fhye;NjhWk; jkpo;

(1)

(jpUkfs;)

jkpo; nkhopapd; rpwg;ig tupirg; gLj;JgtHfs; mjid nre;jkpo;> ige;jkpo;> jPe;jkpo;> G+e;jkpo;> Kj;jkpo;> tz;lkpo;> jz;lkpo;> xz;lkpo;> mUe;jkpo;> ,Ue;jkpo;> Qhdj;jkpo;> rq;fkypjkpo;> fd;dpj;jkpo;> njd;jkpo;> nja;tj;jkpo;> rq;fj;jkpo;> vd;nwy;yhk; mLf;fpf; fhl;LthHfs;. ,d;Dk; xUgb NkNy nrd;W jkpio fd;dpj;jkpo; vd;W caHthf Vw;wpg; Nghw;WgtHfSk; ,Uf;fpwhHfs;.

mz;ikapy; 'jkpo;nkhopapd; vjpHfhyk;' gw;wp ele;j Ma;tuq;nfhd;wpy; nghopthw;wpa MrpupaH rpd;idah rptNerd; jkpopd; njhd;ik> ,dpik> ePHikia jpiuapy; xspg;glq;fs; %yk; tpsf;fpf; fhl;bdhH. ,dpikia tpsf;f "Njd;" vd;w tpFjpapy; KbAk; ,Ugjw;Fk; Nkyhd nrhw;fshy; Mfpa ghly; xd;iwAk; Nghl;Lf; fhl;bdhH. ftpQH fz;zjhrDk; ,g;gbj; Njd; vd;w tpFjpia itj;J jpiug;ghly;fspy; nrhw;rpyk;gk; MbapUf;fpwhH. ghtkd;dpg;gpy; tUk; ""vd; mj;jhd;.. vd;idj;jhd;... ifiaj;jhd;... nky;yj;jhd;..""mjw;F xU vLj;Jf;fhl;L.

"jkpio vg;gb Ntz;Lnkd;whYk; Nghw;Wq;fs;. Mdhy; jkpio fd;dpj;jkpo; vd;W kl;Lk; nrhy;yhjPHfs mJ jtW"" vd;W vd; mUfpy; ,Ue;j ez;gH xUtH thjpj;jhH. rpe;jpj;Jg; ghHj;jhy; ez;gupd; thjj;jpy; cz;ik ,Uf;fpwJ Nghy; gLfpwJ.

fd;dlk;> fspnjYq;F> ftpd;kiyahs nkhopfs; jkpopy; ,Ue;J gpupe;jit> mtw;wpw;Fj; jha; jkpo;jhd; vd;why; me;jj; "jha;" fd;dpahf ,Uf;f KbahJ.

jkpopypUe;Jjhd; fd;dlk;> njYq;F> kiyahsk; gpupe;jit vd;gjpy; ,uz;L fUj;jpy;iy. kNdhd;kzpak; vd;w ehlf Ehiy ,aw;wpa NguhrpupaH Re;juk;gps;is jdJ jkpo;j; nja;t tzf;fj;jpy; -

"gy;YapUk; gyTyFk; gilj;jspj;Jf; Jilf;fpDNkhH
vy;iyaW guk;nghUs;Kd; ,Ue;jgb apUg;gJNghy;
fd;dlKq; fspnjYq;Fk; ftpd;kiyahsKe; JSTk;
cd;DJuj; cjpj;njOe;Nj nahd;Wgy Ma;tpbDk;
Mupak;Nghy; cyf tof;F mope;njhope;J rpijahTd;
rPupsikj; jpwk;tpae;J nrad;kwe;J tho;j;JJNk!"

vdf; $WthH. NguhrpupaH Re;judhH jkpiof; fd;dpj; jkpo; vd;W $wtpy;iy. rPupsik Fd;whj jkpo; vd;Nw Fwpg;gpLfpwhH. gy gps;isfisg; ngw;w jha;khHfspy; rpyH ,sikNahL ,Ug;gij eilKiw tho;f;ifapy; ehk; fhzyhk;.

jkpo; fd;dpj;jkpNoh ,y;iyNah jkpo;nkhopapd; Jha;ik nfl;lNj fd;dlk;> njYq;F> kiyahsk; Nghd;w nkhopfs; Njhd;wf; fhuzkhf ,Ue;jpUf;fpwJ. ,jdhy; jkpo;nkhop NgRNthH vz;zpf;if kl;Lky;y> jkpo;ehl;bd; vy;iyfSk; fhye;NjhWk; RUq;fpf; nfhz;L te;Jtpl;lJ. ,jpy; ,d;ndhU Ntbf;if vd;dntd;why; jkpo;nkhopapypUe;J gpupe;J Nghd njYq;F nkhop NgRNthuJ vz;zpf;if jkpo;nkhop NgRNthHfsJ vz;zpf;ifiatplf; $Ljyhf cs;sJ. epyg;gug;Gk; mg;gbj;jhd;.

,e;jpahtpy; jkpoHfsJ vz;zpf;if RkhH MW Nfhb. njYq;fHfsJ vz;zpf;if VO Nfhb. jkpo;ehl;bd; epyg;gug;G 130>000 rJu.fp.kP. Me;jpuhtpd; epyg;gug;G 277>000 rJu fp.kP. mjhtJ ,uz;L klq;Ff;F Nky; ngupaJ.

jkpo;ehl;bd; vy;iy fhyk;NjhWk; RUq;fp te;jpUg;gij gpd;tUk; ghly;fs; vLj;Jf; fhl;Lk;.

"tl Ntq;flk; njd;Fkup Mapilj; jkpo; $Wk; ey; cyfj;J" (njhy; rpwg;Gg; ghapuk;)

md;iwa jkpofj;jpy; "nre;jkpo; NrHe;j gd;dpU epyj;Jk; jk;Fwpg;gpdNt jpirr; nrhw; fpstp" vd njhy;gfhg;gpa R+j;jpuk; Fwpf;Fk;. nre;jkpo; vd;gJ vy;NyhuhYk; gytif khWjy;fNshL ,ilNa Ehypio Nghy; Ngrg;gLk; nghJnkhopahFk; (Standard Spoken Tamil). gd;dpU epyk; vd;gJ nghq;fHehL> xspehL> njd;ghz;behL> Fl;lehL> FlehL> mUthehL> mUth tljiyehL vd;gitahk;. NkYk; "itifahw;wpd; tlf;Fk; kUijahw;wpd; njw;Fk; fUT+upd; fpof;Fk;> kUT+upd; Nkw;Fk;" cs;s epyg;gug;G nre;jkpo; epyk; vd 13 Mk; Ehw;whz;by; tho;e;j njhy;fhg;gpa ciuahrpupaH er;rpdhHf;fpdpaH nrhy;thH. nghJthf rq;fk; tsHj;j ghz;behl;bd; jiyefuhd kJiu khefupd; nkhoptof;if nre;jkpo; vd;W mioj;jhHfs;. ,jw;F khwhf njhy;fhg;gpaH Fwpf;Fk; gd;dpuz;L jpirnkhop toq;Fk; epyg;gug;G nfhLe;jkpo; (Sub-standard Spoken Tamil) vdg; ngaHngw;wJ. vLj;Jf;fhl;L jhia Mr;rp vd;wy;> je;ijia mg;G vd;wy; Nghd;wit.

tlf;Nf Ntq;flk; (,d;iwa jpUg;gjp)> njw;Nf Fkup MW (,d;W ,y;iy)> Nkw;Fk; fpof;Fk; fly; Mjyhy; ghlypy; me;j vy;iyfs; nrhy;yg;gltpy;iy. Mdhy; ,e;j ehd;FNk md;iwa jkpofj;jpd; vy;iyfshFk;. NkYk; -

"tlh mJ gdpgL neLtiu tlf;Fk;
njdh mJ cUnfO Fkupapd; njw;Fk;
Fzh mJ fiunghU njhLflw; Fzf;Fk;
Flh mJ njhd;WKjpH gt;tj;jpd; Flf;Fk;"
          (GwehDhW - 6)

,e;jg; ghliyg; ghba GytH ngaH fhupf;fz;zdhH. ghlg;gl;ltd; ghz;bad; gy;ahfrhiy KJFLkpg; ngUtOjp. ,tHfs; fhyj;jpy; njhy;fhg;gpaH fhyj;J vy;iyfs; tlf;Nf,kakiytiu ePbj;J tpl;lNjh vd;W epidf;fj; Njhd;Wk;. ,kak; njhl;L Fkup MWtiu cs;s KO epyj;ijANk %Nte;jHfSf;F cupaJ vd;W $WtJ md;iwa GytH tof;fhf ,Ue;jJ. ,Nj ngUtOjpia GwehDhw;Wg; ghly; 9y; nel;bikahnud;Dk; GytH gpd;tUkhW tho;j;JfpwhH.

"nre;ePHg; gRk;nghd; tapupaHf;F <e;j
Ke;ePH tpoypd; nebNahd;
ed;dPHg; g/Wsp kzypYk; gyNj."

"rpte;j ePHikiaAila Nghf;fw;w gRk;nghd;id $j;jHf;F toq;fpa> Ke;ePHf; flw; nja;tj;Jf;F vLj;j tpohtpidAila nebNahdhy; (ghz;bad;) csjhf;fg;gl;l ey;y ePiuAila g/Wsp Mw;wpd; kzypDk; gyfhyk; tho;thahf." ,e;jg; ghlypd; %yk; ,tHfs; fhyj;jpy; njw;Nf gpd;dH fly;Nfhs; nfhz;l g/Wsp MW ,Ue;jJ njspayhk;. ,e;jg; g/Wsp Mw;iwf; fly;Nfhs; nfhz;lij ,sq;Nfh mbfs;-

"g/Wsp Mw;Wld; gd;kiy mLf;fj;Jf;
Fkupf;NfhLk; nfhLq;fly; nfhs;s>
tljpirf; fq;ifAk; ,kaKk; nfhz;L
njd;jpir Mz;l njd;dtd; thop !"
    (rpyk;G- 11)

 


fhye;NjhWk; jkpo; (2)

jkpOf;F Kd;Dupik nfhLj;j rkzk;

g/Wsp Mw;iwAk; mjid xl;bapUe;j gykiyfisAila FkupkiyiaAk; fly; tpOq;fpagpd; mjw;F <lhf ghz;bad; tljpir nrd;W fq;ifahw;iwAk;> ,ka kiyiaAk; ntw;wpnfhz;L njd;jpirahfpa ghz;ba ehl;il Mz;l ghz;bad; tho;f! vd khq;fhl;L kiwNahd; tha;nkhopahf ,sq;Nfh mbfs; Fwpf;fpwhH.

,e;j Ehw;whz;bd; Muk;gj;jpy; tho;e;J kiwe;j kfhftp ghujpahH (1882-1921) nre;jkpo;ehl;bd; vy;iyiaf; $Wk;NghJ -

"ePyj; jpiuf;fl Nyhuj;jpNy - epd;W
epj;jk; jtk; nra;Ak; Fkup vy;iy-tl
khytd; Fd;wk; ,tw;wpilNa- Gfo;
kz;bf; fplf;Fk; jkpo;ehL"

vd;W Gfo;e;J jkpo;ehl;bd; tlvy;iy jpUNtq;flk; (jpUg;gjp) vd;Wk; njd; vy;iy FkupKid vd;Wk; tiuaiw nra;jhH. jkpo;ehl;bd; Nkw;Fg; gFjp (NruehL) Vw;fdNt kiyahs nkhopNgRk; epykhf khwptpl;ljhy; Nkw;nfy;iyiag; ghujpahH nrhy;yhky; tpl;Ltpl;lhH.

,t;thW rq;ffhyj;jpw;Fg; gpwF jkpo;ehl;bd; vy;iyfs; RUq;fpf; nfhz;Nl te;jJ. jkpo;nkhopAk; mupaizj; jFjpia ,oe;jJ. Ntw;W ,dj;jtHfs; Nru> Nrho> ghz;baHfisj; Njhw;fbj;J jkpo;ehl;il Mz;lhHfs;. ,jdhy; jkpoupd; jd;duRf; fhyk; KbTw;wJ.

%d;whk; -ehyhk; Ehw;whz;Ltiu jkpofj;ij fsg;gpuH vd;w Ntw;W ,dj;jtH gpbj;J Mz;lhHfs;. ,tHfsJ MSifgw;wpa rupahd juTfs; ,y;yhj fhuzj;jhy; fsg;gpuH Ml;rpf; fhyj;ij 'jkpofj;jpd; ,Uz;l gFjp' vd tuyhw;W MrpupaHfs; tHzpg;gJz;L. fsg;gpuH Ntw;W ,dj;jtH my;y. mtHfs; jkpoHfs; vd;W nrhy;gtHfSk; ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. mWgj;J %d;W ehad;khHfspy; xUtuhd $w;Wt ehadhH fsg;gpu FWepykd;dH Fyj;ijr; NrHe;jtH vd;W Nrf;fpohH jdJ ngupaGuhzj;jpy; Fwpg;gpLfpwhH.

fsg;gpuH fhyj;jpNyNa rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fshd gj;Jg; ghl;Lk; vl;Lj; njhif Ehy;fSk; njhFf;fg;gl;ld. rq;fk; kUtpa ,yf;fpaq;fshd gjpndz; fPo;f; fzf;F Ehy;fspy; ngUk;ghyhdit ,e;jf; fhy fl;lj;jpNyNa vOe;jd. rpyg;gjpfhuKk; kzpNkfiyAk; vOjg;gl;l fhyKk; fsg;gpuH Ml;rpf; fhyNk. jpU%yuJ jpUke;jpuKk; (gj;jhk; jpUKiw) ,tHfs; fhyj;jpNyNa vOjg;gl;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;. vJ vg;gbapUg;gpDk; fsg;gpuH Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpy; rkz kjKk;> ngsj;j kjKk; nry;thf;Fg; ngw;W tsHr;rp mile;jd.

itjPf kjk; topghl;bYk;> rka ,yf;fpaj;jpYk; ngUk;ghYk; tlnkhopf;F Kd;Dupik nfhLj;jNghJ> rkzKk; ngsj;jKk; jkpo; nkhopf;F Vw;wk; nfhLj;jd. ,jdhy; ehybahH> gonkhop> rpWgQ;r%yk;> Vyhjp> jpupfLfk;> ,dpait ehw;gJ> ,d;dh ehw;gJ> ehd;kzpf;fbif Mfpa mw,yf;fpaq;fs; vOjg;gl;ld. ,yf;fpa ,yf;fzg; gilg;gpy; rkzH Kjd;ikngw;W tpsq;fpaij jkpoH rka tuyhW vd;w Ehy; MrpupaH M. NtYg;gps;is gpd;tUkhW (gf;fk; 38) Fwpg;gpLfpwhH.

