y;iy. jpahdk; ,y;yhjtUf;F Qhdk; ,y;iy. ahH xUtH QhdKk; jpahdKk; cs;stNu mtNu epHthz Nkhl;rj;jpd; mUfpy; ,Uf;fpwhH" vd;Wk;    

"kdj;ij xUepiyg; gLj;JtjdhNy (Nahfj;jpdhNy) Qhdj;ijg; ngwyhk;. Nahfk; nra;ahtpl;lhy; Qhdk; tuhJ. tsHtJk; Nja;tJk; Md ,e;j ,uz;L topfisAk; mwpe;J Qhdk; tsHtjw;Fupa topapy; elg;ghaf" vd;Wk; jk;kgjk; etpy;fpwJ.
Nahfk; (kdj;ij xUepiyg; gLj;JtJ) ehd;F tifg;gLk;. mit Nkj;ij> fUiz> Kjpij> cNgi\ vd;gd. ,e;ehd;ifAk; gpuktpfhuk; vd;W $WtH. ,e;ehd;ifAk; tpsf;fpf; $WNthk;.

Nkj;ij: ,J ikj;jpup vd;Wk; $wg;gLk;>. mjhtJ md;Gilik. ,e;j ikj;jpup (md;G) jpahdj;jpdhNy gifik czHr;rp mope;J md;Gk; mUSk; tsHfpwJ. #j;jpu epghjj;jpy; Nkj;ij #j;jpuj;jpy; ,t;thW $wg;gLfpwJ:

"vy;yh capHfSk; kfpo;r;rpNahL Rfkhf tho;tjhf> vy;yh capHfSk;> typTs;sitAk;> typtw;witAk; NkYyfj;jpy; ,Ug;gitAk; fPOyfpy; ,Ug;gitAk; rpwpaitAk; ngupaitAk; fhzg;gLtdTk; fhzg;glhjdTk;; mz;ikapy; ,Ug;gJk; Nra;ikapy; ,Ug;gitAk; gpwe;jpUg;gitAk; gpwf;fg; NghfpwitAk; Mfpa vy;yh capHfSk; kfpo;r;rpAlDk; Rfj;JlDk; ,Uf;fl;Lk;" ,t;thW Nkj;ijiag;gw;wpj; jpahdk; nra;jy; Ntz;Lk;.

fUiz: fUiz vd;gJ kd ,uf;fk; cilik. vy;yh capHfSk; ed;whf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W jpahdpj;jy;> vy;yh capHfSk; gpwg;G ,wg;G Kjypa Jd;gq;fis milfpd;wd> mj;Jd;gq;fspy; ,Ue;J mit tpLgl Ntz;Lk; vd;W fUiz nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. giftH ez;gH vd;fpw NtWghL ,y;yhky; vy;yh capHfSk; Jd;gk; ePq;fp ,d;gk; mila Ntz;Lk; vd;W vz;zpj; jpahdk; nra;aNtz;Lk;.

Kjpij: Kjpij vd;gJ kfpo;r;rp vd;W nghUs;gLk;. ,e;jj; jpahdj;ijr; nra;gtH> jhKk; jk;ikr; NrHe;jtHfSk; cyfj;jpYs;s vy;yh capHfSk; kfpo;r;rpNahL ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W vz;zpj; jpahdk; nra;aNtz;Lk;.

cNgi\: mjhtJ kd mikjpAilik. Nkw;nrhd;d %d;w jpahdq;fisAk; nra;J Kbj;jtH gpwF ,e;jj; jpahdj;ijr; nra;a Ntz;Lk;. Rfk; ngw;w NghJ ,d;gk; milahkYk; Jf;fk; mile;jNghJ Jd;gk; milahkYk; kdj;ij xNu epiyapy; epWj;jy;. mjhtJ tpUg;G ntWg;G mw;w kdj;NjhL ,Uj;jy; ("Ntz;Ljy; Ntz;lhik ,yhdb NrHe;jhHf;F ahz;Lk; ,Lk;ig ,y;iy (Fws; 4).
 

(cyfj;jkpoH fpoik ,jopy; ntspte;jJ- 2000)  
 

 


 

 

xU ngsHzkp ,utpd; kuzk;
 

(4)


jpupruzk;> jr rPyk; ,tw;iw Nkw;nfhz;lhy; kl;Lk; NghjhJ. epHthzk; miltjw;F ,tw;Wld; ehd;F tha;ikfisAk; vz;tifahd newpfisAk; iff;nfhz;L xOf Ntz;Lk;. ehd;F tha;ikfis Mupa rj;jpak; vd;Wk;> vl;L tifahd newpfis Mupa m\;lhq;f (vl;L) khHf;fk; vd;Wk; $WthHfs;. (Mupa vd;why; caHe;jJ vd;W nghUs;).

ehd;F tha;ikfshtd -

    (1) Jd;gk;

    (2) Jd;g fhuzk;

    (3) Jd;g ePf;fk;>

    (4) Jd;gk; ePf;Fk; top

vd;gd.

vl;Ltpj caHe;j topahfpa m\;lhq;f khHf;fq;fshtd

    (1) ew;fhl;rp

    (2) ey;nyhOf;fk;

    (3) ey;tha;ik

    (4) ew;nra;if

    (5) ey;tho;f;if

    (6) ed;Kaw;rp

    (7) ew;filg;gpb

    (8) ew;wpahdk;   

