fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (21)

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;!

 

fpA+gh xU nghJTlik ehnld;gjw;F tYthd Gwr;rhd;Wfs; ,y;iy!

 

,uT Neuj;jpy; efiur; Rw;wpg; ghHj;Jf; nfhz;Lte;j ghz;bad; GytuJ ghliy nrtp kLj;jhd;. mLj;j fzk; mtd; jhd; mzpe;jpUe;j NghHitia mg;GytH kPJg; NghHj;jpr; nrd;whd;.

 

nghOJ tpbe;jJ. murd; jdJ fhtyhspfis mioj;Jg; Gytiuj; Njbg; gpbj;Jf; nfhz;LtUkhW Miz gpwg;gpj;jhd;. Gytiuf; fhtyhspfs;  Njbg; gpbj;J te;J murd; Kd; epWj;jpdhHfs;. murd; kfpo;e;J GytUf;Fg;  nghd;Dk; nghUSk; nfhLj;J jf;fthW cgrupj;J mtiu rj;jpKj;jj;jpw;F mDg;gp itj;jhd;.

 

ghz;baidf; fz;L gupR ngw;W CH jpUk;gpagpd; GytH tho;f;ifapy;  tre;jk;  tPrpaJ. Kd;ida tWik tho;f;ifiaAk; gpd;ida tskhd tho;f;ifiaAk; xg;G Nehf;fpg; GytH xU ghly; ghbdhH. Gytiu kd;dd; eyk; tprhupj;jJ NghyTk; mjw;Fg; GytH tpil nrhy;tJ NghyTk; ghly; mike;Js;sJ.

 

ntWw; ifAkmup jhk;fps;is
     NrhUnkd; tPl;by; tUk;
vWk;Gf;Fk; MHg;gj kpy;iy> Kd;
     dhs;vd; ,Uq; fypahk;
FWk;igj; jtpHj;j Fb
   jhq;fpiar; nrd;W$bagpd;
njWk;Gw; nfhs;ahid ftsk;
    nfhs;shky; njtpl;baNj!

 

ghz;ba kd;dd; gupR toq;fp Mjupg;gjw;F  Kd;dhy; vd;Dila tPl;by; ntWQ;NrhW $lg; ngWtJ fbdk;. fpspg;gps;isAk; grpg; gpzpahy; thb kpfTk; jsHtpid milAk;. vdJ nfhba tWikiag; Nghf;fpa kd;ddplk; Ngha;g; guprpy; ngw;W te;j gpd;dH nfhy;Yk; nraypid cilj;jha GypiaAk; kpjpj;Jf; nfhy;yh epd;w ahidahdJ tha; nfhs;shky; fUk;Gf; fopfis ckpo;e;J rpjwpaJ.

 

jdJ mDgtj;ij ghlyhf tbj;J jdf;Fg; gpwF tUfpwj re;jjpdpaUk; gbj;J kfpOkhW gjpT nra;Jtpl;Lg;Nghd rj;jpKj;jg; GytUf;F epr;rak; ehk; ed;wp $wNtz;Lk;.

 

ehk; epidg;gjw;F khwhf me;jf; fhyj;jpy; gQ;rKk; gl;bdpAk; gutyhf ,Ue;jpUf;fpwJ. Md fhuzj;jhNyNa GytHfSk; rhd;NwhHfSk;;  tWikapd; nfhLikiar; nrhy;yp mwk; nra;tij kpfTk; tw;GWj;jp ,Uf;fpwhHfs;.

 

nfhbaJ Nfl;fpd; neba ntt; NtNyha;
nfhbJ nfhbJ tWik nfhbJ
mjdpYk; nfhbJ ,sikapy; tWik...

 

vd;W mt;itahH ghbapUf;fpwhH. mjdhy; mtNu mwk; nra tpUk;G> <jy; mwk;    vdr;nrhy;fpwhH.

 

,ul;ilg; Gytiug;gw;wpf; Nfs;tpg; gl;bUg;gPHfs;. %j;jtH KltH. ,isatH FUlH. ntz;ghtpy; %j;jtH Kjy; ,uz;L mbiaAk; ,isatH mLj;j ,uz;L mbiaAk; ghLtJ tof;fk;.  fhQ;rpGuj;jpy; gpwe;j ,tHfs; ftp ghLtjpy; ty;ytHfs;. Ie;EhW Mz;LfSf;F Kd; murhz;l guhf;fpuk ghz;bad; fhyj;jpy; tho;e;jtHfs; vd;W ek;gg;gLfpwJ. ,tHfisAk; grpg;gpzp tpl;lghby;iy. 

 

Njq;F Gfo; Mq;$Hr; rptNd my; yhspag;gh>
ehq;fs; grpj;jpUf;if QhaNkh? - Nghq;fhZk;
$W rq;F Njhy;KuR nfhl;Nlhir my;yhky;
NrhWfz;l %spahH nfhy;.

 

Gfo;kpf;f jpUthq;$upy; vOe;jUspapUf;Fk; rptngUkhNd! ,utpYk; vq;fisg; ghJfhf;fpd;;w je;ijNa! ehq;fs; czT ,y;yhJ thbapUg;gJ epahakhFkh? vd;W xUtH nrhy;y kw;wtH vy;yhuhYk; Nkyhfr; nrhy;yg;gLfpd;w rq;F> giw> Ngupif> nfhl;L vd;gtw;wpd; xyp Kof;fk; fhzg;gLtjy;yhky; ,q;Fg; gpurhjj;ijg; ghHj;j twpatHfs; ahH? xUtUk; ,y;iy. vdNt ePtpH Ngha; thUk; vd;whH.

 

vy;yh czT tiffSk;  fz;Zf;F tpUe;jhf ,Ue;jJ Nghy ehf;fpw;F eakhf ,Uf;ftpy;iy. tpjp tpyf;fhf rpytifr; rhg;ghL ed;whf ,Ue;jJ.  R+g; vg;NghJk; ed;whfNt ,Ue;jJ. Mdhy;> mJTk; ehsiltpy; ntWj;Jg; Ngha;tpl;lJ.

 

ey;y ghy;  Njj;jzp Fbf;fyhk;  vd;why; mtHfs; gupkhwpa ghy; gRg;ghyhf ,Uf;ftpy;iy. Gl;bg;ghiyf; fiuj;J itj;jpUe;jhHfs; Nghy; njupe;jJ. Mdhy;> me;jg; ghiyAk; Nfhg;gpiaAk; fye;J Fbj;jhy; XusT gUthapy;iy vd;W nrhy;Ykstpw;F ,Ue;jJ.

 

xUthW czit Kbj;Jf; nfhz;L tpLjpf;Fj; jpUk;gpNdhk;. ey;y fhw;Nwhl;lkhd miw. FspH rhjd trjp ,Ue;jJ. gLf;if tpupg;G> Jtha; vy;yhk; gL Rj;jk;. Fspg;gjw;F ey;y njhl;b. RL ePUk; ,Ue;jJ. njhiyf;fhl;rpg; ngl;b ,Ue;jJ. mjpfkhf mnkupf;f xspgug;igj;jhd; ghHf;f Kbe;jJ. ntspAyfj; njhlHG Kw;whf Jz;bf;fg;gl;l epiyapy; rpvd;vd; xspgug;G rpwpJ ifnfhLj;jJ.

 

cs;Supy; vd;d elf;fpwnjd;gNj njupatpy;iy.  nra;jpj;jhs;fs; ,Rg;ghdpa nkhopapy; kl;Lk; ntsptUtjhy; mtw;iwg; gbf;f Kbatpy;iy. ehq;fs; mq;F epd;w nghOJjhd; nfhd;ryh]; vd;w rpWtdJ je;ijahUf;Fk; kpahkpapy; cs;s me;jf; Foe;ijapd; jha;top cwtpdHfSf;Fk; ,ilapy; ePjpkd;wj;jpy; tof;fhly; ele;J nfhz;bUe;jJ.

 

vapyPd; nfhd;ryhir mnkupf;fh fpA+ghTf;F mDg;gp itf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W Nfhup jiyefH `thdhtpy; MHg;ghl;lq;fs; xt;nthU ehSk; ele;J nfhz;bUe;jd. Mdhy;> Gd;wuPdh N`hl;lypy; ,Ue;j fpA+gh ehl;L CopaHfs; mijg;gw;wp ve;j mf;fiwiaAk; fhl;ltpy;iy.

 

gLf;if tpupg;Gf;fis xt;nthU ehSk; khw;WfpwhHfs;. Jthia gwit khjpup kbj;J fl;bypy; itf;fpwhHfs;. xU ehisf;F fpspapd; cUtk;. kWehs; Gwh. ,g;gb xt;nthUehSk; xt;nthU gwit.

 

,J Rw;Wyhtpfisj; jpUg;jpg;gLj;j rpd;dr; rpd;d nray;fspy; vy;yhk; mtHfs; vLj;j mf;fiwiaf; fhl;baJ.

 

fpA+gh xU nghJTlik ehnld;wgbahy; mq;F Ml;rpj; jiytH gply; f];Nwhtpd; glq;fs;> fl; mTl;Lfs; n[ayypjh ghzpapy; epiwa itj;jpUg;ghHfs; vd;W epidj;Njd;. Mdhy;> kUe;Jf;Ff; $l f];Nwhtpd; glq;fis me;j N`hl;lypy; kl;Lky;y NtW ,lq;fspYk; ghHf;f Kbatpy;iy. kpf mUikahfNt mit fz;Zf;Fg; gl;ld. khwhf NrFthuhtpd; glq;fs;> cUtr; rpiyfs;> mtH vOjpa Gj;jfq;fs; filfspy; tpw;gidf;F ,Ue;jd.

 

Mq;fhq;Nf kjpy; RtHfspy; mupths; rk;kl;b cUtq;fisg; ngupjhf rptj;j epwj;jpy; vOjp itj;jpUg;ghHfs; vd;W vjpHghHj;jhy; mtw;iwAk; fhNzhk;. rpy Kf;fpa re;jpfspy; kl;Lk; ePz;l Rtupy; "fpA+gd; Gul;rp tho;f!" vd;W ,Rghdpa nkhopapy; ngupjhff; fz;Zf;F gspr;rpLkhW vOjp itj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;.

 

RUf;fkhfr; nrhd;dhy; fpA+gh xU nghJTlik ehnld;gjw;F tYthd Gwr; rhd;Wfs; vJTk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy.

 

jiyefH `thdhtpy; kpfg; ngupa Gul;rpr; rJf;fk; xd;iw cUthf;fp ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. mq;F kl;Lk; fhHy; khHf;];> nydpd; cUtr; rpiyfSk;> gpukhz;lkhd mupths; rk;kl;bAk; epWtp ,Uf;fpwhHfs;.

 

fle;j Gjd;fpoik xU Kf;fpa murpay; jiytH fpA+ghtpy; fhy; gjpj;jpUf;fpwhH. NtW ahUky;y. cUrpa ehl;L rdhjpgjp tpsbkPH Gl;bd; (Vladimir  Putin) jhd; me;jg; gpuKfH.

 

Nrhtpaj; xd;wpak; Fiye;jgpd;dH  fpA+ghtpw;Fk; - cUrpahtpw;Fk; ,ilapy; ,Ue;j murpay;> ,uh[je;jpu> nghUshjhu cwTfs; mw;Wg; Ngha;tpl;ld.  gjpndhU Mz;L ,ilntspf;Fg; gpd; ,g;NghJjhd; cUrpa rdhjpgjp xUtH  fpA+ghtpw;F cj;jpNahfG+Ht nryit Nkw;nfhz;bUf;fpwhH.

 

,jw;F Kd;dH 1989 Mk; Mz;L rdhjpgjp NfhHgnrt; fpA+ghtpw;F tUif je;jpUe;jhH. mjd;gpd; fpA+ghtpw;F fhyb vLj;J itj;j cUrpa rdhjpgjp Gl;bd;jhd;.  

 

 

 


 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (22)

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;!

 

fPupkiyj; jPHj;jf; fiuNghy; miy NkhJk; Gd;uwPdh flw;fiu!

 

Gl;bNdhL cUrpa ehl;Lg; ghJfhg;G mikr;rH ,NfhH nrHnfnat; (Igor Sergeyev) kw;Wk; ntspAwT mikr;rH ,NfhH Itndht; (Igor Ivanov) te;jpUe;jhHfs;.  mtH `thdh Ngha; ,wq;fpa NghJ mtUf;F nrq;fk;gs tuNtw;Gf; nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. tpkhd epiyaj;jpy; fpA+gh rdhjpgjp gply; f];Nwh> mtUila cld;gpwg;Gk; ghJfhg;G mikr;rUkhd whTy; f];Nwh (Raul Castro)  fpA+gh ntspAwT mikr;rH gpypg;Ng Ngu]; Nwhf; (Philippe Perez  Roque) Gl;bid if FYf;fp tuNtw;whHfs;.

 

,Ue;Jk; Kd;ndhU fhyj;jpy; Nrhtpaj; mjpgH gpw];ndTf;Ff; ( Brezhnev) nfhLf;fg;gl;l tuNtw;NghL  xg;gpLk;NghJ  Gl;bDf;Ff; nfhLj;j tuNtw;G rhjhuzkhf  ,Ue;jJ. gpw];ndt; te;j NghJ nrq;nfhb jhq;fpa fpA+gh ehl;L kf;fs; Mapuf; fzf;fpy; tPjpapd; ,UGwKk; epd;W tho;j;njhyp vOg;gp tuNtw;wpUe;jhHfs;.  

 

Gl;bdpd; tUifia Kd;dpl;L Vw;fdNt `thdhtpy; cs;s fhHy; khHf;];> nydpy; rpiyfisr; Rw;wp tsHe;Js;s Gy; G+Lfis mfw;wpr; Rj;jk; nra;J tpl;lhHfs;.

 

ehY ehs; nryit Nkw;nfhz;bUf;Fk; rdhjpgjp  Gl;bd; gu];gu nghUshjhu> thzpf xg;ge;jq;fis fpA+ghNthL vOjpf; nfhz;lhH. 

 

mnkupf;fhtpy; ,Ue;J RkhH 150 fpkP Jhuj;jpy; ,Ue;j fpA+gh gdpg;NghH fhyj;jpy; fpwk;ypDf;F tpiy kjpf;f Kbahj NghHj;jpw Kf;fpaj;Jtk; epiwe;j ehlhf ,Ue;jJ.

 

1962 Mk; Mz;L cUrpaj; jiytH epf;fpl;uh FUNrt; (Nikita Kuruchev )  fpA+ghtpy; mZthAj VTfizfis epWtg; Ngha;  mnkupf;fhTld; xU mZthAj Aj;jj;jpy; ,wq;ff;$ba mghak; vOe;jJ.  mg;NghJ mnkupf;f rdhjpgjpahf Nahd; vt; nfdb (John F.Kennedy) ,Ue;jhH. mtH cUrpah mZthAj VTfizfisj; jpUg;gpg; ngwNtz;Lk; my;yJ cUrpa Aj;jf; fg;gy;fs; %o;fbf;fg;gLk; vd;W nrhy;yp mjw;fhd fhyf; nfLTk; tpjpj;jhH.

 

,uz;L ehLfSf;Fk; ,ilapy; ePbj;j tha;g; NghUf;Fg; gpd;dH mZthAj VTfizfis Vw;wp te;jnfhz;bUe;j cUrpaf; fg;gy;fs; eLtopapy; Gwg;gl;l ,lj;Jf;Nf jpUk;gpg; gazk; nra;a Muk;gpj;jd. cyfk; ,uz;L ty;yuR ehLfSf;F ,ilapy; eilngw ,Ue;j xU mZthAj Aj;jj;jpd; tpopk;gpy; ,Ue;J jg;gpj;Jf; nfhz;lJ.   

 

nghUshjhuj;Jiwapy; mnkupf;fh> cUrpah  ,oe;j tha;g;Gf;fis INuhg;gh> fdlh> njd;dnkupf;f ehLfs; epug;gpf; nfhz;ld. ,e;j ehLfs; RkhH 370 njhopw; jpl;lq;fspy; fpA+ghtpy;  KjyPL nra;Js;sd. mnkupf;fh fpA+gh kPJ tpjpj;Js;s nghUshjhuj; jil fhuzkhf mnkupf;f njhopy; epWtdq;fs; fpA+ghtpy; thzpfk; nra;a Kbahky; Gwk; js;sg;gl;L tpl;lJ njupe;jNj. mjw;Fk; Nkyhff; fpA+ghitg; gaq;fu ehLfspd; gl;baypy; mnkupf;fh itj;Jf; nfhz;Ls;sJ.

 

fdlh vg;NghJk; mnkupf;fhtpd; thiyg; gpbj;Jf; nfhz;L njhq;FtJ njupe;jNj. ,jw;F tYthd fhuzk; ,Uf;fpwJ. fdlhtpd; Vw;Wkjpapy; 75 tpOf;fhL mnkupf;fh ehl;NlhLjhd; ,lk; ngWfpwJ. vdNt mnkupf;fh Jk;kpdhy; fdlhtpw;F rsp gpbj;J tpLk; vd;W nrhy;Ykstpw;F fdlhtpd; nghUshjhuk; mnkupf;fhtpd; nghUshjhuj;NjhL gpizf;fg; gl;bUf;fpwJ.

