fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

fpA+gh kPJ mnkupf;f fly; Kw;Wif

(81)

gply; f];Nwh ePz;l Neuk; Ngrf; $ba ty;yik gilj;jtH. mtUila Nk ehs; Ngr;Rf;fs; ehd;F ma;e;J kzpj;jpahyk; ePbf;Fk;. mjpy; ngUk;gFjp mnkupf;fhitr; rhLtjhf ,Uf;Fk;. mtUila Ngr;ir Nk 01> 1961 md;W khiy `thdh thndhyp Neub xypgug;Gr; nra;jJ.

'Vfhjpgj;jpaj;jpd; iff;$ypfSf;F vjpuhd Nghuhl;lj;jpy; jho;ikahd> NeHikahd Fb kf;fspd; FUjp nfhl;lg;gl;lJ. Mdhy;> vq;fs; ehl;bd; kPJ gilnaLf;f> vq;fs; Gul;rpia xLf;f> vq;fsJ rhjidfis mopf;f> vq;fs; fUk;Gj; Njhl;lq;fis vupf;f Vfhjpgj;jpak; vg;gbg;gl;ltHfis mDg;gp itj;jJ? (jhf;Fjy;gw;wp f];Nwhtpdhy; nfhLf;fg;gl;l juTfspd;gb vjpHg; Gul;rpg; gilapy; ,lk; ngw;wtHfSf;Fk; mtHfsJ FLk;gq;fSf;Fk; fpA+ghtpy; gj;J ,yl;rk; Vf;fH fhzp> gj;jhapuk; tPLfs;> vOgJ njhopw;rhiyfs;> gj;J rHf;fiu Miyfs;> ma;e;J Ruq;fq;fs;> ,uz;L fhg;gfq;fs; nrhe;jkhf ,Ue;jd.)

"vq;fsJ %d;W tpkhdjsq;fs; jhf;fg;gl;lNghJ> mnkupf;fhtpd; iff;$ypfs; tpkhd jsj;ijj; jhf;fpatHfs; fpA+gh ehl;L tpkhdpfs; vd ntspAyFf;Ff; $wpf; nfhz;bUe;jhHfs;. vq;fs; ehl;bd; kPJ  jpl;lkpl;L Fz;Lfisg; Nghl;Ltpl;L  mit fpA+gh ehl;bd; kPJ fpA+gh tpkhdpfs; Nghl;lit vd ntspAyFf;Fr; nrhd;dhHfs;. jhf;Fjy; tpkhdq;fspy; vq;fsJ milahs rpd;dq;fis tiue;J itj;jhHfs;.

Ntnwhd;Wk; Ntz;lhk;. ,e;jj; jhf;Fjy; xd;Nw Vfhjpgj;jpaj;jpd; nray;fs; vt;tsT jho;thdit> fPo;j;jukhdit vd;gijf; fhl;lg; NghJkhdit.

gd;wp tisFlh jhf;Fjypy; mnkupf;fhtpd; Neubj; jiyaPL ma;eh mitapd; rl;l jpl;lj;jpw;F Kuzhdit. mnkupf;f muRfspd; mikg;gpd; (Organization of the American States)  tpjpKiwfSf;Fk; (tpjp 18 kw;Wk; 25) khwhdit.

Kd;dH Fwpg;gpl;lJ Nghyj; jhf;Fjiyj; jpl;lkpl;L> mjw;fhd Ml;fisj;  jpul;b>  gapw;rp  mspj;J> $yp  nfhLj;Jj; jiuapwf;fpaJ mnkupf;fhjhd;. vjpHg; Gul;rpg; gilf;F Ntz;ba tpkhdq;fs;> fg;gy;fs;> jhq;fpfs;> ,uhZt jsghlq;fs; Nghd;wtw;iwf; nfhLj;J cjtpa ehLk; mnkupf;fhjhd;. ,ilf;fhy muir mikj;J mjw;F Ntz;ba epjpia cjtpaJk; mnkupf;fhjhd;. gd;wpf; Flh fly;fiuapy; Kjypy; ,wq;fpa jtis tPuHfSk; mnkupf;f ehl;ltHfs;jhd;. 

Vg;upy; 20 Mk; ehs; mnkupf;f VLfspd; MrpupaHfs; kj;jpapy; Ngrpa rdhjpgjp nfd;db>

",e;jg; Nghuhl;lk; fpA+ghtpd; Njrgf;jHfshy; rHthjpfhup f];NwhTf;F vjpuhf Nkw;nfhz;l Nghuhl;lkhFk;. vq;fsJ mDjhgk; ahH gf;fk; cs;snjd;gij ehq;fs; %b kiwf;f tpUk;gtpy;iy. ahUk; mjid vjpHghHf;fTk; $lhJ.  ehq;fs; jpUk;gTk; jpUk;gTk; xd;iw typAWj;JfpNwhk;.  mnkupf;f ehl;bd; gilfs; ve;jr; re;jHg;gj;jpYk; Neubahfj; jiyaplhJ. Mdhy;> vq;fsJ nghWik vy;iy fle;jJ md;W....... ,e;jf; fz;lj;jpd; ehLfs; ntspapy; ,Ue;J CLUty; nra;Ak; fk;A+dprj;Jf;F vjpuhfr; nray;glj; jtwpdhy;> me;jg; nghWg;igj; jl;bf; fopj;jhy;> ehd; xd;iw kl;Lk; njspthf;f tpUk;GfpNwd;> ,e;j muR  jdJ mbg;gilf; flikiar; nra;a xUNghJk; gpd;epw;fhJ.  vq;fsJ mbg;gilf; flik ,e;j ehl;bd; ghJfhg;Gg;gw;wpajhFk;.

wpr;rhHl; N[ Nthy;ud; ((Richard J Walton)  vd;gtH jhd;  vOjpa gdpg; NghUk; vjpHg; Gul;;rpAk;: Nahd; vt; nfd;dbapd; ntspAwTf; nfhs;if ( Cold War and Counter -Revolution: The Foreign Policy of John F.Kennedy) vd;w Ehypy; nfd;dbapd; Ngr;irapl;Lf;  fUj;Jj;  njuptpf;ifapy; 'nfd;db kd;dpg;Gf; Nfl;ftpy;iy> khwhf vr;rupf;iffis tpLj;jhH. nkhd;Nwh Nfhl;ghl;bw;F xU jpUj;jk; nfhz;Lte;jhH. ,yj;jpd; mnkupf;f ehLfs; jq;fs; muRfisj; NjHe;njLg;gjw;Fr; Rje;jpuk; cilatHfs;. Mdhy>; mJ fk;A+dpr ehlhf ,y;yhJ ,Uf;Fk; kl;Le;jhd;.'

