17tJ mfitapy; fsk; gy fz;l tPuhq;fid!

 

(jpUkfs;)

 

gj;njhd;gJ  mfit kl;LNk tho;e;j xUtH> mJTk; nky;ypaH vd;W tHzpf;fg;gLk; ngz; xUtH jdJ rhjid %yk; cyf tuyhw;wpy; ,lk; gpbf;f KbAkh? KbAk; vd;gjw;F rhd;whf tpsq;FfpwhH gpuhd;R ehl;L tPuhq;fid Nahd; xt; MHf (1412-1431);.

 

mwptpay; Mrhd; fypypNah NghyNt goikr; NRw;wpy; fOj;jsT rpf;fpf; fple;j fj;Njhypf;f kjgPlk; Nahd; xt; MHf;ifAk; kj vjpHg;ghsH vd;W Fw;wk; rhl;b jz;lid toq;fpaJ. xU tpj;jpahrk;. fypypNahtpw;F MAs; fhyr; rpiwj; jz;lid. Nahd; xt; MHf;Ff;F mjpfgl;r jz;lidahd kuzk;. mJTk; Jhf;Ff; fapw;wpy; njhq;f tplg;gl;ly;y.   fOkuj;jpy; fl;b capNuhL vupf;fg; gl;lhH. ,e;j cyfpy; xU Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;Jf;F vuptJ eufj;jpy; Kbtpy;yhky; vuptijtpl NkyhdJ vd;gJ md;iwa (fj;Njhypf;f) kjgPlj;jpd; epiyg;ghlhFk;.

 

Nahd; xt; MHif kf;fs;  Maid of Orleans vd;W nry;ykhf mioj;jhHfs;. jdJ  17tJ mfitapy; gpuhd;R ehl;Lg; gilfSf;Fj; jiyik jhq;fp Mq;fpNyauJ gyk;tha;e;j gilfisg; NghHf;fsj;jpy; Gwk; fhzr; nra;jhH. gpuhd;R ehl;L murH jdJ muRupikiaj; jpUk;gg; ngw cjtpdhH. mtuJ tho; ehspNyNa tPuhq;fid vdg; Nghw;wg;gl;lhH. ,we;jgpd; tuyhw;wpd; GJikg; ngz;zhfg; Nghw;wg; gl;lhH.

 

Nahd; xt; MHf; gpuhd;rpd; tl-fpof;F khfhzj;jpy; cs;s njhk;nwkp (Domremy)    vd;w Ff;fpuhkj;jpy; 1412 Mk; Mz;L gpwe;jtH. mtH gpwf;Fk; NghJ  gpuhd;R ehl;Lf;Fk; ,q;fpyhe;Jf;Fk; ,ilapy; Ehwhz;Lfhyg; NghH (Hundred Years’ War) ele;J nfhz;bUe;jJ. mg;NghJ gpuhd;R NgHfz;bia Mz;l gpuG (French Duke of Burgundy) gpuhd;R kd;dUf;F vjpuhfTk; Mq;fpNya kd;dUf;F MjuthfTk; nray;gl;lhH. mtuJ MjuTld; Mq;fpNyaH gpuhd;R ehl;bd; ngUk;gFjp epyg;gug;igg; gpbj;J jkJ MSiff;Fs; itj;jpUe;jhHfs;.

 

VohtJ rhHy;]; murNu gpuhd;R ehl;il Mz;L te;j muruhtH.  Mdhy; murHfs; toikahf KbR+l;bf; nfhs;Sk; efuhd njapk;]; ( Reims) vjpup ehlhd ,q;fpyhe;jpd; gpbapypUe;jjhy; rhHy;]; muruhy; rk;gpujhaG+Htkhf Kb R+l;bf; nfhs;s Kbatpy;iy.

 

,e;jf; fhyfl;lj;jpy;jhd; xU fkf;fhuf; FLk;gj;jpy; gpwe;j Nahd; xt; MHf; jdJ %d;W rNfhjuHfs;> xU rNfhjupNahL NrHe;J jdJ FLk;gf; fkj;jpy; Ntiy nra;J nfhz;bUe;jhH.