 

(,g;NghJ mnkupf;fhtpd; nghUshjhuk; gj;jhz;Lfhy njhlHr;rpahd tsHr;rpf;Fg; gpd; ke;jk; milaj; njhlq;fpAs;sJ. ,e;j ke;jg; Nghf;fpdhy; fdba nghUshjhu tsHr;rp kl;Lky;y INuha;gpa xd;wpa ehLfspd; nghUshjhu tsHr;rpAk; ghjpf;fg; glyhk; vd;w mr;rk; jiyJhf;fpAs;sJ.)

 

mg;gb ,Ue;Jk; fdlh "gaq;futhj ehlhd" fpA+ghNthL nghUshjhu> ,uh[je;jpu cwTfis itj;Jf; nfhz;Ls;sJ. `thdhtpy; fdlhtpd; Nkgps; Njrpaf; nfhb fk;gj;jpy; Mb mire;J gwe;J nfhz;bUg;gij mq;F NghdNghJ fz;Nld;.

 

tp.Gypfis Mjupf;fpw rpy mikg;Gf;fis mnkupf;fh tp. Gypfspd; Kd;dzp mikg;Gf;fs; (Front Organizations) vd;W Kj;jpiu Fj;JfpwJ. ,t;tstpw;Fk; tp.Gypfs; mnkupf;fhNthL ve;jr; Nrhypf;Fk; NghdJ fpilahJ. mnkupf;f tpkhdq;fisNah> fg;gy;fisNah jfHj;jJ fpilahJ. tp.GypfsJ NghH =yq;fhtpd; ,dthj mlf;F Kiwf;F vjpuhdJ. Nkw;Fyf ehLfSf;F vjpuhd Nghuy;y. mg;gb ,Ue;Jk;  mjdhy;jhd; mnkupf;fh> fdlh> gpupj;jhdpah> ,];Nuy;> cUrpah Nghd;w ehLfs; =yq;fhtpw;F MAjq;fisAk;> NghHf;fg;gy;fisAk;> Fz;L tPr;R tpkhdq;fis tpw;fpd;wd. mnkupf;fh> ,];Nuy; ,uz;Lk; MAjg; gapw;rpAk; mspjJ tUfpd;wd.  

 

epahakhfTk; jHf;fuPjpahfTk; ghHf;fg; Nghdhy; fpA+gh ehl;NlhL thzpf> murpay;> ,uhrje;jpu cwTfis itj;Jf; nfhz;Ls;s fdlhit fpA+gh ehl;bd; Kd;dzp ehnld mnkupf;fh gpufldg; gLj;jg; gl Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy;> mnkupf;fh mg;gbr; nra;atpy;iy. ehia eha; rhg;gplhJ vd;gJjhd; fhuzkhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.

 

tp.GypfisAk;> tp.Gypfis Mjupf;fpw mikg;GfisAk; gaq;futhjpfshfr; rpj;jupg;gjpy; kfpo;r;rp fhZk; e\;dy; Ngh];l; (National Post) nra;jpj;jhs; $l fdlh fpA+ghtpd; Kd;dzp ehnldj; jpl;Ltjpy;iy! 

 

,jpypUe;J njuptJ vd;dntd;why; murpay; Nfhl;ghLfis  my;yJ rpj;jhe;jq;fis tplg; nghUshjhu tzpf eyd;fs; xU ehl;Lf;F Kf;fpakhfg; gLfpd;wd. 

 

jkpoPoj;jpy; vz;nza; tsk; ,Ue;jpUe;jhy; mnkupf;fh jhdhfNt Kd;te;J me;j ehl;ilj; jkpoHfSf;F ,j;jWjp gpupj;Jf; nfhLj;jpUf;Fk;.

 

FNtj; ehl;bd; kPJ ,uhf; gilnaLj;jNghJ nfhLf;if tupe;J fl;bf; nfhz;L mnkupf;fh> gpupj;jhdpah> fdlh> gpuhd;]; ehLfs; ,uhf; ehl;ilj; jhf;fpd. ,jw;Ff; fhuzk; FNtj; ehl;bd; ,iwik my;yJ rdehafk; fhg;ghw;wg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;w mf;fiway;y. me;j ehl;bd; vz;nza; tsk; Nkw;Fyf ehLfSf;F> Fwpg;ghf mnkupf;fhtpw;F vjpuhd xU ehl;bd; ifapy; rpf;fptplf; $lhJ vd;w gaNk fhuzkhFk;.

 

md;iwa mnkupf;f rdhjpgjp NahH[; G\; kpfg; gfpuq;fkhfTk; Jzpr;ryhfTk; nrhd;dhH "mnkupf;fh  vz;nza; tUk;  flw; ghijfisj; jpwe;J itj;jpUf;f tpUk;GfpwJ" (America  wants to keep the sea lanes  free for the flow of oil).

 

                                                       fly; miy kPNj

 

fpA+gh nrd;w Gl;bd; me;j ehl;bd; fhw;iwAk;> nta;apiyAk;> fzfzg;ghd fhy epiyiaAk; mDgtpf;fhky; ehL jpUk;Gthuh?

 

ehq;fs; Ngha; epd;w mNj Gfo; ngw;w tuNlNuhtpy; ,uz;L ehs;fs; (nts;sp> rdp) Xa;ntLj;jhH.  cUrpahtpd; Kd;dhs; jiyefukhd nkh];ftpy; ,g;NghJ ntl;gepiy G+r;rpaj;Jf;Ff; fPNo 15 nry;rpa];! tuNlNuhtpy; ntl;g epiy ,g;NghJ Ropaj;Jf;F NkNy 25 nry;rpa];. mg;Gwk; Gl;bd; ,e;j tha;g;ig tpLthuh vd;d? fpA+gh nryit Kbj;Jf; nfhz;L Gl;bd; nrd;w  QhapW fdlh te;J NrHe;jhH.

 

Gd;uwPdh N`hl;ly; CopaHfs; vy;NyhUk; md;ghfTk; thQ;irNahLk; goFfpwhHfs;. Gjpjhfg; Ngha; ,wq;Ffpw Rw;Wyhtpfisf; ftdpj;Jf; nfhs;tjw;F jdpj;jdpg; gza KftHfs; epakpf;fg;gl;L ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. xNu Neuj;jpy; 30 my;yJ 40 Rw;Wyhtpfis mtHfs; nghWg;Ngw;W mtHfsJ cs;SH gaz xOq;Ffisf; ftdpj;Jf; nfhs;fpwhHfs;. fpA+ghtpy; Rw;wpg; ghHf;f Ntz;ba Kf;fpa ,lq;fs; gw;wpAk; tpsf;fk; mspf;fg;gLfpwJ.

 

,g;gbg; nghWg; NgHg;gtHfs; Rw;Wyh Kbe;J tpkhd epiyaj;Jf;Fg; Ng&e;J Gwg;gL kl;Lk; Rw;Wyhtpfis kpff; ftdkhff; ftdpj;Jf; nfhs;fpwhHfs;. ngz;fshf ,Ue;jhy; "kPz;Lk; tUf" vd;W nrhy;ypf; fl;bg; gpbj;J Kj;jq;fs;$lf; nfhLj;J top mDg;gp itf;fpwhHfs;. 

 

vq;fisf; ftdpj;Jf; nfhz;ltH ghHgNlh]; ehl;Lf;fhuH. Alba Tours vd;w epWtdk; mtiug; gzpapy; mkHj;jp itj;jpUf;fpwJ. mtUf;Fk; ehq;fs; jq;fpapUe;j Gd;uwPdh N`hl;lYf;Fk; rk;ge;jkpy;iy. mtiu ,uT gfy; ve;j NeuKk; fz;L Ngryhk;. gzp Kbe;jTld; mtH gzpahw;Wk; epWtdj;Jf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd thfdj;jpy; jdJ tPl;Lf;Fg; Ngha;tpl;L kWehs; fhiy gzpf;Fj; jpUk;GfpwhH. thfdk; fpilf;fh tpl;lhy; thlif tz;b itj;Jf; nfhs;fpwhH. thuj;jpy; xU ehs; kl;Lk; Xa;ntLf;fyhk;. 

 

fhiyapy; vy;NyhUk; flw;fiuf;F rhiu rhiuahfg; gilnaLf;fpwhHfs;. flw;fiuia Rj;jkhf itj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. ,utpy; fiuapy; milAk; rhjhisia ms;sp xJf;Fg; Gwkhfg; Nghl;L tpLfpwhHfs;. kziy coTtz;b nfhz;L rkg;gLj;jp tpLfpwhHfs;.

 

flypy; ,wq;fp ,uz;nlhU ehs; Fspj;Njd;. Mr;rupag;gLk; tpjj;jpy; me;jj; jz;zPH ifg;ghf ,Uf;ftpy;iy. ,e;jf; fly; jz;zPUf;Fk; fPupkiy> nfhOk;Gj;Jiw> ghrpf;Flh  fly; jz;zPUf;Fk; epiwa tpj;jpahrk; ,Ue;jJ.

 

fhiy njhlq;fp khiytiu Gd;uwPdh flw;fiu fPupkiy jPHj;jf;fiu khjpup miy NkhJk;. ntt;NtW ehl;Lf;fhuHfs;> ntt;NtW epwj;jpy;> ntt;NtW cauj;jpy;> gUkdpy; fhzg;gl;lhHfs;. (tsUk;)

 

 

 


 

 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (23)

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;!

 

Gd;uwPdh G+Nyhf nrhHf;fk!

                                                                                                         

 

Mz;fisg; nghWj;jstpy; fhy;rl;il> rl;il mtHfsJ cz;ikahd Njhw;wj;ij %b kiwj;JtpLfpwJ. mitapy;yhky; Jz;Lj; JzpNahL ghHf;Fk;NghJ gyH myq;Nfhykhff; fhzg;gl;lhHfs;.  tz;b njhe;jp ,y;yhjtHfisg; ghHf;fNt Kbatpy;iy. eLj;ju taJf;fhuHfsJ tapW$l ngupa  ghidasT ,Ue;jJ. mtHfisg; ghHj;jNghJ "njhe;jpf; fzgjpf;F tz;b ngUj;j tpjk; vd;Nd vd;Nd" vd;w ghl Ntz;Lk; Nghy; Njhd;wpaJ.

 

nghJthfNt  gyH ehshe;jk; clw;gapw;rp nra;Ak; gof;fk; ,y;yhjjhy; ngupa tz;b njhe;jpNahL fhl;rp mspf;fpwhHfs;. czTf; fl;Lg;ghL filg; gpbf;fg; glhjJ ,e;j tz;b njhe;jpf;F ,d;ndhU fhuzp.    tuNlNuh

                          

 

flw;fiuapy; rpd;df; Foe;ijfs; kz; tPL fl;b tpisahbdhHfs;. vdJ NguDf;F jiyfhy; njupahj kfpo;r;rp. kz;iz ms;Stjw;Fk; mijg; NghLtjw;Fk; cupa mfg;ig> thsp ,tw;iwg; Gwg;gL Kd;dNu Kd;ndr;rupifahfj; jd;NdhL vLj;J te;J tpl;lhH. flw;fiuia tpl;L Mis miwf;Ff; $l;bg; Nghfg; glhjghL gl Ntz;bapUe;jJ.  vq;fistpl mtHjhd; fpA+ghtpd; ,jkhd fhw;iwAk;> flw;fiuiaAk;> jz;zPiuAk; jhuhskhf mDgtpj;jhH.

 

fdlhtpy; gdp fhyj;jpy; ve;NeuKk; tPl;Lf;Fs; rpiwf; ifjpahf ,Ue;j mtUf;F Gd;uwPdh G+Nyhf nrhHf;fkhf ,Ue;jjpy; tpag;NgJk; ,y;iy.

 

ehq;fs; mq;F epd;w ehs;fspy; (2000k; Mz;L rpj;jpiu khjk;) ntg;gepiy ruhrup 25 ghif nry;rpa]; MfapUe;jJ. ,e;j ,lj;jpy; fpA+gh ehl;bd; fhyepiy gw;wpa juTfisj; juyhk; vd epidf;fpNwd;.

 

ij> khrp - 22 ghif

gq;Fdp   - 23 ghif

rpj;jpiu  - 25 ghif

itfhrp  - 26 ghif

Mdp     - 27 ghif

Mb     - 28 ghif

Mtz p - 29 ghif

Gul;lhjp - 28 ghif

Ig;grp  - 26 ghif

fhHj;jpif - 24 ghif

khHfop  - 22 ghif

 

tuz;l fhyk; - fhHj;jpif njhlf;fk; rpj;jpiu  kl;Lk;

kio fhyk; - itfhrp njhlf;fk; Ig;grp kl;Lk;

  

fpA+gh ehl;bd; kf;fs; njhif> epyg;gug;G ,itgw;wp Kd;dNu nrhy;ypapUf;fpNwd;. mjid kPz;Lk; xU Kiw Qhgfg;gLj;j tpUk;GfpNwd;.

 

kf;fs; njhif - 11>141> 997 ,yl;rk; (2000k; Mz;L kjpg;gPL) (,yq;if 190 ,yl;rk;)

 

,dq;fs;  - fyg;gpdk; 51 tpOf;fhL ( Mulatto 51 %)

         -  nts;isaH 37 tpOf;fhL

         -  fUg;gH 11 tpOf;fhL

         -  rPdH 1 tpOf;fhL

 

epyg;gug;G        - 110>922 rJu fpkP ( 43>000 rJu fy; )  ,yq;if 65>610 rJu fpkP   (25>332 r.fy;)

cj;jpNahf nkhop - ,Rg;gdPah

 

jiyefuk;        - `thdh

 

rkak;            - fj;Njhypf;fk; (85 tpOf;fhL)

 

Njrpa tUkhdk; jiyf;F - 1260 m. nlhyHfs;  (,yq;if 750 m.nlhyHfs;)

 

ruhrup mfit          - 76.21 Mz;L;

 

Gd;uwPdh flw;fiuNahukhf Vuhskhd rq;F> Nrhfpfs; ntt;NtW epwj;jpy;> ntt;NtW tbtpy; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. Mdhy;> fPupkiyf; flw;fiuapy; fpilf;Fk; rq;F> Nrhfpapd; mstpYk; tbtpYk; ,q;F fhzg;gltpy;iy. ,Ue;Jk;  epidTf;fhff; nfhQ;rk; nghWf;fp vLj;Jf; nfhz;Nlhk;.

 

flw;fiuapy; itf;fg; gl;bUe;j rpd;dg; glFfspy; Vwpf; nfhQ;rj; njhiyT  jz;bdhy; typj;Jf; nfhz;L Ngha;tuyhk;. rpy glFfSf;Fg; ghAk; ,Ue;jJ.

 

xU Rje;jpu jkpoPoj;jpy; fPupkiy> jpUtbepiy> ghrpf;Flh>  jpUNfhzkiy> epyhntsp Nghd;w

                                                                      tuNlNuh

,lq;fshFk;. ,e;j ,lq;fs; etPd kag;gLj;jg;gl;L midj;Jyf juhjuj;Jf;F caHj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. vjpHfhyj;jpy; jkpoPo Rw;Wyh  mikr;R mjw;Fupa eltbf;iffis vLf;Fk; vd epidf;fpNwd;. flw;fiufs; Rw;Wyhg; gazpfisf; ftHtjw;F Vw;w

 

xt;nthU ehSk; khiyapy; N`hl;ly; tshfj;jpy; ,Ue;j  jpwe;j ntsp muq;fpy;  VjhtnjhU rpwg;G epfo;r;rp ,lk; ngWk;. xU ehs; xU ke;jpuf; fhl;rp eilngWk; vd;W mwptpj;jhHfs;. Mdhy;> khiyapy; ,b kpd;dNyhL fdj;j kio nga;jjhy; me;j epfo;r;rpia ,y;yj;Jr; nra;J tpl;lhHfs;.                                                                     

,d;ndhU ehs; ,uT rhg;ghl;bw;Fg; gpd;dH fpA+gh ehl;Lj; Njrpa eldk; ,lk;ngw;wJ. gj;J Mz;fs;> gj;Jg; ngz;fs; kpff; ftHr;rpahd cilapy; eldkhbdhHfs;. eldj;Jf;fhd ghly;fs; ,Rg;ghdpa nkhopapy; ,Ue;jd. nfhQ;rKk; mYg;Gj;  jl;lhky; ntt;NtW cilapy; gl;lhk; G+r;rpfs; khjpupj; Njhd;wpg; gk;guk;Nghy; Mb mitNahiu kfpo;tpj;jhHfs;. xyp> xsp mikg;G  vy;yhk; kpfTk; rpwg;ghf ,Ue;jJ.  epfo;r;rp njhlq;F Kd;dH xyp> xsp rupahf ,Uf;fpwjh vd;gijj; njupe;J nfhs;s mz;zsthf xU kzp Neuj;ijr; nrytopj;jpUg;ghHfs;.