,jw;fpilapy; gd;wpf; Flhj; jhf;Fjypy; mnkupf;fhtpw;F  Vw;gl;l  jiyf; Fdpit eptHj;jp nra;Ak; Kfkhf f];Nwhit vg;gbAk; jPHj;Jf; fl;l Ntz;Lk; vd;w  ntwp mnkupf;f Ml;rpahsuplk; mjpfupj;jJ. mjidr; nray;g; gLj;j 'fPup eltbf;if' ('Operation Mongoose')  vd;w jpl;lk;  rl;lkh mjpgH nwhNgHl; vt;. nfd;dbahy; (Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy) jPl;lg;gl;lJ. ,tH rdhjpgjp Nahd; nfd;dbapd; cld;gpwg;ghthH.

nfd;dbapd; Ml;rp fpA+gh kPJ nfhz;bUe;j Nfhgj;ijg; Gupe;J nfhs;tjw;Ff; nfd;db rNfhjuHfis> Kf;fpakhf nwhNgHl; nfd;dbiag; Gupe;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. gd;wp tisFlhtpy; ele;j  Kjy; Rw;Wg; Nghl;bapy; f];Nwh kpf vspjhf ntw;wp ngw;Wtpl;lhH> nfd;db mzpia mtH Njhw;fbj;Jtpl;lhH> mijapl;L nfd;db rNfhjuHfs; kpfTk; fLg;ghf  ,Ue;jhHfs;. f];Nwh ntw;wpthif #baij mtHfshy; nghWj;Jf; nfhs;sKbatpy;iy. vdNt rdhjpgjpAk; mtuJ rNfhjuUk; jq;fSf;F Vw;gl;l mtkhdj;ijg; Nghf;fpf; nfhs;s vd;d tpiy nfhLj;Jk;  f];Nwhtpd; Ml;rpiaf; ftpo;f;f Maj;jkhdhHfs;.

1962 khHr;R Kjy; ehs; mnkupf;f ,uhZtk; xU mwpf;ifia rdhjpgjp nfd;dbf;F mDg;gp itj;jJ. me;j mwpf;iff;Ff; nfhLf;fg;gl;l jiyg;G 'fpA+ghit rPz;b tpLtjw;F> miyf;fopg;gjw;F my;yJ Clwg;Gjw;Fr; rpy rhj;jpakhd nray;ghLfs;' (Possible Actions to Provoke, Harass or Disrupt Cuba) vd;gjhFk;. mjpy; gy Nahridfs; nrhy;yg;gl;bUe;jd. mjpy; xd;W Operation Bingo vd;w jpl;lkhFk;. fpA+ghtpy; mnkupf;fhtpw;Ff;  Fj;jif  nfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;s  Fte;jdhNkh tisFlhj; (Guantánamo Bay ) jsk; kPJ xU Nghypahd gilnaLg;ig Nkw;nfhs;tJ. mjidr; rhl;lhf itj;J `thdh kPJ jPtpu jhf;Fjiyj; njhLg;gJ. ,d;ndhU jpl;lj;jpd; ngaH 'fPo;j;jukhd #o;r;rp eltbf;if' ( Operation Dirty Trick) vd;gjhFk;. ,jd; fPo; tpz;ntsp tPuH Nahd; fpyd; (John Glenn)   1962 Mk; Mz;L tpz;ntspf; fg;gypy; epyhTFg; nryT (gazk;) nra;Ak;NghJ mJ nehUq;f Neupl;lhy; gopiaf; f];Nwhtpd; jiyapy; NghLtJ. %d;whtJ jpl;lj;jpd; ngaH "nrhFrhd fhy eltbf;if' (Operation Good Times).  ,jpy; f];Nwh ,uz;L ftHr;rpf; fd;dpfs; kj;jpapy; xU Mlk;gukhf myq;fupf;fg;gl;l  miwapy; cy;yhrkhf ,Ue;J nfhz;L Nkirapy; gutpapUf;Fk; tpjk; tpjkhd rhg;ghl;ilf; fgsPfuk; nra;tJ Nghd;w xU Nghypg; glj;ijj; jahupj;J mjid VLfspy; gpuRupg;gJ. glj;Jf;Ff; nfhLf;fg;gl;l jiyg;G 'vdJ (czT) gq;fPL tpj;jpahrkhdJ' ( ‘My ration is different’) vd;gjhFk;.

(mnkupf;fhtpy; ,Ue;J ntsptUk; News & World Report (10/26/1968)  VL ntspapl;l jftypd;gb Kd;dH %Lke;jpukhf itf;fg;gl;bUe;j Mtzq;fspy; mz;zsthf 10>000 gf;fq;fs; ,g;NghJ nky;yg; gfpuq;fg; gLj;jg;gl;L tpl;ld.)

rpma;V apd; ,d;ndhU jpl;lj;jpd;gb Nkgpahf; Fk;giyf; $ypf;F mkHj;jp f];Nwhitj; jPHj;Jf; fl;LtJ> eQ;R jltpa ePr;ry; cilia (Scuba swimming suit )  f];NwhTf;F md;gspg;ghff; nfhLj;Jf; nfhy;YtJ> my;yJ VjhtJ xU Nghypj; jhf;Fjiy fpA+gh elj;jpajhf Nrhlid nra;Jtpl;L mijr; rhf;fhf itj;J Neubahff; fpA+gh kPJ ,uhZt eltbf;if xd;iw Nkw;nfhs;tJ vd;gjhFk;.

fPup eltbf;iff;Fg; nghWg;ghf ,Ue;j gpupNfbaH vl;Ntl; [p. yhd;];Nly; (Brigadier Edward G Lansdale)  ,e;jj; jpl;lq;fisf; $l;Lj; jsgjpfSf;F mDg;gp mtHfsJ fUj;ij mwpa Kaw;rpj;jhH. fpilf;Fk; jfty;fspd;gb 1962 khHr;R 13 ,y;  $l;Lj; jsgjpfs; "jpl;lj;jpw;F VJthd Nahridfs;" vd mjid  mq;fPfupj;jhHfs;. Mdhy;> ,tw;wpy; xd;iwNaDk;  eilKiwg; gLj;jpajw;fhd rhd;Wfs; fpilf;ftpy;iy.