"rkRfpUj nkhopNa Njtghi\ vdg; gpuhkzH $wpaij epuhfupj;J kf;fs; Ngr;R tof;fpy; ,Ue;j gpuhf;fpUjk;> ghyp Kjyha nkhopfisNa KiwNa kfhtPuUk;> Gj;jUk; gad;gLj;jpdH. gpuhkzHfspd; itjpf rkak; nghJkf;fis xJf;fp itf;f> ,r;rka newpfs; nghJ kf;fsplk; mtHfs; NgRk; nkhop %yk; nrd;W ca;Ak; newpiaf; fhl;bajhy; ntF rPf;fpuj;jpy; ehl;by; nry;thf;Fg; ngwyhapd. rkzH vd;WNk kf;fs; toq;Fk; nkhopiag; Nghw;Wtjpy; Kd;dpd;wikAk;> rq;fk; kUtpa fhyj;jpypUe;J mtH jkpo; tsHfr; nra;j Kaw;rpfisAk;> ,d;ndhU jpuhtpl nkhopahd fd;dl nkhopapd; tsHr;rpapy; rkzH tfpf;Fk; ,lj;ijAk; ghHf;Fk;NghJ> jkpo; nkhop nrOikahd ,yf;fpaf; fUtpahff; rq;f fhyj;jpy; Mfpajw;Fr; rkzUk; XusT fhuzkha; ,Ue;jpUf;fyhk; vd;W fUJtjw;F ,lk; ,Uf;fpwJ."

,t;thW xU Gwk; jkpo;nkhop ,yf;fpak; tsHr;rp mile;jhYk; kWGwk; jkpopy; Vuhskhd ghyp> gpuhfpUjr; nrhw;fs; tof;Ff;F te;jd. ,jdhy; jkpopd; Jha;ik nflj; njhlq;fpaJ.

jkpopy; Ntw;Wnkhopr; nrhw;fs; njhy;fhg;gpaH fhyj;Jf;F Kd;dNu fyf;fj; njhlq;fp tpl;lJ. Md fhuzj;jhNyNa tlnkhopr; nrhw;fis vg;gbj; jkpo;kag; gLj;j Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;F njhy;fhg;gpaH ,yf;fzk; tFj;Js;shH.

",aw;nrhy;> jpupnrhy;> jpirr;nrhy;> tlnrhy; vd;W
midj;Nj nra;As; <l;lr; nrhy;Ny"       ( nrhy; 880)

nra;As; Mf;Ftjw;Fupa nrhw;fs; ehd;F tif. mit ,aw;nrhy;> jpupnrhy;> jpirr;nrhy;> tlnrhy; vd;gdthFk;. ,aw;nrhy; nre;jkpo; epyj;J toq;fpg; nghUspy; tOthJ ,Ug;gjhFk;. vy;yhr; nrhy;Yk; nghUs; Fwpj;jdNt vd;w ,yf;fzj;Jf;F mika ,it vspjpy; nghUs; tpsq;ff;$bajhf ,Uf;Fk;. xUnghUs; Fwpj;j NtW nrhy;Yk;> NtWnghUs; Fwpj;j xU nrhy;Yk; jpupnrhy; vdg;gLk;. nrhw;fspy; Njhd;Wk; nghUs; khw;wj;ijAk; ,jw;Fs; mlf;fyhk;. nre;jkpo; rhHe;j gd;dpU epyj;jpYk; toq;FtJ jpirr;nrhy;.

"tlnrhw; fpstp tlntOj; njhuP,
vOj;njhL GzHe;j nrhy;yh Fk;Nk."       
 ( nrhy; 884)

tlnkhop xypfis ePf;fp jkpo; vOj;Jf;fNshL mike;j nrhw;fs; tlnrhw;fshFk;. Gl;gk;> el;lk;> mup> mud;> gq;fak; Nghd;wit.
NkYk;

"rpije;jd tupDk; ,iae;jd tiuahH" (nrhy; 885)

vd;w R+j;jpuj;jhy; tlntOj;Jr; rpije;J tUk; tlnrhw;fSk; md;iwa jkpopy; toq;fpd. vLj;Jf;fhl;L- gpuahzk; - gazk;> up\p - ,Ub Nghd;wit rpije;J te;Js;sd. ,it Nghd;wtw;iw ePf;fhH.

fsg;gpuH fhyj;jpy; rkzHfs; gpuhfpUjj;ijg; Ngr;R nkhopahff; nfhz;ljhYk;> ngsj;jHfs; ghypnkhopapy; rkag; gug;Giu nra;jjhYk; tlnrhw;fs; gpuhfpUj tbtpNyNa jkpopy; Vwpd.

vLj;Jf;fhl;L 

g;ujpkh - gbik>

]kuzh - rkzH>

e;Uj;jk; - el;lk;>

M[;ehNtjp- Mf;Qh>

tp[;Qhgdk; - tpz;zg;gk;.

gjpndz;fPo;f;fzf;F Ehy;fspy; jpupfLfk;> Mrhuf;Nfhit vd;w Ehw;wiyg;Gf;fspNyNa tlnrhy; ,Ug;gijf; fhzyhk;. ,ul;ilf; fhg;gpaq;fspy; xd;whd kzpNkfiy rkaf;fzf;fH je;jpuk; Nfl;l fhijapy; ,lk; ngw;Ws;s tlnrhw;fs;. midj;Jr; nrhw;fSk; my;y.

Jf;fk;> Rfk;> ehkk;> fpupia> Ijpfk;> mghtk;> mDkhdk;> mDNkak;> rhjddk;> rhj;jpak;> me;Etak;> epr;rak;> Nghfk;> Gtdk;> mUj;jhgj;jp> gpukhzhthrq;fs;> Nyhfhjak;> gpuj;jpak;> rhj;jk;> epUj;jk;> rj;jk;> rpf;if> rPtd;> Nrhjplk;> epj;jpak;> fuzk;> jUkhj;jpfhak;> mjUkhj;jpafhak;> rhkhdp> tpguPjk;> tpahak;> tpNrlk;> khHf;fk;> thA> tpfhuk;> gpusak;.

rkzk;> ngsj;jk;> irtk;> ,Ryhk;> fpwpj;jtk; gutpajhy; jkpo; ,yf;fpaq;fs; gy cUthfpdhYk; mtw;wpdhy; jkpopd; jdpj;jd;ik Fd;wpaJ. Jha;ik nfl;lJ.   
 


 

fhye;NjhWk; jkpo; (3)

jkpofj;jpy; fsg;gpuH Ml;rp

fsg;gpu kd;dHfis Nts;tpf;Fbg; gl;lak; (ghz;baHfshy; 9k; Ehw;whz;by; toq;fg;gl;lJ) fLikahff; fz;bf;fpwJ. mg;gl;lak;; mtHfis fypaurH vd ,opthf miof;fpwJ. "fsg;gpuH jq;fs; ths; typikahy; gy khkd;dHfisg; Gwq;fz;lhHfs; vd;Wk; NjtHfSf;Fk; gpuhkzHfSf;Fk; jhdk; nra;ag;gl;l Njtjhdq;fisAk;> gpukNjaq;fisAk; ifg;gw;wp r%f xOq;iff; nfLj;jhHfs;" vd;W giwaiwfpwJ.

"The Velvikudi grant of the Pandyas (ninth century) denounces them as evil kings, kali-arasar, whose invincible arms uprooted many adhirajas and upset the social order confiscating all charitable devadanas and brahmadeyas gifts to gods and Brahmins." ( Political History of Tamilnadu by K.A. Neelakanda Sastri South Indian Studies page 136).

fsg;gpuHgw;wpa ,j;jifa fUj;J tOthdJ vd;W ,d;dhs; kNdhd;kzpak; Re;judhH gy;fiyf; fof KidtH f.g. mwthzd; jdJ jkpoH rKjha tuyhW vd;w Ehypy; kWj;J vOjpapUf;fpwhH. mtH vOjpapUg;gjhtJ-

"fsg;gpuH tUifahy; jkpoHjk; gz;ghL mopf;fg;gl;ljhf tuyhw;wpy; vOjg;gLfpwJ. ,J ngUk; tOthFk;. fsg;gpuH fhyj;jpy;jhd; Gyhy; Ntz;lh vd;w Nghjdh ,af;fk; Njhd;wpaJ. kJ Ntz;lh vDk; fUj;J cuj;Jg; ghlg; ngw;wJ. guj;jik Ntz;lh vd;w mwpTiu gug;gg;gl;lJ. nfhy;yhik Ntz;lh vDk; newp vLj;Jiuf;fg; ngw;wJ. ,itnay;yhk; jkpo;g; gz;ghl;il nfLj;j epfo;r;rpfsh? jkpoHfSf;F Ntz;lhj mwpTiuah? my;y vd;gJ ntspg;gil.

,tHfs; fhyj;jpy; jkpo; tsHr;rp Fd;wpaJ vdf; $wg;ngWfpwJ. ,JTk; tONt."

KidtH mwthzdpd; fUj;Jg;gb rkzKk; ngsj;jKk; tlehl;by; gpuhkz Mjpf;fj;ij vjpHj;j rj;jpupaHfsJ vOr;rpahf tpsq;fpaJ vd;why; jkpofj;ijg; nghWj;jtiu (fsg;gpuH Ml;rp) gpuhkziu vjpHj;Jg; gpuhkzH my;yhjhH vOr;rpahf ,Ue;jJ.

fsg;gpuiu mLj;J kPz;Lk; jkpouy;yhj gy;ytH Ml;rp (fp.gp. 5-9k; Ehw;whz;L) jkpofj;jpy; epiynfhz;lJ. mWgj;J %d;W ehad;khHfspy; xUtuhd fsw;rpq;f ehadhH gy;ytH Fyj;ijr; NrHe;jtH vdg; ngupaGuhzk; Fwpf;fpwJ.

gy;ytH fhQ;rpiaj; jiyefuhff; nfhz;L Ml;rp nra;jdH. ghz;baH kJiuiaj; jiyefuhff; nfhz;L Ml;rp nra;jdH. ,UtUf;Fk; ,ilNa Xahj NghH epfo;e;jd. gy;ytH ghz;baiu kl;Lk; my;y tlf;Nf rhSf;fpaHfisAk; ( 550 - 750)> mjd;gpd; ,uh\;buFl;liuAk; vjpHj;Jg; Nghuhl Ntz;bapUe;jJ. gy;ytHfspd; gifaurHfs; ghz;baupd; ez;gHfshf ,Ue;jhHfs;. ,e;jf; fhyfl;lj;jpy; jkpofj;jpy; Nrhod; fupfhy;ngUtsj;jhd; guk;giuNah ,Ue;j ,lk; njupahky; kiwe;J Nghapw;W.

rpk;ktp\;ZNt gy;ytg; Nguuirj; Njhw;Wtpj;jtd; Mthd;. ,td; tlf;Nf fpU\;zh ejpf;Fk; njw;Nf fhNtupf;Fk; ,ilg;gl;l epyj;ij Mz;lhd;. ,jdhy; ,td; 'mtdprpk;kd;' vd miof;fg;gl;lhd;. ,tdJ kfNd Gfo;ngw;w gy;yt kd;dHfspy; xUtdhd KjyhtJ kNfe;jputHkd; (580-630) Mthd;. rfy fiyfspYk; ty;ytdhd ,td; xU ftpQDkhthd;. kj;jtpyhrgpufrdk; vd;w ehlfEhiy vOjpatd; ,tNd. ,J tlnkhopapy; vOjg;gl;lJ gy;ytH tlnkhopf;Ff; nfhLj;j mupaizepiyf;F rhd;whf mike;Js;sJ.

kNfe;jputHkdpd; rkfhyj;jtH jpUehTf;fuR ehadhH. rkzkjj;ij NrHe;j kNfe;jputHkid irtrkaj;jpw;F khw;wpatH jpUehTf;furH MthH. kUs;ePf;fpahH vd;w ,aw;ngaH nfhz;l jpUehTf;furNu jUkNrdH vd rkzkjj;jpw;F khwpg; gpd;dH mtuJ jkf;ifahH jpyftjpahuhy; kPz;Lk; irtrkaj;Jf;F jpUk;gpatH. jpUehTf;furiu Rz;zhk;Gf; fhsthapy; js;Sk;gbAk;> gpd;dH eQ;R fye;j ghy;Nrhw;iw cz;zf; nfhLj;Jk;> kjk;gpbj;j ahidia nfhy;YkhWk;> fy;Jhizg;G+l;b eLf;flypy; js;SkhWk; Mizapl;ltd; ,e;j kNfe;jputHkNd.

KjyhtJ kNfe;jputHkid mLj;J mtdJ kfd; KjyhtJ eurpk;ktHkd; (630-638) gl;lj;Jf;F tUfpwhd;. ,tdJ Ml;rpapNyNa guQ;NrhjpahH jiyikapy; rhSf;fpa ehl;bd; kPJ gilnaLj;Jr; nrd;w gy;ytHgil rhSf;fpa kd;ddhd KjyhtJ GypNfrpia thjhgpapy; Njhw;fbj;jJ. thjhgpia ntd;wjhy; kNfe;jputHkd; "thjhgp nfhz;lhd;" vd;w rpwg;Gg; ngauhy; miof;fg;gl;lhd;.

