flTs; tho;j;J mjpfhuj;jpy; flTs; ,y;iy!

 

jpUkfs;

 

(21)

 

$ythzpfd; rPj;jiy rhj;jdhH ,aw;wpa kzpNkfiyf; fhg;gpak; rpyg;gjpfhuj;NjhL xj;jfhyj;jpaJ Mdhy; jpUf;FwSf;Fg; gpe;jpaJ vd;W Kd;dH ghHj;Njhk;. kzpNkfiyapy; rkaf; fzf;fH je;jpwk; Nfl;l fhijapy; mf;fhyj;J kf;fshy; jOtg;gl;l rkaq;fSk;> mit $Wk; jj;Jtq;fSk; vLj;Jr; nrhy;yg;gl;Ls;sd. mjd;gb md;wpUe;j kjq;fs;-

    (1)  cNyhfhajk;  my;yJ nghUs; Kjy;thjk;  ( materialism)

    (2)  G+jthjk;

    (3)  ngsj;jk;

    (4)  ieahfpak;

    (5)  itNrbfk;  

    (6)  irdupd; Mrptf kjk;

    (7)  irdupd; epfz;l thjkjk;  

    (8)  kPkhQ;rfk;

    (9)  Ntj kjk;

    (10) gpuk kjk;

    (11) itzt kjk;

    (12) rhq;fpak; (,t;TyF %d;W cyfq;fspd; NrHf;ifahy; cUthdJ. ,g;gpugQ;r     cw;gj;jpapy; flTSf;F Ntiy ,y;yhky; nra;Jtpl;l  nfhs;ifapdNu             rhq;fpaHfs;)

    (13) irt kjk;  

 

,jpy; cNyhfhajk;> rhq;fpak;> rkzk;> ngsj;jk; flTs; kWg;Gr; rkaq;fshFk;. Mdhy; flTis kWj;Jiuj;j kfhtPuUk;> Gj;jUk;  gpw;fhyj;jpy; topgL nja;tkhf caHj;jg; gl;lhHfs;.  jpUf;Fwspd; Kjy; mjpfhuj;jpy; ts;StH ifahz;Ls;s "Mjpgftd;" "thywptd;"  "kyHkpirNafpdhd;" Ntz;Ljy; Ntz;lhikapyhd;" " ,iwtd;" "nghwpthap iye;jtpj;jhd;" "jdf;Ftikapy;yhjhd;" "mwthop me;jzd;" "vz;Fzj;jhd;" vd;Dk; nrhw;nwhlHfs; kdpjUf;F xg;ghd Mdhy; Nkyhd kfhtPuH> Gj;jH Nghd;NwhiuNa Fwpf;fpwJ.  nja;tk; vd;w nrhy;iy njhy;fhg;gpaHNghy; ts;StUk; NjtH vd;w nghUspypNyNa ifahs;fpwhH. (ts;StUf;F ,Uf;Fk; gj;Jg; ngaHfspy; NjtH vd;w ngaUk; xd;W. ,J ts;Stiuj; Njtuhf caHj;jpajw;Fr; rhd;W).  ,d;W ehk;  tzq;Fk; vy;yhk; ty;y> vy;yhk; njupe;j> vq;Fk; epiwe;j flTis me;jr; nrhy; Fwpf;ftpy;iy.

 

kyHkpir Vfpdhd; khzb NrHe;jhH

epykpir ePLtho;thH.                  (Fws; 3)

 

gupNkyofH flTsbfisr; NrHe;jtHfs;  Nkhl;rj;jpy;  tho;thHfs; vd;W ciu nra;jpUf;fpwhH. Mdhy; mtNu "kyHkpir Vfpdhd;" vd;gNjh ngaHgw;wpg;  gpwpNjhH flTl;F Vw;WthUk; csH" vd;W nrhy;fpwhH. mtH nrhy;yte;j "flTs;" khtPuH my;yJ Gj;juhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. Gj;jH jhkiu kyupy; mkHe;J ,Ug;gjhfr; rpj;jupf;fg;gLfpwhH. Mdhy; Gj;jH kdpjH vd;gJk; mtiug; gpd;gw;wpNahNu> Fwpg;ghf kfhad ngsj;jHfs;   "Mjp gftj;" vd;W flTSf;Fupa ,yf;fzj;NjhL mtiu jhkiu kyupy; ,Ue;J nfhz;L gf;jHfSf;F  mUs;ghypf;Fk;  flTs; Mf;fp tpl;lhHfs; vd;gJ vy;NyhUk; xg;Gf;nfhz;l cz;ik.

 

,e;jf; FwSf;F gupNkyofH nrhy;ypAs;s ciuiag; ghHg;Nghk;.

 

kyHkpir Vfpdhd; khzb NrHe;jhH - kyupd; fz;Nz nrd;wtdJ khl;rpikg;gl;l mbfisr; NrHe;jhH>

epykpir ePL tho;thH  - vy;yh cyfpw;Fk; Nkyha tPl;L cyfpd; fz; moptpd;wp tho;thH.

 

(fUj;Jiu) flTsbfisr; NrHe;jtHfs; Nkhl;rj;jpy;  tho;thHfs;.

 

gupNkyofuJ ,e;j ciu rpwpJk;; nghUe;jhJ vd;gJk; mtH epykpir tho;thH vd;gjw;F Nkhl;rj;jpy; tho;thH vd;W type;J nghUs; nfhz;Ls;shH vd;gij ruhrup jkpowpT gilj;jtHfNs vspjpy; tpsq;fpf; nfhs;thHfs;.

 

jdJ ciuf;F khw;Wiu cz;L vd;gJ gupNkyofUf;Nf  njupe;jpUf;fpwJ. mjdhy; jdJ ciuapy; ",jidg; G+Nky; ele;jhd;" vd;gNjhH ngaHgw;wp gpwpNjhH flTl;F Vw;WthUk; csH" vd;fpwhH.

 

epykpir ePL tho;thH vd;gJ ehk; thOk; cyfj;ijNa Fwpf;Fk;. NkYyfj;ijf; (thNdhH cyfk;) Fwpf;f ts;StH-

 

"mt;Tyfk;" ( mUspy;yhHf;F mt;Tyfk; ,y;iy nghUspy;yhHf;F ,t;Tyfk; ,y;yhfp  ahq;F (Fws; 247)>

 

"jhkiuf; fz;zhd; cyF" (jhk; tPo;thH nkd;Njhs; Japypd; ,dpJ nfhy;? jhkiuf; fz;zhd; cyF (Fws; 1103)>

 

"NkYyfk;" (ey;yhW vdpDk; nfhsy; jPJ> NkYyfk; ,y;yhvdpDk; <jNy ed;W (Fwd; 222)>

 

NkYyfj;ijf; Fwpf;f thd; (Fws; 50> 86> 101)> Gj;NjSyfk; (Fws; 213) Nghd;w nrhw;fisAk; jpUts;StH gad;gLj;jp cs;shH.

 

NkYyfk; my;yJ thNdhH cyfj;ijtpl ,d;ndhU NjtHfSf;Fk; mupjhd caHe;j cyfk; (Nkhl;r cyfk;> Kj;jp ),Ug;gjhfTk; jpUts;StH nrhy;fpwhH.

 

ahd; vdJ vd;Dk; nrUf;F mWg;ghd;

thNdhHf;Fk; caHe;j cyfk;.              (Fws; 345)

 

vdNt epykpir tho;thH vd;gjw;F rupahd nghUs; ,e;j cyfk; vd;gNj. mwpQH K.t. ,e;jf; FwSf;F mg;gbj;jhd; ciu nrhy;fpwhH. "md;gH neQ;rkhfpa kyupy; nrd;W tPw;wpUg;gtdJ rpwe;j jpUtbfisr; NrHe;jtHfNs> cyfpy; epiyahf tho;thH" vd;gJ mtuJ ciuahFk;.

 

ftp Rj;jhde;j ghujpahH ,e;jf; Fwis Mq;fpyj;jpy; ",e;j cyfk;"  vd;w nghUspy;jhd; nkhop ngaHj;Js;shH.

 

"Long they live on earth who gain

  The feet of God in florid brain”                           (Kural –3)

 

fiyQH fUzhepjp ,e;jf; FwSf;F Kw;wpYk; tpj;jpahrkhd ciu nrhy;fpwhH. Mdhy; "epykpir" vd;gjw;F (,e;j) cyfpy; vd;Nw nghUs; $WfpwhH.

 

"kyH Nghd;w kdj;jpy; epiwe;jtidg; gpd;gw;WNthupd; Gfo;tho;T cyfpy; neLq;fhyk; epiyj;J epw;Fk;"    

 

 


 

 

jpUts;StUila rkak; vJ?

 

jpUkfs;

 

(22)

 

Kjy; mjpfhuj;jpy; tUk; Fws; vz; vl;L xd;gJ ,uz;Lf;Fk; NtW tpjkhf ciu nrhy;NthH csH vd;W gupNkyofNu nrhy;fpwhH. vdNt Kjy; mjpfhuj;jpy; nkhj;jk; cs;s gj;Jf; Fws;fspy; %d;W Fws;fSf;F xd;Wf;F Nkw;gl;l ciu ,Ug;gjhf gupNkyofH nrhy;fpwhH. ,dp MwhtJ Fwisg; ghHg;Nghk;.  

 

nghwpthapy; Ie;jtpj;jhd; ngha;jPH xOf;f

newp epd;whH ePLtho; tH.                   (Fws; 6)

 

nghwpthapy; Ie;jtpj;jhd;  - nka;> tha;> fz;> %f;F> nrtp>  vd;Dk; nghwpfis topahf cila Ie;J mthtpidAk;>

 

ngha;jPH xOf;f newp epd;whH - nka;Qhd xOf;f newpapd; fz; tOthJ epd;whH

 

ePLtho;tH - gpwg;gpd;wp vf;fhyj;Jk; xU jd;ikauha; tho;thH.

 

(fUj;Jiu) flTs; topapNy epd;wtHfs; eP^op tho;thHfs;.

 

,e;jf; FwspYk; gupNkyofH Ie;jtpj;jhd; vd;w nrhy;Yf;Ff; flTs; vd;W jdJ ek;gpf;iff;F Vw;wthW type;J nghUs; nfhs;fpwhH. flTs;jhd; tpUg;G ntWg;G mw;wtH Mapw;Nw? mg;Gwk; vd;d Ie;jtpj;jhd;? ts;StH ,e;jf; Fwspy; (mJ ,ilr; nrUf;fy; ,y;yhJ ,Uf;Fk; gl;rj;jpy;) Ik;Gyd;fis  mlr;fpa kfhtPuH> Gj;jH Nghd;NwhiuNa Fwpf;fpwhH vd;gJnjspT.

 

Ik;nghwpfspdhy; vOfpd;w Mirfis mtpj;jtHfs; kfhtPuH>  Gj;jH Nghd;NwhH. ngha;ik ,y;yhj xOf;f newpapy; epd;wtHfSk; ,tHfNs.

 

,jdhw;whd; Mjpgftd;> kyHkpir Vfpdhd;> Ntz;Ljy; Ntz;lhik ,yhd;> ,iwtd;> nghwpthapy; Ie;jtpj;jhd;> jdf;Ftik ,y;yhNjhd;> mwthop me;jzd;> vz;Fzj;jhd; Nghd;w nrhw;fisAk; Kjy; ehd;F mjpfhuq;fspd; mikg;G KiwikiaAk;> mfpk;ir> Gyhy; cz;zhik ,tw;iw tw;GWj;jp ,Uf;Fk; ghq;fpidAk;> jtj;jpw;F ts;StH $wpapUf;Fk; "cw;w Neha; Nehd;wy; capHf;F cWfz; nra;ahik mw;Nw jtj;jpw;F cU" vd;w GJikahd ,yf;fzj;ijf; nfhz;Lk; Fwis rkz Ehy; vd rkzHfs; thjhLfpwhHfs;.

 

rkz FUthfpa Fe;j Fj;jH vd;w Vyhr;rhupahuhy; jpUf;Fws; kapiyapy; ,aw;wg;gl;L kJiuapy; muq;Nfw;wg;gl;lJ vd;gJk; rkzHfspd; thjkhFk;. ePyNfrp ciuahrpupaH rka jpthfu KdptH jpUf;Fwis rkzNtjk; vdg; ngUikNahL jdJ ciuapy; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;shH. rkz Ehyhfpa NkU ke;jpu Guhzj;NjhL xt;nthU  FwSf;Fk; cs;s fUj;J xw;Wikiar; rf;futHj;jp eapdhH vd;gtH vLj;Jf; fhl;LfpwhH. jpUf;Fwspd; rhaypy; ,aw;wg;gl;l ehybahH vd;w EhYk; rkzHfshy; ,aw;wg;gl;ljhy; mjd; Kjy; Ehyhd jpUf;FwSk; rka rkaj;ijr; rhHe;jNj vd;gJk; mtHfsJ thjkhFk;.

 

,jpy; cz;ikAk; ,y;yhky; ,y;iy. rq;fk; kUtpa fhye;njhlq;fp gf;jp ,yf;fpa fhyk;tiu Njhd;wpa Ehy;fspy; gy rkzHfshNyNa ,aw;wg;gl;Ls;sd. gjpndz;fPo;f;fzf;F> Ik;ngUk; fhg;gpaq;fs;> IQ;rpW fhg;gpaq;fs; Nghd;w Ehy;fspy; ngUk;ghd;ik rkz rkaj;jtHfshy; ,aw;wg;gl;ldNt. Ik;ngUk; fhg;gpaq;fspy;; xd;NwDk; irt> itzt> Ntj kjj;jpduhy; ,aw;wg;gltpy;iy vd;gJ <z;L Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.

 

NguhrpupaH itahGupg;gps;is> NguwpQH jpU.tp. fy;ahzRe;judhH Nghd;NwhH jpUf;Fws; rkz rka Ehy; vd;Nw Mjhuq;fNshL tpsf;fpAs;shHfs;.

 

,tHfis kWg;ghUk; csH.  mfypifia fy;yhfr; rgpj;j Guhz tuyhW  25tJ Fwspy; ("Ie;jtpj;jhd; Mw;wy; mfy; tpRk;G cshH Nfhkhd; ,e;jpuNd rhYk; fup") nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ. rkz kjj;jpy; KdptUf;F kidtp ,Uf;f KbahJ. mtUf;Ff; Nfhgk; tuf;$lhJ. te;jhYk; rgpf;ff; $lhJ. Mdhy; Guhzf; fijapy; tUk; nfsjk KdptH ,e;jpud; clypy; Mapuk; Nahdpfs; cz;lhff; fltJ vdr; rgpf;fpwhH. kidtpahd mfypifia fy;yhff; fltJ vdr; rgpf;fpwhH. Mifahy; rkz rkaj;jpw;F khwhd fUj;ijf; $Wk; ,e;jf; Fwis rkz rka Ehy; vdr; nrhy;y KbahJ vdg; Nghg; IaH $WfpwhH.