,g;NghJ ehw;gJ Mz;Lfs; fope;Jk; mnkupf;fhtpd; mur gaq;futhjk; Xa;e;jghlhapy;iy. jdf;Fg; gpbf;fhj Ml;rpj; jiytHfisf; ftpo;g;gJ my;yJ nfhiy nra;tJ my;yJ $ypf; FOf;fis itj;Jf; nfhiy nra;tpg;gJ Mfpatw;wpy; mnkupf;fh Kd;dzpapy; jpfo;fpwJ. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf ,uhf; mjpgH rjhk; FNridf; nfhiy nra;a my;Yk; gfYk; mdtujKk; mnkupf;fh Kaw;rp nra;J tUfpwJ. mjid ve;jf; $r;rNkh ntl;fNkh ,d;wpg; gfpuq;fkhfr; nrhy;fpwJ! ,uhf; ehl;bd; Ml;rpiaf; ftpo;f;f vj;jdpf;Fk; vjpHg;ghsHfSf;Fk; mjpUg;gjpahsHfSf;Fk; mnkupf;fh gfpuq;fkhff; Nfhbf; fzf;fpy; epjpAjtpfis thup ,iwf;FfpwJ!

ahH ahH mnkupf;fhtpw;Ff; nfhb gpbf;fr; rk;kjpf;fpwhHfNsh mtHfs; vy;yhk; mnkupf;fhtpd; "nry;yg;gps;isfs;" vdf; fzpf;fg;gl;lhHfs;. Mg;fdp];jhdpy; Nrhtpaj; gilnaLg;Gf;F vjpuhfg; Nghupl;l ,];yhkpa Nghuhspf; FOf;fis md;iwa mnkupf;f rdhjpgjp "Rje;jpug; Nghuhl;l tPuHfs;" vd;W tHzpj;jhH. nts;is khspifapy; mtHfSf;F nrq;fk;gs tuNtw;Gf; nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. mjpy; ,d;W mnkupf;fhthy; ,uj;jf; fhNlwp vd;W tirghlg;gLk; gpd; NylDk; xUtH!

'gd;wp tisFlh Aj;jk; KbTw;whYk; mJ fpA+ghtpy; Nrhtpaj; mZ VTfiz  njhlHghd ,d;DnkhU gdpg; NghUf;F Nkil mikj;Jf; nfhLj;jJ' vd Kd;dH Fwpg;gpl;bUe;Njd; ( mj;jpahak; 80). mjw;fhd gps;isahH Ropia rdhjpgjp nfd;db 1962 xf;NjhgH 16 ,y; Nghl;lhH.

md;iwa  ehs; ez;gfy; rdhjpgjp  nfd;db  jdJ neUq;fpa  MNyhrfHfis nts;is khspiff;F mtrukhf mioj;jhH. mjw;F Kjy; ehs; ,uT rpIV fpA+ghtpy; Nrhtpaj; ehL mZ VTfizfis epHkhzk; nra;Ak; fhl;rpg;  glq;fis rkHg;gpj;jpUe;jJ. fpA+gh GNshuplh flNyhuj;jpy; ,Ue;J 90 iky;fs; Jhuj;jpy; ,Uf;fpwJ vd;gJ cq;fSf;F Vw;fdNt njupe;j rq;fjp.

,g;NghJ rdhjpgjp nfd;db kw;Wk; mtuJ MNyhrfHfs; Kd; ,Ue;j ngupa rpf;fy; ,e;jg; Gjpa Mgj;ij vg;gb vjpH nfhs;tJ vd;gjhFk;.  ghJfhg;G mikr;rH nwhNgHl; kf;dkhwh (Robert McNamara) %d;W topfs; ,Ug;gjhfr; nrhy;yp mtw;iw rdhjpgjpf;F xt;nthd;whf tpsf;fpdhH.

KjyhtJ 'murpay; kl;lj;jpy;' eltbf;if vLg;gJ. f];Nwh> FUr;Nrht; kw;Wk; mnkupf;fhtpd; cwT ehl;Lj; jiytHfis mZfp rpf;fiy ,uhrje;jpu %yk; mtpo;g;gJ. ,e;j  top ntw;wp ngWk;  vd;gJ epr;rakpy;iy.

,uz;lhtJ NghH tpkhdq;fisg; gad;gLj;jp xU  '',uhZt'' eltbf;if %yk; Nrhtpaj; VTfizfisj; jhf;fp epH%ykhf;FtJ.   

%d;whtJ NghHf;fg;gy;fisg; gad;gLj;jp fpA+ghit xU fly;gil Kw;Wiff;F cs;shf;FtJ.

,jpy; vtw;iwNaDk; Nkw;nfhs;Sk;NghJ Nrhtpaj; ehl;bd; vjpH eltbf;iffs; vg;gb  ,Uf;Fk; vd;gijf; fzpg;gJ tpy;yq;fkhf ,Ue;jJ. Nrhtpaj; ehL mnkupf;fhitj; jhf;fyhk;. mjd;NghJ mZf;Fz;Lfis tPRk; rhj;jpaKk; ,Ue;jJ. mg;gb tPrpdhy; mZ MAj Aj;jk; ,U ehLfSf;Fk; ,ilapy; %Ok; mghak; ,Ue;jJ.

ePz;l Neu tpthjj;jpd; gpd;dH fpa+gh kPJ fly; Kw;Wif xd;iw ,LtJ vd;W jPHkhdpf;fg; gl;lJ. ,jd;gb  VTfizfis Vw;wpf; nfhz;L fpA+gh tUk; Nrhtpaj; fg;gy;fis eLf;flypy; mnkupf;fg; NghHf; fg;gy;fs; topkwpf;Fk;. kPwp mit fpA+ghtpw;Fg; gazj;ijj; njhlu vj;jdpj;jhy; mit flypy; %o;fbf;fg;gLk;.