,itNa fPdahd kfhahd ngsj;j rkaj;jpd; mbg;gilf; Nfhl;ghlhFk;. ,e;jj; jj;Jtj;ij tpupthf mwpa tpUk;GNthH rhj;jdhupd; kzpNkfiyf; fhg;gpaj;jpd; 30tJ fhijiag; gbj;J mwpe;J nfhs;syhk;. ,J gtj;jpwkWnfd ghitNehw;w fhij vdg;gLk;. ,e;jf; fhijapy; Gj;jk;> jHkk;> rq;fk; vd;Dk; Kk;kzpfisAk; tzq;fp Gj;j rkaj;ijr; ruz; mile;j kzpNkfiyf;F mwtz mbfs; "mkuH Ntz;LNfhl;F ,zq;fp Jbj Nyhfj;jpdpd;Wk; Njhd;wp> Nghjp%yj;jpUe;j thkd; ciuj;j jpUtwj;ij mtw;Fg; gpw;Nghe;j vz;zpyh Gj;jHfs; top topahf ciuj;Jg; Nghe;jdH. mjid cdf;F ciug;Ngd;" vd mwtz mbfs; ciuf;fj; njhlq;fp> gd;dpU epjhdq;fSk; mtw;wpd; kz;bytifAk;> fz;l tifAk;> re;jp tifAk;> Njhw;w tifAk;>> fhy tifAk; gpwTk; njhFj;Jf; $WfpwhH.

Kbtpy; fl;Lk; tPLk; (epHthzk;) xt;nthd;wd; fhuzKk; mtutH Kaw;rpahy; tpisANk my;yhky; gpwuhy; jug;gLtJ ,y;iy vd;Wk;> ,Wjpahf NkNy $wg;gl;l nghUs; vy;yhtw;wpw;Fk; fhkk;> ntFsp> kaf;fk; vd;w %d;WNk fhuzk; vd;Wk; Nghjpf;fpwhH.
 

fhkj;ij mepj;jk; Jf;fk; mehd;kh mRrp vdj; jdpj;Jg; ghHj;Jg; gw;wWf;Fk; mRg ghtidahy; nfLj;jy; Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk;> ntFspia ikj;jpup ghtid> fUzh ghtid Kfpj ghtidfshy; nfLj;jy; Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk;> kaf;fj;ij Qhd Ehw;nghUisf; Nfl;ly; rpe;jpj;jy; ghtid jupridnad tUk; cNg\h ghtidahy; nfLj;jy; Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; mwtz mbfs; Gj;j jHkj;ij vLj;J ciuf;fpwhH. ,dp ,tw;wpd; tpsf;fj;ijg; ghHg;Nghk;.

ehd;F tha;ikfs; Mtd:

    1) Jd;gk;
    2) Jd;g fhuzk;
    3) Jd;g ePf;fk;
    4) Jd;gk; ePf;Fk; top.

ghyp nkhopapy; ,it Jf;fk;> Jf;f fhuzk;> Jf;f epthuzk;> Jf;f epthuz khHf;fk; vd miof;fg;gLfpwJ.

    (1) Jf;fk; (Jd;gk;): gpwg;G Jd;gkhdJ ( "gpwe;jhH cWtJ ngUfpa Jd;gk;" -kzpNkfiy). Neha;fs; Jd;gj;ijj; jUfpwJ. eiu> jpiu> %g;G> kuzk; Nghd;w vl;Ltifahd Jf;fk; Jd;gj;ijj; jUfpd;wd. ehk; Mirg;gLk; nghUl;fs; ekf;Fj; Jd;gj;ijj; jUfpd;wd. ehk; tpUk;ghj nghUs;fSk; fpilf;fhJ Nghdhy; mit Jd;gj;ijj; jUfpd;wd. RUq;ff; $wpdhy; fz;zhy; fz;Lk;> fhjhy; Nfl;Lk;> ehthy; cz;Lk;> %f;fhy; Nkhe;Jk;> nka;ahy; jPz;bAk; mDgtpf;fg;gLk; Ik;Gyd;fspdhYk; Jd;gk; Vw;gLfpwJ.
Jf;fk; ,Utifg;gLk;. mepj;jpak;. mdhj;kk;.

    (2) Jf;f fhuzk;: gpwtpf;Ff; fhuzkhfpa Mir> Ik;Gyd;fisj; Ja;f;Fk; tpUg;gk;> nja;tNyhfj;jpy; gpwe;J ngupa ,d;g Rfq;fis mDgtpf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;Dk; epidg;G> ,e;j tho;f;ifapy; ntWg;Gf; nfhz;L jw;nfhiy nra;J nfhs;tJ Jd;gj;jpw;Ff; fhuzq;fshFk;.

    (m) ,we;jfhy fhuzk;. (1) Ngijik (mtp[;i[) (2) nra;if (rk];fhuk;)

    (M) epfo;fhy fhupak; (3) czHT (tpQ;Qhdk;) (4) mUTU (ehk&gk;) (5) thapy; (\lhajdh) (6) CW (];guprk;) (7) EfHT (Ntjid)

    (,) epfo;fhy fhuzk; (8) Ntl;if (jpU\;iz) (9) gw;W (cghjhdk;) (10) fUkj; njhopy; (gtk;)

    (<) vjpHfhy fhupak; (11) Njhw;wk; ([hjp) (12) %g;G> rhf;fhL ([uh> kuzk;)

    (3) Jf;f epthuzk;: mwpahikahfpa mQ;Qhdj;ij xopg;gJk;> Mir> mth Kjypa gw;Wf;fis ePf;FtJk; ( "Mir mWkpd; Mir mWkpd; <rNdhL MfpYk; Mir mWkpd;" - jpUke;jpuk;) Jd;g ePf;fkhFk;.