Kjd;Kiwahf jkpof tuyhw;wpy; fw;Nfhtpy;fis vOg;gpatd; KjyhtJ kNfe;jputHkNd. KjyhtJ eurpk;ktHkNd khky;yGuj;Jf; fw;ghiwfis fhyj;jhy; mopahj Gfo;ngw;w fiyf; Nfhtpy;fshf nrJf;fptpj;jtd;. (fy;fp vOjpa "rptfhkpapd; rgjk;" Gidfij eurpk;ktHkd; fhyj;J tuyhw;iw ikakhff; nfhz;L vOjg;gl;lJ).

gy;ytH Ml;rpapy; Kw;whf tlnkhopNa mupaiz nkhopahff; NfhNyhr;rpaJ. fy;ntl;LfspYk;> nrg;NgLfspYk; tlnkhopNa ngUf;nfLj;NjhbaJ. jkpo; gpd;Df;Fj; js;sg;gl;L tlnkhopf; fy;tpf;Nf Kjyplk; jug;gl;lJ. fhQ;rp> fbfhryk;> fpUj;jhHr;RdPak;> gh$H gok;gjp Nghd;w CHfspy; ,Ue;j fy;tpf;$lq;fspy; tlnkhop Nghjpf;fg;gl;lJ. njd;dhw;fhL khtl;lj;jpYs;s gh$upy; 14 fiyfSk;> 18 tpj;ijfSk; fw;gpf;fg;gl;ld. Ntjg;gpuhkzHfSf;F mf;fpufhuq;fSk;> gpukNjaq;fSk; ,iwapyp epyq;fshf tplg;gl;ld.

gy;ytH fhyj;jpNyNa Nyhftpghfk;> fpUjhHr;RdPak;> mte;jpRe;jupf; fij> kj;jtpyhrgpufrdk; Nghd;w Ehy;fs; tlnkhopapy; vOjg;gl;ld.

gy;ytH fhyj;jpy; jkpo; mupaiz nkhopahf ,y;yhjpUe;Jk; mJ tsHr;rp mile;jnjd;why; me;jr; rhjid gf;jp ,af;fj;jpidj; Njhw;Wtpj;J> irt> itzt ,yf;fpaj;jpw;F tpj;jpl;l MSilg;gps;isahH> mg;gH> Re;juH Nghd;w rka FutHfisAk;> ngha;ifaho;thH> G+jj;jho;thH> Ngaho;tH Nghd;w Mo;thHfisANk rhUk;. "jkpNohL ,irghly; kwe;jwpahj" rkaf; FutHfsJ Njthuj; jpUKiwfSk;> "nra;ajkpo; khiyfs; ehk; njspa xjpj; njspahj kiwepyq;fs; njspfpd;w"Mo;thHfs; nre;jkpohy; mUs; nra;j ehyhapujpt;tpag;gpug; ge;jKk; jkpOk;> jkpopirAk; ehSk; jisj;Njhq;fp vz;jpirAk; Gfo;; kzf;f toprikj;jd. Mz;lhspd; 'jpUg;ghit'> khzpf;fthrfupd; jpUntk;ghit rq;ffhy jiytd;-jiytp mfTwitg; gpd;gw;wp ehafd;-ehafp ghtidapy; ghlg;gl;ljhFk;.

Re;ju%Hj;jp ehadhH> jpUkq;ifaho;thH MfpNahH njhlHghy; ,uhrrpk;k gy;ytd; fhyj;jpypUe;J gy;ytH jkpopy; <LghL nfhs;sj; njhlq;fpdH.

ghujntz;gh vd;w Ehy; %d;whk; ee;jptHkdhy; (796 - 846)Mjupf;fg;gl;l ngUe;Njtdhuhy; ghlg;ngw;wJ. ,jpy; xU ntz;ghtpw;Fk; kw;nwhU ntz;ghtpw;Fk; ,ilapy; fhzg;gLk; ciueil kzpg;gpuths eilapy; vOjg;gl;Ls;sJ. vLj;Jf;fhl;L - ",t;tif vOe;jUspf; fhLk; kiyAk; fle;J ,uz;L jptrk; ( ehs;) topapy; jq;fp %d;whk; jptrk; m];jpdGuk; GFe;jhd; =thRNjtd; vd;wthW."  


fhye;NjhWk; jkpo; (4)

,ilf; fhyj;jy; jkpo;

gy;ytHfSf;Fk; - ghz;baUf;Fk; ,ilapy; jpUg;Gwk;gpaj;jpy; ele;j NghH gy;ytH tuyhW mopaTk; Nrhog; NguuR nropj;Njhq;fTk; toptFj;jJ. ghz;baUf;F vjpuhd ,e;jg; Nghiu NrhoHfs; jq;fSf;Fr; rhjfkhfg; gad;gLj;jp gy;ytDf;F cjt Kd;te;jdH. ,e;jg; Nghupy; epUgJq;fdpd; je;ij gpupjptpgjp ,we;JgLfpwhd;. ,e;jg; Nghupy; ngaustpy; gy;ytH ntw;wp ngw;whYk; Mjpj;jpa Nrhod; NrhoehL KOtijAk; ifg;gw;wpaNjhL epUgrpq;fdpd; kiwtpw;Fg; gpd; njhz;il ehl;ilAk; ifg;gw;wpr; Nrhog; NguuRf;F fhy;Nfhs; ehl;bdhd;.
mtidj; njhlHe;J gl;lj;Jf;F te;j Kjyhk; guhe;jf Nrhod; (907-990) jdJ %d;whz;L Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpNyNa ghz;ba ehl;ilj; jhf;fp 'kJiu nfhz;l' vd;w gl;lj;ijAk; ngw;whd;.

Kjyhk; guhe;jf Nrhod; Kjy; cj;jk Nrhod; Ml;rpf; fhyk;tiu tdg;gpd;wp fhzg;gl;l Nrhog;NguuR Kjyhk; ,uhruhr Nrhod; fhyk; Kjy; ngUk; kWkyHr;rp mile;jJ. mtDk; mtdJ kfDkhd ,uhNre;jpu NrhoDk; Nrhog; Nguuir fq;if> flhuk;> Gl;gfk;> ,yq;if vq;fZk; tpupT gLj;jpdhHfs;.

NrhoHfhyk; jkpof tuyhw;wpy; ,d;ndhU nghw;fhyk; vd tHzpf;fg; gl;lhYk; jkpo; nkhopiag; nghWj;jstpy; topghl;bw;Fk; rlq;fpw;Fk; jfhj nkhopnadj; jkpo; js;sp itf;fg;gl;lJ. ,Ue;Jk; ehad;khHfsJ Njthuq;fisAk;> Mo;thHfspd; jpt;agpuge;jq;fisAk; ,irAld; ghl XJthHfis Nfhtpy;fspy; ,uhruhrd; mkHj;jpdhd;. ,uhruhrd; fhyj;jpNyNa jpy;iyak;gyj;jpy; jpy;iytho; %thapuk; me;jzHfshy; xU miwapy; G+l;bitf;fg;gl;Lr; nry; mupj;Jg; Nghd Njthug; gjpfq;fs; mlq;fpa Vl;Lf; Ftpaiyf; fz;nlLj;Jg;
GJg;gpj;;jhd;.

Ig;ngUk; fhg;gpaq;fspy; rpyg;gjpfhuk;> kzpNkfiy ePq;fyhf Vida tisahgjp> Fz;lyNfrp> rPtfrpe;jhkzp NrhoH fhyj;jit. IQ;rpW fhg;gpaq;fshd cjaz Fkhu fhtpak;> R+shkzp> ePyNfrp> aNrhjuh fhtpak;> ehfFkhu fhtpak; NrhoH fhyj;jitNa.

xsitahH> Nrf;fpohH> fk;gH> xl;lf;$j;jH> GfNoe;jp> fr;rpag;g rpthr;rhupahH MfpNahH ,f;fhyj;jtHfs;.

xsitahupd; (rq;ffhy xsitahH my;y) Mj;jpR+b> nfhd;iwNte;jd;> thf;Fz;lhk;> ey;top> Qhdf;Fws;> mrjpf;Nfhit Nghd;w mwpTiu Ehy;fs; Gfo;kpf;fit.

fk;gH ,uhkhazk; kl;Lkd;wp VnuOgJ> rlNfhgue;jhjp> ,yf;Fkpae;jhjp Mfpatw;iwAk; ,aw;wpdhH> mk;gpfhgjp mk;gpghgjpf;Nfhit ,aw;wpdhH. GfNoe;jp esntz;ghitAk;> xl;lf;rj;jH jf;fahfg; guzp cl;gl vl;L Ehy;fis vOjpdhH.

guzpf;NfhH nraq;nfhz;lhH vd;W juzp Nghw;wpa ,tH fypq;fj;Jg; guzp ghbdhH. ,/J Kjyhk; FNyhj;Jq;fdpd; gilj; jiytd; fUzhfuj; njhz;ilkhd; fypq;fj;jpd; jiyefuhd thjhgp kPJ gilnaLj;Jr; nrd;W ntw;wpnfhz;lijg; ghbajhFk;.

Nrf;fpohupd; ngupaGuhzk; ,f;fhyj;jifaNj. irtj; jkpo; ,yf;fpaq;fs; njhFf;fg;gl;l fhyKk; NrhoH fhykhFk;. ek;gpahz;lhH ek;gp gd;dpU jpUKiwfisj; njhFj;jspj;jhH.

gjpdhd;F irtrpj;jhe;j rhj;jpuq;shd jpUTj;jpahH> jpUf;fspw;Wg; ghbahH> rptQhdNghjk;>rptQhdrpj;jpahH> ,Ugh ,UgJ> cz;ik tpsf;fk;> rptg;gpufhrk;> tpdhntz;gh Nghw;wp g/nwhil> jpUtUl;gad;> nfhbf;ftp> neQ;RtpL JhJ> cz;ik tpsf;fk;> rq;fw;gjpuhfuzk; ,f;fhyj;jpy; vOjg; gl;litahFk;.

Nrhog; NguurHfshd ,uhruhrDk;> ,uhNre;jpuDk; nfslehl;ilr; NrHe;j gy irt MupaHfisj; jkpofj;jpy; nfhz;Lte;J FbNaw;wpdH. mtHfSf;F gpukNjak;> rJHNtjpkq;fyk; vdg; ngaH R+l;lg;gl;l ,iwapyp epyq;fs; nfhLf;fg;gl;ld. ,t;thW nfhz;Ltug;gl;ltHfshy; jkpopy; tlnkhopf; fyg;Gk; Mjpf;fKk; Vw;g topNaw;gl;lJ.

,f;fhyj;jpy; irtKk;> itztKk; nry;thf;Fg; ngw;wpUe;jd. ,it tlnkhopr; nrhw;fis tlnkhop tbtj;Jld; toq;fj; jiyg; gl;ld. vLj;Jf;fhl;L uhruhkGuk; (rpe;jhkzp)> A+fp> Aj;jk; (ngUq;fij). xl;lf;$j;jH vOjpa gps;isj;jkpopYk;> gpwEhy;fspYk; tlnkhopf; fyg;G kpFjpahff; fhzg;gl;lJ. NrhoH fhyj;Jf; fy;ntl;Lfs; vz;zhapuk; vd;w Cupy; Ntjq;fisg; Nghjpf;f gs;sp ,Ue;jijAk; mjw;Fg; gj;Jg; NguhrpupaHfs; epakpf;fg;gl;lijAk; mwpayhk;. NrhoHfs; jq;fs; ngaHfs;> gl;lq;fisf;$l tlnkhopg; gLj;jpdhHfs;.

vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf uh[uh[d;> uhN[e;jpud;> cj;jkNrhod;> tpj;jpahtpNdhjd;> FNyhj;Jq;fd; Nghd;wtw;iwf; fhzyhk;.

jkpo; gbg;gpf;f gs;spf; $lq;fs; ,Ue;jjhfj; njupatpy;iy. GytHfs; elhj;jpa jpz;izg; gs;spf; $lq;;fNs me;jf; fhyj;jpy; jkpio tsHj;jjhfj; njupfpwJ. kJiuf; fzf;fhadhH> kJiuahrpupaH ey;yj;JtdhH> kJiuahrpupaH Nre;jq;nfhj;jdhH> kJiuahrpupaH ew;whkdhH> kJiuahrpupaH eg;ghyhdhH Nghd;w ngaHfs; rq;f fhyj;jpy; rpWtHfSf;Fj; vz;Zk; vOj;Jk; gbg;gpj;j MrpupaHfisr; Rl;LfpwJ. NguhrpupaH> fzf;fhaH vd;NghH caH fy;tp MrpupaHfisf; Fwpg;gjhFk;.

NrhoHfhyf; fy;ntl;;LfSk; ngUk;ghYk; tlnkhopapNyNa ntl;lg;gl;ld. tlf;fpy; ,Ue;J nfhz;Ltug;gl;l gpuhkzHfs; jkpo; nrhw;fis tof;F tPo;j;jp mjw;F <lhf tl nkhopr; nrhw;fis type;J GFj;jpdH.

gpw;fhyr; NrhoH fhyj;jpy; tlnkhop mwpT fw;Nwhuplk; gutpapUe;jJ. Gyikf;F vLj;Jf; fhl;L tlnkhop njd;nkhop ,uz;bYk; ghz;bj;jpak; ngw;wpUf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w epajp vOe;jJ. MfNt tlnkhopr; nrhw;fs; ngUksT jkpopy; GFe;jJ. Fwpg;ghfj; jkpo; ,yf;fzj;jpy; fye;jJ.

gj;jhk; Ehw;whz;by; Njhd;wpa ahg;gUq;fyj;jpy; fUkk;> fUkfHj;jh vd;w tl nrhw;fs; te;Js;sd> ahg;gpyf;fzj;jpy; tpUj;jk;> re;jk;> jhz;lfk;> yF (Fwpy; Xuir)> FU (neby; Xuir) vd;w nrhw;fs; toq;fg;gl;lijf; fhzyhk;. Kw;wpYk; tl nkhopiaj; jOtp tPuNrhopak; vd;w ,yf;fz Ehy; Nekpehjuhy; ,aw;wg;gl;lJ. mQ;Qhdk;> mgfPHj;jp> Nghd;w tlnkhopr; nrhw;fSf;F ,yf;fzk; $wpr; nry;fpwhH. ,f; fhyj;jpy; ,yf;fzj;jpy; kl;Lk; my;yhJ gpw JiwfspYk; fiyr; nrhw;fs; tl nkhopapy; mike;jpUg;gijf; fhzyhk;. ,yf;fzj;jpy; re;jp> fhufk; Nghd;w nrhw;fs; toq;fg;gl;lijg; ghHf;fyhk;.
 
 
 


 

fhye;NjhWk; jkpo; (5)

jkpopy; tlnkhopf; fyg;G

NrhoHfisg; NghyNt ghz;baHfSk; tl ehl;bypUe;J Vuhskhd gpuhkz FbNaw;wq;fis Cf;Ftpj;jhHfs;. Kjyhk; khwtHkd; FyNrfu ghz;bad; fhyj;jpy; gy mf;fpufhuq;fs; Njhw;Wtpf;fg;gl;ld. Kjyhk; Re;jughz;bad; fhyj;jpy; rpy fpuhkq;fs; xd;W NrHf;fg;gl;L "Re;jughz;ba rJHNtjp kq;fyk;" vd;W ngaH R+l;lg;gl;lJ.

ek;kho;thH> kJuftp> ngupaho;thH> Mz;lhs;> khzpf;fthrfH Nghd;w rka FutHfshy; rka ,yf;fpak; Nkd;ikAw;wJ. ,jdhy; jkpo; tsHe;jJ. ,irg; ghly;fs; ngUfpd. ,Ue;Jk; gy;ytH NrhoHfhyk; NghyNt tlnkhop topghl;L nkhopahfTk;> fy;tpnkhopahfTk; Mjpf;fk; nrYj;jpaJ.