 

NkYk; ,e;j xU Fwis kl;Lk; itj;Jf; nfhz;L ts;StH rkzuhf ,Uf;f KbahJ vd;gJ tYthd thjkhfhJ. Ik;nghwpfs; topahf vOfpd;w Mirfis mlf;f Kbahjjw;F NjtHfsJ murdhd ,e;jpuid (,g;gbg; gl;l fhKfd; NjtHfSf;F vg;gb murdhf ,Ue;jhd; vd;gNjh> mjdhy; mtdJ Fbkf;fshfpa NjtHfsJ Nahf;fpaij vd;d vd;gNjh NtW fij) fhl;Ltjw;F kl;Lk; vy;NyhUf;Fk; njupe;j ,e;jg; Guhzf; fijia ts;StH vLj;jhz;L ,Uf;fyhk;.

 

,e;jf; FwSf;Fk; gupNkyofH "Gyd;fspy; nry;Yfpd;w mth Ie;jpidAk; mlf;fpdhdJ typf;F mfd;w thdj;Js;shH ,iwtdhfpa ,e;jpuNd rhd;W" vd;W ciu nra;Js;shH. ,e;jf; Fws; ePj;jhH ngUik vd;w %d;whtJ mjpfhuj;jpy; tUfpwJ. Kw;Wk; Jwe;j JwNthH my;yJ KdptHfsJ ngUik ,jpy; $wg;gl;Ls;sJ. Ie;jtpj;jhd; Mw;wy; vd;gJ nfsjk KdptuJ Mw;wiyf; Fwpf;fpwJ. me;j Mw;wypd; typikapdhy; kl;LNk Mapuk; Nahdpfis ,e;jpud; Nkdp KOJk; Njhd;WkhW Kdptuhy; rgpf;f Kbe;jJ.

 

,e;jf; FwSf;F v];.vd;. =,uhkNjrpfd; vOjpa ciu Nkw;fz;lthWjhd; mike;Js;sJ.

 

"Ie;Jtpjkhd Mirfisj; Jwe;jtDila typik kpfr; rpwe;jnjdg; Nghw;wg;gLfpwJ. nfsjkUila rhgj;jpw;F ,yf;fhd NjtH Nfhkhd; ,e;jpuNd ,jw;Fr; rhd;W" vd;gJ =,uhkNjrpfdJ ciu.

 

"Gyd;fis mlf;f Kbahky; topjtwpr; nrd;wpLk; kdpjDf;Fr; rhd;whf ,e;jpud; tpsq;fp> Ik;Gyd;fshy; Vw;gLk; Mirfisf; fl;Lg;gLj;jpajhy; thd;Gfo; nfhz;ltHfspd; Mw;wiy vLj;Jf; fhl;Lfpwhd;" vd;gJ fiyQH fUzhepjpapd; ciuahFk;.

 

,e;j ciufs;jhd; gFj;jwptpw;Fk; rupahfg; gLfpwJ. fiyQH> ehtyH Nghd;w gFj;jwpthsHfsJ ciufs; kl;Lky;y rkathjpahd ftp Nahfp Re;jhde;j ghujpahupd; ciuAk; ,t;thNw mike;Js;sJ.  

 

 


 

 

jpUts;StH Gj;jrkaj;jtuh ?

 

jpUkfs;

 

(23)

 

Gj;j gfthidf; Fwpg;gpLk; mwthop me;jzd;> kyHkpir Vfpdhd;> jdf;Fit ,y;yhjhd; Nghd;w nrhy;yhl;rpfis itj;J ,J ngsj;jkj Ehy; vd thjhLgtHfSk; epiwa ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. Dr.B.C. Law vd;gtH Gj;j rkaj;jpd; Gdpj Ehyhfpa jk;kgjj;jpy; cs;s xt;nthU RNyhfj;jpw;Fk; KiwNa xt;nthU FwNshL cs;s fUj;J xw;Wikia 253 ,lq;fspy; njspthff; fhz;gpf;fpwhH. ngsj;j kjj;jpy; Md;kh ,y;iy. flTs; ek;gpf;ifAk; ,y;iy.

 

mz;ikapy; jpUf;Fws;gw;wp  b. mkurpwp tPuuj;jpd vd;w rpq;fstH Mq;fpyj;jpy; xU fl;Liu vOjpapUe;jhH. me;jf; fl;Liuapy; ts;StH ngsj;j rkaj;jtH vd;gij epWt mtH ngupJk; Kad;wpUf;fpwhH.  

 

jpUf;Fwis rpq;fs nkhopapy; ,UtH nkhopngaHj;Js;shHfs; vd;gJ ,q;F Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. xUtH kprp Nehdh vd;w gs;spf;$l Mrpupia. kw;wtH gd;nkhop mwpQH rhHy;]; b rpy;th vd;gtH. jpUf;Fws; Nfhl;ilia Mz;l kd;dHfs; fhyj;jpy; mwpKfkhfp ,Ue;jJ. jkpo; ,yf;fpak; tp[aghF gpuptpidapy; xU  ghlkhfg; gbg;gpf;fg;gl;lJ.  ,e;jg; gpuptpidf;F Gfo;ngw;w =uhFy vd;w NjuH mjpguhf ,Ue;jhH. mtuJ khzhf;fHfspy; xUtuhd ,ud];fy NjuH "NyhNfhgfwa" (cyf kf;fSf;F mwpTiu) vd;w rpwe;j Ehiy vOjpAs;shH. ,e;j Ehy; jpUf;Fwis top Ehyhff; nfhz;lJ.  

 

jpUts;StH Gj;j rkaj;jtuh? rkz rkaj;jtuh? my;yJ ,e;J rkaj;jtuh vd;w Nfs;tpfis vOg;gpa tPuuj;jpd gpd;dH mtNu mtw;wpw;Fg; gjpYk; vOjpapUf;fpwhH.

 

gy rkz mwpQHfs;> rpy irtHfs;  jpUts;StH jq;fs; rkaj;ijr; rhHe;jtH vd cupik NfhUfpwhHfs;. ,e;jf; Nfhupf;iffis Muha;e;J rupahd KbTf;F tUtJ rpf;fy; epiwe;j fhupakhFk;.

 

jpUf;Fws; ey;nyhOf;fk;> ew;gof;fk;>  jhHkPfk;>  ey;ywpT ,tw;iw gbg;gpf;fpwJ. RUq;fr; nrhd;dhy; xU ehfupfk; gilj;j> gz;ghLila kdpjd; vg;gb ,Ug;ghd; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;   vd;gijj; jpUf;Fws; vLj;Jr; nrhy;fpwJ. cz;ikapy; jpUf;Fws; ,d;d kjj;jpdH vd;wpy;yhJ vy;NyhUf;Fk; mJnthU kiw Ehyhfj; jpfo;fpwJ.

 

"jpUts;StuJ rkak; vJntd mwptjw;F mtH vOjpa Ehypy; ve;jnthU ,e;jpa rkaj;jpdJ Nfhl;ghLfisNah NghjidfisNah rpwg;ghff; fhzKbahJ ,Uf;fpwJ. Mdhy; mtuJ Kjy; Fwspy; ,e;jg; gpugQ;rj;jpy; cs;s midj;Jf;Fk; Mjpahf ,Uf;Fk; rf;jpf;F "Mjpgftd;" vd;w nrhy;yhl;rpiag; gad;gLj;JfpwhH."

 

"gftj; vd;w nrhy; Gj;jH kw;Wk; rkz kjj;jpd; epWtdH  kfhtPuH ,UtiuAk; Fwpg;gjhFk;. Mjp-Gj;jH vd;w nrhy; kfhad Gj;jHfSf;F kpfTk; guPl;rakhdJ. rkzj;jpYk; ,e;J kjj;jpYk; Mjpgftd; vd;w nrhy;Yf;F ts;StH Kjy; mjpfhuj;jpy; cs;s gj;Jf; Fws;fspYk; $Wk; ,yf;fzj;Jf;F mika xU kdpjg;gpwg;G ( human personality) ,y;iy.

 

"Gj;j kjj;jpdH Vd; ts;Stiu Gj;jkjj;ijr; rhHe;jtH vd epidf;fpwhHfs;?" njd; ,e;jpahtpy; xU fhyj;jpy; Gj;jKk; rkzKk; ngUk;ghd;ikauJ kjq;fshf NkNyhq;fp ,Ue;jd. mjd; gpd;dNu irtk; ,e;j kjq;fisg; Gwq;fz;lJ.

 

fhNtupg;gl;bdKk; fhQ;rpGuKk; Gj;j kjj;jpd; Nfhl;ilahf tpsq;fpd. Gj;jkj Qhdhrpupfshd Gj;jNfhrH> Gj;jjj;jH> mDUj;jH> jHkghyH njd;dpe;jpaHfshNt tpsq;fpdH. Gj;jkjk;nfhbfl;bg; gwe;j ehspy; jkpo; ,yf;fpag; gilg;Gf;fspy; Gj;j rkaj;jtNu Kd;dzpapy; ,Ue;jdH. jkpo; ,yf;fz Ehyhd tPuNrhopak;> Fz;lyNfrp> kzpNkfiy Gj;jkj Nfhl;ghLfis tpsf;Ftjw;F Gj;jkjg; GytHfshy; jkpopy; gilf;fg;gl;l gilg;GfshFk;. jpUts;StH ,e;jf; fhy fl;lj;jpNyNa tho;e;jhH. vdNt "Mjp gftd;" vd;W jdJ Kjy; FwspNyNa ahiu ts;StH Nghw;WfpwhH? topgLfpwhH?

 

Gj;j rkapfs; jq;fs; ehshe;j topghl;by; Gj;jiu "gfthd;" (MrPHtjpf;fg;gl;ltH) vd miof;fpwhHfs;. kfhad Gj;jrkaj;jpd; Nfhl;ghl;bd;gb fp.K. 5k; Ehw;whz;ilr; NrHe;j tuyhw;Wg;  Gj;jH gpd;dH topghl;Lf;Fupa gfthdhf cUkhwpdhH. Mjp gftd; vd;gJ kfhahd Gj;jrkaj;jpd; jpupGf; Nfhl;ghLjhd;. mJ ghyp nkhopapy; fhzg;gLk; Gj;jupd; NghjidfSf;F KuzhdJ.

 

rkzHfs; jq;fsJ rka   epWtdiu mtuJ kdpj gbkj;jpy; ,Ue;J khw;wp xUNghJk; nja;t epiyf;F caHj;jtpy;iy (,J gpioahd fUj;jhFk;. ,Ugj;Jehd;F rkz jPHj;jq;fHfspy; Kjy; Njhd;wpa jPHj;jjq;fH nja;t epiyf;F caHj;jg;gl;L "mUff; flTs;" vdf; Nfhtpy; fl;b tzq;fg;gLfpwhH. kfhtPuH cl;gl Vida jPHj;jq;fHfSk; tzq;fg; gLfpwhHfs;.  ,it rkzrkaj;jpy; gpw;gl;l fhyj;jpy; Vw;gl;l khw;wkhFk;). vdNt ngUk;ghd;ik Gj;jkj MrpupaHfsJ fUj;J ahnjdpy; jpUf;Fwspy; fhzg;gLk; Mjp gftd; vd;w tho;j;Jiu kfhad Gj;jkjj;jpdH topgLk; Gj;jiuNa Fwpf;fpwJ vd;gjhFk;.

 

jpUts;StH ve;j rkaj;ijr; rhHe;jtH vd;gijf; fz;lwptjw;F 2-10 tiuapyhd jpUf;Fws;fisg; gbj;jwptJ mtrpak;. ,e;jf; Fws;fs;jhd;> mit vt;tsT njsptw;wjhf> Iaj;Jf;F ,lKs;sjhf ,Ug;gpDk; mitjhd; mtuJ rkaj;ijf; fz;lwptjw;F topfhl;bahf cs;sd.

 

fw;wjdhy; Md gandd;nfhy;> thywptd;

ew;whs; njhohnudpd;?                        (Fws; 2)

 

,jd; nghUs; xUtd; Ntjhe;jk; Fwpg;gpLk; epHf;Fz gpukd; Nghy; -ey;yJ nfl;lJ Nghd;w Fzhk;rk; mw;w> nja;thk;rk; mw;w - tho;f;if <Nlw;wj;Jf;F topfhl;batidj; njhOjy;. ,/J Gj;jrkag; GytHfs; jhq;fs; gilj;j ,yf;fpaj;jpy; Gj;jiu tHzpj;jij xj;jpUf;fpwJ.

 

kyHkpir Vfpdhd; khzb NrHe;jhHf;F my;yhy;

ahz;Lk; ,Lk;ig ,y.                        (Fws; 3)

      

Gj;jH jhkiu kyHNkNy ,Ug;gJ Nghy; rpj;jupf;fg;gLtJ rhjhuz xU Gj;jrka khztDf;Fk; njupe;j fijahFk;. ,q;Nf kyHkpir Vfpdhd; vd;gJ Gj;jiuNa Fwpf;Fk;. (tsUk;)  

 

 


 

 

Gj;j rkz mfpk;irj; jj;Jtj;ij vjpnuhypf;Fk; jpUts;StH!

 

jpUkfs;

 

(24)

 

jpU. tPuuj;jpd Kjy; mjpfhuj;jpy; cs;s kpFjpf; Fws;fisAk; je;J mtw;wpw;F jdJ fz;Nzhl;lj;jpy; tpsf;fKk; mspf;fpwhH.

 

Ntz;Ljy; Ntz;lhik ,yhdb NrHe;jhHf;F

ahz;Lk; ,Lk;ig ,y                      ( Fws; 4)

 

,Us;NrH ,UtpidAk; Nruh> ,iwtd;

nghUs;NrH Gfo;Gupe;jhH khl;L                (Fws; 5)

 

nghwpthapy; Ie;jtpj;jhd; ngha;jPH xOf;f

newpepd;whH ePLtho; thH                     (Fws; 6)

 

jdf;Ftik ,y;yhjhd; jhs;NrHe;jhHf;F my;yhy;

kdf;ftiy khw;wy; mupJ                      (Fws; 7)

 

mwthop me;jzd; jhs;NrHe;jhHf;F my;yhy;

gpwthop ePj;jy; mupJ                        (Fws; 8)

 

Nfhspw; nghwpapy; FzkpyNt> vz;Fzj;jhd;

jhis tzq;fhj; jiy                      (Fws; 9)

 

gpwtpg; ngUq;fly; ePe;JtH> ePe;jhH

,iwtd; mgNruh jhH                         (Fws; 10)

 

gy rkz mwpQHfs;> rpy irtHfs; jpUts;StH jq;fs;  rkaj;ijr; rhHe;jtH vd cupik NfhUfpwhHfs;. ,e;jf; Nfhupf;iffis Muha;e;J rupahd KbTf;F tUtJ rpf;fy; epiwe;j tplakhFk;.