    (m) mH`e;j epiyia miltJ (M) epHthz Nkhl;rk; ngWtJ.

    (4) Jf;f epthuz khHf;fk;: vl;Ltpj caHe;j topfshfpa m\;lhq;f khHf;fj;ijf; filg;gpbj;J elg;gNj Jd;gj;ij ePf;Fk; topahFk;.
    (m) vl;Ltpj newp (m\lhq;f khHf;fk;)

vl;Ltpj caHe;j newpfs; Vw;fdNt nrhy;yg;gl;Ls;sJ. mjd; tpsf;fk; gpd;tUkhW.

    (1) ew;fhl;rp (];k;kh jpl;b): NkNy $wg;gl;l ehd;F tha;ikfis (rj;jpaq;fis) ed;wh f Mo;e;J rpe;jpj;J mwpe;J nfhs;tJ. NkYk;

"gpwe;jhH %j;jhH gpzpNeh Aw;whH
,we;jh nud;if apay;Ng apJ Nfs;
Ngijik nra;if AzHNt aUTU
thapy; CNw EfHNt Ntl;if
gw;Nw gtNk Njhw;wk; tpidg;gad;
,w;nwd tFj;j ,ay;gP uhWk;
gpwe;NjhH mwpapy; ngUk;Ng wwpFtH
mwpahH Mapd; Mo;eu fwpFtH"
            (kzpNkfiy 24k; fhij- 105)

gpwe;jhH %j;jhH gpzpNehAw;whH - cyfpd; fz; gpwe;jhH taJnrd;whH NehAw;whH

,we;jh nud;if apay;Ng apJ Nfs; - ,we;jhH vd;W $wg;gLjy; ,aw;ifNa

Ngijik nra;if AzHNt aUTU thapy; CNw EfHNt Ntl;if -

gw;Nw gtNk Njhw;wk; tpidg;gad; ,w;nwd tFj;j ,ay;gP uhWk; - Ngjik Kjy; tpi dg;gad; <whf ,itnad tFf;fg;gl;l gd;dpU ,ay;GfisAk;.

gpwe;NjhH mwpapy; ngUk;Ng wwpFtH - gpwtp vLj;NjhH mwpfpy; xg;gw;w ngUk; Ngwpid miltH.

mwpahH Mapd; Mo;eu fwpFtH - mtw;iw mwpahuhdhy; Jd;gk; epiwe;j epuaj;jpid mwptH.

Nkw;$wpatw;iw Iak;jpupgwj; njupe;J nfhs;tNj ew;fhl;rp vdg;gLk;.

    (2) ey;nyhOf;fk; (]k;kh ]q;fg;Ngh) - jd;dyj;ij kwe;J vy;yh capHfsplj;jpYk; m d;ghf ,Uj;jy;. tho;f;ifapd; Nehf;fk; gpwtpj; Jd;gj;jpy; ,Ue;J (Jf;fj;jpy; ,Ue;J) tpLjiy miltJjhd; vd;Dk; vz;zj;NjhL vg;NghJk; vy;yh capHfsplj;jpYk; md;igAk; ey;nyz;zj;ijAk; tsHj;jy;> rpw;wpd;g vz;zq;fis xopj;jy;.

    (3) ey;tha;ik (]k;kh thrh) - ngha; nrhy;Yjy;> Gwq;$Wjy;> fLnkhop NgRjy; mtJh W $wy;> gadpy;yhg; Ngr;Rf;fisg; NgRjy; Kjypatw;iw ePf;fp cz;ikNa NgRtJ. NgRk;NghJ md;ghfTk; ,dpikahfTk; NgRjy;.

    (4) ew;nra;if (]k;kh fk;kNjh) - nfhiy nra;jy;> fsT nra;jy;> fhkk; tpiojy; Kj ypa ghtKk; jPikAk; Mdnray;fisr; nra;ahky; ey;y nray;fisr; nra;J nfhz; L xOf;fkhfTk; mikjpahfTk; ,Uj;jy;.

    (5) ey;tho;f;if( ]k;kh M[PNth) - mbikfis tpw;gJ> khkprj;Jf;fhfg; gpuhzpfi s tpw;gJ> kaf;fe;jUfpw fs;> kJghdk;> mgpdp Kjypa nghUs;fis tpw;gJ> nfhi yf;Ff; fhuzkhd fj;jp> <l;b> ths;> mk;G Kjypa MAjq;fis tpw;gJ> R+JthJ nr a;tJ Mfpa nrayfisr; nra;ahky; mfpk;iria Nkw;nfhz;L tho;jy;.

    (6) ed; Kaw;rp ( ]k;kh tpahahNkh) - jPa vz;zq;fSk; jPa nray;fSk; jd;dplk; c z;lhfhky; jLj;J ey;y vz;zq;fisAk; ey;y nray;fisAk; tsHg;gJ ed; Kaw;rp vdg;gLk;. jPa vz;zq;fs; kdj;jpy; Njhd;wpdhy; mtw;iw Kaw;rpNahL jLj;J ey;y vz;zq;fisAk; tsHf;f Ntz;Lk;.

    (7) ew;filg;gpb (]k;kh ]jp) - clk;gpd; epiyahikia Mo;e;J rpe;jpj;J Ik;nghwp Ik;Gyd; ,itfispd; cz;ikj; jd;ikia czHjy;. ,t;tpjk; rpe;jpg;gJ nka;Q;Q hdk; ngWtjw;F cjtpahFk;.