 

,e;j eldf; FOTf;F  ,ytr ciwtpl> czT trjpfs; Gd;uwPdh N`hl;ly; epHthfj;jhy; nra;J nfhLf;fg; gLfpwJ. thuk; xU ehs; Xa;T vLf;fyhk;. ,uT eldj;Jf;Fg; gfypy; mt;tg;NghJ xj;jpifia itj;Jf; nfhs;fpwhHfs;.

                                                                                        

,tHfsJ Cjpak; vt;tsT vd;W njupAkh? khjk; 250 ngNrh kl;LNk. mjhtJ fdba ehzaj;jpy; RkhH 12 nlhyHfs;! (cj;jpNahfG+Htkhf xU ngNrh xU mnkupf;f nlhyUf;Fr; rkkhFk;. Mdhy;> ,Ul;Lr; re;ijapy; mjd; ngWkjp kpff; FiwT. Rw;Wyhtpfisg; nghWj;j kl;by; vy;yhf; nfhLg;gdT nfhs;tdT mnkupf;f nlhyHfspy; ,Ug;gjhy; ngNrh ehzaj;jpd; ngWkjpgw;wpf; ftiyg; glj; Njitapy;iy)

 

vy;yh N`hl;ly; CopaHfsJ Cjpak; ruhrup ,g;gbj;jhd; ,Uf;Fk;. Mdhy;> mtHfSf;F epiwa md;gspg;Gf; fpilf;fpwJ. ,jw;fhfNt epiwa xU nlhyH mnkupf;fj; jhs;fisf; nfhz;L NghapUe;Njhk;.

 

Vida Jiw CopaHfistpl ,g;gb Rw;Wyh N`hl;lypy; Copak; nra;gtHfs; mjpl;ljhupfs;. ,tHfsJ khj Cjpak; xU lhf;lUila rk;gsj;ijj; jhz;b tpLtjhfr; nrhy;fpwhHfs;. lhf;lUila Cjpak;? khjk; 35 mnkupf;f nlhyHfs; kl;LNk!

 

vq;fsJ miwiar; $l;bj; Jg;guT nra;gtH kpfTk; mikjpahd ngz;. eLj;ju taJ. ngaH khwpah. ,Rg;ghdpa ,dj;jtH. fz;lhy; ey;ynjhU Gd;difia cjpHg;ghH. Mdhy;> mtUf;F Mq;fpyk; rupahfg; Ngr tuhJ. mjdhy; mtUld; "Fl; NkhHdpq;" "jq;fpA+"  "Na];" "Neh" vd;gjw;F Nky; Ngr Kbatpy;iy.

 

Gwg;gL Kd; md;gspg;ghff; nfhLg;gjw;F fpA+ghtpy; jl;Lg;ghlhd nghUl;fs; rpytw;iw thq;fpf; nfhz;L NghapUe;Njhk;. gdNlhy;> Nrhg;> gw;gir>  epwg; ngd;rpy;> nfhg;gp> rg;ghj;J> nrUg;G> fUg;Gf; fz;zhb> gioa Mdhy;> ey;y cLg;Gf;fs; ,tw;iwf; nfhLj;jhy; fpA+ghdpaH  ed;wpNahL thq;fpf; nfhs;fpwhHfs;.     

 

jdpg;gl;ltHfs; xU nghJ ,lj;jpy;  mq;fhbfs; itj;Jf; iftpidg; nghUl;fis tpw;fpwhHfs;. ngUk;ghYk; kuj;jpdhy; nra;j G+HtPf Fbkf;fsJ cUtr; rpiyfisNa tpw;gidf;F itj;jpUf;fpd;wdH. Ml;Lj; Njhypy; nra;j  Nksq;fs; jdpj;jdpahfTk;> NrhbahfTk; itj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. mij mbg;gjw;F ,uz;L  Fr;Rfisf; ifNahL itj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. mjid thq;FgtHfs; Ehw;Wf;F EhW tpOf;fhL Rw;WyhtpfNs.

 

Kjypy; nghUl;fSf;F ,uz;L klq;F tpiy nrhy;thHfs;. mjpy; ghjp tpiy Nfl;lhy; kfpo;r;rpahff; nfhLj;J tpLthHfs;. ehd; nrhd;d tpiyiaNa nfhLj;J tpLNtd;. mtHfsplk; Nguk; NgRtJ fQ;rj;jdk; vd;gJ vd; epiyg;ghL MFk;.

 

,Nj  nghUl;fs; Rw;WyhtpfSf;nfd fl;lg;gl;l ftHr;rpfukhd mq;fhbfspYk; (Tourist Shops)  tpw;gidf;F itj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. Mdhy;> tpiy ,uz;L my;yJ %d;W klq;F mjpfk;.  

 

 


 

 

 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (24)

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;! 

 

Mz;nlhd;Wf;F ,UgJ ,yl;rk; Rw;Wyhg; gazpfs;!

 

fpA+ghtpy; tuNlNuhtpy; kl;LNk gzk; gilj;jtHfs; Nfhy;t; (Golf ) tpisahLtjw;F cupa ngupa jply;  (an 18 –hole, par-72 championship course) ,Uf;fpwJ. ,e;j ikjhdj;ij cUthf;fpa fl;blf; fiyQH ngaH ny]; NtgH (Les Furber). ,ijtpl ]dhL (Xanadu) Nghd;w  ngupa mnkupf;f Kjyhspfshy; 20 Yk; 30 Yk; fl;ba tPLfs; ,g;NghJ Rw;Wyhg; gazpfs; jq;Fk; tpLjpfshf khw;wg;gl;Ls;sd.

kpfTk; gpugy;akhd mnkupf;f  Ntjpapay; njhopy; mjpguhd my;gpul; L nghd;w; ( Alfred Du Pont)  fpA+ghtpy; tpLKiwiaf; fopf;f 1926k; Mz;L fl;ba khspif jw;NghJ Restaurante Las Americas vd;w cztfkhf khw;wg;gl;Ls;sJ. Gd;uwPdh N`hl;lypy; ,Ue;J RkhH 3 fpkP Jhuj;jpy; flw;fiuNahukhf ,J ,Uf;fpwJ.

Casa de  Al)  vd;w ,d;ndhU cztfk;  xU fhyj;jpy; Al Capone vd;w rpfhNfh nfhs;isf; $l;lj; jiytDf;Fr; nrhe;jkhf ,Ue;jJ.

 

fpA+ghtpw;F Mz;bw;F 20 ,yl;rk; Rw;Wyhtpfs; tUfpwhHfs;. =yq;fhNthL xg;gpLk;NghJ ,e;j vz;zpf;if Ie;J klq;fhFk;. ,e;jj; njhif Mz;L NjhWk; 12 tpOf;fhlhf mjpfupj;j tz;zk; ,Uf;fpwJ.

 

vdNt Rw;Wyhtpfisf; ftHe;J ,Og;gjw;F fpA+ghtpd;  Rw;Wyhj;Jiw kpFe;j mf;fiw fhl;LfpwJ. Rw;Wyhtpfs;  vijnaij tpUk;GfpwhHfNsh my;yJ vjpHghHf;fpwhHfNsh mtw;iw vy;yhk; Kbe;j kl;Lk; epiwNtw;wp itf;fr; Rw;Wyhj;Jiw ngUk; Kaw;rp vLf;fpd;wJ.

 

tl-mnkupf;fh> INuhg;gh Nghd;w  ehl;Lr; Rw;Wyhg; gazpfisf; ftHtjw;Ff; fpA+gh Nghd;Nw fupgpad; gpuNjrj;jpYs;s Vida ehLfSk; ngUk; Kaw;rp vLf;fpd;wd. vdNt Rw;Wyhg; gazpfis ,Og;gjpy; ,e;j ehLfSf;fpilNa gyj;j Nghl;b epyTfpd;wJ.

 

,g;gbf; fpA+ghNthL Nghl;bNghLk; ehLfspd; gl;baypy; gfhkh];> ghHgNlh];> fpNwdlh> nrd;l; fpl;]; (St.Kitts) [Nkf;fh> nrd;l; Yhrpah (St.Lucia) nlhkpdpf;fd; FbauR Nghd;w ehLfs; mlf;fkhFk;.

 

fupgpad; ehLfspd; nghUshjhuk; KOf;f KOf;f Rw;Wyhj;JiwiaNa ek;gpapUf;fpwJ vd;W nrhd;dhy; mJ nfhQ;rKk; kpifahfhJ. 

 

tuNlNuhtpy; ntt;NtW N`hl;ly;fspy; jq;fpapUf;Fk; Rw;Wyhtpfis fl;Lkuq;fspy; Vw;wpr; nrd;W ,d;ndhU jPtpw;F mioj;Jr; nry;fpwhHfs;. mq;F flw; gd;wpfNshL (Dolphins)  ePe;jp tpisahlyhk;. kjpa czNthL KOjhf mtpf;fg;gl;l rpq;fwhy; gupkhwg;gLfpwJ. ,e;jg; gazj;Jf;F czT> ghdq;fs; cl;gl 70 nlhyH ( nlhyH vdf;  Fwpg;gpLtJ mnkupf;f nlhyiu) fl;lzkhf mwtplg;gLfpwJ.

 

Mo;flypy; glFfspy; Ngha; kPd;gpbf;fTk; xOq;F nra;ag;gLfpd;wd. Mdhy;> mjw;Fupa fl;lzk; 700 nlhyH MFk;.

 

ehq;fs; jq;fpapUe;j Gd;uwPdh N`hl;lYf;F mUfpy; fliy ClWj;J Fj;Jkjpg;ghf  200 kPl;lH ePsKs;s ghyk; fl;bapUf;fpwhHfs;. 

 

,q;F ,uthdJk; xt;nthU ehSk; ,uz;LNgH Jhz;by; Nghl;L kPd;gpbf;f jtwhJ tUfpwhHfs;. ,e;j ,uz;L Ngupy; xUtH jfg;gd; kw;wtH mtuJ  kfd;. ,uT KOJk;  fz;tpopj;J mLj;j ehs; tpb fhiyf;fpilapy; ruhrup 3 my;yJ 4 ngupa kPd;fisg; gpbj;J tpLfpwhHfs;.

 

ehq;fs; ,Ue;j gf;fk; fpA+gh Fbkf;fs; rhjhuzkhf te;J Nghf KbahJ. mjdhy; ,e;j ,uz;L NgUk; ghyj;Jf;F  vjpHg;gf;fj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk; ,d;ndhU ghyj;jpd; KidapypUe;J fly; topahf ePe;jp ,e;jg; gf;fk; te;J NrUfpwhHfs;. 

 

jq;fs; czTf;F ,uz;nlhU kPd;fis vLj;Jf; nfhz;L kpFjpia mayl;ilapy; cs;stHfSf;F tpw;W tpLtjhfr; nrhd;dhHfs;. ,jdhy; mtHfSf;F ehnshd;Wf;F vt;tsT gzk; fpilf;Fk; vd;W Nfl;ljw;Fr; ruhrup 10 nlhyH tUkhdk; tUk; vdr; nrhd;dhHfs;.

 

xU lhf;lupd; khjr; rk;gsk; 35 nlhyuhf ,Uf;Fk;NghJ ,e;jj; je;ijAk; kfDk; ehnshd;Wf;F 10 nlhyHfs; rk;ghjpf;fpwhHfs; vd;gij ek;g Kbahky; ,Ue;jJ. mtHfs; fpA+ghtpd; ngNrh ehzaj;ijNa thq;fTk;  tpw;fTk; gad;gLj;JfpwhHfs;. vdNt ngNrhit nlhyUf;F khw;Wtjpy; mtHfs; gpiotpLfpwhHfs; vd ehq;fs; Cfpj;Njhk;.

 

mtHfSf;F ehq;fs; nfhz;LNghd gw;gir> Nrhg; Nghd;w rpd;dr; rpd;dg; nghUl;fis md;gspg;ghff; nfhLj;Njhk;. mtHfSf;F nkj;j kfpo;r;rp. jq;fSf;Fj; njupe;j Mq;fpyj;jpy; ed;wp nrhd;dhHfs;.

 

fpA+ghtpd; nghUshjhuk; kpfTk; tPo;r;rpaile;J fplg;gijapl;L NknyOe;j thupahf Kd;dH vOjpapUf;fpNwd;. 1990k; Mz;L  Nrhtpaj; xd;wpaj;jpd; FiyTf;Fg;gpd; fpA+ghtpd; nghUshjhuk; Kff; Fg;Gw tpOe;jnjd;Nw nrhy;y Ntz;Lk;. 1989k; Mz;NlhL xg;gpLifapy; fpA+ghtpd; 1994k; Mz;L cw;gj;jp ghjpahff; Fiwe;J tp;l;lJ. ,jdhy; ,wf;Fkjp ntFthff; Fiwe;jJ. czT> kpd;rhuk;> ve;jpuq;fSf;Fj; Njitahd  cjpupg;ghfq;fs; ,tw;Wf;Fj; jl;Lg;ghL Vw;gl;ld.

 

kf;fs; kfpOe;Jfisf; iftpl;L tpl;L Nghf;Ftuj;Jf;F kpjp tz;bfs;> Fjpiu tz;bfs; gad;gLj;jg; gl;ld.

 

Rw;Wyhj;Jiw $lf; nfhQ;rk; tPo;r;rpaile;jJ. mjw;F Kf;fpa fhuzk; fpA+ghit tpl;L kf;fs; fsthf mnkupf;ftpw;Fr; rhiu rhiuahf Xbj; jg;gpaJ midj;Jyf kl;lj;jpy; fpA+ghtpw;F nfl;l ngaH thq;fpf; nfhLj;jJ.

 

,e;jg; nghUshjhur; rupitr; rupf;fl;l fpA+gh ntspehl;L KjyPl;lhsHfisj; Njbg; gpbf;f Ntz;bapUe;jJ. njhiyNgrp kw;Wk; vz;nza; cw;gj;jpj; Jiwfspy; nkf;rpf;Nfh ehl;L KjyPl;lhsHfNshL fpA+gh $l;L nghUshjhu xg;ge;jq;fis nra;J nfhz;lJ.

 

ey;yfhykhf 1994k; Mz;L rPdp kw;Wk; epf;fy; Nghd;w Vw;Wkjpg; nghUl;fspd; tpiy cyfr; re;ijapy; nfhQ;rk; mjpfupj;jJ.

 

fpA+ghtpd; Njrpa rig (ehlhSkd;wk;) Gjpa tupfis tpjpj;J nghUl;fspd; tpiyfisAk; caHj;jpaJ. ,jd; %yk; ehl;bd; ehza Gof;fj;ij Fiwj;J ngNrhtpd; kjpg;ig fl;Lg;ghl;Lf;Fs; nfhz;L te;jJ. ,jdhy; xU nlhyUf;F 100 ngNrh vd;W ,Ue;j epyik khwp 1995k; Mz;lstpy; xU nlhyUf;F ngNrhtpd; ngWkjp 40 Mf mjpfupj;jJ.

 

1994k; Mz;L cs;SH nkhj;j cw;gj;jp ( Gross Domestic Product)  0.4 tpOf;fhlhf kl;Lk; ,Ue;jJ vd;why; kpFjpia ePq;fNs Cfpj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;. rpq;fg;G+upd; cnkhc (GDP) ruhrup Mz;nlhd;Wf;F 12 tpOf;fhlhFk;. rPdhtpd; tsHr;rp tpOf;fhL 10 MFk;. ,e;jpah 6.5 tpOf;fhlhFk;.

 

1994k; Mz;L fpA+ghtpd; cnkhcapd; ngWkjp (thq;Fk; rf;jp mbg;gilapy;) 1400 Nfhb nlhyuhFk;. jdp egH tUkhdk; 1>260 nlhyuhFk;. tuT 930 NfhbahFk;. nryT (epiyahd tsHr;rpf;fhd KjyPL cl;gl) 1>250 NfhbahFk;. Vw;Wkjp 160 NfhbahFk;.

 

Vw;Wkjpg; nghUl;fs;  -  rPdp> epf;fy;> rpw;gp kw;Wk; ez;Ltifs;> Gifapiy> kUj;Jtf; fUtpfs;> goq;fs;> Nfhg;gp KjypaitahFk;.

 

Ntiyaw;NwhH       - 6.

 

Ntshz;ik         - rPdp> Gifapiy> goq;fs;> Nfhg;gp> ney;> cUisf; fpoq;F> fhy;eil Kjypad.