 


 

 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

fpA+gh VTfiz neUf;fb

(82)

ey;y fhykhf Nrhtpaj; ehl;bd; Ml;rpj; jiytH epf;fpw;uh FUr;Nrt; (Nikita Khruschev)  VTfizfis Vw;wpr; nrd;w fg;gy;fisj; jpUg;gp miof;f KbT nra;jhH.

Kg;gJ Mz;Lfs; fopj;J ( rdtup> 1992) `thdhtpy; ele;j xU khehl;by; Nrhtpaj; ,uhZtj; jsgjp mdnjhyp fpwpg;nfht; (Anatoly Girbkov)   1962 Mk; Mz;L Nrhtpaj;Jf;Fk; -mnkupf;fhtpw;Fk; ,ilapy; NghH %Ok; mghak; vg;gbj; jtpHf;fg;gl;lJ vd;gij tpsf;fpdhH. 

Nrhtpaj; ehL fz;lk; tpl;Lf; fz;lk; ghAk; VTfizfis kl;Lk; my;yhky; mnkupf;fh gilnaLf;Fk; gl;rj;jpy; mjid Kwpabg;gjw;Ff; fpA+ghtpy; 9 NghHj;jpwk; rhHe;j VTfizfis (tactical missiles )   epWj;jp itj;jpUe;jJ. mtw;iwr; Nrhtpaj; ,uhZtj; jiyikafj;jpd; Nkyjpf mDkjp vJTkpd;wp VTk; mjpfhuk; fpA+ghtpy; ,Ue;j fsf; fl;lisj;jsgjpfSf;Ff; nfhLf;fg;gl;bUe;jJ.

mnkupf;fh fpA+gh kPJ gilnaLf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W nts;is khspif mjpfhupfs; rpyH rdhjpgjp nfd;dbf;F MNyhrid nrhy;yp ,Ue;jhHfs;. me;j Nahridapd;gb nfd;db nray;gl;bUe;jhy; vd;d ele;jpUf;Fk;?

,e;jf; Nfs;tpf;F Kd;dhs; ghJfhg;Gr; nrayhsH kf;ekhwh (Secretary of Defence McNamara) xU Gj;jfj;Jf;F vOjpa KfTiuapy; gjpy; ,Wj;jpUf;fpwhH.

'mnkupf;fg; gilfs; NghHj;jpwk; tha;e;j VTfizfspd; jhf;FjYf;F cs;shfp ,Ue;jhy; mnkupf;fh mZ VTfizfisg; gad;gLj;jp vjpHj;jhf;Fjiy elj;jpapUf;fhJ vd;W ahUk; ek;gpapUf;f khl;lhHfs;. mg;gb ele;jpUe;jhy; mJ vjpy; Ngha; Kbe;jpUf;Fk;? KO mstpyhd NguplH Vw;gl;bUf;Fk;.'

ehd;F rfhg;jq;fs; fopj;Jk; mnkupf;fh. Nrhtpaj;> fpA+gh ,e;j %d;W ehLfSk;  cyfj;ij moptpd; tpspk;gpw;F ,l;Lr; nrd;w 'fpA+gh VTfiz neUf;fb' (Cuba Missile Crisis) gw;wpa Gjpa Kf;fpa jfty;fs; fpilj;Js;sd. gdpg;NghHf; fhyj;jpy; Vw;gl;l neUf;fbfs; gytw;wpy; ,JNt gyuJ ftdj;ij <He;Js;sJ. Ehw;Wf; fzf;fhd Ehy;fs;> fl;Liufs;> fUj;Jiufs; (commentaries) vOjg;gl;Ls;sd. ,Ugjhk; Ehw;whz;bd; midj;Jyf neUf;fbfspy; 'fpA+gh VTfiz neUf;fb' jhd; gyupd;  Ma;Tf;F cl;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ.

nfd;dbapd; Ngr;Rf;fis vOJk; (speech writer) jpNahNlh nrhnwd;rd; ((Theodore Sorensen)mZf;Fz;L Aj;jj;jpd; Jg;ghf;fpf; Foha;' (''the gun barrel of nuclear war'') vd mjid tHzpj;Js;shH.

gdpg;NghH xU KbTf;F te;jhYk; 'fpA+gh VTfiz neUf;fb' vjw;fhf vg;gb cUthdJ? mj;jifa neUf;fbfisAk; gyj;j mopTfisAk; vjpH fhyj;jpy; vg;gbj; jtpHj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;? vd;gJgw;wpa Ma;T mtrpakhFk;. mjw;Fj; Jizahf 1987y;  'fpA+gh VTfiz neUf;fb' njhlHghd ghJfhg;Gr; rpf;fyw;w rfy Mtzq;fisAk; jftYf;fhd Rje;jpur; rl;lj;jpd; fPo; (Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) ntspf; nfhzUk; Kaw;rp Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. mjd; %yk; ngwg;gl;l jfty;fs; GyikahsHfs;. khztHfs;> Vl;lhsHfs;> mf;fiwAila Fbkf;fs; Nghd;wtHfSf;F toq;fg;gl;lJ. Mdhy;> ,d;Dk; Mapuf;fzf;fhd Mtzq;fs; mnkupf;fhtpd; ghJfhg;igf; fhuzk; fhl;b gfpuq;fg;gLj;jg;glhJ gJf;fp itf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.

1962k; Mz;L xf;NjhgH jpq;fs; 28 Mk; ehs;> mjhtJ FUr;Nrt; VTfizfisj; jpUg;gp vLf;f xj;Jf;nfhz;ljw;F 13 ehs;fs; Ke;jp>  fpA+ghtpy; Nrhtpaj; VTfizfs; ,Ug;gJ fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;lijj; njhlHe;J 'fpA+gh VTfiz neUf;fb' NgUU vLj;jJ. mJ njhlHe;J mNj Mz;L nehtk;gH khjk; tiu ePbj;jJ.

fpA+ghtpy; ,Ue;J mnkupf;fh kPJ mZ VTfizfis Vtpdhy; mJ mnkupf;fh kPJ Nrhtpaj; njhLj;j jhf;Fjyhff; fUjg;gLk; vdg; gpufldk; nra;j nfd;db me;j VTfizfisj; jpUg;gpg; ngWkhW Nrhtpaj; ehl;Lf;F Ntz;LNfhs; tpLj;jhH.

mnkupf;fh- Nrhtpaj; ,uz;L ehLfspYk; ,Wf;fk; mjpfupf;f Muk;gpj;jJ. nfd;db xt;nthU 2 kzp Neuj;Jf;Fk; fPo;kl;l fz;fhzpg;G NtTf;F  (low level surveillance ) cj;juT gpwg;gpj;jhH. xf;NjhgH 25 Mk; ehs; nfd;db ,uhZt Maj;j epiyia ,uz;lhtJ fl;lj;Jf;F ( DEFCON 2)  caHj;jpdhH.

mLj;j ehs; xf;NjhgH 26 Mk; ehs; Nrhtpaj; jiytH FUNrt;tplk; ,Ue;J xU czHr;rpG+Htkhd fbjk; nfd;dbf;F te;J NrHe;jJ. 