FyNrfu ghz;baDf;F Re;jughz;bad;> tPughz;bad; vd ,uz;L kf;fs; ,Ue;jhHfs;. Re;jughz;bad; gl;lj;jurpapd; kfd;. tPughz;bad; ,d;ndhU murpapd; kfd;. FyNrfu ghz;bad; Re;jughz;baDf;F Ml;rpg; nghWg;ig mspj;jhd;. Mdhy; mjid xg;Gf; nfhs;shj tPughz;bad; je;jiaf; nfhiynra;J tpl;L Ml;rpiaf; ifg;gw;wpdhd;. capUf;F mQ;rpa Re;jughz;bad; kJiuia tpl;L Xbtpl;lhd;. ,J 1310y; ,lk;ngw;wJ.

Ml;rpAupikf;F mz;zd; - jk;gp ,ilapyhd rz;il Kjd;Kiwahf K];ypk; kd;dHfsJ njd;dfg; gilnaLg;Gf;F topNfhypaJ. Re;jughz;bad; jpy;yp nrd;W myhTjPd; fpy;[papd; cjtpia ehbdhd;. fp.gp. 1311y; myhTjPd; `ha;rhy ehl;bd; kPJ xU gilnaLg;ig Nkw;nfhz;bUe;j khypf;fhG+iu kJiuiaf; ifg;gw;WkhW cj;jutpl;lhd;.

khypf;fG+H tPughz;baidj; Njhw;fbj;J Re;jughz;baid mupaizapy; mkHj;jpdhd;. mj;NjhL jkpo;ehl;Lf; Nfhtpy;fspy; cs;s jpuz;l nry;tq;fis vy;yhk; nfhs;is mbj;Jr; nrd;whd;. Mdhy; tPughz;bad; - Re;jughz;bad; ,ilapyhd mupaizg; Nghl;b ePbj;jJ. Re;jughz;baidj; njhlHe;J guhf;fpukghz;bad; gl;lj;Jf;F te;jhd;. mtd; fhyj;jpy; (fp.gp.1323) fpahRjPd; Jf;sf;fpd; kfdhd cYf;fhd; gil vLj;J te;J kJiuiaf; ifg;gw;wp Mz;lhd;. ,jdhy; jkpo;ehL nly;yp Ry;jhd; KfkJ-gpd;-Jf;sf; Ml;rpapy; GFe;jJ. mj;NjhL gpw;fhyg; ghz;baH Ml;rp kJiuapy; Kw;Wg; ngw;wJ.

gy;ytHf;Fk;> ghz;baUf;Fk;> NrhoHfSf;Fk; gpd;dH RkhH 7 Ehw;whz;Lfhykhf Ry;jhd;fspd; Ml;rp> tp[aefu (njYq;F) kd;dH Ml;rp> ehaf;fH Ml;rp> kuhj;jpaH Ml;rp> NghHj;Jf;NfaH Ml;rp> gpnud;Rf;fhuupd; Ml;rp> Mq;fpNyaH Ml;rp ,d;dnty;yhk; njhlHr;rpahfj; jkpo; ehl;by; Nt&d;wp jkpopd; jdpj;jd;ikia NkYk; epiyFiyar; nra;jd.

kJiu ehl;by; 1323y; ,Ue;J 1378tiu Vwf;Fiwa 55 Mz;Lfs; K];ypk; Ml;rp ePbj;jJ. cUJ nkhhop NgRk; tlehl;L K];ypk;fs; jkpofj;jpy; FbNawpdhHfs;. ,jdhy; cUJr; nrhw;fs; jkpopy; GFe;jd.

mLj;J te;j tp[aefu kd;dHfs; Ml;rpapd;NghJ njYq;F> fd;dlk; NgRk; gpuhkzHfshd gsp[h];> fk;khdh];> nul;b Nghd;NwhH ngUkstpy; jkpofj;jpy; FbNaw;wg; gl;lhHfs;. ,tHfNshL njYq;F> fd;dlr; nrhw;fSk; jkpopy; tof;Nfwpd.

tp[aefug; Nguuir `up`uH Njhw;Wtpj;J Ml;rp nra;J te;jhH. mtUf;Fg; gpd; mtuJ cld;gpwg;gpd; kfd; Gf;fH mupaiz VwpdhH. Gf;fH jdJ Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpy; jkpofj;ij Ry;jhdpaupd; gpbapypUe;J tpLtpf;f vz;zp mtuJ kfd; ,uz;lhk; Fkhufk;gzuJ jiyikapy; ngupa gilnahd;iw mDg;gp itj;jhH. mjd;gb Fkhufk;gzH 1363y; gilnaLj;J te;J tl MHf;fhl;by; rpw;wurHfshf ,Ue;j rk;GtuhaHfis mlf;fpj; njhz;lkz;lyj;ij ,izj;jNjhL kJiuia Mz;Lnfhz;bUe;j Ry;jhd; Kghuf;\hitj; Njhw;fbj;J ghz;b kz;lyj;ijAk; tp[aefug; NguuRld; ,izj;jhH.

fp.gp. 1336y; Njhw;Wtpf;fg;gl;l tp[aefu muR 1565 tiu njd;ehl;by; kpf ty;yikgilj;j Nguurhf tpsq;fpaJ. ,e;jf; fhyfl;lj;jpy; ( RkhH 230 Mz;Lfs;) tp[aefug; NguuR typikNahL tpsq;fpaNghJ jkpofk; tp[aefu Ml;rpf;F cl;gLj;jg;gl;L Msg;gl;lJ.
1565f;Fg; gpd;dH tp[aefug; Nguurpd; murg; gpujpepjpfshf ehaf;f kd;dHfs; jkpo; ehl;il Mz;lhHfs;. jQ;ir> kJiu> nrQ;rp Mfpa gFjpfs; mtHfsJ Ml;rpf;F cl;gl;L ,Ue;jJ. jQ;irapy; fp.gp. 1676 ,y; ehaf;fH Ml;rp KbTf;F te;J kuhj;jpa Ml;rp Vw;gl;lJ.

kuhj;jpa Ml;rp jQ;irapy; 1855 tiu njhlHe;jJ. njd; ,e;jpa tuyhw;wpy; tp[aefu kd;dHfNs filrp ,e;J murHfshtH.

tp[aefu kd;dHfs;> ehaf;f kd;dHfs; ,UtuJk; Ml;rp jkpo;ehL KOJk; 366 Mz;Lfs; ePbj;jJ. ,f; fhyj;jpy; njYq;fHfSk;> fd;dlh;fSk; jkpo;ehl;by; FbNawp epyf;fpohHfshfTk; gilj; jiytHfshfTk; ,Ue;jhHfs;. tPughz;ba fl;lnghk;kd; mj;jifa gilj; jiytHspy; xUtuhthd;.

tp[aefu kd;dHfsJ Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpNyNa rpjk;gu Guhzk;> nrhf;fehjH cyh> mupr;re;jpu Guhzk;> jpUtpisahly; Guhzk; Nghd;w Guhzq;fs; vOe;jd.

rptQhd Nghjj;ij nka;fz;l NjtH vOjpdhH.

mbahHf;F ey;yhH rpyg;gjpfhuj;Jf;F ciu vOjpdhH.

NrdhtiuaH> NguhrpupaH> er;rpdhHf;fpdpaH Nghd;NwhH njhy;fhg;gpaj;Jf;F ciu vOjpdhHfs;.

kw;Wk; ed;Dhiy gtze;jp KdptUk;> R+lhkzp epfz;il kz;ly GU\Uk; ,aw;wpdhHfs;.

fypj;njhif> gj;Jg; ghl;L> rpe;jhkzp Mfpatw;wpw;F er;rpdhHf;fpdpaH ciu vOjpdhH.

rptQhd Nghjj;ij nka;fz;l NjtH vOjpdhH.

mUzfpupehjupd; jpUg;GfOk; ,f;fhyj;jNj.

tp[aefu ehaf;fH Ml;rp jkpofj;jpy; epytpaNghJ jkpo;nkhopiaf; fhf;fj; jkpo;g; GutyHfs; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. rka klq;fspy; jkpo; jQ;rk; GFe;jJ. klq;fspNyNa jyGuhzq;fSk;z> jj;Jt Ehy;fSk;> rka ,yf;fpaKk; Njhd;wpd. $lNt tlnkhopapd; Mjpf;fKk; tsHe;jJ.

jkpopd; jdpj;jd;ik nfl;ljw;F ,e;j me;epaHfsJ njhlHr;rpahd Ml;rpNa fhuzkhFk;. ,jdhy; tpy;ypGj;JhuH> mUzfpupehjH> jhAkhdtH Nghd;wtHfs; msTf;F kpQ;rp jkpopy; gpwnkhopr; nrhw;fisg; GFj;jp vOjNtz;ba fl;lhak; ,Ue;jJ.

gq;frhj gupksq;nfhs; ghDuhr R+DNt       -              tpy;ypGj;JhuH

ehj tpe;Jf yhjPe Nkhek Ntj ke;jpunrh &gh eNkh ek
Qhd gz;bj rhkPe Nkhjk ntFNfhb
ehk rk;GF khuhe Nkhek Nghf me;jup ghyhe Nkhek
ehf ge;jk G+uh eNkh ek   guR+uH
Nrj jz;ltp Nehjhe Nkhek fPj fpq;fpzp ghjhe Nkhek
       mUzfpupehjH

fHt gupG+uz mfz;ljj; Jtkhd
rr;rpjhde;j rptNk
                                        jhAkhdtH

,e;jg; ghly;fspy; ,uz;nlhU jkpo;r; nrhw;fs; ePq;fyhf vQ;rpait ahTk; tlnkhopapy; ,Ug;gijf; fhzyhk;.  


 

fhye;NjhWk; jkpo; (6)

kiwkiy jkpokiy

gj;njhd;gjhk; Ehw;whz;by; jkpofk; Mq;fpNyaH Ml;rpf;F Kw;whf cl;gl;lJ. ,e;jf; fhyfl;lj;jpy; fpwpj;jt rka ,yf;fpa Ehy;fs; jkpo;ehl;by; rkag; gzpahw;w te;J FbNawpa Nkw;F ehl;L rkathjpfshy; vOjg;gl;ld.

,j;jhyp ehl;ilr; NrHe;j nwhNgHl; bnehgpyp vd;gtH QhNdhgNjr fhz;lk;> jj;Jtf; fz;zhb> Qhd jPgpif> ke;jpu khiy> VRehjH rupj;jpuk; Nghd;w Ehy;fis ,aw;wpdhH. ,d;ndhUtH tPukhKdptH vd;W Gfog;gl;l Nfhd;];nld;iud; NahNrg; ng];fp. ,tH jkpo; vOj;Jf;fspy; khw;wq;fisf; nfhz;L te;j nkhopawpQuhthH. ,tH jpUf;fhtYhH fyk;gfk;> milf;fy khiy> md;id mOq;fy; me;jhjp> fypntz;gh> fpj;Njupak;khd; mk;khid vd;w ghly; Ehy;fisAk;> njhd;Dhy; tpsf;fk; vd;w ,yf;fz EhiyAk; ,aw;wpdhH.

[p.A+. Nghg; vd;w Nghg; IaH ,q;fpyhe;J ehl;ilr; NrHe;jtH. Kjd Kjyhf jpUf;Fwis Mq;fpyj;jpy; nkhopngaHj;j ngUik ,tiuNa rhUk;. ehybahH> GwehDhW> Gwg;nghUs; ntz;ghkhiy kw;Wk; jpUthrfk; Mfpatw;wpy; ,Ue;J gy ghly;fis Mq;fpyj;jpy; nkhopngaHj;jtH. fhy;Lnty; IaH maHyhe;J ehl;ilr; NrHe;jtH. ,tNu jkpo;nkhop caHjdpr; nrk;nkhop vd;gij "jpuhtpl nkhopfspd; xg;gpyf;fzk;" vd;w Ehy; %yk; epiy ehl;batH. kw;Wk; ew;fUiz> jpahdkhiy> jpUney;Ntyp rupj;jpuk; Mfpa Ehy;fis ,aw;wpatUk; ,tNu.

gj;njhd;gjhk; Ehw;whz;Lf; ftpQHfs; tupirapy; jhAkhdtH> kPdhl;rp Re;juk;gps;is> ,uhkypq;f mbfshH Fwpg;gplj;jf;ftHfshtH.

"neQ;rNk Nfhtpy;> epidNt Rfe;jk; md;Ng
kQ;rd ePH - G+ir nra;a thuha; guhguNk"

vd;w jhAkhdhupd; ghly; tupfs; mtH midj;J ,lq;fspYk; ,iwtidf; fz;L neQ;rj;ijf; Nfhtpyhf;fp> epidit kzk; Mf;fp> md;ig kQ;rd ePuhf;fp G+ir nra;J topgl;lijf; fhl;LfpwJ.

,uhkypq;f mbfshH 'mUl;ngUk; Nrhjp jdpg;ngUk; fUiz' vd;w caupa Rj;j rd;khHf;f jj;Jtj;ij cyFf;F mspj;jtH. cUt tzf;fj;jpw;Fg; gjpy; xspiaAk;> NfhtpYf;Fg; gjpy; QhdrigiaAk; topghl;by; GFj;jpatH. ,tH ghba ghly;fs; midj;Jk; MW jpUKiwfshf tFj;J mtw;iwj; jpUtUl;gh vd;W toq;FtH. ,tuJ ghly;fs; ry ry vd jhsj;NjhL XLk; njs;spa ePNuhil Nghd;w nrOe;jkpopy; cs;sj;ij cUf itg;git. "thba gapiuf; fz;l Nghnjyhk; csk; thbNdd;"" vd;w thHj;ijfs; ahH neQ;irAk; nefpoitg;gd.

,e;j Ehw;whz;ilr; NrHe;j ,d;ndhU jkpowpQH Ntjehafk;gps;is. ,tH vOjpa gpujhgKjypahH rupj;jpuNk jkpopy; Njhd;wpa Kjy; ehtyhFk;.

'trdeil ifte;j ehtyH' vd;W Nghw;wg;gl;l aho;g;ghz MWKf ehtyH Gjpa ciueil ,yf;fpaj;jpw;F tpj;jpl;ltH. Ie;jhk; FutH vd kjpf;fg;gl;ltH. <oj;Jj; jkpo; ghuk;gupaj;jpw;F Gj;JapH Cl;batH. ehtyNu jpUKUfhw;Wg;gilf;F ciu vOjp Kjypy; ( 1853) gjpg;gpj;jtH. jpUtpisahlw; Guhzk;> ed;Dhw; fhz;baTiu> irtrka newp> Nfhapw; Guhzk;> kUJhH akfte;jhjp> R+lhkzp epfz;L> jpUf;NfhitahUiu Mfpatw;wpw;F ciu vOjpAk;> tpsf;fpAk;> jpUj;jpAk;> GJg;gpj;Jk; gjpg;gpj;jtH. nfhd;iwNte;jd;> thf;Fz;lhk; (%Jiu)> ey;top> ed;ndwp vdg;gLk; ePjp Ehy;fSf;F ciu vOjpatUk; ehtyNu. mtuJ jkpo; ciu eilf;F 1856k; Mz;L ehtyH Nahd; thy;ud; ghjpupahUf;F vOjpa kly; vLj;Jf;fhl;lhFk;.