 

jpUf;Fws; ey;nyhOf;fk;> ew;gof;fk;> jhHkPfk;> ey;ywpT ,tw;iw gbg;gpf;fpwJ. RUq;fr; nrhd;dhy; xU ehfupfk; gilj;j> gz;ghLila kdpjd; vg;gb ,Ug;ghd; vd;gijj; jpUf;Fws; vLj;Jr; nrhy;fpwJ. cz;ikapy; jpUf;Fws; ,d;d kjj;jpdH vd;wpy;yhJ vy;NyhUf;Fk; mJnthU nghJthd kiw Ehyhfj; jpfo;fpwJ.

 

MwhtJ Fwspy; nrhy;yg;gLk; "ngha;jPH xOf;fk;" vd;gJ  Gj;jupd; caHe;j vl;L topfis (ml;lhq;f khHf;fk;) Fwpg;gpLfpwJ. Jf;f epthuzj;Jf;F Gj;jH ,e;j vl;L caHe;j  topfisf; fhl;bdhH. mitahntd (1) ew;fhl;rp (2) ey;nyhOf;fk; (3) ey;tha;ik (4) ew;nra;if (5) ey;tho;f;if (6) ed;Kaw;rp (7) ew;filg;gpb (8) ew;wpahdk;.

 

jrrPyk; (Gj;j NjuHfs; filg;gpbf;f Ntz;ba gj;Jtifahd xOf;fk;. Kjy; Ie;Jk; Gj;jrkaj;jpdH vy;NyhUk; filg;gpbf;f Ntz;ba xOf;fk; MFk;.)> ehy;tif tha;ikfs;>  ml;lhq;f khHf;fk; ,itNa Gj;j rkaj;jpd; mbg;gil fUJNfhshFk; (Ideology).

 

jpUts;Stupd; Gyhy; kWj;jy;> nfhy;yhik> ,d;dh nra;ahik gw;wpa mwpTiufs; Gj;jupd;  mfpk;irgw;wpa Nghjidfis vjpnuhypg;gjhf ,Uf;fpwJ. Ntjk; Nts;tpapy; kpUfq;fs; gypnfhLf;fg;gLtij mDkjpf;fpwJ. gftj; fPij Nghiu Mjupf;fpwJ. NghHGupjy; rj;jpupadpd; jHkk; vd;fpwJ. (jpUts;StH mz;ilapy; ,Ue;J nfhz;L vg;NghJk;  nfLjiyNa   nra;J nfhz;bUf;Fk; gifia tpiynfhLj;jhtJ thq;fpf; nfhs;sNtz;Lk; vd;Wk; (Fws; 867) Ks;Sila kuj;ij Kw;wtplf; $lhJ. ,skukhf ,Uf;Fk;NghNj ntl;b tPo;j;jptpl Ntz;Lk;. Kw;wpagpd; me;j kuj;ij ntl;l epidj;jhy; ntl;Lfpd;wtd; ifiaNa mJ tUj;Jk; vd;Wk; $WfpwhH (Fws; 879). mjhtJ gifia njhlf;fj;jpNyNa fps;spnawpe;J tplNtz;Lk;.)

 

NkYk; mwd;typAWj;jy;> md;Glik> xOf;fk; cilik> mOf;fhwhik> nt/fhik> Gwq;$whik> mUs; cilik> fs;shik> tha;ik> ntFshik> nka;AzHjy;> mth mWj;jy;> fs; cz;zhik gw;wpa jpUts;Stupd; Nfhl;ghLfs; Gj;jupd; my;yJ rkzupd; Nfhl;ghLfis vjpnuhypg;gjhff; fhzg;gLfpwJ. Mdhy; nkhj;jj;jpy; jpUts;Stupd; rkak; Gj;jkhf ,Uf;fyhk; vd;w KbNt typikAilajhf ,Uf;fpwJ. ,g;gb jpU.tPuuj;jpd thjpLfpwhH.

 

jpUts;StH rkzH vd;W thjpLgtHfSk; ,Ue;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. rkzj;Jf;Fk; ngsj;jj;jpw;Fk; gy xw;Wikfs; ,Uf;fpd;wd. ,uz;LNk kpfg; gioikahd  rkaq;fs;. ,uz;LNk rkfhyj;jtHfshd (fp.K.  Ie;jhk; Ehw;whz;L)  tHj;jkhd kfhtPuH (filrp - 24tJ jPHj;jq;fuH) nfsjkH MfpNahuhy; epWtg;gl;lit. ,e;j ,uz;L rkaKk; Ntj vjpHg;G> tHzhr;rpukjHk vjpHg;G> rhjpvjpHg;G ,tw;iw jPtpukhf typAWj;jpd.   

 

,e;jr; rkaq;fspd; rka Ehy;fs; gpuhfpUj nkhopapy; vOjg;gl;bUe;jd. ngsj;jupd; kjEhy;fs; kfhjp vd;Dk; ghyp nkhopapYk;> rkzupd; rka Ehy;fs; mHj;j  khfjp vd;Dk; #uNrdp nkhopapYk; vOjg;gl;ld. khtPuUk; nfsjkUk;  rj;jpupa tk;rj;ijr; rhHe;jtHfs;.

 

mfpk;irf; Nfhl;ghL ,uz;L rkaj;Jf;Fk; mr;rhzp Nghd;wJ. ngsj;jj;ijtpl rkzk; fhw;wpy; fhzg;gLk; Ez;fpUkpfSf;Fk;> epyj;jpy; CUk; rpw;nwWk;GfSf;Fk; jPq;F tpistpf;ff; $lhJ vd mwpTWj;JfpwJ. rkz KdptHfs; Fbf;fpw ePiu tbj;Jf; Fbg;gJk;> %f;if Jzpahy; fl;LtJk;> elf;Fk;NghJ kapy; gPypahy; epyj;ijf; $l;LtJk; ,jw;Fr; rhd;whFk;.

 

kWgpwg;G> fHktpid ,uz;Lf;Fk; nghJthdJ. mNjNghy; flTs; kWg;Gk; ,e;j ,uz;L rkaj;Jf;Fk; nghJthdJ. ,Ue;Jk; rkzk; ngsj;jupd; mdhj;kthjf; (Md;kh ,y;iy) vd;w  nfhs;ifia xj;Jf; nfhs;stpy;iy. rfy capupdq;fSf;Fk; Md;kh cz;L (mstpy; ngupa capupdq;fSf;F ngupa Md;khTk;> rpwpa capupdq;fSf;F rpwpa Md;khTk; cz;L) vd;gJ rkzrkaf; Nfhl;ghlhFk;.

 

rkzKk; nghsj;jKk; Kw;fhyj;jpy; ngUk; rpwg;Gg; ngw;wpUe;jd. fp.K. %d;whk; Ehw;whz;L njhlq;fp fp.gp. xd;gjhk; Ehw;whz;Ltiu ,e;jr; rkaq;fs; jkpo;ehl;by; nry;thf;Fg; ngw;W tpsq;fpd. nksupa rf;futHj;jp re;jpu Fg;j nksupaH gj;jpughF Kdptiuj; jk; FUthf Vw;Wr; rkz rkaj;jpy; NrHe;J jkJ ,Wjpf; fhyj;jpy; JwT G+z;L gj;jpughF KdptNuhLk; rkz rka KdptHfNshLk; ik#upy; cs;s rputz ngsnfhs vd;Dk; ,lj;Jf;F te;J jq;fpdhH. mq;fpUe;J rkzKdptHfs; jkpo;ehl;by; rkz rkaj;ijg; gug;gpdhHfs;. ,J fp.K. %d;whk; Ehw;whz;by; ,lk;ngw;wJ. re;jpuFg;j rf;futHj;jpapd; Ngudhd mNrhf rf;futHj;jpapd; fhyj;jpy; ( fp.K. 273-232) ngsj;j kjk; jkpo;ehl;by; gutpw;W.   

 

 


 

 

Kjy; mjpfhuk; Gj;j rkz jhf;fj;ij ntspg;gLj;JfpwJ!

 

jpUkfs;

 

(25)

 

,e;j ,uz;L rkaq;fSk; rkaj;Jiwapy; kl;Lk; my;yhJ ,yf;fpaj;JiwapYk; Mjpf;fk; nrYj;jpd. Fwpg;ghf rkz rkag; GytHfspd; ,yf;fpaj; njhz;L msg;gupaJ. gjpndz;fzf;F Ehy;fspy; ngUk;ghd;ikahdit rkzg; GytHfshy; ,aw;wg;gl;ldthFk;. Ik;ngUq;fhg;gpaq;fspy; ehd;F ( rpyg;gjpfhuk;> tisahgjp> Fz;lyNfrp> rpe;jhkzp) rkz fhg;gpaq;fshFk;. vQ;rpa kzpNkfiy ngsj;j fhg;gpakhFk;.

 

,Nj Nghy; IQ;rpW fhg;gpaq;fshd cjazFkhu fhtpak;> ehfFkhu fhtpak;> aNrhjuh fhtpak;> ePyNfrp> #shkzp rkz fhg;gpaq;fNs. njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpw;F Kjypy; ciu vOjpa ,sk;G+uzH rkzuhtH. njhy;fhg;gpaH rkzH vd;W thjpLgtHfSk; ,Uf;fpwhHfs;.  

 

,e;jr; rkaq;fs; gpd;dH  mope;njhope;jNghJ Ehw;Wf; fzf;fhd rkz> ngsj;j Ehy;fSk; rkag; gpzf;Ff; fhuzkhfTk;> Nghw;WthH ,y;yhj fhuzj;jpdhYk;> jkpoH gpw,dj;jtUf;F mbikg;gl;l fhuzj;jpdhYk; ,we;njhope;jd. Nkw;$wpa Ik;ngUq;fhg;gpaq;fspy; rkz fhg;gpaq;fshd Fz;lyNfrpAk;> tisahgjpAk; ,d;wpy;yhJ Ngha;tpl;ld.  

 

Kw;fhyj;jpy;  jkpo; murHfSila MjuT rkz> ngsj;j rkaq;fSf;F ,Ue;jd. gy;ytg; ngUNte;jdhd kNfe;jputHkd; (fp.gp. 625-630)  rkz kjj;jpy; ,Ue;J ehTf;furuhy; irt rkaj;Jf;F khw;wg;gl;lhd;. mNjNghd; kJiuia Mz;l ghz;bad; neLkhwd; Kjypy; rkzrkaj;jpy; ,Ue;J gpd;dH  Qhdrk;ge;juhy; irt rkaj;Jf;F kjk; khw;wg;gl;lhd;. mtd; fhyj;jpy; vz;zhapuk; rkzj; Jwtpfs; Midkiy> ehfkiyg; gFjpfspy; cs;s Fiffspy; ,Ug;gplq;fs; mikj;J tho;e;J te;jdH.  

 

,e;j ,uz;L kjq;fspd; nry;thf;F fhiuf;fhy; mk;ikahH> ehTf;furH> Qhdrk;ge;jH Nghd;Nwhuhy; njhlf;fg;gl;l gf;jp ,af;fj;jpd; fhuzkhf rpwg;Gf;Fd;wp filrpapy; 13k; Ehw;whz;NlhL tPo;r;rp mile;jd. ,d;Wk; jkpo;ehl;bd; jQ;irNghd;w gFjpfspy; kl;Lk; rkzrkaj;jtHfs; tho;fpwhHfs;. Mdhy; ngsj;jk; jkpo;ehl;by; mbNahL kiwe;J tpl;lJ.

 

xU fhyj;jpy; jpUf;FwSf;F mLj;jjhf rkzKdptHfshy; ,aw;wg;gl;l ehybahH Nghw;wg;gl;lJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. jpUf;Fws; NghyNt vy;NyhUf;Fk; nghJthd mbg;gil mwq;fis ehybahUk; vLj;Jiuf;fpwJ. Mdhy; ehybahupy; jpUf;Fwspy; fhzg;glhj kpjkpQ;rpa ngz;ntWg;G> ,y;yw ntWg;G fhzg;gLfpwJ. ,y;ywk;> Jwtwk; ,e;j ,uz;L mwq;fspy; ngz;fs; Jwtwj;Jf;F ,ilQ;ryhf ,Uf;fpwhHfs; vd;gNj ,e;j ntWg;Gf;Ff; fhuzkhFk;.  

 

rpy Gweil ePq;fyhf rkz> ngsj;j kjq;fspd; jhf;fk; ts;Stuplk; fhzg;gLtjpy; tpag;gpy;iy. jpUf;Fwspd; Kjy; mjpfhuk; (mJ ,ilr; nrUf;fy; my;y vd;w mbg;gilapy;) ,e;jj; jhf;fj;ij ntspf;fhl;LfpwJ. Md fhuzj;jpdhNyNa vLj;j vLg;gpNyNa Mjpgftd; vd;w gpuhfpUj nrhw;fid (,e;jg; gpuhfpUj nrhw;fs; tlnkhop thapyhf my;yhky; rkz> ngsj;j kjk; gutpa NghJ  NeNu jkpopy; te;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;)  mtH gad;gLj;JfpwhH.

 

mdiy ,uhNre;jpuk; epidg;gJNghy  "jkpo;f;fly; kiwkiyabfs;> jkpo;g;NguwpQH gupjpkhw;fiyQH Nghy; jpUts;StUk; jdpj;jkpo;f; nfhs;ifahsH my;yH" vd;gJ jtW. ts;StH fhyj;jpYk; mjw;F Kd;dUk; vy;yhg; GytHfSk; ,ay;ghfNt jdpj; jkpopNyNa vOjpdhHfs;. Gwrka gz;ghl;Lg; gilnaLg;Gf; fhuzkhfNt Ntw;W nkhopr; nrhw;fs; rpy jkpopy; GFe;jd. Fwpg;ghf rka jj;Jtq;fis tpsf;Fk;NghJ gpwnkhopr; nrhw;fs; gad;gLj;jg;gl;ld. ,Ue;Jk; Kbe;jsT njhy;fhg;gpa ,yf;fz tpjpf;Nfw;g mit xypkhw;wk; nra;ag;gl;L jkpo;kag;gLj;jg;gl;ld. y\;kzd; ,yf;Ftd; MdJk;> tpgP\zd; tpgPlzd; MdJk;> uhkd; ,uhkd; MdJk;> ep\;il epl;il MdJk;> ghi\ ghil MdJk; ,jd; fhuzkhfNt.

 

jpUf;Fwspy; gpwnkhopr; nrhw;fs; xU mjpfhuj;Jf;F xd;W> rpyrkak; ,uz;L vd;w vz;zpf;ifapNyNa ,Uf;fpd;wJ. gpw;fhyj;jpy;jhd;  gpwnkhopr; nrhw;fspd; gad;ghL mjpfupj;jJ. itzt Mr;rhupahHfs; jpt;ag;gpuge;jj;jpw;F vOjpa tpahf;fpahdq;fs; kzpg;gpuths eilapy; mike;jpUe;jJ. Mdhy; jkpoHfs; ,e;jf; fyg;G eilia Vw;Wf; nfhs;shjjhy; kzpg;gpuths eil nry;thf;fpoe;J tof;nfhope;jJ.