'cyfj;jpd; eyk; gw;wp cq;fSf;F cz;ikapNyNa mf;fiw ,Ue;jhy; vd;id ePq;fs; rupahfg; Gupe;J nfhs;tPHfs; vd epidf;fpNwd;. vy;NyhUf;Fk; mikjp Njitg;gLfpwJ. mwpit ,of;fhtpl;lhy; cilikthjpfSf;F mikjp Njitg;gLfpwJ. mjw;F Nkyhf nghJTlikthjpfSf;F mikjp Njitg;gLfpwJ....................rdhjpgjp mtHfNs! cq;fSf;Fk; cyfpd; jiytpjpgw;wp> Nghupdhy; Vw;glf; $ba mopTfs; gw;wpf;  ftiy ,y;yhky; ,Uf;f KbahJ. Nghupdhy; ePq;fs; milfpw ed;ik vd;d? ePq;fs; vq;fSf;Fg; NghHg; gaKWj;jy; tpLf;fpwPHfs;. Mdhy;> cq;fSf;Fj; njupAk;. gjpybahf ehq;fs; jUk;NghJ vij ehk; mDgtpj;NjhNkh mijNa ePq;fs; mDgtpf;f Ntz;b ,Uf;Fk; ...................................ehq;fs; tho tpUk;GfpNwhk;. cq;fs; ehl;il mopf;f ehk; tpUk;gtpy;iy. khwhf mikjpahd Kiwapy; cq;fs; ehl;NlhL NtW Kidfspy; Nghl;b Nghl tpUk;GfpNwhk;. ehq;fs; cq;fNshL rr;ruT nra;fpNwhk;. fhuzk; fUjpaw;Nfhl;ghl;L Nfs;tpfs; njhlHghf (ideological questions)   vq;fSf;F ,ilNa Ntw;Wik epyTfpwJ. Mdhy;> cyfk;gw;wpa vq;fsJ ghHit vd;dntd;why; fUjpaw;Nfhl;ghl;Lf; Nfs;tpfs; kw;Wk; nghUshjhu rpf;fy;fs; ,uhZt mbg;gilapy; my;yhJ mikjpahd Nghl;b %yk; jPHf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;...'

,e;jf; fbjj;jpy; FUNrt; mnkupf;fh fpA+ghitj; jhf;fhJ vd;W cWjpnkhop je;jhy; Nrhtpaj; ehL jdJ VTfizfisAk; ,uhZtj;ijAk; fpA+ghtpy; ,Ue;J jpUg;gp mioj;Jf; nfhs;Sk;.

xf;NjhgH 27 neUf;fbapd; kpf Nkhrkhd ehs;. mnkupf;f A+-2 csT tpkhdk; fpA+ghtpd; thd;gug;gpy; itj;Jr; Rl;L tPo;j;jg;gl;lJ. mij mLj;J FUr;Nrt; jdJ ,uz;lhtJ fbjj;ij nfd;dbf;F mDg;gp itj;jhH. mjpy; mnkupf;fh JUf;fpapy; ,Ue;J VTfizfis ePf;fpf; nfhz;lhy; Nrhtpaj; ehLk; fpa+ghtpy; ,Ue;J VTfizfis ePf;fpf; nfhs;Sk; vd;W FUr;Nrt; vOjpapUe;jhH.

rl;lkh mjpgH nwhNgHl; nfd;db FUNrt;tpd; ,uz;lhtJ fbjj;ijg; Gwf;fzpj;J tpl;L KjyhtJ fbjj;jpy; nrhy;yg;gl;l NahridfSf;F ,irT njuptpf;fyhk; vdr; nrhd;dhH. clNd Nrhtpaj; JhJtH mdNuhyp nlhg;wpdpd; (Anatoly Dobrynin ) mtHfNshL njhlHG nfhz;L Nrhtpaj; jiytH FUr;Nrtpd; Kjy; fbjj;jpy; Fwpj;Js;s NahridfSf;F ,irT njuptpg;gjhf mnkupf;f rdhjpgjp nfd;db mwptpj;jhH. 

xf;NjhgH 28 Mk; ehs; Nrhtpaj; ehL fpA+ghtpy; cs;s VTfizfis mfw;Wk; vd;Wk; mnkupf;fh fpA+gh kPJ jhf;Fjy; njhLf;fhJ vd;W jhd; ek;GtjhfTk; FUr;Nrt; mwptpj;jhH. md;wpypUe;J ,U gf;fj;jpYk; ,Wf;fk; Fiwa Muk;gpj;jJ. mjidj; njhlHe;J ,uz;L ehLfSf;Fk; ,ilapy;  Ngr;R thHj;ij njhlq;fpaJ. Nrhtpaj; ehL fpA+ghtpy; ,Ue;J Fz;L tPRk; ,yF tpkhdq;fis (Soviet light bombers) tpyf;fpf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;W mnkupf;fh Gjpa epge;jid xd;iw  tpjpj;jJ. mNj Neuk; fpA+gh kPJ ve;j tbtpy; ve;j epge;jidapd; fPOk; mnkupf;f gilnaLg;G eilngwhJ vd;w thf;FWjpfs; njspthf;fg;gl;ld. ,Wjpapy; ,tw;iw mlf;fpa xg;ge;jk; xd;W ,U rhuhUf;Fk; ,ilapy; ifr;rhj;jhfpaJ.

fpA+ghtpy; ,Ue;j Nrhtpaj; VTfizfs; mnkupf;f fz;fhzpg;gpd; fPo; mg;Gwg;gLj;jg;gl;ld. mjd; tpisthf 'VTfiz neUf;fb' xU KbTf;Ff; nfhz;L tug;gl;lJ.

mnkupf;fh  fpA+ghitj; jhf;f khl;lhJ vd;w cld;ghl;ilg; gfpuq;fg;gLj;jtpy;iy. Mdhy;> gpd;dH mnkupf;fh filg;gpbj;j nfhs;if mg;gbnahU Gupe;JzHT xg;ge;jk; mjhtJ 'fpA+ghtpy; ifitg;gjpy;iy' (''Hands off'') vd;w cld;ghl;il cWjp nra;jJ.