"ehd; Qhd];jhdk; ngw;wpUg;gpd; vd;Dila Nritfspd; khjhe;jg; ngWkhdk; gj;Jg; gTz;. mJ ngwhhjjhy; vdf;F khjk; Kg;gJ &gh kl;Lk; nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. ,q;Fk; khjhe;jk; VO gTz; jpahfQ; nra;ag;gl;lij ePH fhzyhk;"
.
me;jf; fhyj;J ciueilf;F xg;g tlnkhopr; nrhw;fs; gytw;iw ehtyH gad;gLj;jp ,Ug;gij ehk; ftdpf;fyhk;.

jpU. rp.it. jhNkhjuk;;gps;is ehtyuJ rkfhyj;jtH. lhf;lH c.Nt. rhkpehijaH Nghd;W gioa rq;f ,yf;fpa Vl;Lr; Rtbfis Njbf; fz;L gpbj;Jg; gjpg;gpj;jtH. njhy;fhg;gpak; nghUs; mjpfhuj;ij gjpg;gpj;J ntspapl;l ngUik ,tUf;Fz;L.

gj;njhd;gjhk; Ehw;whz;by; jkpOf;Fj; msg;gupa gzpahw;wpatHfspy; kiwkiy mbfs; kiynad caHe;J epw;fpwhH. mbfs;; tlnkhop njd;nkhop Mq;fpyk; vd Kk;nkhopg; Gyik iftug; ngw;wtH. ,tNu jdpj; jkpo; ,af;fj;jpidj; Njhw;Wtpj;jtH MtH. Mrpupaj; njhopiy cjwpj; js;sptpl;L KONeu jkpo; Muha;r;rpapy; jd;id <LgLj;jpf; nfhz;ltH. gl;bdg;ghiy Muha;r;rp> Ky;iyg;ghl;L Muha;r;rp> rhFe;jy ehlf Muha;r;rp> khzpf;fthrfH fhyKk; tuyhWk;> jpUthrf tpupTiu ,tH vOjpa Ehy;fspy; rpythFk;. Kw;whfj; jdpj; jkpopy; vOj Kd;dUk;> vOjj; njhlq;fpa gpd;dUk; mtH ifahz;l ciueil gpd;tUkhW.

"jkpioj; Jh\pg;gNj tlnkhopg; gz;bjHfSf;F Ntiyahfp tpl;lJ. tlnkhop Xir eaj;ij ehNd urpg;gtd;jhd;. MapDk; jkpio ,fo;tJ jhia ,fo;tJ Nghy. jdpj; jkpo; vd;W Koq;FtJ jkpo; nkhopapd; ,dpik> Jha;ik> ,wthik fUjpNa! ehDk; Mq;fpyk;> tlnkhop Nghd;w gy nkhopfisf; fw;wtd; jhd;. gpwnkhopfisf; fw;gJ mwpT tsu! jkpiof; Fiw nrhy;;y my;y! muprpapy; fy; fyg;gJ Nghy; jkpopy; gpwnrhw;fisf; fyf;fhjPHfs;! jkpio vjpHj;Jg; gopg;gtHfSf;F vjpHj; jhf;Fjyhfj; jhd; mg;gb vOjpNdd;.! tlnkhopiaj; jho;j;jp> jkpio caHj;jp xg;G Nehf;fp vOjpdhy; jhd; jkpopd; kjpg;Gk;> mUikAk; njupfpd;wJ."

"gFj;jwpitf; nfhQ;rkhtJ gad;gLj;jp NahrpAq;fs;. mk;gythzd; gpr;ir vLg;ghuh? jhUfhtdj;J up\p gj;jpdpfsplk; jdpNa nrd;W NgRtjhtJ? vy;yhk; GSF %l;ilfs;. mk;gythzH vq;Fk; epiwe;jtH. kz;zhfp> xspahfp> clk;gha;> capuha; ek;ik ,af;FgtH. goj;Jf;fhf tpehafUk;> KUfDk; rz;il Nghl;ljhf xU fw;fid! vd;d Ntjid? ngw;NwhH nrhy;iyf; Nfshky; godp tiu Xbdhuhk;! gpd;dhNyNa Juj;jp te;jduhk;! mg;NghJ XupUtH fz;fspy; gl;bUf;f khl;lhHfsh? xU Fwg; ngz;iz kzf;f KUfd; gl;l ghl;ilr; nrhy;tij vg;gbg; Guhzk; vd;W Vw;gJ? rpytw;wpd; eaq;fisAk;> Kbr;Rf;fisAk; urpf;fyhk;. ek;g Ntz;Lk; vd;gjpy;iy!

jrhtjhuf; fijfSk; Ntjid juj; jf;fitNa! jpUkhy; ,ug;gjhtJ? Nriy jpULtjhtJ? vy;yhk; fl;Lf; fij."

kiwkiy mbfs; flTs; kWg;ghsH my;y. Mdhy; flTs; gw;wpa fl;Lf; fijfis ntWj;jtH. mtH xU irt rpj;jhe;jp. irt rkapfs; rptd; xUtidNa tzq;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gtH. Mya topghl;;by; mirf;f Kbahj ek;gpf;if cilatH. njd;ehl;by; mtH Nghfhj NfhtpNy fpilahJ vd;W $WthHfs;.

,dp mtuJ jdpj; jkpo; eiliag; ghHg;Nghk;. "ngw;w jha; jid kfd; kwe;jhYk;........" vd;W jkJ fk;gPukhd ,dpa Fuypy; ghLfpwhH Rthkp Ntjhryk;. ghl;L Kbe;J neL NeukhfpAk; mq;Nf nksdk; epyTfpwJ. gpwF "ePyh> ,e;jg; ghlypy; "cw;w Njfj;ij capH kwe;jhYk;" vd;W tUfpwNj! Njfj;jpw;Fg; gjpy; 'ahf;if' vd;gNj ey;y jkpo;> ,y;iyah?" vd;W mbfs; Nfl;lhH.   
 


 

fhye;NjhWk; jkpo; (7)

jdpj; jkpo; ,af;fk;

"Mkhk; mg;gh" vd;whs; kfs;.

"jkpopy; ,g;gbj;jhd; gpwnkhopr; nrhw;fs; fye;J tpLfpd;wd. muprpapy; fyf;Fk; fy;iyg; Nghy! ,J Mgj;jhdJ."

"Vdg;gh jdpj; jkpopy; NgrTk;> vOjTk; ehNk topfhl;bahf ,Ue;jhy; vd;d?"

"nka;jhd; ngz;Nz! ,dp vd; ngaH Rthkp Ntjhryk; my;y> kiwkiy mbfs;. (Ntjk; -kiw> mryk; - kiy> Rthkp - mbfs;) ,dp ,g;gbNa ifnahg;gk; ,LNtd;. ehk; elhj;Jk; "rkur rd;khHf;f epiyak;" "nghJ epiyf; fofk;" vd ,dp miof;fg;gLk;. ekJ "Qhd rhfuk;" gj;jpupif "mwpTf; fly;" vd;W ngaH khw;wg;gLk;!"

jdpj;jkpo; tsHr;rpf;F kiwkiy mbfshH (fp.gp. 1876-1950) Mw;wpa njhz;L msg;gupaJ. mtH kl;Lk; gpwe;jpuNuy; ,d;Wk; jkpo; ciueilapy; rupghjp tlnkhopr; nrhw;fs; ,lk; ngw;W jkpopd; ,dpik> ePHik> Jha;ik ,tw;iwf; nfLj;jpUf;Fk;.
kiwkiy mbfshH mtHfsJ jdpj; jkpo;j; njhz;ilg; ghuhl;b nkhopQhapW
NjtNeag; ghthzH-

"%thapuk; Mz;L NkhJk; tlnkhopahw;
rhthe; jirepd;w jz;lkpio- Nkthf;
Fkupj; jdpepiyf;Ff; nfhz;Lte;j mg;gH
mkuH kiwkiy ahH"

vdg; ghuhl;bg; Nghw;wpdhH.

Mdhy; ,d;iwa ciueilapYk; tlnkhopr; nrhw;fs; Mq;fhq;F ,lk;ngWtijf; fhzf; $bajhf ,Uf;fpwJ. rpyH njupe;Jk;> gyH njupahkYk; mjhtJ tlnkhopr; nrhw;fs; vit? njd;nkhopr; nrhw;fs; vit? vd;w Ntw;Wik njupahky; mg;gb vOJfpwhHfs;.
"jdpj;jkpo; xypgug;G" vd;W Koq;fpf; nfhz;L gpui[ (Fbkfd;)> re;Njh\k; (kfpo;r;rp)> tp[ak; (tUif)> Ngl;b (nrt;tp)> tpyhrk; (Kftup) Nghd;w tlnkhopr; nrhw;fis gad;gLj;JfpwhHfs;.

irtk; vd;wTld; mz;ikapy; ehd; gbj;j xU Nfhtpy; FlKOf;F mwptpj;jy; epidtpw;F tUfpwJ.

Nfhtpypd; ngaH " turpj;jp tpehafH Njt];jhdk;." ,e;jg; ngaupy; kUe;Jf;Fk; jkpo; ,y;iy. mLj;J tUtJ "k`h Fk;ghgpN\fg; ngUtpoh tpQ;Qhgdk;." ,jpy; ngUtpoh vd;w nrhy;iyj; jtpu Vidait tlnkhopr; nrhw;fs;. FlKOf;F vd;w Jha jkpo;r; nrhy; ,Uf;f Fk;ghtpN\fk; vd;w nrhy; gad;gLj;jg; gl;Ls;sJ. mJ Nghyj;jhd; tpQ;Qhgdk; vd;w nrhy;Yk;.

,tw;iwapl;L "nghJ Nkilapy;" ,jw;F Kd;dUk; gyKiw vOjpapUf;fpNwd;. Mdhy; rk;ge;jg;gl;ltHfs; "eP vOJfpwij vOJ! ehq;fs; ,g;gbj;jhd; vOjp vq;fs; tlnkhopg; gw;iwAk;> jkpo;nkhopg; gw;wpd;ikiaAk; giwaiwNthk;" vd;W mlk; gpbf;fpwhHfs;! ,jpy; tpag;gpy;iy. Vnddpy; "irtKk; jkpOk; xd;W" vd;W nrhy;fpwtHfs;  ntWkNd

"$l;lj;jpy; $bepd;W $tpg; gpjw;wypd;wp
ehl;lj;jpy; nfhs;shub! - fpspNa!
ehspy; kwg;ghub!"

vd;w ghujpahupd; ghly; tupfSf;F ,yf;fpakhf tpsq;FfpwhHfs;!

,e;J rkaj;jpYk;> mjd; cl;gpupthd irtrkaj;jpYk; jpuhtplf; $Wfs; FiwthfTk;> Mupaf; $Wfs; ngUksthfTk; ,Ug;gjhy; tlnkhopr; nrhw;fs; ,lk;ngWtJ jtpHf;f KbahjJ vd;gJ cz;ikjhd;. Ntjk; rhHe;j rkaf; $Wfs; MupaHfSf;Fk;> Ntjk; rhuhjJ rkaf; $Wfs; jpuhtplHfSf;Fk; cupaJ.

ehy;Ntjj;ij tpl;LtpLNthk;> irtrpe;jhj;jpy; ifahsg;gLfpw mRj;j khia> ml;l%Hj;jk;> mj;Jthf;fs;> mj;Jtpjk;> mtj;ij> Md;kh> fd;kk;> Nftyk;> jrfhupak;> Jupak;> gj;jp> rupif> fpupif> Nahfk;> Qhdk; Nghd;w nrhw;fs; tlnkhopr; nrhw;fNs. jpUke;jpuk; xd;gJ gpupTfshfg; gpupf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. xt;nthd;Wk; je;jpuk; vd;W vd toq;fg;gLfpwJ. mitnay;yhk; tlnkhopr; nrhw;fNs.

    Kjy; je;jpuk;          -  fhuz Mfkk;
    ,uz;lhk; je;jpuk;       -  fhkpf Mfkk;
    %d;whk; je;jpuk;        -  tPu Mfkk;
    ehd;fhk; je;jpupk;       -  rpe;jp Mfkk;
    Ie;jhk; je;jpuk;        -  thJs Mfkk;
Mwhk; je;jpuk;         - tpahks Mfkk;
Vohk; je;jpuk;          - fhNyhj;ju Mfkk;
vl;lhk; je;jpuk;        - Rg;gpuNgj Mfkk;
xd;gjhtJ je;jpuk;     - kFl Mfkk;

,Ue;Jk; ey;y jkpo;r; nrhw;fs; ,Uf;f type;J rkaj;jpd; Nguhy; tlnkhopr; nrhw;fisg; GFj;JtJ fz;bfj; jf;fjhFk;.

jkpo;r; nrhw;fs; ,Uf;f tlnkhopr; nrhw;fisg; gad;gLj;jpdhy; ,Uf;fpw jkpo;r; nrhw;fs; tof;fpoe;J Ngha;tpLk;. mJ kl;Lk; my;yhky; Gjpa fiyr; nrhw;fs; jkpopy; Njhd;w topAk;> tha;g;Gk; ,y;yhkYk; Ngha;tpLk;. jkpo;nkhop fle;j gy Ehw;whz;L fhykhf Ml;rpnkhopahf ,y;yhJ tPl;L nkhopahf ,Ue;J tpl;ljhy; jkpo;nkhop tsHr;rp ngUksT jilgl;Lg; Ngha;tpl;lJ. ,Ue;j nrhw;fSk; ,we;J Nghf> Gjpa nrhw;fSk; gpwf;fj; jtwpd. jkpoHfsJ Nfhtpy;fspy; jkpo;nkhop NfhtpYf;F ntspg;Gwj;jpy; "jPz;lg;glhj" nkhopahf itf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ ,e;jj; jho;Tf;F ,d;ndhU fhuzkhFk;.

fhQ;rp fhkNfhb gPlj;ijj; njupahj ,e;Jf;fs; ,Uf;f khl;lhHfs;. mj;Jitj Nfhl;ghl;il Kd;itj;jtUk;> re;epahr FUguk;giuia Njhw;Wtpj;jtUkhd Mjprq;fuuhy; (8 Mk; Ehw;whz;L) Muk;gpf;fg;gl;l kjgPlq;fspy; fhQ;rpAk; xd;nwd;W nryhy;yg;gLfpwJ. ,e;jg; gPlj;jpd; klhjpgjp rq;fuhr;rhhpahH jkpo;nkhop gw;wp vd;d epidf;fpwhH?

jkpo; "ePr ghi\" tlnkhop "Njt ghi\" vd tha; $rhJ nrhy;fpwhH. ,jd; tpupit mLj;j fpoik ghHg;Nghk;.  
 


fhye;NjhWk; jkpo; (8)

jkpo; Nfl;Fk; jpUr;nrtpf;Nf

"jkpNohL ,ir ghly; kwe;jwpNad;" vd;W ,iwtidr; nre;jkpohy; topgl;ltH jpUehTf;fuR ehadhH. "nra;a jkpo; khiyfs; ehk; njspa Xjpj; njspahj kiw epyq;fs; njspjy; Ntz;Lk;"" vd;W Mo;thHfs; ghbf; fspj;jhHfs;." vd;W gpwe;jtNsh ve;jkpo;j;jha;" vd;Wk;> "thdk; mwpe;j midj;Jk; mwpe;jpLk; tz;nkhop thopaNt!" vd;Wk; Nghw;wpatH kfhftp ghujpahH.

mg;gUk;> Re;juUk;> MSilg;gps;isahUk; ghba Njthuj; jkpo; nkhopia ,iwtd; Vw;wUspdhd;> mg;gbg;gl;l ,iwtd; jd;nkhopiaAk; Vw;Wf; nfhs;thuh vd;W Vq;FfpwhH jhAkhd mbfs;.