 

"Mjp gftd;" vd;gJ jpUts;StH jdJ jhiaAk; je;ijAk; Fwpj;J tho;j;jpg; ghbaJ vd;W nrhy;gtHfSk; ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. Mdhy; me;jf; fUj;J gpioahdjhFk;. Kjypy; ts;StH Mjp vd;w Giyr;rpf;Fk; gftd; vd;w ghHg;gdDf;Fk; gpwe;jtH vd;gJ GidfijahFk;.   "Mjp" "gftd;" vd;w caHjpizr; nrhw;fs; ,uz;Lk; ,ilapy; cs;s ck;ikj; njhifapd;wpg; GzUkhapd; "Mjp gftH" vd;W tUNk my;yhJ "Mjp gftd;" vd;w Mz;ghw;Fupa <w;why; epw;fhJ.  

 

gpuhkzd; my;yhNjhd; jpUf;Fws; Nghd;w xg;gupa Ehiy vOj KbahJ vd;w ghHg;gdPaf; fUj;Jf;F tYNrHf;fNt ts;StHgw;wpa ,e;jg; Gidfij fl;lg;gl;lJ vd;gjpy; Iakpy;iy. gpd;dhspy; fgpyH vd;w ngaupy; ghlg;gl;l fgpyH mfty; vd;w ghlypy; ,e;j "tuyhW" fhzg;gLfpwJ. mjpy; fgpyH (,e;jf; fgpyH ghHg;gdHfisr; rhLfpwhH) ts;StH jdJ cld;gpwg;Gf;fspy; xUtH vd etpy;fpwhH.

 

vd;Dld; gpwe;jtH vj;jid Ngnudpy;

Mz;ghd; %tH ngz;ghy; ehy;tH

ahk;tsH jpwQ;rpwp jpak;Gtpy; Nfz;kpd;

............................................................................

njhz;il kz;byj;jpy; tz;lkpo; kapiyapy;

ePshz;ik nfhSk; Ntshz; kuGaH

Js;Stuplj;jpy; ts;StH tsHe;jdH

mUk;ghH Nrhiyr; RUk;ghH tQ;rp

mjpakh dpy;ypil ajpakhd; tsHe;jdd;

gh&H ePHehl; lh&H jd;dpy;

me;jzH tsHf;f ahDk; tsHe;NjNd.

 

,jpy; tpag;G vd;dntd;why; ,e;jg; Gidfijia kiwkiy mbfshH cz;iknad ek;gpajhFk;. ,JfhWk; $wpatw;why; ts;StH ve;j xU Fwpg;gpl;l  kjj;jpw;Fk; cl;glhky; mtw;wpw;F mg;ghy; ,Ue;J nfhz;L "itaj;Js; tho;thq;F tho;tjw;F" jpUf;Fws; topahf Ntz;ba mwpTiu toq;FtJ njspthFk;. vdNtjhd; jpUts;StH my;yJ tho;f;if tpsf;fk; vd;W mwpQH K.t. jhd; vOjpa EhYf;Fg; ngaupl;bUf;fpwhH. jpUf;Fwis tho;f;if topfhl;b (A way of life)  my;yJ tho;f;if newp vd;W miog;gJ ,d;Dk; nghUj;jkhf ,Uf;Fk;.

 

"kopj;jYk; ePl;lYk; Ntz;lh cyfk;

 gopj;jJ xopj;Jtpbd;"                        (Fws; 280)

 

vd;w Fws; %yk; jpUts;StH jiyia nkhl;il mbf;Fk; ngsj;j NjuHfisAk;> ril KbtsHf;Fk; rkz rkaj;ijAk; fbfpwhH. NkYk; Gj;jH Md;kepiy> flTs;epiyfisg;  gw;wpg; Ngrtpy;iy. mitgw;wpa tprhuiz my;yJ ek;gpf;if tPLNgw;wpw;F (epHthzk;) mtrpak; mw;wJ vd;gJ mtuJ epiyg;ghlhFk;.

 

 


 

  

nfsjk Gj;jUk; jpUts;StUk; mwptpay; Mrhd;fs;!

 

jpUkfs;

 

(26)

 

Kd;dNu nrhy;ypathW ",e;jg; gpwg;G Jd;gkakhdJ> Neha;fs;> eiu> jpiu> %g;G Jd;gj;ijj; jUfpd;wd. ehk; tpUk;Gk; nghUs;fs; fpilf;fhtpl;lhy; Jd;gk; cz;lhfpwJ. RUq;fkhfr; nrhd;dhy; Ik;Gd;fspdhYk; Jf;fk; Vw;gLfpwJ. ,e;jj;  Jd;gj;jpw;Ff; fhuzk; Mir kw;Wk; mwpahik> Ik;Gyd;fisj; Ja;f;Fk; tpUg;gk;> nja;tNyhfj;jpy; gpwe;J ngupa ,d;g Rfq;fis mDgtpf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w epidg;G>  mwpahikahfpa mQ;Qhdj;ij xopg;gJk;> Mir mth Kjypa gw;Wf;fis ePf;FtJk; Jd;g ePf;fkhFk;. vl;Ltpj caHe;j topfspy; (ml;lhq;f khHf;fk;) elg;gJ Jd;gj;ij ePf;Fk; topfshFk;.

 

gpwg;G cs;sjhy; gpwtpj; Jd;gq;fs; ,ilawhJ te;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wd. mg;gpwtpj; Jd;gq;fis mWg;gjw;F ahtUk; ey;nyhOf;fq;fisf; filg; gpbj;J xOFjy; Ntz;Lk;. ew;fhl;rp> ey;nyhOf;fk;> ey;tha;ik> ew;nra;if> ey;tho;f;if> ed;Kaw;rp> ew;filg;gpb> ew;wpahdk;. ,tw;iw rypg;gpd;wp ,ilawhJ Nghw;wp xOfpd; capHfl;F epHthzk; vd;Dk; tPL NgW fpilf;Fk;."

 

Md;kepiy> flTs;epiygw;wp Gj;jH nrhy;yhjjhy; mtiug; gpd;gw;wpNahH gpw;fhyj;jpy; mtH nrhd;djhf gy Nfhl;ghLfisj; jhNk vOjpdhHfs;. Gj;jupd; filrpf; fhyj;jpy; ,lk;ngw;wjhff; $wg;gLk; rk;gtk; xd;Wz;L. Gj;jupd; rPlHfspy; xUtuhd kYhf;fpa NjuH Gj;juplk; gpd;tUk; Nfs;tpiaf; Nfl;lhH.

 

"vy;yhk; Kw;Wg;ngw;w Gj;jH ,we;jgpd; ,Ug;ghNuh ,uhNuh?"

 

"kYhf;fpa Gj;j> eP vd;dplk; te;J rPldhf ,U> cdf;F ,e;j cyfk; vd;Wk; cs;sjh ,y;iyah vd;W cgNjrpg;Ngd; vdf; $wpNddh? "

 

"Ia> mq;qdk; ePH $wpajpy;iy"

 

"mg;gbahdhy; ,jid vd;dplk; tw;GWj;jpf; NfshNj. fhl;Lf;Ff; Nghd xUtd; kPJ mk;G gha;e;Jtpl;lJ. clNd itj;jpadplk; Nghd mtd; ",t; mk;ig vd;Nky; va;jtd; gpuhkzd;> rj;jpupad;> itrpfd;> #j;jpud; vd;Dk; ehy;tupy; ,d;dhnudf; $wpdhyd;wp eP vdJ fhaj;jpw;F kUe;J fl;Ltjw;F cld;gNld;" vd;W $Wthdh? Mifahy;> kYhf;fpa Gj;j  vd;dhy; ntspaplg;glhnjd vy;yhk; mq;qdNk ,Ug;gdthf."

 

Gj;jupd; Nghjidfs; kpfTk; RUf;fkhdJ. mwj;ijg;gw;wpNa mtuJ Nghjidfs; ,Ue;jd. jpUts;StH mwj;NjhL> nghUs;> ,d;gk; ,itgw;wpAk;  tho;f;if Jd;gkakhdJ vd;W nrhy;ytpy;iy. mNj rkak; mJ ,d;gkakhdJ vd;Wk; nrhy;ytpy;iy. tho;f;if Jd;gKk; ,d;gKk; fye;jJ vd;whH. Jd;gk; tUq;fhy; eFf vd;whH.  

 

jpUts;Stupd; "rhjp"gw;wpa Nfhl;ghL Gj;jupd; Nfhl;ghl;il ngUk;ghYk; xj;jpUf;fpwJ. "gpwg;nghf;Fk; vy;yh capHf;Fk;" vd;gJ ts;StH Nfhl;ghL. Gj;jUk; "ahUk; gpwg;ghy; gpuhkzdhf KbahJ. xOf;fk; xd;wpdhNyNa xUtd; gpuhkzdhf KbAk;" vd;fpwhH.

 

"gpwg;nghf;Fk; vy;yh capHf;Fk;" vd;W jpUts;StH mWjpapl;Lf; $wpajd; %yk; rehjd jHkj;jpd; mbehjkhd tUzhr;rpuk jHkj;ijAk; mjd; cl;gpupthd rhjp mikg;igAk; ts;StH Kw;whf epuhfupj;jhH. Mdhy; mjw;F ciufz;l gupNkyofH mtiuNa tHzhr;rpukthjpahff; fhl;bapUf;fpwhH. gupNkyofiuAk; kpQ;rp  jpUf;Fwspy; rehjd tUzhrpuk jUkj;Jf;F vjpuhd cs;slf;fk; ,Ug;gjhy; mjid ,g;NghJk; "Xuf;fz;zhy;" ghHg;gtHfs; ,Uf;fpwhHfs;.

 

fhl;by; guNjrpahfr;  Rw;wp tQ;rfj;jhy; thypia tPo;j;jpa xU rhjhuz ,uhkid mtjhu epiyf;F caHj;jpa ,uhkhahzKk;> ehl;il kl;Lky;y fl;ba kidtpiaAk; itj;Jr; #jhb ehboe;j  gQ;r ghz;ltHfspd; fijahd ghujKk; jkpoHfs; fl;ba Nfhtpy;fspy; cl;Gf kdpjdpd; eilKiw tho;f;iff;F ( jdpkdpjd; nrhj;Jr; NrHf;f Ntz;Lk;. "nghUsy;ytiu nghUshfr; nra;Ak; nghUsy;yJ nghUs;")  kl;Lk; my;yhJ  ,yl;rpa tho;iff;F Ntz;ba ,yf;fzj;ij nrhy;tJk;> jdpkdpjd;> FLk;gk;> FLk;g cwT (mwd; vdg;gl;lNj ,y;tho;f;if> mjhtJ fztd; kidtpahf thOk; FLk;g tho;f;if mwptpay; mbg;gilapy; miktNj mwk;) ,tw;iw vLj;Jr; nrhy;yp  ePjp> NeHik> tha;ik> ey;nyhOf;fk;> <if> md;Glik> nghiwAlik> xg;Gutwpjy;> Gwq;$whik Mfpa mwnewpfisg; Nghjpf;Fk;  jkpo;Ntjk; jkpoHfs; fl;ba Nfhtpy;fspd; thry;gbiaf;$l mz;l KbahJ Ngha;tpl;lJ.

 

,d;W$l jpUf;Fwis "Xuf;fz;zhy;" kl;Lk; ghHf;Fk; kjthjpfs; ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. kWGwk; jpUts;StUf;F G+Zhy; Nghl;L moF ghHg;gtHfSk; ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. mj;NjhL epd;Wtplhky; "kopj;jYk; mopj;jYk; Ntz;lh cyfk; gopj;jJ xopj;Jtpbd;" vd;W nrhd;d ts;StUf;F ePz;l jhb> rlhKb itj;J xU Kw;Wk; Jwe;j KdptH  Nfhyj;jpy;> Nfhtpy; klhjpgjpNghy; fhl;LgtHfSk; ,Uf;fpwhHfs;.

 

ehd; Kd;dH xUKiw $wpaJNghy cyf ePjp $Wk; jpUf;FwisAk; xUFyj;Jf;F xU ePjp $Wk; gftj; fPijiaAk; xg;gpl;L ,uz;Lk; xd;Wjhd; vd;W NgRtJ> jpUf;FwisAk; fk;guhkhzaj;ijAk; xg;gpl;Lg; NgRtJk; ntz;nza;iaAk; Rz;zhk;igAk; xg;gpLtJ Nghd;wJ. fPij tpahghupfSk; fk;gthupfSk; ,jidf; ftdpf;f Ntz;Lk;.

 

,JfhWk; $wpatw;why; jpUf;Fwspd; 133 mjpfhuq;fspy; Kjy; mjpfhuk; rpf;fy; epiwe;jjhfTk;> Vida mjpfhuq;fspy; ,Ue;J jdpj;J epw;gJ Nghd;Wk;> tpiljilf;F cupajhfTk; fhzg;gLfpwJ. ,jid Kjy; mjpfhuj;Jf;F gy;;NtW ciuahrpupaHfs; nfhLj;jpUf;fpw mjpfhuj; jiyg;GfshNyNa mwpe;J nfhs;syhk;.

 

gz;Gr; rpwg;G                  - je;ij ngupahH

,iweyk;                     - GytH Foe;ij

cyfpd; Njhw;wk;               - Gul;rpf; ftpQH ghujpjhrd;

cyfpd; %yk;                 - F.R. Mde;jd;

mwptpd; rpwg;G                 - ehtyH neLQ;nropad;

,iwikg; gz;Gfs;             - mupkjp> njd;dfd;

topghL                      - fiyQH fUzhepjp

flTs; tho;j;J> flTs; tzf;fk;  - v];. vd;. =uhk Njrpfd;

 

jkpoHfSila FiwghLfspy; xd;W tuyhWgw;wpa czHT mtHfSf;F ,y;yhJ NghdNj. gpw;fhyj;jpy; vOjpitj;j nrg;NgLfs;> fy;ntl;Lf;fs; Kiwahf> Mz;L thupahf> njhlHr;rpahf vOjpitf;fg;gltpy;iy. fhyj;ij Nkw;F ehl;ltHNghy; njhlHr;rpahf vz;zhky; Row;rpahf (mWgJ Mz;L tl;lk;) vz;zpajhy; njspTf;Fg; gjpy; Fog;ge;jhd; vQ;rpaJ.

 

rq;f fhy kd;dHfs;> GytHfs; vtuJ fhyj;ijAk; mwpjpapl;Lr; nrhy;y Kbahky; ,Uf;fpwJ. ts;Stiu vLj;Jf; nfhz;lhy; mtH fhyj;ij fp.K. Kjy; Ehw;whz;L njhlf;fk; fp.gp. ehd;fhk; Ehw;whz;Ltiu fzf;fpLfpwhHfs;. mtuJ tho;f;if tuyhW> Fwpg;ghf rkak;>  gw;wpg; Ngr Ntz;baNj ,y;iy. jkpopdj;jpd; jiyrpwe;j GytUk; cyf rpe;jidahsHfs; tupirapy; itj;Jg; ghHf;ff;$wpa mwptpay;thjpAkhd jpUts;StH fjpNa ,Jntd;why; kw;wtHfisg;gw;wpr; nrhy;y Ntz;baNj ,y;iy.  