,e;j neUf;fb rk;ge;jg;gl;l ehLfs; kj;jpapy; ghupa jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;jpaJ. Nrhtpaj;-mnkupf;f cwtpy; xU ntJntJg;G epiyiaj; Njhw;Wtpj;jJ. mNj Neuk; Nrhtpaj; - fpA+gh cwtpy; tpupry; Vw;gl;lJ.

nfd;db-FUr;Nrt;  Ngr;R thHj;ijapd;NghJk; rup> mjd;gpd; xUjiyg;gl;r VTfiz kw;Wk; Fz;L tPr;R tpkhdq;fis tpyf;fpf; nfhz;l NghJk; rup f];Nwhtplk; MNyhrid Nfl;fg;gltpy;iy. mJ f];Nwhtpd; jw;ngUikf;Fk; (pride) jd;khdj;Jf;Fk;  (prestige) CW tpistpg;gjhf mike;jJ. NkYk; f];Nwhitg; nghWj;jstpy; mJ xU ngupa jiyf;Fdpitf; nfhLf;Fk; mDgtkhf ,Ue;jJ.  neUf;fb fhyk; KOJk; f];Nwh midj;Jyf murpay; rJuq;fg; gyifapy; ntWk; gflf;fhahf Xuk; fl;lg;gl;lhH.

f];Nwh Nrhtpaj; - mnkupf;fhtpw;F ,ilapy; Vw;gl;l Gupe;JzHT xg;ge;jj;ij vjpHg;gjhff; $wp mjid epuhfupj;jhH. mJ kl;Lk; my;yhJ fpA+ghitAk; mjd; Gul;rpiaAk; ghJfhg;gjw;F vt;tsT Jhuk; Nrhtpaj; ehL jahuhf ,Uf;fpwJ vd f];Nwh gfpuq;fkhf tpdhtpdhH.

me;j Neuj;jpy; 'fpA+gh VTfiz neUf;fb' RKfkhfj; jPHf;fg;gl;lJ mnkupf;fhtpw;F ntw;wp vd;W khHjl;lg;gl;lJ. Mdhy;> me;j ntw;wp xU epiyapy;yhj (ephemeral) ntw;wpahFk;. jhf;Fjy; MAjq;fis  fpA+ghtpy; ,Ue;J mg;Gwg;gLj;Jtjw;F mnkupf;fh jdf;Fg; gf;fj;jpy; rpy iky;fs; Jhuj;jpy; xU nghJTlik ehL ,Ug;gij Vw;Fk;gb Neupl;lJ. mJ kl;Lk; my;yhky; MAjq;fs; mg;Gwg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ jw;fhypf ntw;wpNa. kpf tpiutpy; Nrhtpaj; ehL fpA+ghit mz;ba fly; gpuNjrj;jpy; mZePH%o;fpf; fg;gy;fis nfhz;Lte;J epWj;jpaJ!

Nrhtpaj; ehL f];Nwhtpd; rpdj;ijj; jzpf;Fk; Kfkhf fpA+ghtpw;F $Ljy; cjtpfis mspf;fj; njhlq;fpaJ. 1963 Mk; Mz;L Vg;upy;- Nk khjk; f];Nwh Nrhtpaj; ehl;Lf;Fr; nrd;w nghOJ mtUf;F kfj;jhd tuNtw;Gf; nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ.

vOgJfspy; Nrhtpaj; ehl;bd; nghUshjhu> ,uhZt cjtpfs; mjpfupf;f Muk;gpj;jd. ,jdhy; fpA+gh Nrhtpaj; gf;fk; rha Muk;gpj;jJ. Nrhtpaj; nghUshjhu epGzHfs;> njhopy;El;gtpayhsHfs;> ,uhZt MNyhrfHfs; fpA+ghtpw;F ngUk; vz;zpf;ifapy; te;J NrHe;jhHfs;. 

 

 


 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

gapw;rpnaLj;J rz;il nra;! rz;il nra;J gapw;rp ngW!

(83)

fpA+gh jiytHfs; ,yj;jpd; mnkupf;fh gw;wpa jq;fs;  je;jpuq;fisAk; #o;r;rpfisAk; kPsha;T nra;jhHfs;. njd; mnkupf;fhtpy; Ml;rp mjpfhuj;ijf; ifg;gw;w ,Uf;Fk; top thf;Fr; rPl;Lf;fs; my;y>  Jg;ghf;fp Ntl;Lf;fs; vd;w KbTf;F te;jhHfs;. vOgJfspy; ,yj;jpd; mnkupf;f ehl;L Gul;rpf; FOf;fSf;fhd Ms;> MAj> jsghl> epjp cjtpfis fpA+gh mjpfupf;fj; njhlq;fpaJ. ,jdhy; MAjg; Nghuhl;lj;jpd; Ntfk; mjpfupj;jJ.

,e;jr; rkaj;jpy;jhd; mnkupf;fh tpal;ehkpy; gyj;j mb thq;fpf; nfhz;L  Jz;ilf; fhNzhk; Jzpiaf; fhNzhk; vd;W Xb te;j fhyk;. mijtpl 'Nthl;lH Nfl;' vd;w mtJhW mk;gykhfp rdhjpgjp epf;rd; gjtp Jwf;f Ntz;b Neupl;lJ. ,jdhy; njd; mnkupf;f tptfhuq;fspy; mnkupf;f  Ml;rpahsHfshy; jiyapl Kbatpy;iy.

,e;jr; #o;epiy f];Nwhtpw;F xU nfhilahf mike;jJ. fpA+ghtpy; ,Ue;J 40>000 gilapdH Mgpupf;fhtpw;F mDg;gp itf;fg;gl;ldH. Nrhtpaj;jpd; MAj cjtpNahL mq;Nfhyh  kw;Wk; vj;jpNahg;gpahtpy; fk;A+dp];l; muRfis epWTtNj f];Nwhtpd; cs; Nehf;fkhf ,Ue;jJ.