"Njtnuy;yhk; njhoj; rpte;j nre;jhs; Kf;fl;
nrq;fUk;Ng nkhopf;F nkhop jpj;jpg;ghf
%tH nrhYk; jkpo;Nfl;Fk; jpUr; nrtpf;Nf
%lNdd; Gyk;gpa nrhy; Kw;W khjhd;"

,iwtd; jdJ jpUl;nrtpahy; Nfl;L kfpo;e;j jkpioj;jhd; fhQ;rp fhkNfhbgPl rq;fuhr;rhupahH "ePrghi\" vdf; nfhr;irg;gLj;JfpwhH. mJ Mz;ltd; jpUr;nrtpf;F MfhJ vd;fpwhH. %tuJk;> mUz;nkhopthrfiuAk; NrHj;J ehy;tuJk;> jhAkhdhuJk; jkpo; Nfl;Fk; ,iwtd; jpUl;nrtpf;F rk];fpUje;jhd; gpbf;Fk;> jkpo; gpbf;fhJ vd;W n[ff;FU rq;fuhr;rhupahH Mztj;NjhL nrhy;fpwhH.

Ml;rpnkhopf; fhtyH fp. ,uhkypq;fdhH - fhQ;rp khefupy; mur Ntiy njhlHghf NgRtjw;F fhQ;rp rq;fuklk; nrd;W fhQ;rpg; ngupatUld; ciuahbdhH. mtH (fhQ;rpg; ngupatH) jd;Dld; jdf;F tpsq;fhj rk];fpUj nkhopapNy Ngrpaijf; Nfl;L ,uhkypq;fdhH jpifj;Jg; NghdhH. mUfpy; ,Ue;jtiug; ghHj;J "Rthkpfs; Vd; jkpopy; ciualhky; rk];fpUjj;jpy; NgRfpwhH" vd;W Nfl;lhH. mjw;F mtH "kjpak; gd;dpuz;nliu kzpf;F re;jpu kTyP];tuH G+ir elf;fpwJ. mJtiu Rthkpfs; ePr ghi\apy; Ngrkhl;lhHfs;" vd;whH.

,Jjhd; jkpo; nkhopgw;wp jkpo;ehl;Lg; ghHg;gdHfsJ nghJthd kNdhepiy. jkpio "ePr ghi\" vd;W jkpo;ehl;L cg;igj; jpd;Wnfhz;L> jkpo;ehl;by; XLk; fhNtup> itif Mw;Wj; jz;zPiuf; Fbj;Jf; nfhz;L ,Ug;gtHfs;> ,tHfs; rhkhdpaH my;y flTs; mtjhuk; vdf; nfhz;lhlg; gLgtHfs;. ,t;tstpw;Fk; "Njtghi\" vd;W rq;fuhr;rhupahH Nghw;Wk; tlnkhop nrj;jnkhop. ,d;W New;wy;y ,w;iwf;F 2>500 Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dNu rk];fpUjk; ,we;J tpl;lJ. ,g;NghJ EhW Nfhb kf;fs; nfhz;l ,e;jpahtpy; rk];fpUjk; NgRNthH 500f;Fk; FiwthfNt fhzg;gLfpwhHfs;.

"Njtghi\" vd;why; mJ Vd; rhfNtz;Lk; vd;W ahUk; rpe;jpj;Jg; ghHg;gjhfj; njupatpy;iy. fhQ;rp rq;fuhr;rhupahH rpe;jpj;Jg; ghHg;gjhfj; njupatpy;iy.

R+L> nrhuiz nfhQ;rKk; ,y;yhj jkpoHfs; nrj;jnkhopahd rk];fpUj ke;jpuq;fisr; nrtpkLj;Jf; nfhz;L ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. jkpio ePr ghi\ vd;gtHfs;> mtHfs; klhjpgjpfshf ,Ue;jhYk; rup> me;j kNfrdpd; 'gpujpepjpfshf" ,Ue;jhYk; rup mtHfSf;F jkpo; ehl;by; vd;d Ntiy vd;W Nfl;f kWf;fpwhHfs;. fhQ;rp fhkNfhbgPl rq;fuhr;rhupahH kl;Lk; my;y. ,g;NghJs;s rq;fuhr;rhupahH ngupaths; ru];tjp n[Nae;jpuH vd;d nrhy;fpwhH?"

"jkpo; mUr;rid nkhopahf ,Ug;gjw;Fj; jFjpaw;wJ. jkpo;nkhop kd cUf;fj;jpw;fhd xU nkhop. Mdhy; Md;k Rj;jpf;F mJ Vw;wjy;y. mjw;Fr; rk];fpUjNk Vw;wJ. Nfhapy; G+ir> tPl;Lg; G+ir> tPl;by; elf;Fk; rlq;Ffs;> Nfhapypy; elf;Fk; tpNrlq;fs; Mfpa kd cUf;fj;jpw;fhf Vw;gl;ljy;y. Md;khtpd; Rj;jpf;fhf Vw;gl;lJ. Mjyhy; mtutH nra;a Ntz;ba rlq;Ffs; vy;yhk; rk];fpUj nkhopapy;> G+rpf;fj; jFe;j nkhopapy; fhupaq;fs;> rlq;Ffs; eil ngWfpd;wd. eilngw Ntz;Lk;"" vd;fpwhH.
md;W rPHfhop jpUf;Fsf; fiuapy; cikak;ik ey;fpa rptQhd mKjj;ij cz;l Qhdrk;ge;jupd; tha;kyupy; gpwe;jJ nja;tj; jPQ;Ritj; jkpo;g; ghlyh? my;yJ ru];tjp n[Nae;jpuH Nghw;Wk; rk];fpUjkh?

rptQhdkhd ,d;dKjj;ij cz;ljhy; Qhdk; iftug;ngw;w MSilg;gps;isahH> rptk; kzf;Fk; nre;jkpo;g; gjpfq;fisg; ghb ,iwtdpd; rpwg;ig ghnuy;yhk; gug;gpdhH. gf;jp newpf;F fhw;Nfhs; ehl;bdhH. ,jid jz;lghzp Rthkpfs; -

"rPfhop CHj;jlk; ngha;iff; fiuapy;
rpwpJ mOj thfhUk; Nra;f;F
cikey;fpa ghypd; kJuk; - md;gH
Nrhfhe;juk; nflj; jkpoha;te;J Jyq;fpw;wd;Nw"

"jkpoha; te;J Jyq;fpw;wd;Nw" vd;fpwhH.

G+irf;F Vw;w nkhop rPH,sikj; jpwk;gilj;j jkpoy;y> nrj;jnkhop rk];fpUj;jj;jpw;Nf cz;L vd;W nrhy;Yk; ru];tjp n[Nae;jpu rq;fuhr;rhupahH NkYk; nrhy;fpwhH. "G+irfs; vy;NyhUk; nra;a KbahJ. mjw;fhd jFjpAk; jpwikAk; cilatHfNs G+irfs; nra;a KbAk;."

"G+irfs; nra;tjw;F jFjpAk; jpwikAk; cilatHfNs G+irfs; nra;a KbAk;" vd;gJ rupjhd;. Mdhy; me;jj; jFjp jpwik gpwg;ghy; tUfpwJ vd;W ,e;J kjk; nrhy;tijj;jhd; mwpTilNahHfshy; Vw;f Kbahky; ,Uf;fpwJ. jFjp> jpwik rPyj;jhy;> xOf;fj;jhy;> Mrhuj;jhy;> md;ghy;> mUshy;> vy;yhtw;wpw;Fk; Nkyhfg; gbg;ghy; tuNtz;Lk;.

cyfpy; cs;s rkaq;fspy; ,e;J kjk; xd;Wjhd; xU Fwpg;gpl;l rhjpahH kl;LNk (Mfkk; mg;gbr; nrhy;ytpy;iy vd;fpwhHfs;) G+ir nra;aj; jFjpGk; jpwikAk; gilj;jtHfs; vd;W $WfpwJ. kw;w kjq;fspy; mg;gbahd epge;jidfisg;; ghHf;f KbahJ.

jkpoHfsJ Nfhtpy;fspy; jkpo; xJf;fg;gl;L "Njt ghi\" vd;W rq;fuhr;rhupahH $Wk; tlnkhop Njhj;jpu nkhopahff; nfhs;sg;gl;ljpdhy; jkpo;nkhop "ePrghi\ahf"> "jPz;lg;glhj" nkhopahfp tpl;lJ. rk];fpUj nkhopapd; ,e;j Nkyhz;ikahy; tpise;j NfLfs; vitnait? mtw;iw mLj;j fpoik ghHg;Nghk;.    
 


fhye;NjhWk; jkpo; (9)

tlnkhopahy; jkpOf;F  Vw;gl;l NfL!

jkpo;nkhop njYq;F fd;dlk; kiyahsk; vdg; gynkhopfshfg; gpupe;jJ. tlf;Nf Ntq;;flk; Kjy; njw;Nf Fkuptiu gue;J tpupe;J fple;j jkpofj;jpd; vy;iyfs; RUq;fpd.

jkpofj;jpd; CHg;ngaHfs; khw;wg;gl;ld. flTs; ngaHfs; khw;wg;gl;ld. jpUKJFd;wk; tpUj;jhryk; MdJ. jpUkiwf;fhL Ntjhuzpak; MdJ. Fl%f;F Fk;gNfhzk; Mf khwpaJ. rpw;wk;gyk; rpjk;guk; Mapw;W. kapyhLJiw khA+uk; Mapw;W. jkpoPoj;jpy; cs;s fPupkiy eFNy];tuk; Mapw;W.

flTs;fspd; ngaHfs; khw;wg;gl;ld. ngUTilahH gpujP];tuH MdhH. gokiy ehjH tpUj;j fpuP];tuH MdhH. mz;zhkiyahH m&zhrNy];tuH MdhH. mwk;tsHj;j ehafp jHktHj;jdp MdhH.

jdpj;jkpopy; ,Ue;j rq;f fhy kd;dHfs; ngaH tlnkhop kag;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. ,sQ;Nruy;> nrq;Fl;Ltd;> neLQ;nropad;> eyq;fps;sp> neLq;fps;sp> fupfhyd; Nghd;w ngaHfs; kiwe;J uh[uh[d;> uhN[e;jpud;> uh[Nfrup> guNfrup> khwtHkd;> rilatHkd;> nrfuh[Nrfud;> guuh[Nrfud; Nghd;w ngaHfs; tof;Ff;F te;jd.

kf;fs; ngaHfs; khw;wk; mile;jd. jdpj; jkpo;g; ngaHfs; kiwe;jd. ts;StH> guzH> fgpyH> ef;fPud;> khq;Fb kUjdhH> G+q;Fd;wd;> G+je;NjtdhH> xsitahH> fhkf;fz;zpahH> fz;zk;kh> G+q;Nfhij> kyHtpop> my;yp kiwe;J \z;Kfk;> Rg;gpukzpak;> uh[R+upaH> uh[tNuhjaH> =];fe;juh[h> guNk];tud;> uhkrhkp> y\;kp> ru];tjp> =Njtp> rNuh[pdp> rptuhN[];tup> rptNahNf];tup vdg; ngaHfs; Njhd;wpd.

,ijtplf; nfhLik ,g;NghJ ngw;NwhHfs; ve;j nkhopnad;W mWjpapl;Lr; nrhy;y Kbahj nkhopfspy; jq;fs; gps;isfSf;F fd;dh gpd;dh vdg; ngaH itf;fpwhHfs;. ,y;iy itj;Jj; njhiyf;fpwhHfs;.

Mrh> Nfhrh> A+Nudpah> epNuh[h> tp[pjh> eprhzp> c]e;jpah> eHrpyh> uf;rpfh> jf;\p> tpJrhe;> [ddp> Jf;\p> R[hfpdp> tpNdh[d;> rkA+updp> rn[e;jpdp Nghd;w Mapuf;fzf;fhd nghUs; ,y;yhj> Kl;lhs;jdkhd ngaHfis itg;gJjhd; ,d;iwa ehfupfk; vdj; jkpo;g; gw;W mwNt ,y;yhj gy ngw;NwhHfs; epidf;fpwhHfs;.

Nghjhf;Fiwf;F Nrhjpld; my;yJ Nfhapy; ma;aH gpwe;j el;rj;jpuj;ijg; nghWj;J b> W> Nyh> l. u> l Nghd;w vOj;Jf;fspy; Muk;gpf;Fk; ngaHfis itf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W gQ;rhq;fj;ijg; ghHj;Jr; rhj;jpuk; nrhy;fpwhd;. mijf; Nfl;Fk; %lg; ngw;NwhHfs; ,g;gb myq;Nfhykhd ngaHfisj; jq;fs; gps;isfSf;F itj;Jj; njhiyf;fpwhHfs;!

,d;Dk; md;whl tho;tpy; gad;gLj;jg;gLk; Mapuf; fzf;fhd nrhw;fs; tlnkhop Mapd. epyk; G+kpahdJ. ePH [yk;; MdJ. neUg;G mf;fpdpahdJ. fhw;W thAthdJ. thdk; Mfhrk; MdJ je;ijAk; jhAk; khjh gpjh MdhHfs;. ngz; ];jPup Mapw;W. thzpfk; tHj;jfk; Mapw;W. rpwg;G tpNr\k; Mapw;W> jpq;fs; khjk; Mapw;W. Mz;L tU\khapw;W. fpoik thuk; Mapw;W. mq;fhb tpahghujyk; Mapw;W. %j;j kfs; rpNu\;l Gj;jpup Mapw;W. %j;j kfd; rpNu\;l Gj;jpud; Mapw;W. JiztpahH ghupahH Mapw;W. mwk; jHkk; Mapw;W.