 

may;ehl;Lf; fld;    - 1120 Nfhb nlhyH (,ijtpl cUrpahtpw;F 2>000 Nfhb fld; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;)

 

1996 Mk; Mz;L Ra njhopyhsHfsJ vz;zpf;if 208>000 Mf ,Ue;jJ. Mdhy;> 1997 Mk; Mz;L Gjpjhf mwpKfg; gLj;jg;gl;l tup fhuzkhf ,e;jj; njhif 176>000 Mff; Fiwe;jJ.

fpA+gh kPjhd mnkupf;fhtpd; nghUshjhuj; jilNa fpA+ghtpd; nghUshjhu neUf;fbf;Ff; fhuzkhFk;. fpA+ghtpy; kf;fshl;rpKiw ,y;iy> nra;jpr; Rje;jpuk; ,y;iy> kdpjTupikfs; kjpf;fg;gLtjpy;iy Nghd;w fhuzj;Jf;fhfNt mnkupf;fh ,e;jg; nghUshjhuj; jiliaf; fpA+gh kPJ tpjpj;Js;sJ. Mdhy;> ,Nj Fw;wr; rhl;Lf;fs; et rPdhTf;Fk; nghUe;Jk;. Mdhy;> mnkupf;fh rPdh kPJ nghUshjhuj; jil vJTk; tpjpf;ftpy;iy. ,d;Dk; nrhy;yg; Nghdhy; rPdhtpw;F kpfTk; el;G  ehL vd;w me;j];J toq;fg; gl;Ls;sJ.

mnkupf;fhtpd; ntspAwTf; nfhs;if murpaiy tpl thzpf mbg;gilapy; tFf;fg;gLfpwJ vd;gjw;F rPdh-fpA+gh ehLfNshlhd vjpUk; GjpUkhd mZFKiw ey;y vLj;Jf; fhl;lhFk;.

 

ntuNlNuhtpy; ,Ue;J `thdh 100 fp.kP JhukhFk;. mq;F Nghtjw;Ff; fl;lzk; 55 nlhyH kl;LNk. ,e;jstpy; fdbaH gyH ez;gHfshfp tpl;lhHfs;. vdNt vy;NyhUkhf gaz Vw;ghl;ilg; gaz KftH %ykhfr; nra;Njhk;. fhiy 8 kzpf;F tz;b N`hl;ly; thrypy; tUk;> vy;NyhUk; Maj;jkhf  ,Uf;FkhW gaz KftH Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lhH. vdNt mLj;j thuk; cq;fisAk; mioj;Jf; nfhz;L `thdhTf;F gazk; nra;a ,Uf;fpNwd;.    

 

 

 


 

 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (25)

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;! 

 

fpA+ghtpd; Vo;ikiaf; fhl;bf; nfhLf;Fk; njhlHkhbfs;!

 

nrhy;yp itj;jJNghy mLj;j ehs; fhiy 8 kzpf;F xU Gj;jk; Gjpa thd; N`hl;ly; Kd; te;J epd;wJ. RkhH ,UgJ NgH gazk; nra;af;$ba tz;b. Vw;fdNt mjpy; mf;fk; gf;f N`hl;ly;fspy; jq;fpapUe;j xU gj;Jg; gd;dpuz;L NgH ,Ue;jhHfs;. ehDk; kidtpAk; mjpy; Vwpf; nfhz;Nlhk;. vq;fsJ fdba ez;gHfSk; Vwpf; nfhz;lhHfs;. tUtjhfj; jq;fs; ngaHfisg; gzk; nfhLj;Jg; gjpT nra;J nfhz;l fztd;-kidtp ,uz;L NgH kl;Lk; tuj; jtwp ,Ue;jhHfs;.

 

Rw;Wyh topfhl;b mtHfs; tUfpwhHfsh ,y;iyah vd;gij mwpa tuNtw;G Nkirapy; ,Ue;jtHfsplk; mbf;fb Ngha; tprhupj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;jhH. mtHfs; te;jghby;iy. vdNt tz;b Gwg;gl;lJ.

 

vq;fsJ topfhl;b Kg;gJ taJ kjpf;ff; $ba ngz;kzp. kpfTk; RWRWg;ghff; fhzg;gl;lhH. mtuJ Mq;fpyk; kpfTk; ruskhf ,Ue;jJ. jd;id mwpKfk; nra;J nfhz;l gpd;dH tz;b Xl;bdiuAk; vy;NyhUf;Fk;; mwpKfk; nra;J itj;jhH.

 

md;iwa gazj;ijg;gw;wp RUf;fkhfr; nrhd;dhH. Nghfpw topAk;> `thdhtpy; ve;nje;j ,lq;fisr; Rw;wpf; fhz;gpf;f ,Ug;gijAk; nrhd;dhH.

 

topapy; Kf;fpa efuq;fisf; flf;Fk; NghJ me;j efuq;fspd; ngaHfs;> kf;fs; njhif> mtHfsJ njhopy;fs; ,itgw;wp RUf;fkhfr; nrhd;dhH.

 

mtH NgRtijg; ghHj;jhy; vy;yhtw;iwAk; kddk; nra;J xg;gilg;gJ Nghy; vdf;Fg; gl;lJ. topfhl;bj; njhopy; mtuJ KONeu Ntiyahf ,Ug;gjhy; fpA+ghgw;wpa tpguq;fs; vy;yhk; mtUf;F mj;Jg;gbahf ,Ue;jjpy; tpag;gpy;iy.

 

nghJthf vy;yh ehl;L topfhl;bfSk; ruhrup gzpahl;fistpl gLRl;bj;jdkhf (smart)  ,Ug;gijf; fhzyhk;. kpLf;fhd Njhw;wk;> eilAil ghtid cs;stHfNs ,e;jj; njhopYf;Fj; NjHe;njLf;fpwhHfs;.  jq;fsJ ehLgw;wpa gpk;gj;ijr; Rw;WyhtpfSf;F "tpw;g jpy; ,tHfs; nfl;bf;fhuHfs;. fy;Yhupfs; my;yJ gy;fiyf; fofq;fspy; topfhl;bfisg; gapw;Wtpg;gjw;F jdpf; fw;ifnewp ,Uf;fpwJ. mq;F Mz;Lf; fzf;fpy; gbj;Jg; gl;lk; ngWgtHfisNa ,e;jj; njhopypy; Ntiyf;F mkHj;JfpwhHfs;. 

 

jq;fs; ehl;bd; gyj;ijkl;Lk; XahJ nrhy;ypf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; topfhl;bfs; rpy rkak; gytPdq;fisAk; nrhy;y Ntz;b Vw;gLfpwJ. mg;gbahd #o;epiyapy; nrhy;yNtz;ba tplaj;ij kpfTk; eh#f;fhfTk;> ehfuPfkhfTk;> eifr;RitahfTk; nrhy;yp rkhspj;Jf; nfhs;fpwhHfs;.

 

n[Hkdp fpof;F Nkw;fhfg; gpupe;J vjpUk; GjpUkhf ,Ue;j fhyj;jpy; n[Hkdpapd; jiyefukhd ngHypDk; fpof;F ngHypd; Nkw;F ngHypd; vd;W gpupe;J ,Ue;jJ. fpof;F ngHypd; nghJTlik murpd; fPOk; Nkw;F n[Hkdp; kf;fshl;rp murpd; fPOk; ,Ue;jd.

 

,e;j ,uz;L ngHypd;fisAk; Rw;wpg; ghHf;Fk; tha;g;G 1970k; Mz;L fpilj;jJ. ,Wjpf; fzf;fhsH guPl;iria vOjp Kbj;J tpl;L ngWNgWFf; fhj;jpUe;j ,ilntspapy; INuhg;gh Nghf tha;g;Gf; fpilj;jJ. gaz xOq;Ffis Fiwe;j nrytpy; gpupj;jhdpa gy;fiyf; fof khztH rq;fk; Vw;ghL nra;jJ.

 

nghJTlikf;Fk; kf;fshl;rpf;Fk; ,ilapy; cs;s xw;Wik> Ntw;Wik kw;Wk; jhujk;aq;fisg; ghHf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;why; ,e;j ,uz;L ngHypd;fisg; ghHj;jhNy NghJk;.

 

Nkw;F n[Hkdp nry;tk; nfhopf;Fk; efukhff; fhl;rp mspj;jJ. vq;F jpUk;gpdhYk; Mly;> ghly;> ,uT tpLjpfs;> rptg;Gtpsf;Fg; gFjpfs; ,g;gb xd;Wf;FNk gQ;rk; ,y;yhky; ,Ue;jJ.

 

mDkd; fz;l ,yq;if khe;jiuf; fk;gH ,uhkfhijapy; mDkd; thapyhfg; glk;gpbj;Jf; fhl;b ,Uf;fpwhH. me;jg; ghliy epidT+l;lj;jf;fjhf Nkw;F ngHypd; ,Ue;jJ. fk;gupd; ghly; ,J.

 

"gspf;F khspifj; jye;njhWk;>
        ,le;njhWk;> gRe; Njd;
Jspf;Fk; fw;fgj; jz; eWk;
   Nrhiyfs; NjhWk;>
mspf;Fk; Njwy; cz;(L)> MLeH
   ghLeH Mfpf;
fspf;fpd; whHmy;yhy;> fty;fpd;whH
   xUtiuf; fhNzd;."    
   (fk;g ,uh. CHNjL glyk;)

 

"fspf;fpd;why; my;yhy; fty;fpd;whH xUtiuf; fhNzd;" mjhtJ gspq;Ff; fy;ypdhy; nra;ag;gl;l khspifapd; ,lq;fspYk;> Vida ,lq;fspYk;> mq;F mikf;fg;gl;l fw;gfr; NrhiyfspYk;> vq;Nf ghHj;jhYk; kJit cz;L MLfpwtHfSk; ghLfpwtHfSkha; ,Uf;fpd;whHfNs md;wpf; ftiy cilatHfshf xUtUNk fhzg;gltpy;iy"" vd;fpwhd; mDkd;.

 

Nkw;F ngHypd; kf;fSk; ,g;gbj;jhd; ,Ue;jhHfs;. mjw;F NeHkhwhf ,Ue;jJ fpof;F ngHypd;.

 

ngHypd; efiug; NgUe;jpy; Rw;wpg; ghHg;gjw;F Rw;Wyhj;JiwapdH xOq;F gbj;jpapUe;jhHfs;.  mg;gbg; Ngha;f; nfhz;bUe;jNghJ efupd; xUGwk; tPjpapd; ,uz;L gf;fKk; miuFiw MilNahL ,sk; ngz;fs; Kd;Df;Fk; gpd;Df;Fk; md;d eil ele;J nfhz;bUe;jhHfs;. tPjpahy; NghAk; te;J nfhz;bUf;Fk; rpy tz;bfs; epd;W me;jg; ngz;fNshL Ngr;Rf; nfhLg;gijg; ghHf;ff; $bajhf ,Ue;jJ. rpy rkak; me;jg; ngz;fspy; xUtH me;j tz;bapy; Vwpf; nfhs;thH.

 

tPjpapy; vd;d elf;fpwJ vd;gijf; fz;Lgpbf;f mjpfk; rpukg;glj; Njitapy;yhky; ,Ue;jJ. Nguk; Ngrp mJ rupte;jhy; ngz; tz;bapy; VWfpwhH. ,y;yhtpl;lhy; tz;b ntWkNd NghfpwJ. NghdJk; me;jg; ngz; kw;nwhU cWkPDf;fhf eil NghLfpwhs;.

 

,e;jr; rq;flkhd fhl;rpia ehq;fs; fz;Ltpl;Nlhk; vd;gJ topfhl;bf;Fj; njupe;J tpLfpwJ. clNd mtH vq;fisg; ghHj;Jr; nrhd;dhH "",e;j tPjpapd; ,UkUq;fpYk; mq;Fk; ,q;Fk; eilgapd;W nfhz;bUf;fpwhHfNs. me;jg; ngz;fs; NtWahUky;y. ",iuiaf; nfhj;Jtjw;fhff; fhj;jpUf;Fk; gwitfs;!" mtHfs; rptg;G tpsf;Fg; gFjpg; ngz;fs; vd;W gr;irahfr; nrhy;yhky; topfhl;b ,g;gb eh#f;fhf tplaj;ijr; nrhd;dhH.

 

tz;b Xbf; nfhz;bUe;jJ. me;j tPjp fly;fiu Xukhf ,Ue;jJ. vdNt fly; mbf;fb fz;Zf;Fg; gl;lJ. CH kidfSk; njd;gl;ld. tPjpfspy; kf;fs; njd;gl;lhHfs;. rpd;dJk; ngupaJkhd tPLfs; njd;gl;ld. gs;spf;$lf; fl;blq;fs;> kUj;Jt kidfs;> mq;fhbfs; te;J te;J Nghapd.

 

Jhuj;jpy; njhlHkhbf; fl;blq;fs; fz;Zf;Fj; njupe;jd. vy;yhk; rpd;dr; rpd;d tPLfs;. xd;Wk; xOq;fhff; fz;Zf;Fg; gspr;rpLkhW ,Uf;ftpy;iy. fpA+gh Vio ehnld;gij ,e;jj;njhlHkhbf; fl;blq;fs; fhl;bf; nfhLj;jd. mjpYk; nta;apYf;Fj; jbfspy; fl;bf;  fhag; Nghl;bUf;Fk; fe;jy; Jzpkzpfs; me;j cz;ikia ciwg;ghf vLj;Jf;fhl;bd.

 

mg;gbahd xU njhlHkhbf; fl;blj;jpd; cs;Ns Ngha;g; ghHf;Fk; re;jHg;gk; fpilf;ftpy;iy. Mdhy;> ntspj; Njhw;wj;ij itj;J cs; Njhw;wj;ij xUthW mDkhdpj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;.

 

xU ,lj;jpy; fhyhWtjw;F tz;b epw;ghl;lg;gl;lJ. mJ xU rpd;d czT tpLjp. Fbg;gjw;F FspHghdk; my;yJ #lhdghdk; ,Ue;jJ. foptiwAk; ,Ue;jJ. mq;F Nghfyhk; vd;why; mjd; thrypy; xU ,sk; ngz; cl;fhHe;jpUe;jhH. ,tH Vd; ,g;gb ee;jdhUf;F rd;dpjpia kiwj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;j ee;jp khjpup cl;fhHe;J nfhz;bUf;fpwhH vd;W Nahrpj;jhy; mtH foptiwf;Fg; NghfpwtHfSf;Fj; Njitg;gLk; "up\;A+" fljhrpia xU jl;by; itj;Jf; nfhLj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;jhH. Rk;kh my;y fhRf;F. tpiy Fwpg;gplhtpl;lhYk; Fiwe;jJ xU nlhyH NghlNtz;Lk;!

 

gpd;dH `thdhtpy; rpy N`hl;ly;fs; my;yJ 'nw];Nuhwd;l;" ,tw;Wf;Fs; Eise;jNghJ ,Nj fhl;rp njd;gl;lJ. rpy Gj;jprhyp Rw;Wyhtpfs; Kd; vr;rupf;ifahfj; Njitahd fljhrpia  ifNahL nfhz;L te;jpUe;jhHfs;.

 

topfhl;b fpA+ghtpd; tuyhw;iwg; Gs;sp tpguq;fNshL MjpNahle;jkhf fisf;fhky; nrhy;ypf; nfhz;L te;jhH. G+HtPf Fbkf;fs;> nfhyk;g]; tUif> 1959 Mk; Mz;Lg; Gul;rp> fpA+ghtpd; kf;fs; njhif> jw;Nghija Ml;rpKiw> Vw;Wkjp> ,wf;Fkjp ,g;gb vy;yh tplaq;fs; gw;wpAk; nrhd;dhH.  ehd; mtw;iw Kbe;jsT Fwpg;ngLj;Jf; nfhz;Nld;. ,g;NghJ tz;b kPz;Lk; xU ePz;l ghyj;Jf;F mUfpy; epWj;jg;gl;lJ. ""ePq;fs; fl;lhak; ghHf;f Ntz;ba ,lk; ,J"" vd;w Kd;DiuAld; topfhl;b vy;NyhiuAk; ,wq;fr; nrhd;dhH.  

  

 


 

 

 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (26)

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;!

 

`thdh fpA+ghtpd; fyhrhuj; jiyefuk;!

 

 

me;jg; ghyk; ehq;fs;  Gwg;gl;l kjd;]h ( Matanzasa) khfhzj;ijAk; Ngha;f; nfhz;bUf;Fk; yh `thdh (La Havana) khfhzj;ijAk; gpupf;Fk; vy;iyahf ,Uf;fpJ. ghyj;Jf;Ff; fPNo RkhH 100 kPl;lH Jhuj;jpy; rpd;d MW xd;W  Xbf; nfhz;bUe;jJ. ghyj;jpy; ,Ue;J ghHf;fj; jiy Rw;WtJ Nghy ,Ue;jJ. mt;tsT cauj;jpy; ghyk; ,Ue;jJ.

 

Mw;Wf;F ,UkUq;fpYk; ,Ue;j tPLfs; fz;Zf;F kpfTk; rpd;djhfj; njupe;jJ. thio kuq;fs;> fz;Lfhypfs;> Ml;fs; vy;yhNk FWzpahfj; njupe;jd. fPNo trpf;Fk; kf;fs; vg;gb NkNy tUfpwhHfs; vd;gJ njupatpy;iy. tyJGwkhf  xU fpkP Jhuj;jpy; ,e;j MW Ngha; tpOk; tl ml;yhd;jpf; rKj;jpuk; njupe;jJ. mjd; miyfs; jiuia XahJ Kj;jk; ,l;ltz;zk; ,Ue;jd.

 

,e;jg; ghyk; 1959k; Mz;Lf;F Kd;dH> mjhtJ fpA+gd; Gul;rpf;F Kd;dH mnkupf;f nghwpapay; epWtdk; xd;wpdhy; fl;lg;gl;lJ. mjw;fg;Gwk; fpA+ghtpy; xU ghyk;jd;Dk; fl;lg;gltpy;iyahk;.