1975 Mf];l; mstpy;  njd; Mgpupf;fh mnkupf;fhtpd; Jhz;Ljypd; Ngupy; mq;Nfhyh kPJ jhf;Fjy; njhLj;jJ. mjd;  gpd;dNu  mq;NfhyhTf;Ff; fpA+gh JUg;Gfis mDg;g f];Nwh 1975 Mk; Mz;L nehtk;gH 4 ,y; KbntLj;jhH. Kjy; fl;lkhf 30>000 JUg;Gf;fs; mDg;gg;gl;ldH. mg;gb KbntLj;jNghJ mtH Nrhtpaj; ehl;Lj; jiytHfSf;F Kd;$l;bj; njupag; gLj;jg;gltpy;iy.

cz;ikapy; Mgpupg;ghtpy; fpA+ghtpd; Kjy; jiyaPL raH ehl;by; (Zaire) 1964-65 ,y; Muk;gkhdJ. 

mq;Nfhyh> vj;jpNahg;gpah ehLfspy; fk;A+dpr rhHG Ml;rpfs; gjtpf;F te;jij  mLj;J  f];Nwh epf;fUFth gf;fk; jdJ ftdj;ijr; nrYj;jpdhH. gdhkh> ntdp#yh ehLfNshL NrHe;J  fpA+gh rd;bdp];jhd; Gul;rpg; gilf;F MjuT toq;fpd.

1979 A+iy khjj;jpy; epf;fUf;Fthtpd; rHthjpfhup NrhNkhrhtpd; Ml;rp ftpo;f;fg;gl;L rd;bdp];jh Ml;rp gjtpf;F te;jJ. ,uz;L ,yj;jpd; mnkupf;fhtpy; nfupy;yhg;  Nghuhl;lj;jpd; %yk;> Gul;rp td;Kiw %yk; kl;LNk Ml;rpiaf; ifg;gw;wyhk; vd;w murpay; Nfhl;ghl;Lf;Ff; fpilj;j ngU ntw;wp ,JthFk;. fpA+ghtpy; epytpa murpay;> nghUshjhu> r%f fhuzpfs; xU Gul;rpiaj; Njhw;Wtpf;f KbAk; vd;why; Vida ehLfspYk; mNj Gul;rpia Njhw;Wtpf;f KbAk; vd;w f];Nwhtpd; rpj;jhe;jk; rupnad vz;gpf;fg;gl;lJ.

rd;bdp];jh jiytHfsJ xj;Jiog;NghL nfhyk;gpah> vy; ry;tNlhH> fTj;jkhyh ehLfsJ Gul;rpf; FOf;fSf;F f];Nwh rfy cjtpfisAk; toq;fpf; nfhz;bUe;jhH.

Mdhy;> fpA+ghtpd; nghUshjhu tsHr;rp vOgJfspy; neUf;fbf;F cs;shfpaJ. 1974 ,y; cyfr; re;ijapy; xU ,whj;jy; rPdpapd; tpiy 65 (mnkupf;f) rjj;jpy; ,Ue;jJ. gpd;dH 1977 ,y; mjd; tpiy 8 rjkhfr; rupe;jJ. Nrhtpaj; ehL fpA+ghtpd; ghjp rPdp cw;gj;jpiar; re;ij tpiyiatpl mjpf tpiy nfhLj;J thq;fpajhy; fpA+ghtpd;  nghUshjhuk; jiy %o;fhky; fhg;gw;wg;gl;lJ.

nghUshjhu  neUf;fbiar; rkhspf;f f];Nwh fk;A+dp];l; fl;rpia kWrPH nra;jhH. cWg;gpdH vz;zpf;if mjpfupf;fg; gl;lJ. mtHfSf;Ff; fk;A+dpr jj;Jtk;> newpKiwfs; gw;wpa ghlq;fs; gbg;gpj;Jf; nfhLf;fg;gl;ld. kj;jpa FO cWg;gpdHfspd; vz;zpf;if 91 ,y; ,Ue;J 112 MfTk;> murpay; FO 8 ,y; ,Ue;J 13 MfTk;  caHj;jg; gl;lJ.

nghUshjhu cw;gj;jp Kiwfs; Nrhtpaj; ghzpapy; kW rPuikf;fg;gl;lJ. ehl;Lf;F xU Gjpa ahg;Gk; nfhz;L tug;gl;lJ.

fpA+ghtpd; Ml;rp mjpfhuk; murpay; FOtplNk ,Ue;jJ. ,jpy; f];Nwh Kjy; nrayuhfTk;> mtuJ cld;gpwg;G whTy; f];Nwh Kjy; Jizr; nrayuhfTk; gjtp tfpf;fpwhHfs;.

fk;A+dpr rpj;jhe;jj;jpd;gb muR 'cyHe;J Ngha;tply;'' (wither away)  Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy;> fpA+ghtpy; rup> rPdhtpy; rup NtW vq;fhfpYk; rup mg;gb VJk; eilngwtpy;iy. eilngw tha;g;Gk; ,y;iy. ngha;j;Jg; Nghd fhHy; khHf;rpd; vjpHT $wy;fspy; ,JTk; xd;W.

Nrhtpaj; xd;wpak; njhz;ZhWfspd; njhlf;fj;jpy; rpd;dh gpd;dkhfr; rpjWz;l gpd;dH fpA+ghTf;fhd epjpAjtp ahTk; tuz;L tpl;lJ. ,jdhYk; mnkupf;fhtpd; nghUshjhuj; jilahYk; fpA+ghtpd; nghUshjhuk; jiynaLf;f KbahJ jtpj;jJ.

fpA+ghtpy; cs;s gy;NtW mikg;Gf;fspy; Kg;gilNa kpfTk; gyk; tha;e;jjhff; fhzg;gLfpwJ. ,jpy; 225>000 gilapdH ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. NkYk; 190>000 gapw;wg;gl;l Nrkg;;gilapdH (Trained Reservists) ,Uf;fpwhHfs;.  ,uhZtj;jpy; kl;Lk; ,Uf;Fk; gilapdupd; vz;zpf;if 200>000 MFk;.

tpkhdg; gilapy; 10>000 gilapdUk;> 200 Fk; mjpfkhd NghH tpkhdq;fSk; ,Uf;fpd;wd. ,tw;Ws; Nrhtpaj;  kpf;-21vt;> kpf;-23 uf tpkhdq;fNs mjpf vz;zpf;ifapy; cs;sd. tpz;zpy; ,Ue;J tpz;Zf;Fk;> tpz;zpy; ,Ue;J jiuf;Fk;> jiuapy; ,Ue;J tpz;Zf;Fk; ghAk; VTfizfisf; fpA+gh itj;jpUf;fpwJ.