 

Nahd; xt; MHf;Ff;F 13 MtJ mfit ele;J nfhz;bUe;j NghJ mtuJ tho;tpy; vjpHghuhj xU jpUg;gk; Vw;gl;lJ. mtuJ nrhg;gdj;jpy; gupRj;j ikf;Nfy;> gupRj;j fjuPd;> gupRj;j khHful; ,tHfs; juprdk; je;J jd;Dld; ciuahLtjhf ek;gpdhH. gupRj;jthd;fs; Nahd; xt; MHf;if VohtJ rhHy;]; kd;duplk; nrd;W vjpupfSf;F vjpuhf gpuhd;R gilfSf;F jiyik jhq;fp elhj;Jk;gb gzpj;jhHfs;.

 

jdJ mDgtj;ij ngw;NwhHfSf;F tpsf;fpa Nahd; xt; MHf; rpfd; Nfhl;ilf;Fs; FbapUe;j rhHy;]; kd;diuj; Njbg; gazkhdhH. mg;NghJ mtUf;F mfit gjpdhd;F.

 

xU ngz;Nghy; my;yhJ xU Mz;Nghy cilALj;jpf; nfhz;lhy; kd;diur; re;jpg;gJ ,yFthf ,Uf;Fk; vd vz;zpa Nahd; xt; MHf; Kbia xl;lf; fj;jupj;J Mz; cilapy; kd;dupd; juprdj;Jf;fhff; fhj;jpUe;jhH. "gupRj;jthd;fNshL" NgRtjhfr; nrhy;ypf; nfhs;Sk; xU tpj;jpahrkhd ngz; xUtH kd;diur; re;jpf;f muz;kid thaypy; fhj;jpUg;gjhf murUf;F njuptpf;fg; gl;lJ.

 

"igj;jpakh my;yJ mtNu xU gupRj;jthdh" vd;W njupe;J nfhs;s Kbahj murH mtiu cs;Ns mioj;J tUk;gb Mizapl;lhH. mur cilapy; ,y;yhJ Vida muz;kid thrpfspy; xUtuhf ,Ue;J nfhz;L Nahd; xt; MHf;fpd; 'nja;tPfj;ij' Nrhjpj;Jg; ghHf;f murH vz;zpdhH. Mdhy; muriu ,dq;fhz;gJ Nahd; xt; MHf;Ff;F ngupa fhupakhf ,Uf;ftpy;iy. cs;Ns Eise;j Nahd; xt; MHf; NeNu mikr;rH gpujhdpfNshL mkHe;jpUe;j muruplk; ele;J nrd;W kz;bapl;L tzq;fp jhd; te;j Nehf;fj;ij tpsf;fpdhH. mjd;gpd; gy fpoikfshf rhHy;]; muruJ MNyhrfHfs; kjk;> mur tptfhuq;fs; gw;wp Nahd; xt; MHf;if Nfs;tpfs; Nfl;L JUtp Muha;e;jhHfs;. mtHfSf;F jpUg;jp Vw;gl;lJ. murH Nahd; xt; MHf;fpd;  MNyhridg;gb ele;J nfhs;syhk; vdj; njuptpj;jhHfs;.

 

Nahd; MHf;fpd; jiyikapy; xU rpwpa gil cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. clNd mtH ngupa efukhd Orleans   kPJ jhf;Fjy; njhLf;fg; Gwg;gl;lhH. mtH Gwg;gl;L tUk; nra;jp nghJ kf;fs; kj;jpapy; fhl;Lj; jP Nghy; gutpaJ. gil tPuHfs; Nahd;   xt; MHf; jhq;fs; ntw;wpngw cz;ikapy; flTshy; mDg;gg;gl;ltH vd ek;gp cw;rhfj;NjhLk; cWjpNahLk; Nghupl;lhHfs;. mJ kl;Lk;  my;yhJ NghHf; fsj;jpy; Nahd; xt; MHf;fpd; tPuKk;> NghHj; je;jpuq;fSk; gpuhd;R ehl;L tPuHfis ntFthff; ftHe;jJ. Mq;fpNyaHfs; Njhw;fbf;fg; gl;lhHfs;. me;j efiutpl;Nl mtHfs; Xl;lk; vLj;jhHfs;. ,g;gb mLj;jLj;J ehd;F NghHKidfspy; Nahd; xt; MHf; ntw;wpf; nfhb ehl;bdhH. ,U Kiw fhak; gl;lhH. fhaj;ij Mw;wpf; nfhz;L kPz;Lk; Aj;j fsj;jpy; Njhd;wpg; Nghupl;lhH.