 

 


 

jpUf;FwSk; ciuahrpupaHfSk; !

 

jpUkfs;

 

(27)

 

,e;jpahkPJ gilnaLj;J te;j kfh mnyf;rhe;jH ( fp.K. 356-323    ) jd;Dld; nkf];jPd]; vd;w tuyhw;W MrpupaidAk; cld; $l;b te;jpUe;jhd;. mjdhy; kfh myf;rhe;jH gilnaLg;Gg; gw;wpa tuyhW kl;Lk; my;yhJ ,e;jpa tuyhWgw;wpa mupa Fwpg;Gf;fSk; vkf;Ff; fpilj;Js;sd.

 

Nrhf;fpul;b];(fp.gp. 470-399)fpNuf;fj;jpd; Gfo;tha;e;j mwptpay; jj;Jt Mrhd;. mtH Ehy; vjidAk; vOjtpy;iy. Mdhy; mtH Mw;wpa nrhw;nghopTfis mtuJ khzhf;fuhd gpsl;Nlh vOj;jpy; mr;nrhl;lhf vOjpitj;jpUf;fpwhH. Nrhf;fpul;b]; eQ;RFbj;J ,wg;gjw;F Kjy; ehs; mtuJ Mg;j ez;guhhd fpwpl;Nlh mjpfhiy mtiur; rpiwapy; te;JghHf;fpwhd;.

 

rpiwapy; ,Ue;J jg;gpj;J Xb capiuf; fhg;ghw;WkhW MNyhrid $Wfpwhd;. "vdf;FtaJ vOgJ MfpwJ.  ehd;  mg;gbr; rpiwr;rhiyapy; ,Ue;J Xbj;jg;gpdhy; mJ Vjd;]; efupd; rl;lj;ij kPWtjhf ,Uf;Fk;. mjid ehd; tpUk;gtpy;iy" vdf; $wp Nrhf;fpul;b]; kWj;J tpLfpwhH. ez;gd; NtW topapd;wpg; gpupfpwhd;.

 

mg;NghJ Nrhf;fpul;b]; fpwpl;Nlhitf; $g;gpl;L "xd;iwr; nrhy;y kwe;J tpl;Nld;. vd; gf;fj;J tPl;Lf;fhudplk;  xU Nfhopf; FQ;nrhd;W fldhf thq;fpapUe;Njd;. mij kl;Lk; kwf;fhky; jpUg;gpf; nfhLj;J tpL" vd;fpwhH. ,g;gb Nrhf;fpul;brpd; tho;f;ifapy; ,lk;ngw;w rpd;d rpd;dr; rk;gtq;fisAk; gpsl;Nlh gjpT nra;J tuyhwhfj; je;jpUf;fpwhH. tuyhw;wpd; MrpupaH vd;W Nghw;wg;gl;l nfuNlhw;u]; (Herodotus) (fp.gp. 484-425) vd;gtUk; xU fpNuf;fH vd;gJ ,q;F epidT $uj;jf;fJ. mtH vOjp itj;j fpNuf;f - ghurPf ehl;bd; tuyhW vl;Lg; ghfq;fspy; njhFf;fg; gl;Ls;sJ.

 

Mdhy; jkpo; murHfs; rup> ,e;jpa kd;dHfs; rup>  ahUk; Kiwahf tuyhw;iw vOjp itf;ftpy;iy. tuyhw;Wf;Fg; gjpy; fw;gidf; fijfisAk;> Gide;JiufisAk;> Guhzf; fijfisAk;> ,uhkhazk;> ghujk; Nghd;w ,jpfhrq;fisANk GytHfSk; GuhzpfHfSk; jq;fs; fw;gidf;  Fjpiuiaj; jl;btpl;L  kdk;Nghd Nghf;fpy; vOjp itj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;.

 

,jdhy; ve;j kd;dd;> vq;Nf vg;NghJ gpwe;jhd;> mtd; rkak; vd;d? vj;jid Mz;Lfs; Ml;rpapy; ,Ue;jhd;?  vd;ndd;d NghHfspy; ahH ahiu ntd;whd;? mtdJ rkfhyj;jtH ahH? mtdJ mikr;rHfs; ahH? muritg; GytHfs; ahH?   mtd; Mz;l ehl;bd; nghUshjhu r%f epiy vd;d? fy;tp epiy vd;d? fy;tp fw;gpf;Fk; MrpupaH> khzhf;fHfsJ epiy vd;d? fw;gpf;fg;gl;l ghlq;fs; vd;d?  fkj;njhopy; vd;d epiyapy; ,Ue;jJ? ruhrup kf;fspd; tho;f;ifj; juk; vg;gb ,Ue;jJ? kf;fsJ rka ek;gpf;iffs; vt;thW ,Ue;jJ?  rka tpohf;fs; vg;gbf; nfhz;lhlg;gl;ld? vd;w Ehw;Wf; fzf;fhd Nfs;tpfSf;F tpsf;fk; mspf;Fk; tifapy; rupahd tuyhw;Wf; Fwpg;Gfis tuyhw;Wf; fz;Nzhl;lj;NjhL  jkpoHfs; vOjp itf;ftpy;iy.

 

Nkw;$wpatw;why;  jkpoH tuyhW ,Us; glHe;j tPlhfNt ,Uf;fpwJ.  rq;ffhy ,yf;fpaq;fs; kl;Lk; tuyhw;iwj; njupe;J nfhs;s xU rhuskhf mikfpwJ vd;gjy;yhky; mJNt tuyhW vdf; nfhs;s KbahJ.   kfhtk;rk; Nghy; ngupaGuhzk; rpy tuyhw;Wf; Fwpg;Gf;fis mq;fnfhd;W ,q;nfhd;whfr; nrhy;fpd;wd. Mdhy; mJ Guhzk;. Guhzk; tuyhW Mf KbahJ.  mJNghyNt fy;ntl;LfSk; nrg;NgLfSk;.  ,itnaJTk; tuyhw;Wf; fz;Nzhl;lj;NjhL vOjg;gltpy;iy.

 

NkNy kd;dHfSf;Fr; nrhd;dJ ts;sy;fs;> GytHfs; kw;Wk; VidNahUf;Fk; nghUe;Jk;. jpUts;StHgw;wpAk; jpUf;Fws;gw;wpAk; vOjpitf;fg;gl;Ls;s fijfs; 99 tpOf;fhL fw;gidNa.

 

jpUf;FwSf;F  Kjd; Kjypy; gjpd;kH ciu vOjpdhHfs;. ,tHfs; fp.gp. 11k; Ehw;whz;bypUe;J fp.gp. 13k; Ehw;whz;L fhyk;tiu tho;e;jtHfs;. ,tHfspy; ,Wjpahf ciu vOjpatH ghpNkyofH. ,tH jkpo;>  tlnkhopg; Gyik epuk;gpatH. rkaj;jhy; itztH. VLfs; mr;Rthfdk; VwhJ gidNahiyapy; vOjg;gl;l fhyj;jpy; gupNkyofH jdJ jpUf;Fws; ciuapy; 250f;Fk; Nkw;gl;l ,yf;fpa ,yf;fz Nkw;Nfhs;fisf; fhl;bAs;shH.

 

,g;gb vt;tsTjhd; gbj;Jg; Gyik ngw;W ,Ue;jhYk; ehd; Kd;dH Fwpg;gpl;lJ NghyjpUf;Fws; ciuia Muk;gpf;Fk; NghNj ciug; ghapuj;jpy; -

 

    1) mwkhtJ kD Kjypa Ehy;fspy; tpjpj;jd nra;aYk;> tpyf;fpaJ xopj;jYk; Mk;.

 

    2) xOf;fkhtJ> me;jzH Kjypa tUzj;jhH jj;jkf;F tpjpf;fg;gl;l gpukrupak; Kjypa epiyfspy; epd;W> mtw;wpw;F Xjpa mwq;fspy; tOthJ xOFjy;.

 

   3) mJjhd; ehy;tif epiyj;jha; tUze;NjhWk; NtWghL  cilikapd;> rpWghd;ikahfpa mr;rpwg;G ,ay;Gfs; xopj;J> vy;yhHf;Fk; xj;jypd; ngUk;ghd;ikahfpa nghJ ,ay;G  gw;wp. ",y;ywk;"> "Jwtwk;" vd ,Utif epiyahy; $wg;gl;lJ.

 

vd;W vOjpapUf;fpwhH (KO ciuiaAk; jpUf;Fws; gupNkyofH ciuiag; gbj;J mwpaTk;). mjhtJ mwk; vd;w nrhy;Yf;F gupNkyofH Ntjk; kw;Wk; kDjHkrhj;jpuq;fspy; nrhy;yg;gl;l "jUkk;" vd;w nghUspy; ciufhz;fpwhH. Mdhy; ts;StH nrhy;y te;j my;yJ nrhy;Yfpd;w "mwk;" NtW. Ntjk; kw;Wk; kDrhj;jpuk; nrhy;fpd;w 'jUkk;' NtW. jUkk; tUzhr;rpu jHkj;ijNa Fwpf;fpwJ.

 

,e;jg; gjpd;kUf;F Kd;dH gyH jpUf;FwSf;F ciu vOjpapUf;fyhk;. Mdhy; mit xd;Wk;  ,d;W fpilf;ftpy;iy. ,tHfSf;Fg; gpd;  Ke;Ehw;Wf;Fk; Nkw;gl;l mwpQHfs;> GytHfs; ciu vOjpAs;shHfs;. mg;gbj; jpUf;FwSf;F vOjpatHfis ehd;F tifahfg; gpupf;fyhk;.

 

    1) gupNkyofiu mg;gbNa topnkhope;J kD jHkk;> fTby;aupd; mHj;jrhj;jpuk;> tj;rhadupd; fhk#j;jpuk;> tpahrupd; gftj; fPij ,tw;wpy; nrhy;yg;gl;l fUj;Jf;fisNa ts;StH jdJ Fws; %yk; ntspf; nfhzHe;jhH vd;w itjPfr; rkaf; fz;Nzhl;lj;jpy; ciu vOjpNahH.

 

    2)  KOKjw; flTs; nfhs;ifia my;yJ ,iw ek;gpf;ifia my;yJ gw;iw Vw;Wf; nfhz;L mNj Neuk; jpUf;Fws; jdpj;jd;ik tha;e;j Ehy; itjPf> Ntj> tUzhr;rpuk> rehjd jUkj;ij rhHe;jpUf;ftpy;iy vd;w fz;Nzhl;lj;jpy; ciu vOjpNahH.   

 

    3) jpUf;Fws; jdpj;jd;ik tha;e;j Ehy;. mJ Ntj> rehjd kjj;jpw;F khwhdJ. flTs; kWg;Gf; nfhs;ifia vLj;Jiuf;Fk; Ehy; vd mwptpay; mbg;gilapy; gFj;jwpTf; fz;NzhL jpUts;StH tho;e;j r%f mbg;gilapy; jpUf;FwSf;F Gjpa fz;Nzhl;lj;jpy; ciu vOjpNahH.  

 

    4) Nkw; $wg;gl;l %d;wpy; ve;j xd;wpYk; KOJk; rhuhJ mjpy; ghjp ,jpy; ghjp vd;W fyg;glk; nra;J ciu vOjpNahH.  

 


 

 

jpUf;FwSf;Fg; gupNkyofH top ciu fz;NlhH!

 

jpUkfs;

 

(28)

 

gupNkyofiu mg;gbNa gpd;gw;wp jpUf;FwSf;F ciu vOjpNahH jpUf;Fwspy; tHzj;ijAk;> Mr;rpukj;ijAk;> kD jHkj;ijAk; type;J GFj;jpdH. jpUf;Fws; ehy; Ntjq;fs;> cgepljq;fs; $wpatw;iwNa jpUg;gp xg;Gtpg;gjhf fij nrhy;ypdH. ,jw;F ,iaa jpUts;StH Mjp vd;Dk; Giyr;rpf;Fk; gftd; vd;w gpuhkzDf;Fk; gpwe;jtH vd;w fl;Lf;fij fl;lg;gl;lJ.  jpUf;Fws; Nghd;w xU mwpT Ehiy gpuhkzd; jtpu NtW ahUk; vOjKbahJ>  Fiwe;j gl;rk; gpuhkz ,uj;jk; KOjhf ,y;yhtpl;lhYk; ghjpahtJ ,Ue;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W fhl;lNt ,e;jf; fl;Lf; fij vOe;jJ.

 

t.Nt.R. ma;aH Mq;fpyj;jpy; The Kural or the Maxims of Thiruvalluvar (1916)  vd;w Ehiy vOjpAs;shH. mjw;F vOjpa Kd;Diuapy; gpd;tUkhW nrhy;fpwhH.

 

“Tradition declares that he was the child of a Brahmin father named Bhaghavan and a Pariah mother Adi who had been brought up by another Brahmin and given in marriage to Bhaghavan. Six other children are named as the issue of this union, all of whom have dabbled in poetry.”

 

"kuGtopf; fijapd;gb jpUts;StH gfthd; vd;w gpuhkzDf;Fk;> ,d;ndhU gpuhkzdhy; tsHf;fg;gl;l Mjp vd;Dk; giwr;rpf;Fk; gpwe;jtH MthH. Mjpia tsHj;njLj;j gpuhkzNd ,e;j ,UtUf;Fk; jpUkzj;ij Kbj;Jk; itj;jhH. jpUts;StUld; ,d;Dk; MW Foe;ijfs; gftDf;Fk; - Mjpf;Fk; gpwe;jd. ,tHfs; vy;NyhUk; ghly; ghLtjpy; <Lgl;lhHfs;."

 

NkYk; t.Nt.R. ma;aH jdJ KfTiuapy; vOjpapUg;gjhtJ.

 

“Thiruvalluvar does not treat the fourth objective separately and Hindus say that he has submitted himself to the orthodox rule that none but a Brahmin should be a teacher of spiritual truth to mankind.”

 

"jpUts;StH ehd;fhtjhd tPLNgW gw;wpg; jdpahf VJk; vOjtpy;iy. fhuzk; kdpj Fyj;Jf;F Md;kPf cz;ikfisf; fw;gpg;gJ ,e;Jf;fspd; $w;Wg;gb mJ gpuhkzDf;F kl;LNk  cupa njhopy; vd;w (Ntj> itjPf) tpjpf;F mtH (jpUts;StH) jd;id fl;Lg;gLj;jpf; nfhz;lNj."