    (8) ew;wpahdk; ( ]k;kh ]khJ) - kdij xU epiyapy; epWj;jg; goFjy;. kdijr; rp jwtplhky; mlf;fpf; ey;y vz;zq;fis epidj;J kdj;ij xU epiyapy; epWj;jg; g oFjy;. ,e;jr; rkhjpg; (kd mlf;fk;) gof;fk;> Gyd;fisAk; kdj;ijAk; mlf;fpahs cjTfpwJ. mQ;Qhdk;> Mir> gif Kjypa jPa vz;zq;fs; ePf;fp Qhdk; tsu cjTfpwJ.

flTs; cz;L vd;gij Vw;Wf;nfhs;shj ngsj;jkjk; xt;nthUtUk; jj;jkJ epHthzj;ij Gj;jH fhl;ba topfspy; xOfpj; jhNk Njbf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;W Nghjpf;fpwJ. fq;ifapy; KOFtjhNyh> fhtpupapy; Fspg;gjhNyh> tpujk; ,Ug;gjhNyh> Nts;tp> G+ir> tpoh> fhtb> vLg;gjhNyh> ahj;jpiu nra;tjhNyh epHthzj;ij mila KbahJ vd;gJ Gj;jupd; NghjidahFk;.

Gj;jgfthdpd; ,e;j m\;lhq;f Nghjidf;Fk; =yq;fhtpy; eilKiwapy; ,Uf;Fk; Gj; j kjj;jpw;Fk; ngupa ,ilntsp ,Ug;gJ fz;$L. nrhy;Yf;Fk; nraYf;Fk;> Nghji df;Fk; eilKiwf;Fk; vy;yh kjq;fspYk; ,ilntsp ,Uf;fj;jhd; nra;fpwJ. Mdh y; Gj;j kjj;ijg; nghWj;jstpy; ,e;j ,ilntsp njd;JUtj;Jf;Fk; tlJUtj;Jf; Fk; ,ilapy; fhzg;gLk; ,ilntsp Nghd;W ,Uf;fpwJ.

Aj;je;jhd; top> Aj;jk; njhlu Ntz;Lk; vd;W nrhy;Yk; ve;jf; fpwpj;jt kj FUitg; ghHf;f KbahJ. ,];yhkpa Ky;yhf;fisAk; ghHf;f KbahJ. mg;gbg; NgRk; ve;j ,e;J kjFUTk; ,y;iy.
 
 

(cyfj;jkpoH fpoik ,jopy; ntspte;jJ- 2000)

 


 

 

xU ngsHzkp ,utpd; kuzk;

 

(5)

 

Mdhy; ,d;W Aj;jj;jpw;F vjpuhd vjpHg;G ehL KOJk; gut Muk;gpj;Js;sJ. jkpoHfis nfhy;tjd; %yk; Aj;jj;ij KbTf;Ff; nfhz;L tuyhk - Kf;fpakhf jq;fs; gps;isfSk;> cwtpdHfspd; gps;isfSk; rPy; itf;fg;gl;l rtg;ngl;bfshf fpuhkj;Jf;F nfhz;L tug;gLk;;NghJ - vd;w thjj;ijf; Nfl;L kf;fs; fisg;gile;J tpl;lhHfs;.  ehd; ek;GfpNwd; vdJ glk; ,e;j czHit NkYk; tsHf;Fk; vd;W.

 

,g;NghJ ehd; glj;jpy; tUk; thfpk;kpd;dp vd;w ghj;jpuj;jpd; Fzhk;rq;fisf; $w tpUk;GfpNwd;. mtH kionga;Akh nga;ahjh vd;W M&lk; nrhy;gtH. mtUf;F  thdpiy Muha;r;rpapd;  cjtp ,y;iy. mtH fhw;iwAk; Nkff; $l;lq;fisAk; itj;Nj fhyepiyiaf; fzpg;gtH. mtH ey;y Jzpr;ryhd> cWjpahd kdpjUk;$l. Mdhy; mtuJ kfd; rPy; nra;ag;gl;l rtg;ngl;bapy; rlykhf te;jNghJ mjd; jhHg;gupaj;ijNah mg;gb  elf;ff;$Lk; vd;gijNah mtuhy; vz;zpg; ghHf;f Kbatpy;iy. me;jg; gpur;rpid mtuJ mwpTf;F mg;ghw;gl;ljhf ,Ue;jjhy; mtH ciwe;Nj NghdhH. maytHfs; ,og;gPL NfhUtjw;f;Fupa gbtq;fisf; nfhLj;J mjpy; ifnaOj;J ,LkhW Nfl;fpwhHfs;. mtH kPjhd mOj;jk; mjpfupf;fpwJ. Kbtpy; jd;idr; Rjhfupj;Jf; nfhz;L rtg;ngl;bia Njhz;LfpwhH.

 

,e;j mbg;gil J\;gpuNahfj;ijapl;L mtH ifahSk; Kiw xU fhg;gpaj;jpw;Fupa juj;ijg; glj;jpw;Ff; nfhLf;fpwJ. ,j;jifa fhg;gpa kzk; Fontamaara  (Fontamaara,  Ignatio Silone  vLj;j glk;. ,e;jg; glj;jpd; fij 1930fspy; ghrPr ,j;jhyp ehl;;by; thoe;j xU tptrhaf; FLk;gk; gw;wpaJ) vd;w glj;jpYk; cz;L.