 

kdjpy; kiyg;ig Vw;gLj;Jk; me;jf; fhl;rpiaf; fz;L fspj;jgpd;(?) kWgbAk; tz;bapy; ehq;fs; Vwpf; nfhz;Nlhk;.

 

,g;NghJ topfhl;b fupgPd; fly;gw;wpAk;> Nkw;fpe;jpa jPTfs;gw;wpAk;> ,yj;jpd; ehLfs;gw;wpAk; tpsf;fk; mspj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;jhH.

 

fpA+gh fpof;F Nkw;fhf xU KjiyNghy jz;zPupy; fplf;fpwJ vd;gij Vw;fdNt nrhy;yptpl;Nld;. mjd; tyJ Gwj;jpy; tl ml;yhd;jpf; rKj;jpuk;. njd;Gwj;jpy; fupgpad; fly;. fupgpad; fly; ml;yhd;upf; rKj;jpuj;ijj; njhl;Lf; nfhz;L fplf;fpwJ. fupgpad; flYf;F tlf;fpYk; fpof;fpYk; Nkw;fpe;jpa jPTfs;. njw;Fg;Gwk; njd; mnkupf;fh kw;Wk; gdhkh fly;. Nkw;fpy; kj;jpa mnkupf;fh.

 

njd; mnkupf;fhit ,yj;jpd; mnkupf;fh vd;Wk; miog;gJz;L. ,Rg;ghdPa nkhop NgRk; kf;fis ,e;jr; nrhy; Fwpg;gjhNyNa njd; mnkupf;fh ,yj;jpd; mnkupf;fh vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ.

 

fupgpad; vd;w ngaH vg;gb te;jJ? gjpide;jhk; Ehw;whz;by; ,Rg;ghdpa flNyhbfs; ,q;F tUKd;dH ,e;jj; jPTfspy; fupg; vd;w G+HtPff; Fbkf;fs; tho;e;jhHfs;. vdNt me;jf; fly; fupgPd; vd miof;fg;glyhapw;W.

 

,e;jg; gpuhe;jpaj;jpy; ngyp]; ehl;L khad; (Mayan of Belize) (jkpo;g; ngaHNghy; xypf;fpwjy;yth?)> nkf;rpf;Nfh ehl;L m];uf;]; (Aztecs of Mexico), NgU ehl;L ,q;fh]; ( Incas of Peru)  ey;y ehfuPfk; gilj;j ,dq;fshf tho;e;J ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. vdNt nfhyk;g]; mnkupf;fhitf; "fz;Lgpbj;jhH" vd;gJ rupahd nrhy;yhl;rp my;y.

 

,RghdPah> NghHj;Jf;fy; Nghd;w nfhydpj;Jt ehLfs; mnkupf;fhitf; fz;L gpbj;j gpd;dH> mnkupf;fhtpd;> Fwpg;ghfj; njd; mnkupf;fhtpd; Kfk; Jupj nfjpapy; khw;wk; mile;jJ. Mgpupf;fhtpy; ,Ue;J 140 ,yl;rk; mbikfs; nfhz;L tug;gl;lhHfs;. mj;NjhL Nfhg;gp kw;Wk; fUk;Gj; Njhl;lq;fspy; Ntiy nra;tjw;F ,e;jpahtpy; ,Ue;J $ypfs; nfhz;L tug;gl;lhHfs;. ,tHfspy; ngUk;ghyhNdhH jkpoHfs; vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. G+HtPf kf;fis ,e;jf; FbNaw;W ehLfs; ngUk;ghYk; nfhd;nwhopj;jd.

 

,e;jg; gpuhe;jpaj;ijg;gw;wp rupahf mwpe;J  nfhs;tjw;F If;fpa mnkupf;fhitg;gw;wpAk; njupe;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

 

fupgPd; fpof;F Nkw;fhf 2>400 fp.kP ( 1>500 fy;) ePsKk; tlf;Fj; njw;fhf 640 - 1>400 fpkP ( 400-900 fy;fs;) mfyKk; nfhz;lJ. vdNt mjd; nkhj;j gug;gsT 2>718>000 rfp kPl;lH ( 1>049>000 r.fy;) MFk;.

 

fupgPd; flypd; Mok; vt;tsT vd;gJ njupAkh?  ruhrup 1>830 kPl;lH ( 6>000 mb). rpy ,lq;fspy; mjd; Mok; 3>660 kPl;;lH( 12>000 mb). Mff; $baJ Nfkd; nwd;r; (Cayman Trench) gpuNjrk; (7>686 kP my;yJ 25>216 mb). 

 

,e;jf; fupgPd; fly;jhd; fpA+gh Nghd;w jPTfs; vg;NghJk; fjfjg;ghf ,Uf;f itf;fpwJ. fliy Kj;jkpl;Lf; nfhz;L tPRk; fhw;W mjd; jz;ikiaAk; thupf; nfhz;L tUfpwJ. ,jdhy; epyj;ijr; #o ,Uf;Fk; fhw;W NkNy vo me;j ,lj;ij ,e;jf; FspH fhw;W epug;GfpwJ. ,jdhy; ntl;gk; ntFthff; Fiwe;J tpLfpwJ. 

 

,e;jj; juTfis topfhl;b fisf;fhky; nrhy;ypf; nfhz;Nl te;jhH. mtuJ Qhgf rf;jp tpaf;fj;jf;fjhf ,Ue;jJ.

 

mnkupf;fh 1832k; Mz;L nkhd;Nwh Nfhl;ghl;il ( Monroe Doctrine ) gpufldg;gLj;jpaJ. mjd; jhw;gupak; vd;dntd;why; njd; mnkupf;fhf; fz;lk; KOJk; mnkupf;fhtpd; Nkyhz;ikf;F (hegemony)  cl;gl;lJ vd;gjhFk;. mjpy; NtW ve;j ehLk; jiyapl mDkjpf;fg; glkhl;lhJ.

 

,e;jf; Nfhl;ghl;bd; mbg;gilapy; fle;j fhyq;fspy; mnkupf;fh nlhkpdpf;fd; FbauR> gdhkh>  epf;fuFth> rpyp> N`apl;b kw;Wk; fpwdlh Nghd;w ehLfSf;Fj; jdJ gilia Neubahf mDg;gp my;yJ cs;ehl;by; muRf;F vjpuhfg; NghuhLk; tyJrhup nfupy;yh ,af;fq;fSf;F MAjq;fis ey;fp me;j ehLfspd; Ml;rpfisf; ftpo;j;Js;sJ.

 

fpA+gh kPJk; mnkupf;fh gilnaLj;jJ. Mdhy;> mjpy; mnkupf;fh ngupa Njhy;tpiaj; jOtpf; nfhz;lJ. me;jg; gilnaLg;Gf;F Bay of Pig Invasion vd;gJ ngauhFk;. mijapl;Lg; gpd;dH vOJNtd;.

 

Mdhy;> mnkupf;fh ,uhZt mOj;jj;jpw;Fg; gjpy; nghUshjhuj; jilia fpA+gh kPJ tpjpj;Js;sJ. n`y;k;];-Ngl;ld; (Helms-Burton)  rl;lj;jpd; fPo; cyf ehLfs; fpA+ghNthL thzpfk; nra;tJ jilnra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ.

 

njd; mnkupf;f ehLfspy; ,Ue;J Nghijg; nghUs; mnkupf;fhtpw;Ff; flj;jjg; gLtJ mnkupf;f muRf;Fg; ngupa jiyapbahf ,Ue;J tUfpwJ. Nghijg; nghUs; flj;JNthiu mnkupf;f csTg; gil me;j ehLfspypy; ,Ue;J flj;jpf; nfhz;L tUfpwJ.

 

gdhkh ehl;bd; rdhjpgjpahf ,Ue;j kDNty; nehwpf;fh ( Manuel Norega)   Nghijg; nghUs; flj;Jk; flj;jy;fhuHfSf;F cle;ijahf ,Ue;jhhH vd;W Fw;wk; rhl;b 1989 Mk; Mz;L mnkupf;fh jdJ ,uhZtj;ij mDg;gp mtiuf; ifJ nra;J mnkupf;fhTf;Ff; nfhz;L te;jJ. gpd;dH mtiu ePjpkd;wj;jpy; epWj;jpj; jz;lid  thq;fpf; nfhLj;J rpiwapy; milj;J itj;Js;shHfs;.

 

,g;NghJ topfhl;b fpA+ghtpd; jiy efukhd `thdh gw;wpa juTfis thupf; nfhl;lj; njhlq;fpdhH.  aho;g;ghzk; vg;gb jkpo; kf;fsJ gz;ghl;bd; jiyefukhf fUjg;gLfpwNjh mNj Nghy `thdh fpA+ghtpd; fyhrhuj; jiy efukhfj; jpfo;fpwJ.

 

fpA+ghtpy; cs;s efuq;fspy; `thdhjhd; ngupaJ vd;gijr; nrhy;yj; Njitapy;iy. Vida efuq;fNshL xg;gpLk;NghJ `thdh mgptpUj;jp mile;j xU efukhf tpsq;FfpwJ.

 

,Ue;Jk; mnkupf;fhtpd; nghUshjhuj; jil fhuzkhf  `thdhtpd; mgptpUj;jp jilgl;Ls;sJ. ,g;nghOJjhd; kWgbAk; me;epa nghUshjhu KjyPL tzpfk; kw;Wk; ifj;njhopy; Jiwfspy; mjpfupf;fj; njhlq;fpapUf;fpwJ. `thdh efiu ,uT gfyhfr; Rw;Wyhg;gazpfs; nkha;j;j tz;zk; ,Uf;fpwhHfs;.

 

`thdhtpd; kf;fs; njhif 22 ,yl;rkhFk;. gyH ,d;Dk; Gul;rpf;F Ke;jpa Fg;gq;fspy; tho;fpwhHfs;. mtHfSf;F Gjpa FbapUg;Gf;fs; mikj;Jf; nfhLf;Fk; gzp ,g;NghJ njhlq;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

 


 

 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (27)

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;!

 

xd;wy;y %d;W fz;lq;fis tisj;Jg; gpbj;jhHfs;

 

",yj;jpd;" vd;w nrhy; ,Rg;ghdpa nkhop NgRfpwtHfisf; Fwpf;Fk; vd;W Kd;dH Fwpg;gpl;Nld;. ",yj;jpd; mnkupf;fh" vd;why; ,Rg;ghdpa nkhop NgRfpw ehLfisf; Fwpf;Fk;. Mdhy;> fupgPd; gpuhe;jpaj;jpy; ,e;jr; nrhy;Yf;F NtW ,yf;fzk; nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ.

 

fupgPd; flypy; ,Uf;Fk; Rje;jpukhd my;yJ Rje;jpukw;w jPTfisf; ,e;jr; nrhy; Fwpj;jJ.  Rje;jpukhd ehLfs; xU fhyj;jpy; gpupj;jhdpah> gpuhd;];> kw;Wk; nejye;J (xy;yhe;J) ehLfspd; nfhydpj; jPTfshf ,Ue;jit. 1994k; Mz;L eilngw;w fupgPd; ehLfsJ khehl;by; "fupgPd;" (Caribbean) vd;w nrhy;Yf;F kPs; mHj;jk; nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. fupgPd; gpuhe;jpaj;ij njhl;Lf; nfhz;L fplf;Fk; njd; mnkupf;fh> kj;jpa mnkupf;fh fupgPd; ehLfs; vd;W miof;fg;gl;lJ.

 

Gtpapay; mbg;gilapy; njd; mnkupf;f ,yj;jpd; ehLfs; tl mnkupf;fhtpYs;s nkf;rpf;Nfhtpy; ,Ue;J njd; mnkupf;fhtpYs;s MH[pd;Bdh ehL tiu cs;slf;fp cs;sJ.

 

,jd; epyg;gug;G 7>9 kpy;ypad; r. fw;fSf;Fk; mjpfkhFk;. ,J If;fpa mnkupf;fh kw;Wk; INuhg;gh ,uz;bd; epyg;gug;Gf;Fr; rkkhFk;. ePsk; ,yz;ldpypUe;J Nfg; uTz; (Cape Town)msT JhukhFk;.  njd; mnkupf;f ehLfspy; xd;whd gpNurpy; ,e;jpahittpl mstpy; ngupajhFk;.

 

,e;j ehLfis vy;yhk; 15k; Ehw;whz;bd; Muk;gj;jpy;jhd; ,RghdpaH> gpupj;jhdpaH> nejye;JfhuHfshy; tisj;Jg; gpbf;fg; gl;lJ vd;why; mij ek;GtJ tpy;yq;fkhf ,Uf;Fk;.

 

ehq;fs; Kjyhk; ,uhruhr Nrhod; ( fp.gp. 985-1018) mtd; kfd; Kjyhk; ,uhNre;jpud; (fp.gp. 1014-1044) <ok;> flhuk; ( Mynammar / Burma) rhtfk; (Java) Gl;gfk; (Sumatra) jha;yhe;J> tpal;ehk;> kNyrpah> khiyjPT> ,yl;rjPT ,tw;iwnay;yhk; ntw;wp nfhz;ljhfg; ngUik mbj;Jf; nfhs;fpNwhk;.

 

NrhoHfsJ Ntsf;fhug; gil> ifNfhsg; gil ,uz;Lk; fypq;fk;> tq;fk;> gPfhH ehLfisf; fle;J fq;iff; fiuf;F mg;ghYk; ntw;wp eilNghl;lJ. Kjyhk; ,uhNre;jpud; tq;fk;tiu nrd;whd;.

 

Mdhy;> me;j ehLfspy;  my;yJ jPTfspy; FbNawp mtw;iwf; FbNaw;w ehLfshf khw;wpNdhkh vd;why; gjpy; ,y;iy vd;Nw nrhy;y Ntz;bAs;sJ. mjw;Fj; jkpoHfspd; ngUe;jd;ik> kw;w ,dj;jtiuNah ehl;ltiuNah mbikg; gLj;jf;$lhj vd;w  ey;nyz;zk;> fhuzkhf ,Uf;fyhk;.

 

NrhoHfs; <oj;ij jhf;fp mjidg; gpbj;jhHfs;. Mdhy;> mjidAk; Kw;whfg; gpbf;ftpy;iy. gpbj;jpUe;jhy; ,d;W mq;F ,dr; rpf;fy; vdw; xd;W te;jpUf;fhJ.

 

mJtiu fhyKk; <oj;jpd; jiyefuhf ,Ue;j mDuhjGuj;ij  nghydWitf;F  (n[fehjkq;fsGuk;) khw;wpa  ,uhruhrd; - ,uhNre;jpud; ( je;ijAk; kfDk; xU fl;lj;jpy; Vf fhyj;jpy; mupaizapy; ,Ue;jpUf;fpwhHfs;) mq;F fy;yhy; mofhd muz;kidfs;> rptd; Nfhtpy;fs; fl;bdhHfs;. ,it ,d;Wk; NrhoHfsJ fiy tz;zj;Jf;Fk; if tz;zj;Jf;Fk;  fl;bak; $wp epw;fpd;wd. mq;F ,uz;L rptd; Nfhtpy;fs; ,uhruhrdJ jhahH thdkhNjtpapd; epidthff; fl;lg;gl;ld. ,g;NghJ mit ghoile;j epiyapy; fplf;fpd;wd. %y tpf;fpufq;fs; cilf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.

 

Gtpapay; mbg;gilapy; jkpo; ehl;by; ,Ue;J 21 fy; njhiytpy; cs;s <ok; jkpoHfsJ ehlhfj;jhd; ,Ue;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. jkpofj;ijAk; <oj;ijAk; rKj;jpuk; gpupf;ftpy;iy. ghf;FePuizjhd; gpupf;fpwJ. ,Ue;Jk; jkpoHfs; Nfhl;il tpl;L tpl;lhHfs;.

 

rPdHfis vLj;Jf; nfhz;lhy; mUfpYs;s jha;thd;> khNfh jPTfs; rPdh ehl;bd; xU gFjpahfNt ,Ue;J te;jpUf;fpd;wd. 

 

Mdhy;> ,Rg;ghdpaH> gpupj;jhdpaH  10>000 15>0000 fy;fSf;F mg;ghy; cs;s xd;Wf;F %d;W fz;lq;fisg; (njd; mnkupf;fh> tl mnkupf;fh> mT];jpNuypah)  gpbj;jJ kl;Lk; my;yhky; mq;F FbNawpf; nfhbfl;b tho;fpwhHfs;. ,Rghdpa nkhop If;fpa ehLfs; mitapd; cj;jpNahf nkhopfspy; xd;whf ,Uf;fpwJ.

 

mT];jpNuypahit gpbj;j gpupj;jhdpaHfs; mjidf; ifjpfis milj;J itf;Fk; xU rpiwr;rhiyahfj;jhd; gad; gLj;jpdhHfs;. Mdhy;> ,d;W mT];jpNuypah G+Nyhf RtHf;fkhf tpsq;FfpwJ. me;j ehl;bd; ,jkhd fhy epiyf;fhfNt mq;F FbNawp thoyhk;. fdlhtpy; FbNawp> gpd;dH fdlhtpd;  FspH gpbf;fhky; mT];jpNuypahtpw;Ff; FbNawpa gy jkpo;f; FLk;gq;fis mq;F ghHf;fyhk;. 