 

,g;gb Vd; t.Nt.R. ma;aH vOj Ntz;Lk;? Kd;dH ehd; Fwpg;gpl;lJ Nghy; "mwpT" xU rhjpf;F> xU tHzj;Jf;F (gpuhkzDf;F) kl;LNk nrhe;jkhdJ vd;gij tw;GWj;jNt mg;gb mtH vOjpdhH. ,Jgw;wp <.Nt.uh. ngupahH jdf;Nf cupa ghzpapy; ::jpUf;FwSk; nguahUk;" vd;w Ehypy; nrhy;ypapUg;gijf; fPNo jUfpNwd;. ngupahupd; fUj;J jkpo;ehl;Lf;F mJTk; nfhQ;rf; fhyj;Jf;F Kd;dH kl;LNk KOJk; nghUe;Jk; vd;gij epidtpy; itj;Jf; nfhz;L gbAq;fs;.

 

ek;ktd; xUtd; Gj;jprhypahf ,Ue;jhy;$l mijg; gw;wp me;jf; $l;lj;jpy; Ngrr; re;jHg;gk; vOe;jhy; mtHfs; vd;d $wpf; nfhs;thHfs; njupAkh?

 

"mtd; xU kfhGj;jprhyp  vd;gnjd;dNth cz;ikjhd;. Mdhy; mtDila gpwg;gpNyjhd; vdf;F re;Njfkhf ,Uf;fpwJ. gpuhkz tpe;J rk;ge;jk; VjhtJ ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,d;Nwy; ,t;tsT Gj;jprhypahf ,Uf;f KbahJvd;Wjhd; Ngrpf; nfhs;thHfs;."

 

,g;gb jpUts;Stupd; tuyhw;iw kl;Lk; my;y jpUf;Fws; nrhy;Yk; fUj;Jf;fSk; ghHg;gdpa fz;Nzhl;lj;NjhL jpupGgLj;jg;gl;ld.

 

jkpo;j; jhj;jh vd;W ehk; Nghw;Wk; lhf;lH c.Nt. rhkpehj IaH mtHfSf;F ey;y jkpo;g;gw;W ,Ue;jhYk; tlnkhopAk;> itjPf newpAk; "crj;jp" vd;w vz;zj;jpy; ,Ue;J mtH tpLglNt ,y;iy.

 

jpUf;Fws;gw;wpa mtuJ  fUj;ij mtH "jpUf;FwSk; jpUts;StUk;" vd;w nghUspy; nrd;id gr;irag;gd; fy;Yhupapy; Ngrpa ciuapypUe;J njupe;J nfhs;syhk;.

 

"Ntj tof;nfhL ,iae;j gy nra;jpfs; jpUf;Fwspy;  cs;sd. epj;jpa iekpj;jpa G+irfs;> ehd;F Mr;rpukk;> Itiff; fld;fs;> me;jzH KjypNahH xOf;fk;> Ntjk; Kjypatw;iwg; gw;wpa nra;jpfs; gy tiffspy; ,izf;fg;gl;L ,Uf;fpd;wd.

 

jpUkhy; cyfse;j nra;jpAk;>  jhkiuf;fz;zhd; MjYk; czHj;jg;gl;Ls;sd. jpUkfSk; mts; jt;itAk; ,izj;Jr; rpytplq;fspy; $wg;gLfpd;wdH. "jhkiuahs;" vd;W XH ,lj;jpy; jpUkfisf; Fwpf;fpd;whH. gpukNjtid 'cyfpaw;wpahd;' vd;fpwhH. ,e;jpuidg;gw;wp ,uz;L ,lq;fspy; $Wfpd;whH.

 

,k;ik> kWik> tPL vd;Dk; %d;Wk; jpUts;StUf;F cld;ghL. mtH fUj;ij Gj;NjSyfk; vd;Wk; NkYyfk; vd;Wk;> thdnkd;Wk; $WtH. Njtiu mtpAztpd; Md;Nwhnud;gH."

 

gupNkyofH RkhH VOEhW Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH tho;e;jtH. mtH jhd; tho;e;j r%fj;ijg; gpujpgypf;Fk; tz;zk; jpUf;Fwspy; Ntj rhj;jpuq;fisAk;> kDjHkj;ijAk; fz;L vOjpdhH vd;why; mtUf;Fg; gpd;te;j gbj;j "caHrhjp" ciuahrpupaHfSk; mtiug; gpd;gw;wpNa ciu vOjp tUfpwhHfs;. mjhtJ tUzhr;rpuk  itjPff; Nfhl;ghLfis epiyepWj;jNt vOjp tUfpd;wdH.

 

v];.vd;. =uhkNjrpfd; vd;gtH jkpo; Mq;fpyj; njspTiuAld; jpUf;Fwis vOjp ntspapl;bUf;fpwhH. jpUf;Fws; rkz rkaj;jtuhy; rkz kj Ehnyd;Wk;> Gj;j rkaj;jtuhy; Gj;jrka Ehnyd;Wk; thjhbdhYk; cz;ikapy; "mJ ,e;jpa fyhrhuk; vdr; nrhy;yg;gLk; itjPf fyhrhuj;ij jkpo;ehl;bf;F khj;jpukpd;wp cyf KOJk; gug;g ,e;;Ehiy ,aw;wpdhH

 

ts;StH. jd;idj; jkpod; vd;W nrhy;ypf; nfhs;tijtpl ,e;jpad; vd;W nfhs;tjpy; kpf MHtk; nfhz;bUe;jhH. rq;fg; GytHfs; jkpo; kf;fspd; tuyhW> fyhrhuk;> gz;ghL> jkpo; murHfspd; rupjk; Mfpaitfis rq;f Ehy;fspNy NgrpapUg;gJNghy ts;StH jdJ Ehypy; mitgw;wpg; gpu];jhgpf;fNt ,y;iy.  jkpo; vd;w nrhy;Nyh> Nru> Nrho ghz;baHfs; Nghd;w kd;dHfsJ ngaH tuyhW Nghd;witfNsh> jkpo; kf;fspd; gof;f tof;fq;fisNah kUe;Jf;Ff; $lf; Fwpg;gpltpy;iy." NkYk; mtH jdJ Kd;Diuapy; vOjpapUg;gjhtJ.

 

"rk];fpUj Ehy;fspy; cs;s fUj;Jf;fisNah nrhw;fisNah ts;StH rpwpjsTk; vLj;Jf; ifahstpy;iy. jkpo;f; fyhrhuj;ijNa ts;StH ,q;F $WfpwhH. jkpo;f; fyhrhuk; itjPf fyhrhuk; md;W> mJ jdpik tha;e;jJ" vdf; $WNthupd; thjj;jpy; cz;ik rpwpjsTk; ,y;iy."  

 

 


 

 

"kE Kjypa Ehy;fspy; "tpjpj;jd nra;jYk; tpyf;fpad xopj;jYkhk; vd;gJ" ts;StH cs;sk; md;W!"

 

jpUkfs;

 

(29)

 

"rk];fpUj Ehy;fspy; cs;s fUj;Jf;fisNah nrhw;fisNah ts;StH rpwpjsTk; vLj;Jf; ifahstpy;iy. jkpo;f; fyhrhuj;ijNa ts;StH ,q;F $WfpwhH. jkpo;f; fyhrhuk; itjPf fyhrhuk; md;W> mJ jdpik tha;e;jJ" vdf; $WNthupd; thjj;jpy; cz;ik rpwpjsTk; ,y;iy" vd;W =uhkNjrpfd; nrhy;ypapUg;gij Kd;dH ghHj;Njhk;. mtH vd;d nrhy;y tUfpwhH vd;why; jpUts;StH Rakhf vijAk; rpe;jpj;Jg; Gjpjhf Gul;rpfukhf vijAk; nrhy;ytpy;iy> mtH itjPf Ntj rhj;jpuq;fspy; ,Ue;jtw;iwg; gbj;J mjd; fUj;Jf;fis cs;thq;fpf; nfhz;L mtw;iwj; jpUf;Fwspy; Vw;wpr; nrhy;yp ,Uf;fpwhH vd;fpwhH. jdf;fhfr; rhl;rp nrhy;y =uhkNjrpfd; ,d;ndhU 'mwpQiu" Jizf;F miof;fpwhH.  mtH ngaH jpU.tp.MH. ,uhkre;jpu jPl;rfH.

 

"jpU.tp.MH. ,uhkre;jpu jPl;rfH mtHfs; jkJ Ehypy; ,uhkhahzk;> kfhghujk;>guhru rk;`pij> ghftjk;> upf;Ntjk; ,itfNshL mwj;Jg;ghYf;F cs;s fUj;J xw;WikfisAk;> fhkhe;jf ePjp> mHj;jrh];jpuk;> Rf;fpuePjp> Nghjhad ];kpUjp MfpaitfNshL nghUl;ghYf;F cs;s fUj;J xw;WikiaAk;> thj;];ahadhupd; fhk#j;jpuj;NjhL fhkj;Jg;ghYf;F cs;s fUj;J xw;WikiaAk; tpupthf Mjhuj;NjhL vLj;J tpsf;fp ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. ,e;Ehy; fp.gp. 6tJ Ehw;whz;by; ,aw;wg;gl;lJ vd;w Gjpa fUj;ijAk; Jzpe;J $wpapUf;fpwhH mtH.

 

mwd;> ,ay;G> xw;wH> JhjH Mfpa mjpfhuq;fs; nfsby;aupd; mHj;j rh];jpuj;ij gpd;gw;wp te;jit vd;w fUj;ijAk; itahGupg;gps;is  mtHfs; cWjpg;gLj;JfpwhH. mjpfhuq;fspd; mikg;G> mtw;wpy; cs;s Fwspd; vz;zpf;if> mjpfhu tupir Mfpaitfs; ts;StuhNyNa Muk;gj;jpy; mikf;fg;gl;ld. mjpf ghlNgjkpd;wp ,e;Ehy; ,d;Wtiu fhf;fg;gl;L te;jpUf;fpwJ. 1831 Mk; Mz;by; vy;yp]; vd;w Mq;fpNyaH Kjy; Kjyhf Fwisg; gz;bjHfspd; cjtpiaf; nfhz;L ntspapl;ldH.

 

,g;gb =uhkNjrpfd; %f;ifg; gpbf;fj; jiyiar; Rw;wpf; nfhz;L nrhy;y tUtJ vd;d? my;yJ nrhy;ypapUg;gJ vd;d?

 

    1) jpUf;Fws; Kjy; Ehyy;y. mJ Vida tlnkhop Ehy;fisg; gpd;gw;wp mtw;wpy; $wg;gl;l fUj;Jf;fisj; jpUb cUthf;fg;gl;l topEhy;.

 

    2) jpUts;StH xU itjPf rkaj;jtH. "kD rhj;jpuk; Kjypa Ehy;fspy; tpjpj;jd nra;Jk; tpyf;fpad xopj;Jk;" Ehy; nra;jtH.

 

    3) jpUf;Fws; goikahd Ehyy;y. rq;fk; kUtpa ,yf;fpak; my;y. mJ fp.gp. 6tJ Ehw;whz;by; tho;e;j xUtuhy; (jpUehTf;furH> jpUQhdrk;ge;jH ,tHfSf;F rw;W Kd;duhf) ,aw;wg;gl;lJ.  

 

=uhkNjrpfdpd; fUj;ij> mjhtJ jpUf;Fws; Kjy; Ehyy;y mJ topEhy;> ,d;ndhU ghHg;gd vOj;jhsuhd R[jh jhd; vOjpa jpUf;Fws; ciuEhypy; topnkhope;jpUf;fpwhH. vg;gb?

 

"mHj;j rh];jpuk;> kD> fhk#j;jpuk; ,itfisAk; gy gioa Ehy;fisAk; ( ts;StH) gbe;jwpe;jtH. Nfs;tp Nfl;fhky; mtUf;F lhf;lH gl;lk; nfhLf;fyhk;. Nfl;gjpYk;> gbg;gjpYk; tpUg;gKs;stH."

 

,g;gbr; nrhy;yptpl;lhYk; R[jhtpdhy; $lj; jpUts;StuJ jdpj jd;ikfis Kw;whhf kiwf;fNth kWf;fNth Kbatpy;iy. mtH NkYk; $wpapUg;gjhtJ.

 

"rhjpg;gpuptpy; ek;gpf;if ,y;yhjtH. xOf;fk;jhd; Kf;fpak; vd ek;GgtH. mfpk;iria tpUk;GgtH. ey;y ez;gH. gioa ez;gHfis tpl;Lf; nfhLf;fhjtH. Vio> cwtpdiug; NgZgtH. #jhl;lj;ij ntWg;gtH. vd;d rk;ghjpj;jhYk; nfhLj;J tpLgtH. rhg;ghl;by; msthf ,Ug;gtH. ey;y ,y;yw tho;f;if elj;jpatH. ,Ue;jhYk; gy tp\aq;fspy; kidtp Ngr;irf; Nfl;fhjtH. epr;rak; fhjy; nra;jtH. ClYk; cz;L. Kf;fpakhd muR mjpfhupahf ,Ue;jtH. Foe;ijNahL nfhQ;rp mtHfs; ,iwj;j $ior; Ritj;Jg; ghHj;jtH. koiyapy; jd;id kwe;jtH. rq;fPjj;jpy; tpUg;gKs;stH. me;jzNuh itjpfNuh ,y;iy.

 

,t;thW gy Fzhjpraq;fs; FwspypUe;Nj njupa tUfpd;wd. ,e;j tpe;ij kdpjH Vwj;jho Mapuj;J vz;ZhW Mz;Lfs; jhz;b ,d;Dk; ek;Kld; ifFYf;FfpwhH."

 

jpUf;FwSf;F gupNkyofH nra;j ciugw;wp R[jh vd;d epidf;fpwhH? mijAk; ghHj;JtpLNthk;.

 

"gupNkyofupd; tlnkhop Ehy; rhHe;j ghHitiaf; fLikahf tpkHrpg;gtHfs; ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. gupNkyofupd; tlnkhopapd; Mjpf;fk; kpf mjpfkhf ,Ue;j me;jf; fhyj;jpy; tlnkhop Ehy;fshd mHj;jrh];jpuk;> jk;kgjk; Nghd;witfis kpQ;rf;$ba xU Ehy; jkpopYk; ,Uf;fpwJ vd;W fhl;Lk; MHtk;jhd; mtiur; nrYj;jpapUf;f Ntz;Lk;. mtUf;F cs;Nehf;fq;fs; fw;gpg;gJ mtH fhyr; r%fj;ij KOtJk; MuhahJ nra;Ak; jtW vd;Wjhd; Njhd;WfpwJ."

 

R[hjhtpd; ,e;jf; fUj;ij jpU.f. jpUehTf;fuR jhd; vOjpa "jpUf;FwSk; jpuhtplH ,af;fKk;" vd;w Ehypy; gpd;tUkhW kWj;Jiuf;fpwhH.

 

"Vw;fdNt eilKiwapy; Vw;Wf; nfhz;bUf;fpw 'ghHg;gdpa mwpthspfs;' epHkhzpj;j r%f mikg;gpd; topjhd; gupNkyofH jpUf;FwSf;F ciu vOjpapUf;fpwhH.