 

vdf;Fg; gy Rikfisr; Rke;J nfhz;L xU rhkhdpa kdpjd; jdJ jd;khdj;Jf;fhd Nghuhl;lj;jpy; <LgLtJ ghjpg;ig Vw;gLj;jpaJ. mjd; cr;rf; fl;lk; xUtH mjpfhu tHf;fj;NjhL NghuhLtJ.  vdJ fyhrhuj;jpy; my;yJ r%fj;jpy; ehd; vg;NghJNk vd;id xU me;epadhfNt epidj;Njd;. ,jdhy; mjpfhu tHf;fj;NjhL NghuhLk; mg;gbahd me;epaHfNshL ehd; vg;NghJNk czHT G+Htkhf xd;wpg; NghapUf;fpNwd;.

 

cq;fsJ glj;jpd; fjhehafd; gw;wpa gpd;dzpiaf; $wKbAkh?

 

=yq;fhtpy; kpfTk; kupahijf;Fupa ebfHfspy; N[h  tpf;fpukhTk; xUtH. 1957k; Mz;L jpiuAyfpy; xU eifr;Rit ebfuhfg; GFe;j mtH 1970k; Mz;Ltiu kpfTk; gpugy;a ebfH vdg; ngaH thq;fpapUe;jhH. mjd; gpwF =yq;fhtpy; nrhy;tJNghy Fzrpj;jpu Ntlq;fspy; mtH ebf;f Muk;gpj;jhH.

 

,aw;ifapy; mtH miuf; FUL. mtH  ebf;Fk; ghj;jpuj;jpd; Fzhjpraq;fspy; ngUk;ghd;ik mtuplj;jpYk; ,Ue;jd. mtH fhl;Lf;Fg; Nghtij ,urpj;jhH. kio nga;tJ nga;ahjJgw;wp M&lk; nrhy;Yk; jpwikAk; mtuplk; ,Ue;jJ. vdNt vdJ Kjy; jpiug;glf; fij mtiu kdjpy; itj;J vOjg;gl;lJ.  gpd;G ehd; jpiuf;fijapy; khw;wk; nra;jNghJ glj;jpd; ngUk;gFjp mtiug; gw;wpajhf ,Ue;jJ. mtH khj;jpuk; glj;jpy; NrhgpahJ tpl;bUe;jhy; glk; NtW tpjkhf mike;jpUf;Fk;.  

 

ehq;fs; glg;gpbg;ig Muk;gpf;F Kd;dH vq;fsplk; G+uzkhd jpiuf;fij-trdk; ifapy; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. mjdhy; mtH " jpiuf;fij-trdk;  ,y;yhky; vd;d nra;ag;NghfpNwhk;?" vd;W vd;dplk; Nfl;ghH. ehd; nrhd;Ndd; "ePq;fs; mijg;gw;wpf; ftiyg; glhjPHfs; vy;yhk; rupahf tUk;". cz;ikapy; ,J mtiu nfhQ;rk; mtkhdg;gLj;JtJ Nghd;wJ. fhuzk; mtiu tpl ehd; tajpy; kpfTk; Fiwe;jtd;.

 

,jpy; mtuJ ngupa nfl;bj;jdk; vd;dntd;why; mtuJ Kfghtj;jpd; %yk; jdJ kdk; epidg;gij ehd; czUkhW nrhy;yptpLthH. vdNt ehd; mtuJ ngupa gq;fspg;Gf;F ed;wpAs;stdhf ,Uf;fpNwd;.  fle;j Mz;L mtH rpq;fg;G+H midj;Jyf jpiug;gl tpohtpy; rpwe;j jpiug;gl ebfH tpUijg; ngw;Wf; nfhz;ljpy; vdf;F nkj;j kfpo;r;rp. ,Jjhd; xU =yq;fh ebfH midj;Jyf kl;lj;jpy; ngw;Wf; nfhz;l Kjy; gupR. vy;yh ebfHfSNk - ,J Mzhjpf;fj;jpd; ntspg;ghL- jq;fsJ  Njhw;wk;gw;wpf; ftiyg;gLthHfs;. mtH xU ,dthjpay;y. mtuhy; jkpo;  Ngr KbAk;. fpuhkg;Gwf; fhl;rpfisAk; mq;F thOk; kf;fisAk; mtUf;F ed;F njupAk;. jdJ czHTfis ntspf;fhl;Ltjw;F mtH gag;gl;lNj ,y;iy. mtuJ ghj;jpuk; kl;LNk glj;jpw;Fj; Njitahd jifikfisf; nfhLf;f KbAk;.

 

,e;jg; glj;ijapl;L murpd;  gjpy; vd;d? vjw;fhf =yq;fhtpw;F ntspapy; glj;ij ntspapl ePq;fs; KbT nra;jPHfs;?

 

ehd; ghJfhg;G mikr;Rf;Fg; glj;jpd; fij-trdj;ij rkHg;gpj;jNghJ mtHfs; vjpHg;Gj; njuptpj;jhHfs;. ,uhZtj;Jf;F fij-trdj;ijf; nfhLf;fj; Njitapy;yh tpl;lhYk; RLfyd;fs; my;yJ ,uhZt rPUil glj;jpy;  tUk; vd;why; mtHfsJ mDkjpia Kd;$l;bg; ngwNtz;Lk;. ehd;F fhuzq;fSf;fhf mtHfs; vjpHj;jhHfs;. mjpy; Kf;fpakhd fhuzk; glj;jpd; fij ,uhZtj;Jf;F Ml;NrHg;gij mijupag; gLj;Jk vd;gJ. kw;wJ (fijapy; tUk;) FLk;g cWg;gpdHfs; ,uhZtj;jpdhy; iftplg;gl;ljhff; fij rpj;jupf;fpwJ vd;gJ.