,d;Wk; jpUkz miog;gpjopy; "vdJ rpNu\;l Gj;jpup" "vdJ fdp\;l Gj;jpud;" vd;Wk; tho;j;Jf;F 'MrPHthjk;" vd;Wk; NghLk; jkpo;g; giftHfisg; ghHf;fpNwhk;.
jkpod; gpwg;gJ Kjy; ,wg;gJ tiuapyhd midj;Jr; rlq;FfSk; ghHg;gdHfshy;> ghHg;gd Kiwg;gb> ghHg;gdH nkhopahd rk];fpUjj;jpy; elj;jg; gLfpwJ. ,jdhy; jkpoupd; gz;ghL mopf;fg;gl;L Mupag; gz;ghL epiy ehl;lg; gLfpwJ.

Myaq;fspy; ghHg;gdH mHr;rfH MapdH. jpUf;Nfhapy;fspy; jkpo; topghL kiwe;J rk];fpUj topghL eilngWfpwJ. Nfhapy; njhlHghd midj;J epfo;r;rpfspYk; jPz;lj; jfhj nkhopahfj; jkpo; jho;epiy va;jpaJ. cw;rtk;> gpuk;Nkhw;rtk;> mgpN\fk;> Fk;ghgpN\fk;> jPghuhjid> jt[];jk;gk; vd midj;Jk; rk];fpUj kak; Mapd.

,ir rk];fpUjkag; gLj;jg;gl;lJ. rq;fPjk;> rhfpj;jpak;> fr;Nrup> fhNyl;rk;> MNuhf;fzk;> mtNuhf;fzk;> uhfk;> jhsk;> ghtk; vdr; rk];fpUjg; ngaHfs; Mapd.
goe;jkpo;g; gz;fs;> Njthu jpUthrfj;jpy; fhzg;gLk; gz;fspd; njhif 103. mit midj;Jk; rq;fuhguzk;> fhdlh> mlhdh> Kfhup> rpe;J igutp vd;gd Nghd;w rk];fpUjg; ngaHfshf khw;wg; ngw;wd.

jkpo;ehl;by; ehuj fhdrgh> fpU\;z rgh> uQ;rdp rgh> jpahf gpuk;k fhd rgh vd rk];fpUj nkhopapy; rghf;fs; Njhd;wpd. mq;Nf njYq;Ff; fPHj;jidfSk;> rk];fpUjg; ghly;fSk; ghlg;gLfpd;wd. ,irauR jz;lghzp NjrpfH jpahifaH tpohtpy; jkpopy; ghbajhy; Nkil jPl;lhfptpl;lJ vd;W ghHg;gdHfs; NghHf;nfhb caHj;jpdhHfs;. jPl;ilj; Jilj;jhy; xopa Nkilapy; ghl khl;Nlhk; vd;W ghHg;gdHfs; rz;il gpbj;jhHfs;.

,J vq;Nf Me;jpuhtpy; my;yJ fHehlfj;jpy; ele;jJ vd;why; ,y;iy. jkpo;ehl;L jQ;ir kz;zpy; ele;jJ! jkpo; kz;zpy; epd;W nfhz;Nl jkpOf;F vjpuhfg; NghHf; nfhb!

rkak;> rpj;j kUj;Jtk;> jj;Jtk;> Nahfk; Nghd;w Jiwfspy; jkpo;nkhop gy;yhapuk; fiyr; nrhw;fis ,oe;J tpl;lJ. me;jr; nrhw;fs; ,Ue;j ,lj;jpy; rk];fpUjr; nrhw;fs; GFe;Jtpl;ld. mg;gbg; GFe;j nrhw;fs;jhd; %yr;nrhw;fs; vdj; Jzpe;J ngha;Aiufs; gug;gg;gl;ld.

jkpo;nkhopapy; tlnkhop ,yf;fz kuGfs; Eiof;fg; gl;ld. tlnkhop ,yf;fzq;fisg; gpd;gw;wp tPuNrhopak;> Nekpehjk;> gpuNahf tpNtfk;> ,yf;fzf; nfhj;J Nghd;w ,yf;fz Ehy;fs; Njhd;wpd. ,e;Ehy;fshy; njhy;fhg;gpa kuG mopf;fg; gl;lJ. jkpopd; Jha;ik nfLf;fg; gl;lJ.

 


fhye;NjhWk; jkpo; (10)

jkpo; ,yf;fpaq;fspy; ,ilr; nrUfy;!
 
jkpopy; cs;s ,yf;fpaq;fspy; thdsht caHe;J epw;gJ jpUf;FwNs. njhy;fhg;gpak; jkpo; nkhopapd; Jha;ik fhg;ghw;wg; gLtjw;fhf vOg;gg; gl;l ,yf;fz Ntypnad;why; jpUf;Fws; jkpo; kf;fspd; gz;ghl;ilf; fl;bf; fhf;fg; Nghl;l ,yf;fpa NtypahFk;.

jpUf;FwSf;F cs;s gy rpwg;Gf;fspy; mJ vy;yh ,dj;jtUf;Fk;> kjj;jtUf;Fk;> kjkw;wtUf;Fk; xU nghJ Ehy; vd;gJ kpfg; ngupajhFk;. jpUf;Fwspy; flTs;> kjk;> jkpo;> jkpod; vd;w nrhy;yhl;rpiaf; fhzKbahJ.

Vd; jpUf;Fws; flTs; tho;j;NjhLjhNd njhlq;FfpwJ? vd;W rpyH Nfs;tp vOg;gyhk;. cz;ik vd;dntd;why; flTs; vd;w nrhy; me;jf; flTs; tho;j;J mjpfhuj;jpy; ,y;iy. jpUf;Fwspy; fhzg;gLk; 133 mjpfhuq;fspy; ,e;j Kjy; mjpfhuj;jpy; kl;LNk me;j mjpfhuj;jpy; fhzg;gLk; gj;Jf; Fws;fspy; fhzg;glhj flTs; vd;w nrhy; mjpfhuj;jpd; jiyg;ghf vLj;jhsg; gl;bUf;fpwJ. Vida midj;J mjpfhuq;fSk; me;je;j mjpfhuq;fspy; fhzg;gLk; nrhy; xd;iwNa mjpfhuj; jiyg;Gf;Fk; nfhLf;fg; gl;Ls;sJ. ,e;j flTs; tho;j;J mjpfhuk; gpw;fhyj;jpy; nra;ag;gl;l ,ilr;nrUfyhf ,Uf;fyhk; vd;gJ mwpQHfsJ fUj;jhFk;.

FWe;njhif> GwehDhW Nghd;w vl;Lj; njhifEhy;fSf;F Muk;gj;jpy; flTs; tho;j;J ,Uf;ftpy;iy. gpd;dH te;j ghujk; ghba ngUe;NjtdhNu mtw;wpw;F flTs; tho;j;Jg; ghbapUf;fpwhH. ,jdhy; GwehDhw;wpy; 400f;Fg; gjpy; 401 ghly;fs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.

rq;ffhyj; jkpoHfsplk; nja;t topghL ,Ue;jJ. Mdhy; flTs; topghL ,Uf;ftpy;iy. mjhtJ vy;yhk;ty;y> vy;yhk; njupe;j> vy;yhtw;iwAk; fle;J epd;w xU guk;nghUs; gw;wpa vz;zNkh rpe;jidNah rkaNkh rq;f fhyj; jkpouplk; ,Ue;jjpy;iy. nja;tk; vd;w nrhy; kdpjHfspy; caHe;jtd;> itaj;jpy; tho;thq;F tho;e;jtd; (NjtH) vd;w nghUspy; gad;gLj;jg; gl;Ls;sJ.

jpUf;Fwspd; Kjy; mjpfhuk; Kjy; Fwspy; tUk; "Mjp gftd;" vd;w nrhy; ,uz;Lk; tlnkhopr; nrhw;fNs! flTs;> ,iwtd; Nghd;w jdpj; jkpo;r; nrhw;fs; ,Uf;f ts;StH vLj;j vLg;gpNyNa Mjp gftd; vd;w nrhw;fis jdJ Ehypy; gad;gLj;jp ,Ug;ghNuh vd;gJ IakhFk;> NkYk; flTs; mehjp vd;gJjhd; vy;yhr; rkaj;jhuJ (Gj;jk;> rkzk; ePq;fyhf) nfhs;ifahFk;. mg;gbapUf;f ts;StH Mjp (njhlf;fk;) cs;stH vd;w nghUspy; flTs; tho;j;Jf; $WtJ nghUj;jkh vd;gJ rpe;jpf;fj; jf;fJ.

,tw;iw ehd; ,q;F $w Ntz;ba fhuzk; irt> itzt> rkz> ngsj;j kjj;jpdH vy;NyhUk; jq;fs; jq;fs; kjf; NfhLfSf;Fs; jpUts;Stiu milf;f vLf;Fk; Kaw;rpNa. kiwkiy mbfs; $l ts;StH xU irtH vd epiy epWj;j kpfTk; ghLgl;Ls;shH. (ghHf;fTk; - kiwkiyabfshH ciu kzpf;Nfhit)

,J$lg; gUthapy;iy. NTW rpyH jpUf;Fwspd; mwj;Jg; ghy; kD ePjpiag; ghHj;J vOjg;gl;lJ. nghUl;ghy; rhzf;fpaupd; mHj;j rhj;jpuj;ijg; ghHj;J vOjg; gl;lJ. fhkj;Jg;ghy; thj;rhadupd; fhkR+j;jpuj;ijg; ghHj;J vOjg; gl;lJ vd;W jpUts;StiuAk;> jpUf;FwisAk; ,opT gLj;j Kidfpd;wdH.R+upaehuhaz rh];jpup vd;w tlnkhopg; ngaiu gupjpkhw; fiyQH vd khw;wk; nra;j jkpowpQH jkpo; tuyhW vd;w Ehy; xd;wpid vOjpAs;shH. mjpy; fPo;tUkhW vOjpAs;shH.

"ghHg;gdHfs; jkpoHfspd; kiwEhy;> ke;jpu Ehy; Nghd;w mupa Ehy;fisr; rk];fpUjj;jpy; nkhop ngaHj;Jf; nfhz;L %y Ehy;fis vy;yhk; mopj;J tpl;L tlnkhopapdpd;Nw mt;tupa 13 fUj;Jf;fs; te;jd Nghyf; fhl;bdhHfs;." mt;thW rk];fpUjj;jpy; nkhopngaHf;Fk; NghJk;> gioa RtbapypUe;J Gjpa Rtbf;F ,lkhw;wk; nra;Ak; NghJk; ,ilr; nrUfyhfj; jq;fs; fUj;ijAk; mjpy; Vw;wp tpl;ldH.

nkhopngaHg;gpd; NghJ kl;Lk; my;yhJ Vl;Lr; Rtbfis mr;Rthfdk; Vw;wpg; gjpg;gpj;j Neuj;jpYk; ,ilr; nrUf;fy;fisr; ghHg;gdHfs; nra;jpUf;fpwhHfs;.

GwehDhw;iwg; gjpg;gpj;j c.Nt. rhkpehj IaH GwehDhw;wpy; Myj;JhH fpohH vd;w rq;fg; GytH FsKw;wj; JQ;rpa fps;sp tstd; gw;wp ghba 34 tJ ghlypy; fhzg;gl;l "FutHj; jg;gpa nfhLikNahHf;Fk;" vd;w tupapy; tUk; "FutH;" vd;w nrhy;iy "ghHg;ghH;" vd khw;wptpl;lhH. ,e;jj; jpUj;jk; gupNkyofH fhyj;jpNyNa nra;ag;gl;L tpl;lJ vd;gJ jpUf;Fws; ciuahw; fhzg;gLtjhf xsit R.Jiur;rhkpg; gps;is mtHfs; vOjpa tpsf;fTiuAld; irtrpe;jhe;j Ehw;gjpg;Gf; fofk; gjpg;gpj;J ntspapl;l GwehDhw;wpy; nrhy;yg;gl;Ls;sJ ( gf;fk; 97). ftpQH fz;zjhrDk; ,e;j khw;wk; ele;jij vLj;Jf; fhl;bapUf;fpwhH (ghHf;f fz;zjhrdpd; ",yf;fpa Aj;jq;fs;"). %yg; ghlypd; Kjy; Ie;J tupfs; ,J.

"Md;Kiy aWj;j mwdp NyhHf;Fk;
khzpio kfspH fUr;rpijj; NjhHf;Fk;
FutHj; jg;gpa nfhLik NahHf;Fk;
tOtha; kUq;fpw; fOthA Ksntd
epyk;Gil ngaHt jhapD nkhUtd;
nra;jp............................................
                        (Gwk; 34)

Md;Kiy aWj;j mwdp NyhHf;Fk; - gRtpdJ Kiyahw; ngWk; gaidf; nfLj;j jPtp idahsHf;Fk;.

khzpio kfspH fUr;rpijj; NjhHf;Fk; - khl;rpikg;gl;l Mguzj;ijAila ngz;fsJ fU rpijj;NjhHf;Fk;.

FutHj; jg;gpa nfhLik NahHf;Fk; - je;ij jhahiug; gpioj;j nfhLe; njhopiy cil NahHf;Fk;.

tOtha; kUq;fpw; fOthA Ksntd - mtH nra;j ghjfj;ij MuhAkpilj;J mtw;iw g; Nghf;Fk; topAk; csntdTk;.

epyk;Gil ngaHt jhapD nkhUtd; - epyk; Nky; fPoha; khwpdhYk;.

xd;Wf;F Nkw;gl;l GwehDhw;Wr; Rtbfs; ,Ue;jgbahy; ,e;j ,ilr; nrUfiy clNd fz;L gpbf;f Kbe;jJ.

vdNt ,g;gbahd ,ilr; nrUfy; MupaH tUif fhyk; njhl;L ele;J tUfpwJ vd;W nfhs;tJ nghUj;jkhFk;. ,e;j mbg;gilapy;jhd;

njhy;fhg;gpak;> jpUf;Fws; Nghd;w rfh tuk; ngw;w Ehy;fspYk; ,ilr; nrUf;fy; fhyj;Jf;Ff; fhyk; nra;ag;gl;L te;jpUf;fpwJ.
 
 
 


fhye;NjhWk; jkpo; (11)

jkpo; Kg;ghy; kuG Mupa ehw;ghy; kughf khw;wk; mile;jJ!  