 

,Rg;ghdpaUf;Fk; gpupj;jhdpaUf;Fk; ,Ue;j tPuk;> JzpT> nrUf;F> jpwik Nru> Nrho> ghz;baHfSf;F Vd; ,y;yhJ Ngha;tpl;lJ?

 

,e;jpa tuyhw;wpy; NrhoHfs; kl;LNk xU flyhjpf;fk; nrYj;jpa murHfs; MthHfs;. mjdhy; mtHfs;  Nrhog; NguurH (Imperial Cholas) vd miof;fg; gl;lhHfs;. tl ,yq;ifia ntd;w ,uhruhrd; mjw;F Kk;Kbr; Nrhokz;lyk; vd;w ngaiur; #l;bdhd;. ,jdhy; ,uhruhrd; Kk;Kbr; Nrhod; vd;w miof;fg;gl;lhd;.

 

mz;ikapy; Discovery Channel y; xU FWk;glk; Nghl;Lf; fhl;bdhHfs;. mjpy;  ,e;jpa murHfspy; ,uhruhr NrhoNd khngUk; kd;dd; (The greatest King of India) vd;W mioj;jhHfs;. Mapuk; Mz;LfSf;F Kd; mtd; vOg;gpa jQ;irg; ngUTilahH Nfhtpy; jkpodpd; fl;blf; fiyf;F xU vLj;Jf; fhl;lhfj; jpfo;fpwJ. mw;Gjkhd me;jf; fiyf;Nfhtpy; ,d;Wk; ,uhruhrdJ Gfo;ghb thDaHe;J epw;fpwJ. fOj;ij tisj;Jf; nfhz;Ljhd; mjd;  caHe;j NfhGuj;ij mz;zhe;J ghHf;f Ntz;Lk;!  

 

fupgPd; jPTfspy; xd;whd Galapagos (off shore island of Ecuador)   jPtpy;jhd; Gfo;ngw;w mwptpayhsH rhHy;]; lhHtpd; (Charles Darwin) The Origin of the Species   vd;w Ehiy vOjpdhH.

 

,e;j Ehy; mJtiu fhyKk; kjthjpfs; re;ijg; gLj;jpa "gilj;jy; Nfhl;ghL" (Creation Theory) jfHj;J vwpag;gl;L "gbKiw kyHr;rpf; Nfhl;ghL"" (Evolution Theory)  Nfhl;ghl;il epWtpaJ.

 

,J mwptpay; tuyhw;wpy; ngupa Gul;rpia Vw;gLj;jpa mNj rkaj;jpy; kjthjpfs;> Fwpg;ghf fpwpj;Jt> ,];yhkpa> ,e;J Nghd;w kjq;fspd;  gilg;Gj; jj;Jtj;jpy; xU ,bahfTk; ,wq;fpaJ.

 

kdpjd; ve;jf; flTshYk; gilf;fg;gltpy;iy mtd; Fuq;fpy; ,Ue;J gbKiw kyHr;rp  my;yJ cs;sJ rpwj;jy; Kiwapy; Njhd;wpdhd; vd;gij  gy Mz;Lfhy Ma;tpd;gpd; rhHy;]; lhHtpd; (Charles Darwin – 1809-1882) epWtpdhH. capupdq;fSk; ,dtiffSk; gbKiw kyHr;rp mile;Nj njhif tsKk; tif tsKk; tsHr;rp khWghLfSk; caHTk; ngw;wd vd lhHtpd; jdJ gbKiw kyHr;rp %yk; vz;gpj;Jf; fhl;bdhH. ,d;iwa kugZT Muha;r;rpapd;gb rpk;ghd;rp  (Chimpanzee)  tiff; Fuq;Ff;Fk; kdpjDf;Fk; 98 tpOf;fhL xw;Wik ,Ug;gJ fz;L gpbf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

 

,g;NghJ ehq;fs; gazk; nra;j tz;b `thdh jiyefiu mz;kpj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;jJ. vdNt `thdh efuj;jpd; tuyhw;iwr; rpwpJ ghHf;fyhk;. `thdh efuk; 1519 Mk; Mz;L nehtk;gH khjk; 16 Mk; ehs; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. mjdJ gioa ngaH San Cristobal de La Habana  vd;gjhFk;. mjd; Gtpapay; Kf;fpak; fhuzkhf Nkw;F cyfpy; ,Rg;ghdpa Nguurpd; Kf;fpa JiwKfg; gl;bdkhf tpsq;fpaJ. ,Rg;ghdpahtpw;F nkf;rpf;Nfh> NgU Nghd;w ehLfspy; ,Ue;J gazk; nra;Ak; fg;gy;fs; `thdhtpy; eq;$uk; gha;r;rpr; rpwpJ fhyk; jq;fp jz;zPH czT Nghd;wtw;iwr; Nrfupj;Jf; nfhz;L jq;fs; gazj;ij kPz;Lk; njhlHe;jd. xUtpjj;jpy; mfz;l ,Rghdpa Nguurpd; Kd;thryhf `thdh tpsq;fpaJ.

 

,jd; fhuzkhf 1607 Mk; Mz;L fpA+ghtpd; jiyefuk;  `ghdhTf;F efHj;jg;gl;lJ. 1762 Mk; Mz;L gpupj;jhdpahTk; gpuhd;Rk; VO ehs; Aj;jj;jpy; <Lgl;lNghJ gpupj;jhdpah `thdhitf; ifg;gw;wpaJ. mjid 11 khjq;fs; jdJ Ml;rpapy; itj;jpUe;j gpd;dH GswplhTf;F <lhf khw;wpf; nfhz;lJ!

 

,jd; gpd;dH Gjpa cyfpy; (New World )  `thdh kpfTk; gykhd ghJfhg;Gila gl;bdkhf khwpaJ. 18 Mk; 19 Mk; Ehw;whz;Lfspy; mJ tzpfj;Jf;Fg; ngaHNghd gl;bdkhf NkYk; tsHr;rpaile;jJ.

 

ey;yfhykhf Kjyhk; ,uz;lhk; cyfg; Nghupy; `thdh ve;jtpjkhd mopTf;Fk; cs;shfhky; jg;gpaJ. fhyj;Jf;fhyk; ele;j Gul;rpfSk; mjidg; ghjpf;ftpy;iy. mJ cUthfpa fhyj;jpy; ,Ue;j gyj;NjhL ,g;NghJk; `thdh jiy epkpHe;J epw;fpwJ.  

 

 


 

 

 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (28)

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;!

 

NaRehjH NrFthuh ,UtUk; mUfUfpy;!

 

 

gpw;fhyr; Nrhog; Nguurpd; khkd;dHfshd ,uhruhrd; mtdJ kfd; Kjyhk; ,uhNre;jpud; ,UtUk; <ok;> ahtfk;> Gl;gfk;> flhuk;> fhk;Nghfk;> jha;yhe;J ehLfis vy;yhk; ntw;wp nfhz;ldH. Mdhy;> me;j ehLfspy;  my;yJ jPTfspy; FbNawp mtw;iwf; FbNaw;w ehLfshf khw;wpdhHfsh? vd;why; gjpy; ,y;iy vd;Nw ftiyNahL nrhy;y Ntz;bAs;sJ vd Kd;dH vOjpapUe;Njd;. mj;NjhL <oj;jpy; kl;Lk; mjw;fhd Gwr;rhd;Wfs; mfr;rhd;Wfs; nfhQ;rk; cz;L Mdhy;> mjidAk; Kw;whfg; gpbf;ftpy;iy. gpbj;jpUe;jhy; ,d;W mq;F ,dr; rpf;fy; vd;W xd;W te;jpUf;fhJ vdTk; vOjpapUe;Njd;.

 

Mdhy;> <oehl;il ,uhNre;jpu Nrhod; KOJk; gpbj;jij fy;ntl;L xd;W cWjpg;gLj;JfpwJ. mjpy; vOjpapUg;gjhtJ-

 

"nghUfl yPoj; jurHjk; KbAk;

Mq;ftH NjtpaH Xq;nfopy; KbAk;

Kd;dtH gf;fy; njd;dtH itj;j

Re;ju KbAk;> ,e;jpud; MuKk;

njz;liu <o kz;ly KOtJk;..."

 

,jpy; <oj;jurH vd;W Fwpg;gpl;bUg;gJ Ie;jhk; kfpe;jd; Mthd;. ,td; ,uhNre;jpudhy; rpiwgpbf;fg;gl;L Nrhoehl;Lf;Ff; nfhz;L Nghfg;gl;ltd;. mq;F 12 Mz;L rpiwapy; ,Ue;J kbe;J Nghdhd;. njd;dtd; itj;j Re;ju KbAk;> ,e;jpud; MuKk; vd;gJ ,yq;if kd;ddplk; %d;whk; ,uhrrpk;k ghz;bad; milf;fyk; itj;Jg; gpd;dH "kJiuAk; <oKk; nfhz;lhd;" vd;w gl;lj;ijg; ngw;w Kjyhk; guhe;jf Nrhodhy; ifg;gw;w epidj;J Kbahkw; Nghd mur rpd;dq;fshFk;. 

 

kNyrpahtpd; nflh khepyj;jpd; Gf;fpl; gj;J gfhl;by; mikf;fg;gl;Ls;s mUq;fhl;rp $lk; Kjyhk; ,uhNre;jpu Nrhodpd; ntw;wpg; guzpf;F rhd;W $Wtjhf cs;sJ.

 

,d;iwf;Fk; nraq;nfhz;lk; gFjpapy; fpilf;Fk; nrk;ghuhq;fy;iy 11k;> 12k; Ehw;whz;Lfspy;  ,uhNre;jpu Nrhod; jhd; ntw;wp nfhz;l =tp[ak;> gz;iz> kiyA+H> khapUbq;fk;> ,yq;fhNrhfk;> gg;ghsk;> ,ypk;gq;fk;> ,yhKupNjrk;> ef;fthuk;> flhuk; (jw;fhy ikdkhH> Rkj;jpuh> kNyrpah) Nghd;w gFjpfSf;F nfhz;L nrd;W   "tpjhdk;" mikj;Js;shd;. ,t;tsT fw;fisAk; fly; topahf NrhoHfspd; fg;gy;gil nfhz;L NghapUf;fpd;wd.  mJ vg;gbr; rhj;jpakhapw;W vd;W vz;Zk;NghJ tpag;ghf ,Uf;fpwJ.

 

kNyrpahtpy;> Fwpg;ghf rz;b ngd;bahl;> G+[hq; ngq;fyhd;. Gf;fpl; gj;J gfl;> ngz;bq; jhsk; Mfpa ,lq;fspy; fpilj;Js;s 95f;Fk;  Nkw;gl;l nghUl;fs; jkpoH ngUikf;F rhd;W gfUk; tifapy; me;j mUq;fhl;rpr; rhiyapy; itf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.

 

fp.gp. 1025 Mk; Mz;L tp[ad; vd;Dk; murid Kjyhk; ,uhNre;jpud;g; Nghupy; ntw;wp nfhz;lhd;. mJ njhlHghd  rhd;Wfs;jhd;  ,e;j mUq;fhl;rpf; $lj;jpy; fhzf; $bajhf ,Uf;fpwJ.

 

jkpoH Mjpf;f kdg;ghd;ik cs;stHfshf ,Ue;jpUe;jhy; "nflh" xU jkpoH ehlhf khwpapUf;Fk;. me;j kdg;ghd;ik ,y;yhj fhuzj;jhy; ntw;wpnfhz;l muRfsplk; ,Ue;J  jpiw thq;FtNjhL jkpo; murH mikjp mile;J tpl;ldH.  

 

jkpo;ehl;by; 'flhuq;fha;' vd;W CWfha;f;F gad;gLj;jg; gLk; fha;$l flhuj;jpypUe;J nghz;L tug;gl;lJjhd;.

 

vg;NghjhtJ kNyrpahtpw;Fg; (kNyrpah vd;w nrhy;ypd; gFjp kiy. ,J Jha jkpo;r; nrhy; vd;gJ ftdpf;fj;jf;fJ) Nghf tha;g;gpUe;jhy; ,uhNre;jpudJ Nrhodpd; gilnaLg;Gf;Fupa Gwr; rhd;Wfis ghHf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w Mir ,Uf;fpwJ. ,e;j mUq;fhl;rpf; $lk; kl;Lky;y ,ijg;Nghy; NtW rhd;WfSk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.

 

kNyrpah ehl;Lj; jkpoH ahuhtJ ,uhruhrd;> Kjyhk; ,uhNre;jpudJ fpof;fhrpa  gilnaLg;igg;gw;wpAk;> mjw;fhd rhd;W gw;wpAk; Muhae;J vOjpapUf;fpwhHfsh vd;gJ njupatpy;iy.

 

ntWkNd flhuk; ntd;whd;> fq;if nfhz;lhd; vd;W nrhy;ypf; nfhz;bUg;gijtpl  mtw;iwg;gw;wpa juTfis> rhd;Wfis ehk; jpul;l Ntz;Lk;.

 

fpA+ghitg; gpbj;j ,Rg;ghdpaH Nfhl;il nfhj;jsq;fs; vd;W gy Gwr; rhd;Wfis mq;F tpl;Lg; NghapUf;fpd;wdH.  

 

,g;NghJ ehq;fs; `thdh efuj;Jf;Fs; Eise;J tpl;Nlhk;. vjpHghHj;jijtpl efuk; tprhykhff; fz;Zf;Fg; gl;lJ. Jhuj;jpy; Fd;Wfs; njupe;jd. mq;Nf ,NaRehjupd; ngupa  rpiy njupe;jJ. fpA+gh xU nghJTlik ehlhf ,Ue;Jk; mq;F kjtopghl;Lf;Nfh my;yJ kj mDl;lhdj;Jf;Nfh ngupastpy; jilapUg;gjhfj; njupatpy;iy.

 

fpA+ghtpy; f];l;Nwh gjtpf;F tUk; Kd;dH ej;jhH gz;bif tpLKiw ehshf ,Ue;jJ. gpd;dH mJ ,y;yhky; Ngha;tpl;lJ. 1998 Mk; Mz;L rdtup khjk; Nghg;ghz;ltH ,uz;lhtJ Nahd; Nghy; fpA+ghtpw;F tUif je;jNghJ ej;jhH jpdj;ij tpLKiwahf mwptpf;FkhW f];l;NwhTf;F Ntz;LNfhs; tpLj;jhH. mjid Vw;Wf; nfhz;l f];l;Nwh ej;jhH gz;bif jpdj;ij nghJ tpLKiwahf mwptpj;jhH.

 

vOgj;NjO mfit epuk;gpa ghg;ghz;ltuJ fpA+gh tUif tuyhw;W Kf;fpak; tha;e;jJ. fpA+gh xU nghJTlik ehlhf ,Ue;j fhuzj;jhy; Ml;rpahsUf;Fk; fj;Njhypf;f kjgPlj;jpw;Fk; RKfkhd cwT ,Uf;ftpy;iy. ,Uf;Fk; vd vjpHghHf;fTk; KbahJ. Nghg;ghz;ltH `thdh midj;Jyf tpkhd epiyaj;jpy; fhy; gjpj;jNghJ mtH Mw;wpa ciu mjidf; Nfhbl;Lf; fhl;baJ.

 

mjw;F Kjy; Nghg;ghz;ltH tpkhdj;ijtpl;L fPNo ,wq;fp te;jTld; toikNghy; xU jhk;ghsj;jpy; itf;fg;gl;bUe;j fpA+ghehl;L kz;iz ifapy; ms;sp mjid Kj;jk; ,l;lhH. tpkhdepiyaj;jpy; $bapUe;j kf;fs; "Nghg;ghz;ltH Nahd; Nghy; mtHfNs! cq;fis ehq;fs; vy;NyhUk; Nerpf;fpNwhk;" (“Juan Pablo Segundo! Te quiere todo el mundo!”—“John Paul the Second! Everybody loves you! ) vd Kof;fk; nra;jdH.  

 

 

"fpA+gh epue;ju mikjp> r%f ePjp> Rje;jpuk;> gu];gu ek;gpf;if cila ehlhf tpsq;f Ntz;Lk;. mJ kl;Lk; my;yhJ fpA+gh jd;id cyfj;jpw;Fk;> cyfk; jd;id fpA+ghtpw;Fk; jpwe;J tplNtz;Lk;" ,g;gbg; Nghg;ghz;ltH Fwpg;gpl;lhH. fpA+ghtpd; fj;Njhypf;f kjgPlk; murplk; ahrpf;Fk; gy rl;lG+Htkhd cupikfisAk; rYiffisAk; topnkhope;J NgrpdhH.

 

mjw;F gjpy; mspj;j fpA+ghtpd; Ml;rpj; jiytH f];l;Nwh "fpA+ghtpd; Gul;rp topia khw;Wtjw;F ve;jf; fhuzKk; ,Ug;gjhf vdf;Fj; njupatpy;iy. ehq;fs; Mapuk; ,wg;Gf;fis NjHe;njLf;f Maj;jkhf ,Uf;fpNwhk;. Mdhy;> vq;fs; ek;gpf;iffis Jwf;fj; jahuhapy;iy" vd;W cWjp glf; RwpdhH.