 

Mdhy; ehd; mtw;iwg; nghUl;gLj;jhJ nfhOk;gpy; ,Ue;J tlf;Nf 180 iky; Jhuj;jpy; glg;gpbg;ig Muk;gpj;Njd;. vg;gbNah nfupy;yh glg; gpbg;G Af;jpfisf; filg;gpbj;J ehq;fs; tpUk;gpathW glk; gpbj;Njhk;. vdNt ehd; murpd; gzpg;Giuf;F  vjpuhfNt glk; vLj;Njd;. G+Hj;jpahd glj;ij muRf;Fr; rkHg;gpf;fTk; ,y;iy. vdJ Nehf;fk; vdJ glj;Jf;F mq;fPfhuk; ngWtNj. mjpYk; midj;Jyf gltpohf;fspd; ftdj;ij <Hg;gjd; %yk mq;fPfhuk; ngWtJ. xU glj;ij =yq;fh muRf;F rkHg;gpj;j gpd;dH mJ epuhfupf;fg;gl;lhy; gpd; mjd; gpujpfis ntspehLfSf;F Vw;Wkjp nra;a KbahJ.

 

,e;jg; glk; gq;Fdp khjj;jpy; =yq;fh glj; jzpf;if rigf;F rkHg;gpf;fg;gl ,Uf;fpwJ.  ehd; nra;jpj;jhs;fSf;F Vw;fdNt nrhy;yp tpl;Nld;. muR glj;jpy; ntl;Lfs; nra;a Kide;jhy;-Kf;fpakhf jiltpilf;Fupa filrpf; fhl;rp- mjw;F ehd; cld;gl khl;Nld;. ,e;jg; glj;jpw;Fr; nrythd gzk; ag;ghd; xypgug;G $l;Lj;jhgdj;jplk; ,Ue;J fpilj;jJ. vdNt ehd; gzj;ijj; Njb miyatpy;iy. ehd; vdJ gzpia Kbj;J tpl;Nld;. glj;Jf;F mDkjp fpilj;jhy; ehd; fpuhkq;fSf;Fr; nrd;W glj;ij Nghl;Lf; fhl;LNtd;.

 

jPgh Nkj;jhTf;F vjpuhf ,e;J mbg;gilthjpfs; ngupa fpsHr;rp nra;tJgw;wp cq;fSf;Fj; njupAk;. ,ijapl;L cq;fs; fUj;njd;d? =yq;fhtpy; fiyQHfs; vjpH Nehf;Fk; rpf;fy;fisg;gw;wp vd;d $w tpUk;GfpwPHfs;?

 

,e;jpahtpy; ,lk;ngWtJ =yq;fhtpYk; ngupa mstpy; ,lk;ngwyhk;. nghUshjhuk; tPo;r;rpaile;J mJ nghUshjhu ke;jkhf khWk; NghJ  MHv];v];> rptNrid kw;Wk; mitNghd;w ghrPr mikg;Gfs; mg;NghJ gypf;flhf;fisj; NjLfpd;wd. ,e;jpahtpy; ,e;jg; gypf;flhf;fs; K];ypk;fSk; fpwpj;jtHfSk; MtH;.

 

=yq;fhtpYk; ,Njkhjpupahd ghrPr mikg;Gf;fs; ,Uf;fpd;wd. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf rpq;fs jPtputhjf; FOf;fshd tPu tpjhd> gaq;futhjj;Jf;F vjpuhd Njrpa ,af;fk; Nghd;wit. rpy gFjpfspy; K];ypk;fis mtHfsJ thzpfj;jpy; ,Ue;J mbj;Jj; Juj;Jk; rk;gtq;fs; ,lk;ngw;Ws;sd. K];ypk;fs; efu kWj;jhy; mtHfsJ tzpf epWtdq;fs; Fz;Lj; jhf;FjYf;F cs;shfpd;wd. mtHfs; cgNahfpf;Fk; MAjq;fs; =yq;fh ,uhZtj;Jf;Fr; nrhe;jkhdJ. Mdhy; ,ijapl;L xd;WNk nra;ag;gLtjpy;iy. ,g;gbahd (td; Kiw) rk;gtq;fs; murpw;Fj; njupaf; $bajhfNt ,lk; ngWfpwJ.

 

=yq;fhtpy; xU jpiug;glk;> xU ehlfk; my;yJ xU ehty; ,e;j jPtputhj mikg;Gf;fsJ tpUg;gj;jpw;F khwhf ,Ue;jhy; mtHfs; jhf;fg;gLfpwhHfs;. Md fhuzj;jpdhy;jhd; fiyQHfs; jq;fs; fUj;Jf;fisr; nrhy;Yk; cupikia fhghe;J nra;a mtHfs; xd;W glNtz;Lk;.   

 

jPgh Nkj;jh ,e;jg; gpur;rpidfSf;F ,g;NghJ Kfk; nfhLj;Jf; nfhz;L ,Uf;fpwhH. neUg;G vd;w glj;ijj; jpiuapl;lNghJ ,g;gbahd gpur;rpidf;F Kfk; nfhLj;jhH. rptNridapd; fUj;Jf;fis vjpHj;J gpugy jpiug;gl ebfH jpyPg; FkhH neUg;Gg; glj;Jf;F Mjuthff; Fuy; nfhLj;jNghJ rptNrid cWg;gpdHfs; mtuJ tPl;Lf;F Kd;dhy; mk;kzkhf epd;W nfhz;L Mw;ghl;lk; nra;jhHfs;. ePq;fs; neUg;Gg; glj;jpw;F MjuT nfhLj;jhy; ,Njh vq;fs; mk;kzf; fhl;rpfisAk; fz;L fspAq;fs; vd;whHfs;.