 

gupNkyofupd; ciuapy; gy Ez;ikahd ,lq;fis Vw;Wf; nfhs;fpw 'mwpTthjpfs;' - ehk;> tUzhr;rpuk> rehjd jUk rhuKs;sij Vw;Wf; nfhs;s kWf;fpNwhk;. mjw;Fj; jf;fgb 'kD Kjypa Ehy;fspy; tpjpj;jd nra;jYk; tpyf;fpad xopj;jYkhk; vd;gJ" ts;StH cs;sk; md;W vd;Nw nrhy;ytUfpNwhk;.

 

mHj;j rhj;jpuk;> jk;kgjk; Nghd;w Ehy;fspy; cs;sijtpl "jkpopYk; ,Uf;fpwJ" vd;W fhl;lf;$ba MHtk; gupNkyofUf;F ,Ug;gjhf R[hjh $WtJ rupahfhJ.

 

"cs;Nehf;fq;fs;" gupNkyofH kPJ ahUk; fw;gpf;ftpy;iy. r%f mLf;fpd; Nkyhz;ikapy; Kjy; epiyapy; ,Ue;j mwpthsHfs; $l;lj;ijr; NrHe;jtHfspy; xUtuhd gupNkyofH   Vw;fdNt cUthf;fp ,aq;fp te;j r%ff; fl;Lkhdj;ij NkYk; nfl;bg;gLj;jNt ciu vOjpapUf;fpwhH. mJ mtuJ Fw;wkhff;$l ,y;yhky; ,Uf;fyhk;. Mdhy;> ,Jtd;W 'ts;StH cs;sk;" vd;Nw ehk; $WfpNwhk;."

 

,g;gb jpUts;StH mwk;> nghUs;> ,d;gk; vd;w Kg;ghypYk; vOjpapUg;gJ kD> jk;kgjk;> mHj;jrhj;jpuk;> fhk#j;jpuk; Nghd;w tlnkhop Ehy;fspy; gbj;jtw;iw itj;Jj;jhd;> mtw;wpd; mbg;gilapy;jhd; vd;gij kiwkiy mbfshH kWj;J jdJ "jpUf;Fws; Muha;r;rp" vd;w Ehypy;  vOjpapUf;fpwhH.   

 

 


 

 

xUFyj;Jf;nfhU ePjp nrhy;Yk; "jUk rhj;jpuq;fs;"!

 

jpUkfs;

 

30

 

"mwg;nghUs; Njw;wg; Nghe;j tlEhy; jkpo;Ehy; vy;yhtw;iwak; xUq;nfLj;J xU jl;by; itj;J epWj;Jg; ghHg;gpd; mg;NghJk; ,J nghiw kpfTlikahy; fPo;j;jhOkd;Nwh! tlnkhop kpUjp Ehy;fs; vy;yhk; xNunahU rhjpahHf;Nf cupa fUk Kiwfis tFj;Jf;$wp tpjth epw;Fk;. mtw;wpd;fl; nrhy;yg;gl;l newpfis kw;wr;rhjpahH jOTtjw;F xUg;glhH. glhuhfNt Vida ngUk;ghyhHf;F mit gag;gJ rpwpJkpd;whnkd;gJgl;L me;Ehw; ngUikfisnay;yhk; rpw;wstpdtha; xLq;Fnkd;gJ kw;wj; jpUf;Fwnsd;Dk; ,r; nrk;nghUZhNyh vy;yhr; rhjpahHf;Fk; vy;yhr; rkaj;jhHf;Fk; ,d;wpikahJ  Ntz;lg;gLk; mwnewpfis ed;F tFj;Jiuj;jypw; gad; ngupJiljhk;."

 

kiwkiy  mbfshH fLikahd jkpo;eilapy;  nkhope;jij vspjhf;fpr; nrhd;dhy; tlnkhop kpUjp Ehy;fs; xU rhjpf;F xU ePjp nrhy;git> jpUf;FwNsh vy;yhr; rhjpahHf;Fk;> vy;yhr; rkaj;jhHf;Fk; Ntz;lg;gLk; mwnewpfis tFj;Jiuf;fpw nghJkiw. vy;yh tlEhy;fis xU jl;bYk; jpUf;Fwis kl;Lk; kW jl;bYk; itj;J epWj;Jg;  ghHj;jhy; mg;NghJk; jpUf;Fws; jhq;fpa gf;fNk jhOk;. kiwkiy mbfs; NkYk; $wpapUg;gjhtJ.

 

",dp> tlnkhopapw; NghjhazH> Mgj;jk;gH> nfsjkH> trpl;lH> kD KjyhapNdhH vOjpa kpUjp Ehy;fNshL ,J jd;id xg;gitj;J Muha;e;J ghHf;Fq;fhy; ,j; jpUf;Fws; khl;rp ed;F tpsq;Fkhfypd; jhypGyheak;gw;wp Mz;lhz;L xUrpy mq;qdk; vLj;Jf;fhl;LJk;.

 

gpuhkzd; xUtd; kw;iwnahU gpuhkzd; nghUisf; ftHe;jhdhapDk;> md;wp atidf;nfhd;wdhapDk;> jd; FUtpd; kidtpiag; gw;wpdhdhapDk;> fs; mUe;jpdhdhapDk; murd; mtd; new;wpapw; fha;r;rpa ,Uk;ghy; Kj;jpiuapl;L mtid Ciutpl;Lj; Juj;jy; Ntz;Lk; vdTk; gpuhkzupDe; jho;e;j rhjpahd; xUtd; mf;Fw;wq;fspy; xd;iwg; gpuhkzd; khl;Lr; nra;thdhapd;> mtdJ capH thq;fp xWj;jNyhL mtd; nghUisAq; nfhs;isapLjy; Ntz;Lnkdg; Nghjhaduhy; xd;W Fwpf;fg;gl;lJ (ngsjhadk; 1-10> 18> 19).

 

"gUthapy;iyNa! Fw;wk; nra;jtd; gpuhkzd; vd;whYk; mtid murd; jz;bf;f Ntz;Lk;  vd;W nrhy;tJ epahae;jhNd! ,jpnyq;Nf xU rhjpf;nfhU ePjp ,Uf;fpwJ" vd;W ePq;fs; vz;zf;$Lk;. nfhQ;rk; nghWq;fs;. kPjpiaAk; gbj;Jtpl;L mg;Gwk; jPHg;Gf; $Wq;fs;.

 

"gpuhkzupDe; jho;e;j rhjpahd; xUtd; mf; Fw;wq;fspy; xd;iwg; gpuhkzd;khl;Lr; nra;thdhapd;> mtdJ capH thq;fp xWj;jNyhL mtd; nghUisAq; nfhs;isapLjy; Ntz;Lnkdg; Nghjhadhuhy; xd;W Fwpf;fg;gl;lJ (Mgj;jk;gk; 2>10>27). gpuhkzH Kjyhd %d;W rhjpahupy; xUtd; #j;jpug; ngz; xUj;jpAld; $Lthdhapd; mtd; Cupdpd;We; Juj;jg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk;.

 

#j;jpud; xUtd; Vid %d;Wrhjpg; ngz;fSld; $Lthdhapd; mtDapiug; Nghf;Fjy; Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; Mgj;jk;guhy; xd;W Fwpf;fg;gl;lJ. ,d;DQ; #j;jpud; xUtd; jd;dpd; Nkw;Fyj;jhid tir $Wthdhapd;  mtd; ehtpid mWj;jy; Ntz;Lk; vdTk;> mtd; rkepiyaila tpUk;gpd; mtd; KJfpy; firahybf;f Ntz;Lk; vdTk;> mtuhy; kw;nwhd;W Fwpf;fg;gl;lJ.

 

,d;DQ; #j;jpud; xUtd;  gpuhkzH XJk; NtjTiufisf; Nfl;gdhapd; mtd; fhjpy; <aj;ij cUf;fp cFj;jy; Ntz;Lnkd;Wk; mtd; mtw;iw nkhope;jpLtdhapd; mtd; ehit mupjy; Ntz;Lnkd;Wk;> mtd; mt; NtjTiufis epidtpy; mikg;gdhapd; mtd; clk;ig ,uz;L $whfg; gpse;J nfhy;Yjy; Ntz;Lnkd;Wk; nfsjkuhy; xU fl;lis ,lg;gl;lJ (nfsjkH> 12).

 

kDntd;gtuhw; Fwpf;fg;gl;lit ,d;Dq; nfhLikahf ,Uf;fpd;wd. gpuhkzd; rj;jpupaid itjhdhapd; Ig;gJ gzk; ,iw ,Wj;jy; Ntz;Lk;> itjpaidahapd; ,Ugj;ije;J gzKk;> #j;jpuidahapd; gd;dpuz;L gzKk; ,Wj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. #j;jpud; gpuhkzidg; Gwk;gopj;jhNdy; mtd; ehit mWg;gJld; gj;jq;FyePsKila ,Uk;ghzpiag; gOf;ff;fha;r;rp mtd; thapDs;; Eiog;gpj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. ,d;De; jho;e;j rhjpapw; gpwe;jtd; Nkw;Fyj;NjhDf;F ve;j cWg;gpdhy; jPq;fpiof;fpd;whNdh me;j cWg;ig ntl;bnawpjy; Ntz;Lk; vd;gd gpwTkhk;.

 

,g;gbNa tlnkhop kpUjpEhy; vOjpd MupaH jk;kpd; Ntwhd kw;iwr;rhjpahHfis vy;yhk; epuk;gf; nfhLikahf elj;Jtjw;F Ntz;Ltdnty;yhk; jhk; Ntz;bathNw vOjpitj;jdH.

 

,tH vOjpa ,e; Ehy;fisj; "jUk rhj;jpuq;fs;" vd;W ciug;gpd; mwf;flTs; ehzpj; jiyftpO nkd;gJ nrhy;yTk; Ntz;LNkh! eLepiy jpwk;ghJ Kiwnra;Ak; Nte;jH vtUk; ,t;tjUk rhj;jpuq;fis  Nkw;Nfhshff; nfhz;L kiw nra;a xUg;gLtNuh? mwpTilaPH $Wkpd;!"

 

Mdhy; kDrhj;jpuk; cl;gl ,t;tjUk rhj;jpuq;fis Nkw;Nfhs;fhl;bj;jhd; gupNkyofH jpUf;FwSf;F ciu nra;Js;shH.

 

"'kD Kjypa Ehy;fspy; "tpjpj;jd nra;jYk; tpyf;fpad xopj;jYkhk;. m/J xOf;fk;> tof;F> jz;lk; vd %tifg;gLk;.

 

mtw;Ws; xOf;fkhtJ me;jzH Kjypa tUzj;jhH> jj;jkf;F tpjpf;fg;gl;l gpukrupak; Kjypa epiyfspy; epd;W> mtw;wpw;F Xjpa mwq;fspy; tOthJ xOFjy;.

 

tof;fhtJ> xU nghUis jdpj;jdpNa "vdJ vdJ" vd;W ,Ug;ghH. mJ fhuzkhfj; jk;Ks; khWgl;L mg;nghUs; Nky; nry;tJ. mJ 'fld; Nfhly;" Kjy; gjpndl;Lg; gjj;jJ Mk;.

 

jz;lkhtJ> mwnthOf;f newpapDk; tof;F newpapDk;  toP,apdhiu> mwnewp epWj;Jjw; nghUl;L> xg;g ehb> mjw;Fj; jf xWj;jy;."

 

,t;thW gupNkyofH mwj;Jg;ghYf;F nra;j  ciug;ghapuj;jpy; kiwkiy mbfshH Fwpg;gpl;Ls;shH. jpUf;FwSf;F vOjpa ciuapy; 250f;Fk; Nkyhd  ,yf;fpa Nkw;Nfhs;fisf; fhl;br; rpwg;ghfr; nra;jpUe;jhYk; jpUts;Stupd; cs;sj;ij> mtuJ ikaf; Nfhl;ghLfis jpupj;J gupNkyofH ciu vOjptpl;lhH vd;gNj kiwkiy mbfs; Nghd;w  jkpowpQHfs; gyH mtHkPJ Rkj;Jk; Fw;wr;rhl;lhFk;. kiwkiy mbfshH njd;nkhopNghy tlnkhopAk; fw;Wj; NjwpatH. tlnkhop Ehy;fis tlnkhopapy; gbj;J mwpe;jtH. (tsUk;)

 


 

Fb> Fy> ghy;  NtWghbd;wp  vy;NyhHf;Fk; fy;tp  vd;gNj goe;jkpoH nfhs;if!

 

(31)

 

kiwkiy mbfshH NkYk; $wpapUg;gjhtJ.

 

",iwtdhw; gilf;fg;gl;l MwwpTila kf;fl;nlhFjpapy; vtH ngupaH? vtH rpwpaH? gpwTapHfis tUj;Jjd; Kjyhd jPf;FzKilNahNu rpwpanudTk;> vy;yh TapHfz;khl;Lk; mUs;fdpe;J mtw;iw md;gha;g; ghJfhg;ghNu ngupanudTk; md;Nw cyfk; cWjpAiu $whepw;fpd;wJ. ,q;qdk; ,t;Tyfk; xUq;F xg;gpa cWjpAiuapidj; njupe;J tpsf;fpa rhd;NwhH vk;ngUe;jifahsuhd nja;tg; Gyikj; jpUts;Stuy;yNuh! mtH>

 

"gpwg;nghf;Fk; vy;yh TapHf;Fk; rpwg;nght;th

nra;njhopy; Ntw;Wikahy;"

 

vd;W Xjp>

 

"me;jzH vd;NghH mwNthH kw;nwt;TapHf;Fk;

 nre;jz;ik G+z;nlhOf yhd;"

 

vd;Dk; nka;Aiuahy; me;jzH vd;Dk; nrhy; capHf;fz;khl;L cz;ikaUs; xOf;fKilahH  Nkw;wd;wp VidNahHf;F nry;yhnjd;gJ ed;F typAWj;jpdhH. xUtHf;F caHr;rp gpwg;gpdhy; tUtjd;W. m/J mtd; xOf;fj;jpdhNyNa tug;ghyjhk;.

 

kD rhj;jpuq;fs; Nghd;wit fy;tp fw;Fk; cupik xU Fyj;Jf;F kl;Lk; cz;L vd etpYk;NghJ jpUf;FwNsh fy;tpr; nry;tk; ngwf; fpilj;NjhNu fz;ZilaH. VidNahH Kfj;Nj Gz; ,uz;LilaH vd;fpd;wJ.

 

fz;Zila nud;gtH fw;NwhH Kfj;jpuz;L

Gz;ZilaH fy;yh jtH.                     (Fws; 393)

 

NkYk;.