Kfj;jpy; Njhd;Wk; mk;ikj; jOk;Gfs; Nghy; jkpo;j; jhapd; Kfj;jpy; kzpg;gputhsk; Njhd;wpaJ. kzpg;gpuths eilgw;wp ,e;jj; njhlupy; Vw;fdNt Fwpg;gpl;Ls;Nsd;;. jkpo; ghjp rk];fpUjk; ghjp vd;w tpOf;fhl;by; vOjg;gLk; ciueilNa kzpg;gputhsk; vd;w ngaH ngw;wJ. mjhtJ Kj;Jk; gtsKk; fye;J NfhHf;fg;gl;l khiy vd;W nghUs;.

,e;j kzpg;gpuths eiliaj; Njhw;Wtpj;jtHfs; rkzHfs;. tsHj;jtHfs; itzt ciu MrpupaHfs;. jkpo; Ntjnkdg; Nghw;wg;gLk; ehyhapujpt;ag; gpuge;je;jpw;F ciu vOjpa "tpahf;fpahd rf;futHj;jp" vd;W Gfo; ngw;w ngupathr;rhd; gps;is kzpg;gpuths eilapNyNa vOjpAs;shH. ,tiug; NghyNt tprpl;lhj;Jtpjj; jj;Jtj;jpd; je;ijAk; =gh\;ak;> Ntjhe;j jPgk;> Ntjhe;j rhuk;> Ntjhe;j rq;fpufk;> fPjh gh\pak; Nghd;w Ehy;fis tlnkhopapy; vOjpa ,uhkhDrH (fp.gp.1017-1137) gftj; fPij Nghd;w Ehy;fSf;F kzpg;gpuths eilapy; ciu fz;Ls;shH.

rq;f fhyj;jpy; tl nrhw;fspd; fyg;G 2 my;yJ 3 tpOf;fhL vd;w mstpy; ,Ue;jJ. rq;fk; kUtpa fhyj;jpy; ,e;j tpOf;fhL 4 my;yJ 5 tpOf;fhlhf caHe;jJ. ehad;khH> Mo;thHfs; fhyj;jpy; 10 my;yJ 15 tpOf;fhLfs; Mapd. itzt ciuahrpupaHfs; fhyj;jpy; 50 tpOf;fhlhapd. mUzfpupehjupd; jpUg;Gfo; 100f;F 90 gq;F tlnrhw;fs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.

Ky;iyg;ghl;L> jppUKUfhw;Wg;gil cs;spl;l gj;Jg;ghly;fspYk; kpff; Fiwthd tlnkhopr; nrhw;fNs fhzg;gLfpd;wd. mtw;Ws; rpy gpd;tUkhW.

    1) Ky;iyg;ghl;L       - glk;> kpNyr;rH> flfk;.
    2) nghUeH Mw;Wg;gil  - khj;jpiu> kJ.
    3) rpWghzhw;Wg;gil    - Muk;> ,kak;> nja;tk;> ehfk;> epj;jpyk;> Nfhgk;> Nekp.
    4) ngUk;ghzhw;Wg;gil  - G+jk;> tprak;> fpd;duk;.
    5) kJiuf; fhQ;rp      -  A+gk;> ryk;> epakk;> gjhif> Mjp> mukpak;> me;jp> Jhupak;> Ntjk;> rhtfH> MTjp> mkpHJ> khak;> fzk;> mTzH> Xzk;> rhzk;> rkk;> R+jH> khjfH>
                         NtjhspfH> kJiu.  

    6) neLey; thil      - rhNyfk;> cNuhfpzp.
    7) FwpQ;rpg; ghl;L      - jpyfk;> rz;gfk;> ee;jp> Nrkk;.
    8) gl;dg;ghiy        - kfk;> ehlfk;> kQ;rpif> mkuH.
    9) kiygLflhk;       - tJit> Njk;> (Njrk;> Njak;)> thjp> epjp>
    10) jpUKUfhw;Wg;gil   - kfuk;> gpz;b> mTzH> ke;jpuk;> mq;Frk;.

rq;fk;kUtpa fhyj;Jf; fhg;gpakhd rpyg;gjpfhuj;jpy; kpFjpahd tlnrhw;fs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. ,jw;Ff; fhuzk; Nru kd;dHfs; jkpo;nkhopia tsHj;jJ NghyNt tlnkhopiaAk; tsHj;jhHfs;. Ntjnewpia Nkw;nfhz;L mRtNkjahfk;> uhrR+ak; Nghd;w Nts;tpfs; nra;tpj;jhHfs;. jkpo;g; Gytuha; tpsq;fp jk;ikg; ghba NtjpaHf;F rJHNtjp epyq;fisAk;> nghd;idAk; jhdkhf toq;fpdhHfs;.

xg;gPl;lstpy; %Nte;jHfspy; ghz;baiuAk;> NrhoiuAk; tpl Nru kd;dHfs; tlnkhopf;F Vw;wk; nfhLj;jhHfs;. mjdhy; tlnkhopr; nry;thf;F Xq;fpaJ. me;jr; R+oypy; tho;e;j ,sq;Nfh mbfs; tlnkhopr; nrhw;fisAk;> tlnkhopg; Guhz ,jpfhrf; fijfisAk;> tlrka ek;gpf;iffisAk; jhk; ,aw;wpa rpyg;gjpfhuj;jpy; Mq;fhq;Nf GFj;jpAs;shH. rpyg;gjpfhuj;jpy; Nrud; nrq;Fl;Ltd; khlyd; vd;w Ntjpad; nrhw;gb Nrhoghz;baH kPJ nfhz;l rPw;wk; jzpe;jhd; vd;Wk;> NtjNts;tpfs; nra;jhd; vd;Wk;> mtDf;Fj; jdJ epiwf;nfhj;j nghd;idj; (Jyhghuk;) jhdk; nra;jhd; vd;Wk; nrhy;yg;gl;Ls;sJ (fhij 27 -30)>

rpyg;gjpfhuj;jpy; ,lk;ngw;w tlnrhw;fspy; fPo;tUtd Fwpg;gplj;jf;fit.

NkU> ,kak;> ehfk;> epjp> gzpyk;> tpjhdk;> epj;jpyk;> ghypif> mUe;jjp> kad;> thrk;> khjtp> jhJ> jhkk;> mukpak;> guprhuk;> rhgk;> nja;tk;> Njrpfk;> ftp> tf;fpup> fuzk;> rpj;jpuk;> tQ;rid> ghfk;> cj;juk;> rae;jd;> Gz;zpak;> Fzjpir> fzpifaH> tr;rpuk;> G+uzFk;gk;> Re;juk;> fzk;> fkyk;> mTzH> mkuhgjp> ghz;luq;fk;> NrhkFz;lk;> thuzk;> NjtFkud;> mq;Fyp> Fq;Fkk;> rpe;Juk;> ePyfpup> Flfk;> khyjp> jtk;. (ghHf;f lhf;lH kh. ,uhrkhzpf;fdhH vOjpa jkpo;nkhop - ,yf;fpa tuyhW).

jkpo;g; gz;ghl;ilg; nghWj;jstpy; jkpo; nkhopapd; Kg;ghy; kuG> ehw;ghy; kughf khw;wk; mile;jJ. mwk;> nghUs;> ,d;gk;vd;w %d;W nghUNs njhy;fhg;gpak; rup> jpUf;Fws; rup jkpo; ,yf;fz - ,yf;fpaj;jpy; Ngrg;gl;ld. tlnkhop tuthy; mwk;> nghUs;> ,d;gk;> tPL vd ehw;ghy; kuG Njhd;wpaJ.

kz;zpy; cs;s ,d;gq;fis tpl;L jkpod; tpz;zpYs;s ,d;gq;fis Njlj; jiyg;gl;lhd;. ,jdhy; "tho;thtJ khak;> kz;zhtJ jpz;zk;"> "fhaNk ,J ngha;alh fhw;wile;j igalh" vd;W jpz;iz Ntjhe;jk; Ngrj; jkpod; Kw;gl;lhd;. mjhtJ tPL kl;LNk ,d;wpaikahjJ> kw;w %d;Wk; ,d;wpaikahjd my;y vd;w fUj;J tYg; ngw;wJ.

,e;j tPLgw;wpa Ntjhe;j tprhuiz jkpo; kf;fs; tho;f;ifapy;> rpe;jidapy; ngupa khw;wj;ij Vw;gLj;jpaJ. Kg;ghy; tho;tpd; mbj;jsk; rKjha tho;T my;yJ cyf tho;T. ehw;ghy; kugpd; mbj;jsk; rka tho;T my;yJ NkYyf tho;T. ,jdhy; jkpo; ,yf;fpag; Nghf;Nf jlk; Guz;lJ. jdpg;ghly; jpul;by; fhzg;gLk; xsitahH (,tH gpw;fhy xsitahH rq;ffhy xsitahH my;y)ghly; xd;W ,e;jg; Nghf;fpw;Fr; rpwe;j vLj;Jf; fhl;lhFk;.

"<jy; mwk;> jPtpidtpl;L <l;ly; nghUs; vQ;Qhd;Wk;
fhjypUtH fUj;njhUkpj;J - MjuT
gl;lNj ,d;gk;> guid epidj;J ,k; %d;Wk;
tpl;lNj Ngupd;g tPL"

"fhjypUtH fUj;njhUkpj;J MjuT gl;lNj ,d;gk; guid epidj;J ,k; %d;Wk; tpl;lNj tPL" vd;w ehw;ghy; nfhs;if cyf ntWg;Gf; nfhs;ifahf khw;wk; ngw;wJ. cyf ,d;gk; rpw;wpd;gk; vdg; GuhzpfHfs; mjidr; rpWikg; gLj;jpdhHfs;. guid epidj;J ,k; %d;Wk; tpl;lNj Ngupd;gk; vd;W rkathjpfs; tPl;ilg; ngUikg; gLj;jpdhHfs;.

,e;jf; nfhs;if> Nfhl;ghL> rpe;jid cyf ntWg;Gf; nfhs;ifahf cUntLj;jJ. jkpo; rkar; Nrw;wpy; tpOe;jJ. jkpo; kjj;jpy; fye;jJ. ,tw;why; jkpo; Kd;Ndw Kbahky; NghdJ. jkpod; Kd;Ndw Kbahky; Nghdhd;.

rkathjpfs; jkpo;kiwahd jpUf;Fws; vLj;Jr; nrhy;Yk; Kg;ghypy; ehw;ghy; mlq;fpf; fplg;gjhf jj;Jtk; NgrpdhHfs;. ,e;j tho;T mepj;jpak; vd;gij epiyehl;l jkpopy; Vuhskhd Guhzf; Fg;igfs; kiof;Fg; nga;Ak; fhshd;fs; Nghy; Kioj;jd. jkpo;g; gz;ghl;Lf;F Kuzhd MupaUila ehw;ghy; kuGf; nfhs;iffis Vw;Wf; nfhz;ljhy; jkpo;g; gz;ghL nfl;lJ. rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fs; Nghw;wg;glhjjhy; Mapuf; fzf;fhd Ehy;fs; tof;fpoe;jd. rq;f ,yf;fpak; vd;why; gb vd;d tpiy vd;W Nfl;Fk; fhyk; gpwe;jJ. jkpo; fhupif fw;W ftpghLk; GytHfsplKk; gz;bjHfsplKk; MjPdq;fsplKk; Klq;fpf; fple;jJ.

mg;gb Klq;fpf; fple;j jkpOf;F> Fwpg;ghf jkpo;f; ftpijf;F ,Ugjhk; Ehw;whz;by; Gjpa RitAk;> jkpo;kf;fSf;F Gjpa czHTk;> Gjpa capUe; je;jtH kfhftp Rg;gpukzpa ghujpahH MthH. jkpo;g; gz;bjHfsplKk;> jkpo; tpj;Jthd;fsplKk;> jkpo;g; GuhzpfsplKk; Klq;fpf; fple;j jkpio mtHfsplk; ,Ue;J rpiw kPl;L ghkukf;fsplk; nfhz;Lte;J jkpOf;Fg; GJnkUF Cl;ba ngUik ghujpahiuNa rhUk;.

,sq;Nfhtpw;Fg; gpwF jkpopd; ,dpikia cyfwpar; nra;jtH ghujpahH. jkpo;j; jha;f;F Kjd;Kiwahfj; jpUg;gs;sp vOr;rp ghbatDk; ghujpjhd;.

%d;WFyj; jkpo; kd;dH       - vd;id
%z;ley; yd;nghL epj;jk; tsHj;jhH
Md;w nkhopfsp Ds;Ns       - caH
Mupaj;jpw;F epfnud tho;e;Njd;.

fs;isAk; jPiaAk; NrHj;J     - ey;y
fhw;iwAk; thdntspiaAk; NrHj;Jj;
njs;S jkpo;g;Gy NthHfs;      - gy
jPQ;Ritf; fhtpak; nra;J nfhLj;jhH.

vdj; jkpoj; jhiag; Ngr itj;jtH ghujpahH xUtNu.

je;ij mUs; typahYk; - ,d;W
rhHe;j GytH jt typahYk;>
,e;jg; ngUk;gop jPUk; - Gfo;
Vwpg; Gtpkpir vd;Wk; ,Ug;Ngd;.

ghujpahupd; ,e;jf; fdTfs; ,d;Dk; KOikahfg; gypf;ftpy;iy vd;gJ cz;ikjhd;. jkpod; fl;ba jpUf;Nfhapy;fspy; tlnkhop fUtiwapy; NfhNyhr;rTk; jkpo;nkhop ntsptPjpapy; NfhYhd;wp epw;fTk; tplg;gl;Ls;sJ.

"jkpo; mUr;rid nkhopahf ,Ug;gjw;Fj; jFjpaw;wJ. jkpo;nkhop kd cUf;fj;jpw;fhd xU nkhop. Mdhy; Md;k Rj;jpf;F mJ Vw;wjy;y. mjw;Fr; rk];fpUjNk Vw;wJ.

Nfhapy; G+ir> tPl;Lg; G+ir> tPl;by; elf;Fk; rlq;Ffs;> Nfhapypy; elf;Fk; tpNrlq;fs; Mfpa kd cUf;fj;jpw;fhf Vw;gl;ljy;y. Md;khtpd; Rj;jpf;fhf Vw;gl;lJ. Mjyhy; mtutH nra;a Ntz;ba rlq;Ffs; vy;yhk; rk];fpUj nkhopapy;> G+rpf;fj; jFe;j nkhopapy; fhupaq;fs;> rlq;Ffs; eil ngWfpd;wd. eilngw Ntz;Lk;" vd;fpd;w jkpo; nkhopg; giftHfSk; jkpopdg; giftHfSk; ,d;dKk; ,Uf;fpwhHfs;.  (ek;ehL)