 

jPgh Nkjh mtuJ fUj;Jf;fis vLj;Jr; nrhy;yTk;> glq;fs; vLf;fTk; mtUf;F ,Uf;Fk; cupikf;F  ehd; vdJ Mjuitj; njuptpj;Jf; nfhs;s Mirg;gLfpNwd;. mNj khjpupahdtHfs; =yq;fhtpYk; cz;L. vdNt fiyQHfs; fhyk; flf;F Kd;dH vd;d elf;fpwJ vdgij kf;fSf;F vLj;J tpsf;f Ntz;Lk;.

 

cq;fsJ glk; =yq;fhtpd; Vida glj; jahupg;ghsHfis Cf;Ftpf;Fkh?

 

mijj;jhd; ehd; vjpHghHf;fpNwd;. kw;w ehLfisg; NghyNt =yq;fhtpYk; jzpf;if> Rajzpf;if ,Uf;fpwJ. ,g;gbahd xU glj;ij vLj;Jg; gpd;dH mJ murpdhy; jilnra;ag;gLkhdhy; ehq;fs; glj;Jf;F my;yJ ,dpNky; vLf;fg; NghFk; glj;jpw;Fg; Nghl;l Kjiy vg;gb kPl;nlLf;fyhk;? vd =yq;fhtpy; ,Ug;gtHfs; nrhy;tij ePq;fs; Nfl;bUf;fyhk;. vdJ glj;jpd; Kf;fpa Fwpf;Nfhs; vd;dntd;why; kw;wtHfisg; ghHj;J "gag;gl Ntz;lhk;" vdr; nrhy;fpwJ. (nrt;tp KbTw;wJ).

 

=yq;fh muR ,dq;fSf;F ,ilapyhd ey;nyz;zj;ij> cwit> ek;gpf;ifia> mikjpia  Cf;Ftpf;f cz;ikahf tpUk;gpdhy; " xU ngsHzkp ,utpd; kuzk;" vd;w jpiug;glj;ij njd;dpyq;ifapy; cs;s vy;yhj; jpiuauq;FfspYk; Nghl;L ,ytrkhf kf;fSf;Ff; fhl;l Vw;ghLfs; nra;a Ntz;Lk;.

 

,d;W =yq;fhtpy; rpq;fs-ngsj;j Ngupdthjk;  ,dq;fSf;F ,ilapyhd cwTf;Fk; kdpj Neaj;Jf;Fk;  ngupa rthyhf vOe;J epw;fpwJ. ,g;NghJ kl;Lk; my;yhJ fle;j Ik;gJ Mz;Lfshf ,e;jr; rpq;fs-ngsj;j Ngupdthj rf;jpfs; =yq;fh Ml;rpahsHfis Ml;bg; gilj;J tUfpwJ. fle;j fhyq;fspy; ,dg;gpur;rpidf;Fj; jPHT fhz gz;lhuehaf;fh> ll;yp Nrdehaf;f Nghd;NwhH vLj;j Kaw;rpia ,e;jr; rf;jpfs; Kwpailj;jd.

 

,g;NghJ NehHNt ehL vLf;Fk; mikjp Kaw;rpf;fSf;F vjpuhf rhjhuz ngsj;j NjuHfs; my;y m];fPupah> ky;tj;ij Gj;j kj gPlhjpgjpfs; NghHf;nfhb caHj;jpAs;shHfs;. rpq;fs Njrk;> rpq;fsnkhop> ngsj;j kjk; vd;w NghHg;giw kPz;Lk; xypf;f Muk;gpj;Js;sJ.

 

JwTf;F milahskhf kQ;rs; mq;fp mzpe;J>  ,fgu Rfq;fisj; Jwe;J> Kk;kzpfis tzq;fp> Gj;jupd; gj;Jtifr; rPyq;fis Nkw;nfhz;L> ehd;Ftif tha;ikfisf; filg;gpbj;J> ml;lhq;f khHf;fj;jpy; xOFtNj ngsj;j NjuH  xUtUf;F tpjpf;fg;gl;l newpahFk;.

 

Gj;jkjk; kdpj capHfSf;F kl;Lk; my;yhky; ve;j capHfSf;Fk; kdj;jpdhNyh> thf;fpdhNyh  jPq;F tpistpf;ff; $lhnjd;w caupa Nfhl;ghl;il nfhz;ljhFk;.  

 

ngsj;jHfspy; ,y;ywj;jhUk;> Jwtwj;jhUk; Gj;jH> jHkk;> rq;fk; vd;Dk; Kk;kzpfisr; ruzk; (milf;fyk;) mila Ntz;Lk;. ,jw;Fg; ghyp nkhopapy;   jpupruzk; vd;gJ ngaH.

 

Gj;jk; ruzk; fr;rhkP ( Gj;juplk; milf;fy; GFfpNwd;)

jHkk; ruzk; fr;rhkP ( jHkj;jplk; milf;fyk; GFfpNwd;)

rq;fk; ruzk; fr;rhkP ( rq;fj;jplk; milf;fyk; GFfpNwd;)

 

,ij %d;w Kiw nrhy;y Ntz;Lk;. mjhtJ Kk;kzpfis %d;W Kiw tzq;f Ntz;Lk;. "Kj;jpw kzpia Kk;ikapd; tzq;fp" vd;gJ kzpNkfiy thf;F.