 

tpyq;nfhL kf;fs; midaH ,yq;FEhy;

fw;whNuhL Vid atH.                      (Fws; 410)

  

vd;W jpUf;Fws; nrg;GfpwJ. ,jid vLj;Jf;fhl;Lk; kiwkiy mbfshH ",tw;whw; fy;tp mwpntd;gJ vg;ghyhHf;Fk; ,d;wpaikahJ Ntz;lg;gLk; cw;w ew;WizNaahf> mJ jd;idg; gpuhkzHf;F khj;jpuk; tiue;J nrhy;yp VidNahH mJ ngw KaypDk; mtiu xWj;J tUj;Jf vd;W $wpa kpUjp Ehy;fs; vd;d gaDilathk;? fy;tpapd; khl;rpAzHe;j ghz;b Nte;jd; Mupag;gil fle;j neLQ;nropad; ghba ghlnyhd;W GwehDhw;wpy; cs;sJ. me;jg; ghly; ,J:

 

cw;Wop cjtpAk; cWnghUs; nfhLj;Jk;

gpw;iwepiy KdpahJ fw;wy; ed;Nw

gpwg;G XH md;d cld; tapw;W cs;Sk;

rpwg;gpd; ghyhy; jhAk;kdk; jpupAk;

xUFbg; gpwe;j gy;Nyh Us;Sk;

%j;Njhd; tUf vd;dhJ mtUs;

mwpTilNahd; MW muRk; nry;Yk;

Ntw;Wik njupe;j ehw;ghy; cs;Sk;

fPo;g;ghy; xUtd; fw;gpd;

Nkw;ghy; xUtDk; mtd;fl; gLNk                 (Gwk; 183)

 

jd;dhrupaDf;F NfL te;jNghJ mijj; jPHj;jw;F mtH NfshkNyNa   cte;J cjtpAk;> ngUQ; nghUisf; nfhz;L nrd;W nfhLj;Jk; mtiu ntwhJ cupa Kiwapy; topgl;Lf; fy;tp fw;wNy rpwg;igj; jUtjhFk;. ,t;thW tUe;jp vjw;fhff; fy;tp fw;f Ntz;Lk; vd;why;? xU jhapd; tapw;wpy; gpwe;jtHfspYk; fy;tpapd; rpwg;Gf; fUjp me;jj; jhapd; kdKk; NtWgLk;. xU Fbapw; gpwe;j gy;NyhUs;Sk; tajpy; %j;Njhid 'tUf" vd;W mioahJ> mtHfSs; mwpTilNahd; ahnud;W njupe;Nj murDk; tuNtw;Wr; rpwg;gpg;ghd;. Ntw;Wikg;gl;l ehd;Ftiff; Fyj;Js;Sk; fPo;f; Fyj;jpYs;s xUtd;> fy;tp Nfs;tpapy; ty;ytdhapd;> Nkw; Fyj;jpYs;std; $l mtd; fy;tpj; jifik fUjp mtidg; Nghw;wp epw;ghd;.

 

,e;jg; ghlypy; ehw;ghy; gw;wpg; Ngrg;gLtJ ftdpf;fj;jf;fJ. ,e;j ehw;ghy; vd;gJ> ghHg;ghH> murH> tzpfH> NtshsH vd;w ehy;tif tlMupag; gFg;GKiw MFk;. ,e;jg; gFg;GKiw jkpof kf;fspilNa eilKiwapy;  vd;Wk; ,Ue;jjpy;iy. ,d;Wk; ,y;iy. tlthupa Ehy;fis mbg;gilahff; nfhz;l ",e;J rl;lk;" (Hindu Law) vd;w rl;lj;jpy; kl;Lk; ,Uf;fpwJ. NtshsH fPo;tFg;ghuhapd; mtHf;Fupa coTj; njhopiy jpUts;StH Nghd;w rhd;NwhHfs; caHj;jpf; fhl;bapUf;fkhl;lhHfs;. ,e;j tl Mupa ehw;ghy; gpupTgw;wpa Nfhl;ghL rq;f fhyj;jpNyNa fhy;nfhz;L tpl;lJ. Mdhy; jiynfhs;stpy;iy. fy;tp mwpT ehw;ghyhUf;Fk; nghJthjypd;> mwpQid mJ fl;Lg;gLj;jh vd;wjw;F "fPo;g;ghy; xUtd; fw;gpd; Nkw;ghy;nyhUtDk; mtd;fl; gLNk" vd;W ghz;bad; neLQ;nropad; $WtJ <d;W ftdpf;fj;jf;fJ.

 

"gz;ilj; jkpo; Ehy;fspy; jkpo;f; fUj;Jf;fs; gythfTk; Mupaf; fUj;Jf;fs; rpythfTk; ,Ue;jJ. "jkpo;f; fUj;Jf;fNs epiwe;jpUe;j ,yf;fzq;fSk; ,yf;fpaq;fSk; Fwpf;nfhz;L Njbaopf;fg;gl;ld. tlthupaf; fUj;Jf;fs; rpythfthapDk; cila goe;jkpo; Ehy;fNs csthapd. ,g;NghJs;s rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fs; Ehw;Wf;F %d;W tpOf;fhNlDk; tlthupaf; fUj;Jf;fs; cilathupUj;jyhw;whd; epiy NgW ngw;wd" vd irtrpj;jhe;j Ehw;gjpg;Gf; fofj;jhy; gjpf;fg;gl;l GwehDhw;Wf;F rpj;jhe;j fyhepjp xsit R. Jiurhkpg; gps;is mtHfs; vOjpa tpsf;fTiu Fwpf;fpd;wJ.

 

rq;f fhyj;jpy; njhopy; NtWghbd;wp> FbNtWghbd;wp> FyNtWghbd;wp> Mz;ghyhH ngz;ghyhH vd;w ghy; NtWghbd;wp  fy;tp vy;NyhUf;Fk; cupajhf ,Ue;jpUf;fpwJ vd;gjw;F Vuhskhd rhd;Wfs; ,yf;fpaj;jpy;,Uf;fpd;wd. rq;fg; ghly;fs; ghba GytHfis vLj;Jf; nfhz;lhNyNa ,e;j cz;ik vspjpy; Gyg;gLk;.

 

'GytH' vd;w nrhy;Yf;Fg; nghUs; mwpTilNahH vd;gJ. Gyk; vd;why; mwpT. ,e;jg; GytHfs; ey;ypirg; Gytnud;Wk; rhd;Nwhnud;Wk; (rhd;NwhH - gy Fzq;fshYk; epiwe;jtH)miof;fg;gLtH. rhd;Nwhupd; eykhtJ mtuJ FzeyNk.

 

md;G ehz; xg;GuT fz;Nzhl;lk; tha;iknahL

Ie;Jrhy;G Cd;wpa Jhz;.                 (Fws; 983)

 

md;G - Rw;wj;jhH NkNyad;wp gpwHNkYk; csjha md;Gk;> ehz; - gopghtq;fSf;F ntl;fg; gLjy;> xg;GuT - cyfeilapid mwpe;J nra;jy;> fz;Nzhl;lk; - gioahH Nky; ,uq;Fjy;> tha;iknahL - vQ;Qhd;Wk; cz;ik ciuj;jy;> rhy;G- jFjp vd;Dk; ghuj;ijj; jhq;fpa Jhz;fs; Ie;J.    

 

 


 

  

 

rq;f fhyj;jpy; vy;NyhUk; vy;yhf; fy;tpAk; va;jp tho;e;jdH!

 

(32)

 

jkpoupd; nghw;fhyk;  vd vy;NyhuhYk; Nghw;wg;gLk; rq;f fhyj;jpy; fy;tp vy;NyhUf;Fk; nghJthf ,Ue;jJ. xU Fyj;Jf;Fupajhf kl;Lk; fy;tp ,Uf;ftpy;iy. gpw;fhyj;jpy; r%fg; gbf;fl;by; kpfTk; fPNo js;sg;gl;l FatH Fyj;jpy; GytHfs;> mJTk; ngz;ghw; GytHfs; ,Ue;jpUf;fpwhHfs; vd;gijg; ghHf;Fk;NghJ kpfTk; tpag;ghf ,Uf;fpwJ.

 

"rq;f fhyj;Jg; GytHfs; xU fhyj;jpuy;yH> xU Njaj;jhuy;yH> xU 'rhjpahuy;yH'> xU Fyj; jhH my;yH> xU njhopypduy;yH> xU kjj;jpduy;yH> jkpo; ehl;by; Kjypy; jhk; ,Ue;j ,lj;jpNyNa ,Ue;J mq;Fs;s ngupNahuplk; KiwNa Ehy;fisf;fw;W mg;ghy; kJiuf;F te;J>

 

nghd;Dk; JfpUk; Kj;Jk; kd;dpa

khkiy gae;j fhkU kzpAk;

,ilglr; Nra MapDk; njhilGzHe;J

mUtpiy ed;fyk; mikf;Fk; fhiy

xUtopj; Njhd;wpahq;F vd;Wk; rhd;NwhH

rhd;NwhH ghyH Ma

rhyhH rhyhH MFgtNt"                     (Gwk; 218)

 

nghd;Dk; gtsKk; Kj;Jk; kzpAk;  Mf ,it xt;nthU ,lj;jpNy gpwf;fpwJ. ,itfs; vy;yhtw;iwAk; ,izj;J> ey;y mzp nra;ag;gLk;NghJ ,ize;J ngUk; moifj; jUk; ,ay;igf; nfhz;ld. ,ijg;Nghy mwpT rhd;NwhH vg;NghJNk rhd;NwhH gf;fNk NrHe;J epw;gH. rhy;G mw;wtHfNsh jk;ikg; Nghd;w rhy;G mw;wtHfSld; NrHe;J epw;gH.

 

GytHfSk; GytHfNshL el;Gw;W mstshtp Ehy;fis Ma;e;J jhKk; ey;ypirg; GytHfshfpj; jj;jk;kplk; nrd;whHfs;.

 

md;iwa GytHfs; kUj;Jtk;> fzpjk;> rpw;gk;> ,ir>  $ythzpfk; Kjypa gy fiyfspy; jj;jkf;F ,ad;wstpy; ey;y gapw;rpAs;stHfhf ,Ue;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. nghUs; <l;lj;ijf; fUjp kl;Lk; fw;wtHfs; my;yntd;Wk; jhq;fs; tho;tjw;Fupa njhopy; ngUk;ghNyhHf;F ,Ue;jnjd;Wk; rq;fg; ghly;fspy; ,Ue;J njupatUfpwJ.

 

nra;As; ,aw;Wtjpy; ,tHfSf;F ahnjhU ,lHg;ghLk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. nra;As;fs; vOj;jstpw; RUq;fp nghUs; mstpy; tpupe;J ,Uj;jiyg; guf;ff; fhzyhk; vd;W jkpo;j;jhj;jh c.Nt> rhkpehijaH Fwpg;gpLfpwhH (rq;fj;jkpOk; gpw;fhyj; jkpOk;).

 

,tHfs; ghba ghly;fspy; tlnrhw;fyg;G kpff; Fiwthf ,Ue;jJ. Mdp. fytk;> NfhtyH> Nkij> jpir> kzp>  thjp Kjypa tlnrhw;fNs fhzg;gLfpwJ.

 

njhy;fhg;gpaH ,aw;wpa njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpy; vOj;jjpfhuj;jpy; 483 Ehw;ghf;fs; ( 991 mbfs;) cz;L. ,jpy; xU nrhy;jhDk; tlnrhy; ,y;iy.

 

nrhy;yjpfhuk; 463 Ehw;ghf;fspy; 1056 mbfshy; mike;jJ. ,e;j mjpfhuj;jpYk; tlnrhy; xd;WjhDk; ,y;iy.

 

nghUs; mjpfhuj;jpy; 664 Ehw;ghf;fspy; 1967 mbfshy; ,ay;fpd;wJ. ,e;j mjpfhuj;jpy; kl;Lk; tpuy; tpl;L vz;zf;$ba  tlnrhw;fs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. mJTk; kugpaypy;jhd; ngUk;ghd;ik ,lk;ngw;Ws;sd. ,jw;Ff; fhuzk; kugpaypy; fhzg;Lk; ,ilr; nrUfy;> filr; nrUfy;> kw;Wk; cUj;jpupjy; MFk;.

 

gpw;fhyj;jpy;jhd; tlnrhw;fs; ngUksT jkpopy; Vwpd. mjd; cr;rf;fl;lkhf itzt Ntjkhd ehyhapu jpt;ag;gpuge;jj;jpw;F ,uhkDrH Nghd;NwhH vOjpa ciu kzpg;gpuths eilapy;  mike;jJ.

 

rq;fg; GytHfspy; mtHfs; nra;j njhopyhw; ngaH ngw;NwhH gyH ,Ue;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. ghiyghba ngUq;fLq;Nfh (Nrud;)> Nfhg;ngUQ; Nrhod;> Xy;iyA+H je;j G+jg;ghz;bad;> jiyahdq;fhdj;J nrUntd;w ghz;bad; neLQ;nropad;> Mupag;gil fle;j neLQ;nropad;> ghz;bad; mwpTilek;gp> Nfhg;ngUk;ngz;L> G+jghz;bad; NjtpahH> ghupkfspH> Mjpke;jpahH>  jkpourH murpaH MtH.

 

ciwA+H Vzpr;Nrup KlNkhrpahH> kJiuf; fzf;fhaH> kJiuf; fzf;fhaH kfd; ef;fPudhH> ngUq;Fd;WhHg; ngUq; nfsrpfdhH> fbaYhH cUj;jpuq;fz;zdhH> nfsjkdhH> fgpyH> Ntk;gj;JhHf; FkudhH KjypNahH me;jzH.

 

mk;gHfpohd; ehfH> ty;yq;fpshd; khwd;> muprpy;fpohH> MT+Hf;fpohH> ey;yhT+Hf;fpohH> nehr;rpepakq;fpohH MfpNahH cotHfs;.

 

fhtpupg;G+k;gl;bdj;J fhupf;fz;zdhH> kJiu mWitthzpfd; ,sNtl;ldhH> kJiuf; $ythzpfd; rPj;jiyr; rhj;jdhH KjypNahH tzpfHfs;.

 

gpj;jhkj;jH> ey;yr;RjdhH> fz;zfdhH>  jkp;o;f;$j;jdhH> KJ$j;jdhH Nghd;wtHfs; ghzHfs;. kUj;Jtd; jhNkhjudhH> kUj;Jtd; ey;yr;RjdhH KjypNahH kUj;JtHfs;. fzpad; G+q;Fd;wd;> fzpNkjhtpahH fzpj MrpupaHfs;.

 

fhf;ifghbdpahH> nghd;KbahH> ntz;zpf;Faj;jpahH> xsitahH Nghd;NwhH ngz;ghw; GytHfs; MtH>

 

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Mupa jHkj;ijAk;> kDjHk rhj;jpuj;ijAk; xg;Gf;nfhz;l jkpoHfspilNa nghJf; fy;tp tw;GWj;jg;gltpy;iy. ngz; fy;tp tw;GWj;jg; gltpy;iy. fy;tpia mf;fhy Ntjg; gpuhkzHfSf;F kl;LNk ,d;Wk; jkpoHfs; jiyNky; itj;Jf; nfhz;lhLk; ehy;Ntjq;fSk; kDjHk rhj;jpuKk; xJf;fpapUe;jJ."