 

,Wjpahf njapk;]; efiuj; jhf;f rhHy;]; murNuhL  Gwg;gl;lhH. Nghfpw topnaq;fZk; kf;fs; Nahd; xt; MHf; gf;fk; NrHe;J nfhz;lhHfs;. xd;wd; gpd; xd;whf efuq;fs; tPo;e;jd. njapk;]; efiur; NrHe;jNghJ Vw;fdNt me;j efiu fhypnra;J tpl;L vjpupfs; XbapUe;jJ njupe;jJ. rhHy;]; murH ntF tpkupirahf mq;Fs;s Njthyak; xd;wpy; Kb R+l;bf; nfhz;lhH. Mdhy; Ehwhz;Lfhyg; NghH Xa tpy;iy. gup]; efuk; Nghy; gy efuq;fs; vjpupfspd; gpbapy; ,d;dKk; ,Ue;jd. gup]; efuk; jhf;fg;gl;lJ. Mdhy; mJ ntw;wpngw tpy;iy.

 

1430k; Mz;L itfhrpj; jpq;fspy; nfhk;ngapd; vd;w efuk; ngHfz;bg; gpuGtpd; gilfshy; ifg;gw;wg; gl;lnjd;w nra;jp Nahd; xt; MHf;Ff;F vl;baJ. mLj;j ehs; vjpHj; jhf;Fjy; njhLf;fg;gl;lJ. kpfTk; jPuj;NjhL Nghupl;Lk; Kbtpy; Nahd; xt; MHf;fpd; gilfs; gpd;thq;f Neupl;lJ. mg;gbg; gpd;thq;fpf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; Neuj;jpy; Juj;jp te;j ngHfz;bg; gilfspdhy; Nahd; xt; MHf; rpiw gpbf;fg;gl;lhH. Nahd; xt; MHf;if vg;gbAk; jPHj;Jf; fl;btpl Ntz;Lk; vd;W Mq;fpNyaHfs; tpUk;gpdhHfs;. Kjypy; mtiu ifaspf;f kWj;j ngHfz;baUf;F ngUe;njhifahd gzk; nfhLj;J Nahd; xt; MHf; thq;fg; gl;lhH.

 

Mdhy; mg;Nghija  Mq;fpy murH MwhtJ nfd;wp Nahd; xt; MHf;if tprhuizapd;wp Jhf;fpy; Nghl Kbahnjd;gij mwpe;J itj;jpUe;jhH. mJ kl;Lk; my;yhky; Nahd; xt; MHf; nfhy;yg;gl;lhy; gpuhd;R ehl;Lg; gilAk; (1) xU Kf;fpa Mq;fpy Aj;jf; ifjpiaAk; mt;thNw Jhf;fpy; Nghl;L gopf;Fg; gop thq;f KbAk;> (2) Nahd; xt; MHf;if xU jpahfpahf kf;fs; nfhz;lhlTk; topgpwe;J tpLk;  vd;gijAk; MwhtJ nfd;wp czHe;jpUe;jhH. ,Ue;Jk; jq;fs; ghijapy; jilf; fy;yhf ,Uf;Fk; Nahd; xt; MHf;if vg;gbahtJ nfhd;Wtpl KbT nra;jhHfs;.

 

Nahd; xt; MHf;  Mq;fpy muRf;F vjpuhf ve;jf; Fw;wKk; ,iof;ftpy;iy. vdNt ehl;bd; rl;lg;gb mtiuj; jz;bf;F tha;g;gpy;yhJ ,Ue;jJ. mjw;fhf xU cghaj;ijf; ifahz;lhHfs;. kj;jpa fhyj;jpy; mjpf nry;thf;NfhLk; mjpfhuj;NjhLk; tpsq;fpa fj;Njhypf;f kjgPlj;Jf;F vjpuhf Fw;wk; ,ioj;jhH> mjhtJ fypypNah Nghy; Nahd; xt; MHf; xU kjtpNuhjp vd;w  Fw;wr;rhl;by; ePjp kd;wj;jpy; epWj;jp tprhupf;f KbT nra;jhHfs;. mtUf;F vjpuhf vOgJ Fw;wr; rhl;Lf;fs; mLf;fg; gl;lJ. (njhlUk;)