 

ngsj;j NjuHfs; filg;gpbf;f Ntz;ba gj;Jtif xOf;fq;fs; (jrrPyq;fs;) Mtd-

 

    1) nfhy;yhik

 

    2) fs;shik

 

    3) gpwdpy; tpisahik

 

    4) ngha; nrhy;yhik

 

    5) fs;Sz;zhik  

 

,it gQ;r rPyk; vdg;gLk;. ,it Jwtwj;NjhUf;Fk;> ,y;ywj;NjhUf;Fk; nghJthdit. ngsj;j NjuHfs; ,tw;Wld; NrHj;J NkYk; Ie;J xOf;fq;fis Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. mit-

 

    (6) cz;zj; jfhj Ntisapy; czT nfhs;shik.

 

    (7) ,ir> Mly;> ghly;> ehlfk; Kjypatw;iwf; Nfl;lYk; ghHj;jYk; nra;ahik.

 

    (8) re;jdk;> kyH Kjypa eWkzg; nghUs;fis ePf;Fjy;

 

    (9) caukhdJk; tprhykhdJkhd ,Uf;iffis ePf;Fjy;.

 

    (10) ehzaq;fisAk; nts;sp nghd; Kjypa tpiyAaHe;j nghUs;fisAk; ePf;Fjy; vd;gd.

 

jpupruzk;> jr rPyk; ,tw;iw Nkw;nfhz;lhy; kl;Lk; NghjhJ. epHthzk; miltjw;F ,tw;Wld; ehd;F tha;ikfisAk; vz;tifahd newpfisAk; iff;nfhz;L xOf Ntz;Lk;. ehd;F tha;ikfis Mupa rj;jpak; vd;Wk;> vl;L tifahd newpfis Mupa m\;lhq;f (vl;L)  khHf;fk; vd;Wk; $WthHfs;. (Mupa vd;why; caHe;jJ vd;W nghUs;).

 

ehd;F tha;ikfshtd-

 

    1) Jd;gk;

 

    2) Jd;g fhuzk;

 

    3) Jd;g ePf;fk;

 

    4) Jd;gk; ePf;Fk; top

 

vd;gd.

 

vl;Ltpj caHe;j topahfpa m\;lhq;f khHf;fq;fshtd

 

    1) ew;fhl;rp

   

    2) ey;nyhOf;fk;

   

    3) ey;tha;ik

 

    4) ew;nra;if

 

    5) ey;tho;f;if

 

    6) ed;Kaw;rp

 

    7) ew;filg;gpb

 

    8) ew;wpahdk;

 

,itNa Njuthj ngsj;j rkaj;jpd; mbg;gilf;  Nfhl;ghlhFk;.  ,e;jj; jj;Jtj;ij tpupthf mwpa tpUk;GNthH rhj;jdhupd; kzpNkfiyf; fhg;gpaj;jpd;  30tJ fhijiag; gbj;J mwpe;J nfhs;syhk;.

 

flTs; cz;L vd;gij kWf;Fk; ngsj;jkjk; xt;nthUtUk; jj;jkJ epHthzj;ij  Gj;jH fhl;ba topfspy; xOfpj;  jhNk Njbf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;W Nghjpf;fpwJ. fq;ifapy; KOFtjhNyh> fhtpupapy; Fspg;gjhNyh> tpujk; ,Ug;gjhNyh> Nts;tp> G+ir> tpoh> fhtb>  vLg;gjhNyh>  ahj;jpiu nra;tjhNyh epHthzj;ij mila KbahJ vd;gJ Gj;jupd; NghjidahFk;.

 

Mdhy; ,d;W Gj;jgpuhd; Nghjpj;j Nghjidfis Gj;j NjuHfsplj;jpNyNa fhz KbahJ ,Uf;fpwJ. ,iwr;rp> kPd; cl;gl gj;Jtiff; fwpNahL mWRit tpUe;Jz;L> Nrhkghdk; mUe;jp> gQ;rizapy; gLj;Jwq;fp> ngd;]; fhupy; nrhFRg; gazk; nra;J> tq;fpapy; gzj;ijg;Nghl;L> Nga;> gpy;yp> R+dpak;>  ke;jpu je;jpuj;jpy; <Lgl;L> murpay; Nkilfspy; rpq;fs-ngsj;jHfSf;F tf;fhyj;J thq;Fk; Gj;jupd; rPlHfisNa ngUk;ghYk; ,d;W ehk; ghHf;fpNwhk;.

 

vy;yh capHfsplj;Jk; md;G fhl;L vd;W nrhd;d Gj;jupd; rPlNfhbfs; " ehq;fs; Kjypy; rpq;fstH. mg;Gwe;jhd; ngsj;jHfs;. ,uhZtj; jPHNt ,dg;gpur;rpidf;Fupa xNu top.  jkpoHfisf; nfhy;tjd; %yNk Aj;jj;ij KbTf;Ff; nfhz;L tuyhk;"vdf; nfhQ;rKk; ntl;fkpd;wp Aj;jj;Jf;F rhk;gpuhzp Jhgk; fhl;LtJ "xU ngsHzkp ,utpd; kuzj;ij" kl;Lk; my;yhJ  "Gj;j kjf; Nfhl;ghLfspd; ,wg;igAk;" cyFf;Fg; giwrhw;Wfpd;wJ. (Kw;Wk;)