 

,e;j tha;g;igg; gad;gLj;jp mnkupf;fh kPJ fz;ldf; fizfisj; njhLf;fTk; f];l;Nwh gpd; epw;ftpy;iy. ""mnkupf;fh fpA+gh kPJ tpjpj;Js;s nghUshjhuj; jil xU ,dg; gLnfhiyf;F (genocide) xg;ghdJ.  ,e;jg; nghUshjhuj; jilahy; fpA+gh ehl;L kf;fsJ r%f tho;f;if kpfTk; ghjpf;fg;gl;bUf;fpwJ. ehl;bd; nry;tk; vy;yh kf;fSf;Fk; rkkhfg; gfpHe;jspf;f Ntz;Lk;> rfy kf;fs; xw;Wikahf ,Uf;fNtz;Lk; vd;gJjhd; fj;Njhypf;f kjj;jpd;  Nfhl;ghlhf ,Ug;gjhf ePq;fs; nrhd;dPHfs;. mg;gbnad;why; me;jf; Nfhl;ghl;il epiwT nra;J itg;gjpy; cyfpy; cs;s NtW ve;j ehl;ilAk;tpl fpA+gh Kd;dzpapy; ,Uf;fpwJ" vdf; f];l;Nwh Fwpg;gpl;lhH.

 

tj;jpf;fd; cl;gl Nkw;Fyf ehLfs; f];l;Nwhjhd; nghJTlikj; jiytHfspy; vQ;rp ,Uf;Fk; tpuy; tpl;L vz;zf;$ba jiytHfspy; xUtH vd vz;Zfpd;wd. f];l;Nwhtpw;F ,g;NghJ tajhfp (73) tpl;lJ. mtuJ kiwTf;Fg; gpd;dH Nghye;J> my;Ngdpah> fq;Nfup> cUrpah> A+Nfhrpyhtpah Nghd;w nghJTlik ehLfspy; Vw;gl;l Ml;rp khw;wq;fs; Nghy; fpA+ghtpYk; Ml;rp khw;wk; Vw;gLk; vdg; gyH> Fwpg;ghf mnkupfHfs;> vjpHghHf;fpd;wdH.  

 

Nghg;ghz;ltH tUifia Kd;dpl;L fpA+gh ehl;L CopaHfSf;F md;W miu ehs; tpLKiw nfhLf;fg;gl;bUe;jJ. gy;yhapuf;fzf;fhd kf;fs; tpkhdepiyaj;jpy; ,Ue;J  `thdh nry;Yk; 12 fy; ePs neLQ;rhiyapd; ,U kUq;fpYk; Ftpe;J epd;W fpA+gh ehl;bd; rptg;G> nts;is> ePy Njrpaf; nfhbfisAk;> tj;jpf;fd; kQ;rs;> nts;isf; nfhbfisAk; mirj;Jf; fhl;b Nghg;ghz;ltiu tuNtw;wdH.  rpyH fpwpj;Jtj; Njhj;jpug; ghly;fisg; ghbdhHfs;.

 

"kjk; kf;fspd; mgpd;" vd;W fUJk; jPtpu khHf;rp];l; -nydp];l; nghJTlikthjpahd gply; f];Nwh Nghg;ghz;ltiu tuNtw;f rfy kf;fSk; mzpjpus Ntz;Lk; vd;W Ntz;LNfhs; tpLj;jpUe;jhH. 

 

cj;jpNahfG+Htkhf fpA+gh xU ehj;jPf ehL. Mdhy;> `thdhtpy; NaRehjupd; cUtr; rpiyAk; Gul;rpthjp Nr Fthuhtpd; cUtr;rpiyAk; mUfUNf ,Ug;gijg; ghHf;fyhk;.  "NaRehjNu ck;kplk; ehk; tpRthrkhf ,Uf;fpNwhk;" (“Jesus Christ, in you I trust,” ) vd;w RNyhfj;jpd; mUfpy;  ""filrp ntw;wp kl;Lk;> vg;NghJk;" ( “Until Victory, Forever!”) vd;w RNyhfk; fhzg;gl;lJ. 

 

fj;Njhypf;f kjtopghl;Lf;F fpA+ghtpy; jilNaJk; ,y;iy. Mdhy;> mjd; nraw;ghLfs; rpytw;wpw;F fl;Lg;ghL tpjpf;fg;gl;L ,Ue;jd. kjgPlj;Jf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd gs;spf;$lq;fs; fpA+gh Gul;rpia mLj;J muR ifNaw;wJ. 

 

Nghg;ghz;ltH fpA+ghtpy; 5 ehs; jq;fpdhH. ,e;jf; fhyj;jpy; mtH ehY efuq;fSf;Fr; nrd;whH. me;j ehY ehs;fSk; ey;y fhyepiy epytpaJ vd;gijr;  nrhy;yj; Njitapy;iy. #upa ntl;gk; G+r;rpaj;Jf;F NkNy 30 nry;rpa]; (80  gudha;l;) Mf ,Ue;jJ.

 

filrp ehsd;W fpA+gh Gul;rpapd; Qhgfkhf `thdhtpy; epWtg;gl;Ls;s Gul;rpr; rJf;fj;jpy; khngUk; $l;lk; eilngw;wJ. mjpy; RkhH 5 ,yl;rk; kf;fs; fye;J nfhz;lhHfs;.  thdj;ijj; njhl;Lf; nfhz;L vopNyhL epw;Fk; ,e;jg; Gul;rpr; rJf;fj;jpy;jhd; f];l;Nwh Kf;fpa nfhz;lhl;lq;fspy; ciuahw;WtJ tof;fk;. f];l;Nwh ePz;l Neuk; Ngrf; $ba ty;yik gilj;jtH. mjhtJ Ie;J MW kzpj;jpahyk; %r;Rtplhky; njhlHr;rpahfg;  NgRthH.  

 

 


 

 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (29)

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;!

 

Gfo;ngw;w Mq;fpy ehtyhrpupaH nfkpq;Ntiaf; ftHe;j fpA+gh!

 

 

ehq;fs; gazk; nra;j thfdk; xU rpd;dj; jplypy; Ngha; epd;wJ. topfhl;b vy;NyhiuAk; ,wq;fr; nrhd;dhH. ,g;NghJ `thdh efupd; ikag; gFjpiar; Rw;wpg; ghHf;fg; NghtjhfTk; ehq;fs; mtiug; gpd; njhlHe;J tuNtz;Lk; vd;Wk; Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lhH.

 

vdJ fz;zpy; Kjypy; gl;lJ mq;F tPjpNahukhf tz;by;fspy; gioa Gj;jfq;fis itj;Jf; nfhz;L epd;w tzpfHfs;jhd;. Fiwe;jJ xU ,Uge;ije;J NguhtJ rpd;dj; js;S tz;by;fspy; me;jg; Gj;jfq;fis mLf;fp  itj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;jhHfs;. murpdhy; mDkjpf;fg;gl;l jdpahH thzpfj;jpy; ,JTk; xd;whFk;. ngUk;ghYk; Rw;Wyhg; gazpfSf;F tpw;gNj mtHfsJ Nehf;fkhf ,Ue;jJ. tof;fk; Nghy; tpiy vy;yhk; mnkupf;f nlhyupy;jhd; Nghlg;gl;bUe;jJ.

 

vdf;Fg; Gj;jfk; vd;whNy xU myhjp tpUg;gk;. xU filf;Fg; Nghdhy; mq;Nf vq;NfahtJ xU %iyapy; Gj;jfq;fs; itj;jpUf;fpwhHfsh vd;W  Kjypy; fz;fshy;  Jshtpg; ghHg;Ngd;. ,Ue;jhy; mtw;iwj; jl;bg; ghHj;J cgNahfkhd Ehy; vd;why; thq;fptpLNtd;. rpy rkak; ehd; Njbf;nfhz;bUe;j Ehy;fs; kpf  kypthd  tpiyapy;  mfg;gLtJk; cz;L.

 

xU Kiw mnkupf;fhtpYs;s rpfhNfh efupy; xU Gj;jff; filapy; GFe;Njd;. mq;Nf tpw;gid tpiyapy; ,Ue;J 75 tpOf;fhL fopj;J "kypT tpw;gidapy;" ,uz;L> %d;W> ehd;F nlhyUf;F epiwag; Gj;jfq;fisf; Ftpj;J itj;jpUe;jhHfs;. jl;bg; ghHj;jjpy; Rthkp gpughde;jh vOjp kl;il Nghl;L mofhfg; gjpg;gpj;;jpUe;j gftj;  fPij (Mq;fpy nkhopngaHg;G) ,uz;L nlhyUf;Ff; fpilj;jJ. mjd;  cz;ikahd tpiy 10 mnkupf;f nlhyuhFk;.

 

gftj; fPij tlnkhopapy; vOjg;gl;l Ehy;. mjid kfhftp ghujpahH> fz;zjhrd;> GytH Rg. Jsrp Nghd;w gyH jkpopy; nkhop ngaHj;jpUf;fpd;wdH. jkpo; nkhopngaHg;G Mq;fpy nkhopngaHg;NghL vg;gb ,Uf;fpwnjd;gij xg;gpl;Lg; ghHf;fNt me;jg; Gj;jfj;ij thq;fpNdd;.

 

,d;ndhU Gfo;ngw;w gpuQ;R ehl;Lr; rpe;jidahsH &Nrh vOjpa "rKjha xg;ge;jk;" vd;w Ehy;. Kd;G gbj;j Ehy;. Mdhy;> mjd; gpujp vd;dplk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. vdNt me;j EhYk; ,uz;Nlh %d;Nwh nlhyUf;Ff; fpilj;jJ ngupa Gijay; fpilj; jkhjpup ,Ue;jJ.

 

gftj; fPijia thq;fpdJ me;jg; Gj;jfk; vdf;Fg; gpbf;Fk; vd;gjhy; my;y. gftj; fPij ngupa je;Jt Ehy;  vd;W GuhzpfHfSk; ,e;Jkj thjpfSk; GSfpdhYk; cz;ikapy; mJ rJHtHzj;ijAk; mjd; cl;gpupthd rhjpaikg;igAk;  Jhf;fpg;gpbf;fpwjw;fhf vLjg;gl;l Ehy;. mjpy; rJH tHzk; mehjp vd;Wk; mjidj; jd;dhy;$l khw;wp mikf;f Kbahnjd flTs; mtjhukhd fpU\;z gukhj;kh mHr;RdDf;F cgNjrpf;fpwhH.

 

"ehd;F tHzq;fs; vd;dhy; cz;lhf;fg;gl;lit> mtutHfSf;Fupa fUkq;fis mtutH kPwhky; nra;aNtz;Lk;. mjid khw;wpr; nray;gl itf;f me;j tHz jHk cw;gj;jpahsdhfpa vd;dhy;$l KbahJ""

 

“I created the four castes which corresponds to the different types of Guna and Karma. Though I am its creator, Know me to be incapable of change”

 

,jd; rk;];fpUj %yk; gpd;tUkhW.

 

"rJHtHzak; kah ];U\lk; Fz-fHk tpghfr

      j];a fHj;jhukgp khk; tpj;j;afHj;jhu-kt;aak;"    (mjpfhuk; 4 - RNyhfk; 13)

 

,e;J kjj;jpd; rhjpf; nfhLikahy; jkpopdk; vg;gb ,uz;lhapuk; rhjpfshfg; gpupf;fg;gl;L xl;L nkhj;j jkpoHfSf;Fk; "#j;jpug;" gl;lk; fl;lg;gl;lJ vd;gijf; fhl;lNt gftj; fPijg;gw;wp vOj NeHe;jJ. ,e;j Ntw;W ehl;Lg; gz;ghl;Lg; gilnaLg;ghy; jkpopdj;Jf;F Vw;gl;l NfL nfhQ;r eQ;rky;y.

 

,d;W$l ,e;j rhjpg; gpuptpidahy; jkpo;ehl;Lj; jkpoH  rhjpf;nfhU fl;rp itj;Jf; nfhz;L  Misahs; mbj;Jf; nfhs;fpwhHfs;. rhjpNtw;Wik fhl;LtJ rl;lg;gb Fw;wk; vd;whYk; jkpo;ehl;by; rpy jpUf;Nfhapy;fspYk;> NjePHf; filfspYk;> nghJ ,lq;fspYk; ,d;Wk; jPz;lhik epyTtJ xU frg;ghd cz;ik.

 

topfhl;biag; gpd;njhlu NeHe;jjhy; Gj;jfq;fisj; jl;bg; ghHf;fTk; Kbatpy;iy. thq;fTk; Kbatpy;iy. ngUk;ghyhd Gj;jfq;fs; nghJTlik gw;wpait vd;gJ mjd; ngaHfspy; ,Ue;J njupe;jJ. NrFtuh> Nah]; khl;b];> f];l;Nwh> nydpd;> khHf;]; Nghd;wtHfs;gw;wpa Gj;jfq;fs;jhd; Vuhsk;. me;jg; gf;fj;jhy; jpUk;gp tUk;NghJ ghHf;fyhk; vd;w vz;zj;NjhL topfhl;biag; gpd;njhlHe;Njhk;. Mdhy;> me;j ,lj;ij gpd;dH fz;Lgpbf;f vLj;j Kaw;rp if$ltpy;iy.

,g;NghJ topfhl;b xU rpd;d N`hl;ly; Kd; epd;whH. vijahtJ Fbg;gjw;F mtfhrk; jUfpwhH vd;W ghHj;jhy; mtH clNd mnkupf;f ehl;Lg; gpugy  Mq;fpy ehtyhrpupaH Vd];l; nfkpq;Nt (Earnest Hemingway) gw;wpa Guhzj;ij xg;Gtpf;f Muk;gpj;J tpl;lhH. 

 

nfkpq;Nt 1920k; Mz;lstpy; fpA+ghtpw;F Nghfj; njhlq;fpdhH. mg;NghJ mtH mnkupf;f ehl;bd; njd; khepyq;fspy; xd;whd Gsuplhtpd; njw;Nf ,Ue;j gy  jPTfspy;  xd;whd fP nt];l; (Key West) y; trpj;J te;jhH. 1940k; Mz;L mtH jdJ %d;whtJ kidtp kHjh nfy;N`hd; (Martha Gellhorn)  mtHfNshL fpA+ghtpw;Ff; FbNawp 1960k; Mz;Ltiuf;Fk; mq;F trpj;J te;jhH. 1960k; Mz;L cly;eyf; FiwT fhuzkhf itj;jpak; nra;a mnkupf;fh jpUk;gpatH mLj;j Mz;L jw;nfhiy nra;J nfhz;L kuzkhdhH.

 

nfkpq;Nt vOjpa gy ehty;fSf;F fpA+ghjhd; cupg;nghUshf (gpd;Gyk;) ,Ue;jJ. mtuJ The Old Man and the Sea

vd;w ehty; fpA+ghitg; gpd;Gykhf itj;J vOjg;gl;ljhFk;. mtH vOjpa  ,d;ndhU gpugy;akhd ehty; For Whom the Bell Tolls  vd;gjhFk;. ,e;j Ehy; ,Rg;ghdpa ehl;bd; cs;ehl;Lg; Nghiu gpd;Gykhf itj;J vOjg;gl;lJ. ,e;jg; Gj;jfj;ijg; gbj;Jj;jhd; nfupy;yhg; Nghuhl;lk; vg;gb ,Uf;Fk; vd;gij 1950 fspy; gply; f];w;Nwh fw;Wf; nfhz;lhuk;.

 1950 fspy; nfkpq;Nt FbapUe;j fkk; nfhypTl; ebf ebiffs;>  ngupa  NfhBRtuHfs;> ehfupf eq;if ek;gpfs; Nghd;NwhUf;F xU ahj;jpiuj; jykhf ,Ue;jJ.

 

,d;W$l nfkpq;Ntapd; epidT fpA+ghtpy; ngupJk; kjpj;;Jg; Nghw;wg;gLfpwJ. nfkpq;Nt jdf;F ,yf;fpaj;jpw;Ff; fpilj;j  Nehgy;  gupRj; njhifia fpA+gh ehl;L kf;fSf;F md;gspg;Gr; nra;jhH vd;why; mtH fpA+ghNthL Mj;khHj;j uPjpahf itj;jpUe;j cwT vj;jifaJ vd;gJ njupatUk;.

 

mtH tho;e;j fkj;Jf;Fg; ngaH Finea Vigia vd;gjhFk;. mJ ,d;W xU mUq;fhl;rpf; $lkhf khw;wg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,e;jf; fkk; `thdhtpy; ,Ue;J 10 fpkP  Juhj;jpy; cs;s Cojimar vd;w rpwpa kPd;gpbf; fpuhkj;jpy; ,Uf;fpwJ. me;jf; fkj;jpy; cs;s Ehyfj;jpy;  nfkpq;Ntf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd 9>000 Ehy;fs; ,Uf;fpd;wd. Mkhk;  9>000 Ehy;fs;> 900 my;y!  mtH cUthf;fpa gy ehty;fisr; jl;lr;Rr; nra;j jl;lr;R ,ae;jpuKk; ,e;j  mUq;fhl;rpf; $lj;jpy; ,Uf;fpwJ. NkYk; mtH cgNahfpj;j kPd;gpb ts;sq;fs;> mtuJ Gifg;glq;fs;> Jg;ghf;fpfSk; itf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.

 

VHd];l; nfkpq;Nt (VHd];l; vd;w Kjy; ngauhNyNa mtH ,d;W fpA+gh kf;fshy; ngUk;ghYk; miof;fg;gLfpwhH. gg;gh vd;Wk; mtiu miog;gJz;L) xU nghJTlikthjpay;y. mDjhgp vd;W$lr; nrhy;y KbahJ. Mdhy;> 1959 Mk; Mz;L gply; f];w;Nwh jiyikapy; ,lk;ngw;w Gul;rpia mtH tuNtw;whH.

 

nfkpq;Ntapd; ngaH ,d;W fpA+ghtpw;Fr; Rw;Wyhg; gazpfis ftHtjw;Fg; ngupJk; fhuzkhf ,Uf;fpwJ. mtuJ Ehw;whz;L gpwe;j epidT ehs; mz;ikapy; kpfTk; tpkupirahff; nfhz;lhlg;gl;lJ.

 

,g;NghJ ehq;fs; epd;wpUe;j Hotel  Ambos Mundos jhd;  “For Whom the Bell Tolls” vd;w ehtypd; gpurt miwahFk;. ,e;j N`hl;lypd; 5tJ khbapy; cs;s miwjhd; mtH 1932k; Mz;L njhlf;fk; 1939k; Mz;Ltiu jq;fp ,Ue;j  ,lk;.  gfypy; fPNo cs;s ghupy; fpshRk; ifAkhf ,Ug;ghuhk;. vOJtJ vy;yhk; ,utpy;. me;j miwapy; ,Ue;J ghHj;jhy; mUfpYs;s flw;fiuAk;  Catedral de San Cristobal  vd;w NjthyaKk; njupAk;. me;j miwapd; ad;dYf;F ntspNa nfkpq;NtapDila ngaHg; gyifia khl;b itj;jpUf;fpd;wdH.

 

me;j miwia cs;Ns Ngha;g; ghHg;gjw;F ,uz;L mnkupf;f nlhyH nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;. fPNo cs;s tuNtw;G kz;lgk; Rw;Wyhg; gazpfspdhy; epuk;gp tope;J nfhz;bUe;jJ. ,Rg;ghdpa nkhopg; ghly;fSk; mjw;Nfw;w thj;jpaf; fUtpfspd; XirAk; fhijg; gpse;J nfhz;bUe;jJ. 

 


 

 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (30)

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;!

 

gioa `thdh I.eh thy; ghJfhf;fg; gLk; cyf ghuk;gupa efH!

 

1994 ,y; vLj;j  fzf;nfLg;gpd;gb `thdhtpd; kf;fs; njhif 2>175>995 MFk;. mjd; gug;gsT 727 rfp kPl;lH ( 281 rJu fy;. fpA+ghtpd; KO kf;fs; njhifapy; `ghdNwh]; (Habaneros) vd;W miof;fg;gLk; ,e;j kf;fs; 20 tpOf;fhl;bdH MtH. `thdhjhd; fpA+ghtpd; kpfg; ngupa gl;bdk; vd;W nrhy;y Ntz;bajpy;iy.  `thdhtpw;F mLj;j ngupa gl;bdkhd rd;bahf;Nfh b fpA+ghit ( Santiago de Cuba ) tpl `thdhtpd; kf;fs; njhif Ie;J klq;F $LjyhdJ. rd;bahf;Nfh b fpA+ghtpd; kf;fs; njhif 400>000 kl;LNk.

 

`thdhtpd; kf;fis njhif ,d mbg;gilapy;  vt;thW mike;Js;sJ? ,jw;fhd tpil nrhy;tJ rhj;jpak; ,y;iy. fhuzk; fzf;nfLg;gpd;NghJ "ePq;fs; vd;d ,dk;" vd;w Nfs;tpia ahUk; Nfl;gjpy;iy. ,q;Nfjhd; nghJTlikj; jj;Jtk; Kw;whff; filg;gpbf;fg; gLfpwJ. kdpj Fyk; vd;w xNu Fye;jhd; cz;L. mijg; gpupj;Jg; ghHg;gij khHf;rPrk; mDkjpg;gjpy;iy. ,Ue;Jk; cj;jpNahfg;gw;ww;w Kiwapy; nkhj;j kf;fs; njhifapy; 66 tpOf;fhL nts;is ,dj;jtH. 20 tpOf;fhL fyg;gpdk; (Mullatos) 12 tpOf;fhL fUg;gH. G+HtPff; Fbfs; fpA+ghitf; ifg;gw;wpa ,Rg;ghdpa FbNaw;w thrpfshy; G+z;NlhL  xopj;Jf; fl;lg;gl;L tpl;lhHfs; vd;gij Vw;fdNt vOjpAs;Nsd;.


`thdhtpy; Rw;wpg; ghHg;gjw;Fupa Nfhl;il nfhj;jsq;fs; Vuhsk; ,Ue;jd. Kd;dhs; ,Rghdpa MSeHfspd; khspiffs;> gioa Njthyaq;fs;> ehlhSkd;wk;> mUq;fhl;rp $lq;fs;> khspiffs;> N`hl;ly;fs; Nghd;wit `thdhtpy; fhzg;gl;ld.

 

fpA+gh 400 Mz;L ,Rg;ghdpa ehl;bd; nfhydp ehlhf ,Ue;jJ njupe;jNj. ,e;j 400 Mz;Lfhy Ml;rp tpl;Lg;Nghd tuyhw;Wr; rpd;dq;fs; gy ,Ue;jjpy; tpag;NgJk; ,y;iy.

 

,yq;if 450 Mz;L fhyk; NghHj;Jf;NfaH> xy;yhe;jH> Mq;fpNyaH  Ml;rpf;F cl;gl;L ,Ue;jJ. Mdhy;> mtHfsJ Ml;rpapd; milahskhf mtHfs; ngUk;ghYk; Nfhl;ilfisj;jhd; tpl;Lg; NghapUf;fpwhHfs;. aho;g;ghzk;>  kd;dhH> jpUNfhzkiy> kl;lf;fsg;Gg; gl;bdq;fisf; nfhydp ehLfs; gpbj;J Mz;ljw;Fj; jlakhf Nfhl;ilfisAk; jz;lthsq;fisAk;jhd; tpl;Lg; NghapUf;fpwhHfs;.

 

njd;dpyq;ifapy; mtHfs; tpl;Lg;Nghd  milahsr; rpd;dq;fshf  ,d;W vQ;rpapUg;gd Nfhl;ilfs;> gioa ghuhSkd;wf; fl;blk;> nfhOk;G  khefurig>  nfhOk;G gy;fiyf; fofk;  Nghd;witNa.

 

,tHfNshL ,Rg;ghdpaiu xg;gpl;lhy; `thdhtpy; kl;Lk; Ehw;Wf;Fk; mjpfkhd epidTr; rpd;dq;fis tpl;Ltpl;Lg; NghapUf;fpwhHfs;. mtw;iwnay;yhk; ghHg;gnjd;why; Fiwe;jJ xU khjkhtJ  `thdhtpy; jq;fpapUf;f Ntz;b ,Uf;Fk;. mtw;iwg; gl;bay; Nghl;Lg; ghHg;Nghkh?

 

Plaza de la Catedral

 

,J  `thdhtpy; fhzg;gLk; gy mofhd rJf;fq;fspy; xd;W. fpoik ,Wjpapy; ,e;jr; rJf;fj;ijf; iftpidg; nghUl;fis tpw;Fk; mq;fhbfs; epug;Gfpd;wd.

 

Catedral de San Christóbal de La Habana

 

Nkw;$wpa rJf;fj;jpy; thdsht caHe;j NfhGuq;fSld; epw;Fk; Njthyak;.

 

Castillo de la Real Fuerza

 

mnkupf;fhf; fz;lj;jpNyNa fhzg;gLk; kpfg; gioikahd nfhydpj;Jt fhyj;Jf;  Nfhl;il. ,jd; Nkw;Ff; NfhGuk; ntz;fyj;jhy; Ntag;gl;lJ.

 

La Giraldilla

 

,J Kd;dhs; flNyhbfspy; xUtuhd  Hernando de Soto tpd; kidtpapd; muz;kid Nghd;w tjptplk;.  Hernando de Soto,  GswpNlhthtpw;F mz;ikapy; cs;s  Fountain of Youth vd;w jPit Njbg; NghdNghJ jd;dpde;jpd;dpfshy; (Cannibals) gpbj;J rhg;gplg;gl;ltH.

 

Plaza de Armas

 

400 Mz;Lfhykhf fpA+ghtpd; Ml;rp mjpfhuj;jpd; gPlkhf  tpsq;fpa MSeH khspif. ,q;fpUe;J nfhz;Ljhd; MSeH KOf; fpA+gh ehl;il Ml;rp nra;jhH.

 

Palacio de los Capitanes Generales

 

,Rg;ghdpa> ,uhZt jsgjpfs;> mnkupf;f MSeupd;  fk;gPukhd tjptplk;. gpd;dH fpA+gh ehl;L rdhjpgjpapd; ,y;yk;. gpd;dH khefurig. ,g;NghJ mUq;fhl;rpf; $lk;.

 

Capitolio Nacional

 

,J Nth\pq;ldpy; cs;s jiyefH ehlhSkd;wf; fl;blj;jpd; (Capitol Hill)  rhaypy; Mdhy;> mijtpl fiy mk;rk; epiwe;jJ. 1959 Mk; Mz;Ltiu fpA+gh fhq;fpu]; $Lk; ehlhSkd;wf; fl;blkhf ,J tpsq;fpaJ. ,g;NghJ fpA+gh mwptpay; fy;Yhup kw;Wk; mwptpay;> njhopy;El;g Njrpa Ehyfk; ,jpy; ,Uf;fpwJ. 

 

`thd Njrpa gy;fiyf; fofk;.

     

Cigar Factory

 

 `thdhtpd; kpfg; gioik tha;e;j RUl;Lj; njhopw;rhiy. ,q;F 400 Fk; mjpfkhd njhopyhsHfs; Copak; nra;fpwhHfs;. iffspdhNyNa RUl;Lfis Rw;WfpwhHfs;.

 

China Town 

 

cyfj;jpd; ve;j %iyf;Fg; NghdhYk; rPdHfisAk; rPdg; gl;bdq;fisAk; ghHf;fhky; ,Uf;f KbahJ. ,e;jg; nghJ tpjpf;F `thdhTk; tpyf;fy;y. cyfj;jpd; nkhj;j kf;fs; njhifapy; Ie;jpy; xU gq;fpdH rPdHfs; vd;Dk; NghJ mtHfs; cynfq;Fk; gue;Jgl;L tho;tjpy; tpag;NgJk; ,y;iy.  

 

 Plaza de la Revolución

 

,e;jg; Gul;rpr; rJf;fj;ijg;gw;wp Vw;fdNt vOjptpl;Nld;. ,q;Nfjhd; MHg;ghl;lq;fs;> CHtyq;fs;> $l;lq;fs;  ,lk; ngWfpd;wd. ,e;jr; rJf;fj;jpd; mUfpy;  Memorial José Martí apd;  142 kPl;lH cauKs;s epidTr; rpiy cs;sJ.

 

Nah]; khHl;b fpA+ghtpd; Njrpa tPuuhff; nfhz;lhlg;gLfpwhH. ,tiug;gw;wpg; gpd;dH vOJNtd;. gply; f];NwhTf;F vjpupfs; ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. Mdhy;> Nah]; khl;b mg;gbay;y. rpwe;j ftpQUk; vOj;jhsUk; Rje;jpug; Nghuhl;l tPuUkhd Nah]; khHl;b vy;NyhuhYk; xUkdjhfg; Nghw;wg; gLfpwhH.

 

Nacional de Cuba Hotel and  Riviera

 

-`thdhtpd; Gfo;tha;e;j Ie;J el;rj;jpu N`hl;ly;fs;. Nghij kUe;J flj;jy; kd;dHfshd  khgpah FOtpdhy; fl;lg; ngw;wit. ,q;F f]pNdh vd;W miof;fg;gLk;  #jhl;l muq;Ffs; gy cz;L.

 

Cristóbal de Colón

 

,Jjhd; `thdhtpy; cs;s Kf;fpa ,LfhL. Neupy; ghHj;jNghJ mre;J NghNdhk;. ,J ,LfhLNghy ,y;yhky; xU gspq;F khspifNghy; Njhw;wk; mspf;fpwJ.

 

,e;jg; gl;bay; epiwthdjy;y. Mdhy;> ,g;Nghijf;F ,J NghJk; vd;W epidf;fpNwd;. gioa `thdhit (La Habana Vieja) If;fpa ehLfs; rigapd; cg mikg;ghd UNESCO cyf ghuk;gupa ,lkhf (World Heritage Site)  1982 Mk; Mz;L gpufldg;gLj;jpAs;sJ. efiu kWrPuikf;Fk; gzp ele;J nfhz;bUf;fpwJ.

 

vq;fs; topfhl;b mLj;jjhf NkNy $wg;gl;Ls;s  Plaza de Armas  f;F vq;fis mioj;Jr; nrd;whH. ehq;fs; Rw;Wyhg; gazpfs; vd;gjhy; jhkjk; VJkpd;wp cs;Ns GFe;J tpl;Nlhk;. cs;Ns nry;tjw;Fupa ,uz;L nlhyH fl;lzj;ij topfhl;bNa fl;bapUg;ghH vd epidf;fpNwd;.

 

ey;y fk;gPukhd khspif. ehw;rhu tPLkhjpupf; fl;lg;gl;bUe;jJ. nkhj;jk; %d;W khlq;fs;. rpd;dJk; ngupaJkhf Kg;gJ ehw;gJ miwfs;. eL Kw;wj;jpy; palms  vd;W Mq;fpyj;jpy; miof;fg;gLk; ngupa gid kuq;fis xj;j tlypfs; epiwa ,Ue;jd. fpA+ghtpy; vq;F ghHj;jhYk; ,e;jtif tlypfisg; epiwag; ghHf;fyhk;. mit ntt;NtW Njhw;wj;jpy;> ntt;NtW tbtj;jpy;> ntt;NtW cauj;jpy; ,Ue;jd. rpy kuq;fs; mbAk; EdpAk; ngupjhfTk; eLg;gFjp ngz;fspd; ,ilNghy rpwpajhf ,Ue;jd.

 

,e;j kuq;fs; fpA+gh ehl;Lf;Fj; jdp moif ms;sp ,iwf;fpwJ vd;W nrhd;dhy; mJ kpifay;y. nkhj;jk; 84 tif tlyp tif  fpA+ghtpy;  ,Ug;gjhf topfhl;b nrhd;dhH. mij ek;gyhk; vd;Nw Njhd;wpaJ. ngUk;ghyhdit ntspapy; cs;s jPTfs; my;yJ ehLfspy; ,Ue;J nfhz;L te;J cz;lhf;fg;gl;lit. Vidait me;j kz;Zf;Nf nrhe;jkhd tlypfs;.

 

Nghfpw  tUfpw topapy; vq;NfahtJ vq;fs; CHg; gid kuk;  ,Uf;fpwjh vd;W cw;W cw;Wg; ghHj;Njhk;. ve;j mRkhj;jKk; ,y;iy. Mdhy;> fpl;lj;jl;l gid Nghd;w Njhw;wKila kuq;fs; epiwa ,Ue;jd. 

 

fpA+ghtpy; fhzg;gLk; ,e;j tif tlypfis jkpoPoj;jpy; el;L tsHf;f Ntz;Lk;. jkpoPoj;jpy; mjw;F cfe;j fhyepiy ,Uf;fpwJ. Fwpg;ghf flw;fiuNahuq;fspy; mtw;iw cz;lhf;fyhk;.

 

,g;NghJ  Plaza de Armas  khspifia xt;nthU khlkhf Vwpg; ghHf;f Maj;jkhNdhk;. mjw;F Kd;dH fpA+ghtpd; tuyhW XusT njupe;jpUe;jhy; gaDilajhf ,Uf;Fk; vd;W epidf;fpNwd;. nfhyk;g]; fpA+ghit Kjy; Kiw ghHj;jNghJ "fz;fs; vg;NghJk; fz;buhj NguoF" vd;W ghuhl;baij Kd;dH Fwpg;gpl;bUe;Njd;. cyf tuyhw;wpy; mnkupf;ff; fz;lj;ij jw;nrayhff; fz;L gpbj;J mq;F ,Rg;ghdpaH> gpd;dH Mq;fpNyaH> NghHj;Jf;NfaH> gpuQ;Rf;fhuH FbNawp mjidf; fl;bahsg; ghij jpwe;jtH ,e;jf; nfhyk;g]; vd;w flNyhbjhd;.