NkNy nfhLf;fg;gl;l Gs;sp tpguq;fs; mnkupf;fh jug;gh my;yJ fpA+gh jug;gh vd;gijg; nghWj;J NtW gLfpd;wd. mnkupf;f tl;lhuq;fs; fpA+ghtpd; gilgyj;ij $l;b kjpg;gPL nra;fpwJ. mNj Neuk; fpA+gh jdJ cz;ikahd gilgyj;ij Fiwj;Jf; $WtJNghy; njupfpwJ.

f];NwhNt Kg;gilapdJk; jsgjpahf (Commander –in-Chief) tpsq;FfpwhH. ghJfhg;G mikr;ruhf mtuJ cld;gpwg;G whTy; f];Nwh ,Uf;fpwhH.

mWgJfspy; fpA+gh ,uhZtk; mq;Nfhyh> vj;jpNahg;gpah Nghd;w ehLfspy; ,aq;fpa Gul;rpf; FOf;fSf;F Mjuthf rz;il nra;ar; nrd;wNghJ  ghJfhg;G mikr;ruhf ,Ue;j whTy;  f];Nwh gilapdUf;F tpLj;j mwpTWj;jy;fs; (1963) fpA+gh ,uhZtj;jpd; fl;likg;ig> xOf;fhw;iwg;  glk;gpbj;Jf; fhl;Ltjhf ,Uf;fpwJ.

(1) ve;jtpj kJghdKk; vj;jifa fhuzj;Jf;Fk; gad;gLj;jg; gLtJ jilnra;ag;gLfpd;wJ.

(2) ve;jtpj ngz;fNshLk; neUq;fpa cwT itj;jpUg;gJ jilnra;ag;gLfpwJ.

(3) vq;fsJ Gul;rp gw;wpNah my;yJ rpj;jhe;jk;  gw;wpNah jw;ngUik  mbj;Jf; nfhs;sf; $lhJ. ehq;fs; vg;NghJk; gzpNthL ele;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. njupe;jij kw;wtHfSf;Fr; fw;Wf; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;. ehq;fs; vy;yhk; njupe;j epGzHfs; vd;W ghrhq;F nra;af;$lhJ.

(4) ePq;fs; gzpahw;Wk; gFjpfspy; thOk; kf;fsJ gof;f tof;fq;fs;> rkak; ,tw;iw Kw;whf kjpj;J elf;f Ntz;Lk;.

(5) vq;fs; NjhoHfs; Rafl;Lg;ghl;il ve;Neuj;jpYk; fPopUe;J Nky; filg;gpbf;f Ntz;Lk;. mNjNghy; NjitahdNghJ NkypUe;J fPo; fl;Lg;ghL filg;gpbf;f Ntz;Lk;.

(6) ePq;fs; gil Kfhiktpl;L Kd; mDkjpapd;wp ntspNawf; $lhJ.

(7) ePq;fs; NghFk; ehl;bd; ,uhZtj;NjhL el;ghfTk;> cld;gpwg;G kdg;ghd;ikNahLk; ele;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. cq;fs; nghWg;gpy; tplg;gLk; cilikfisf; ftdj;NjhL ghJfhf;f Ntz;Lk;. thfd Xl;bfs; nkJthf thfdq;fis Xl;l Ntz;Lk;. xU rpd;d tpgj;Jf;$l Vw;glhjthW mtHfs; ele;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

 

(8) cq;fSf;Ff; nfhLf;fg;gl Ntz;ba gq;fPl;Lg; nghUl;fspy; gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gbd; mjidg; nghWikNahLk; tpl;Lf; nfhLg;NghLk; ele;J nfhs;sNtz;Lk;.

(9) vjpHg; Gul;rpf;fhuHfs; cq;fis vupr;rYhl;lr; nra;tijj; jtpHf;f Ntz;Lk;.

(10) Ntw;W ehl;by; ePq;fs; ,Ug;gjd; xNu Fwpf;Nfhs; ePq;fs; Nkw;nfhz;Ls;s gzpiag; Gul;rpahYk; Kg;gilj; jsgjpahYk; fl;lisapl;lthW  ve;jnthU Fiwghl;Lf;Fk; ,lk; ,y;yhJ KOikahfTk; nrk;ikahfTk; nra;J Kbg;gNj.

 gilj; jsgjpfs;  Nkw;fz;l mwpTWj;jy;fs; rupahff; filg; gpbf;fg;gLfpwjh vd;gij mt;tg;NghJ cWjpg;gLj;jg; glNtz;Lk;. mjw;F  ePq;fs; Kd;khjpupahf ele;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

 

(1) ePq;fs; vspa tho;f;if thoNtz;Lk;. ,e;j tuyhw;W Kf;fpaj;Jtk; epiwe;j  gzpj;jpl;lj;jpw;F (Mission) ePq;fs; NjHe;njLf;fg;gl;ljw;F cq;fs; kPJ itj;jpUf;Fk; ek;gpf;if fhuzk; vd;gij xU NghJk; kwe;Jtplf; $lhJ.

(2)vy;NyhUk; jq;fSf;Ff; nfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;s nghWg;ig ve;NeuKk; epidj;Jg; ghHj;Jr; nray;gl Ntz;Lk;.

(3)cq;fs; gilj;jsgjpapd; fl;lisfs; ,Jjhd;: 'gapw;rpnaLj;J rz;il nra;! rz;ilnra;J gapw;rp ngW!

fpA+ghtpd;  tuyhw;wpy; mjd; Njrpa tPuuhfg; gpufldg;gLj;jg;gl;ltH Nah]; khHb (José Martí)  MthH. mtH xU Gul;rpthjp>  rpe;jidthjp> ,Rg;ghdpa nkhopapd; jiy rpwe;j vOj;jhsH> fpA+gd; Gul;rpf; fl;rpia 1892 ,y; njhlq;fp topelj;jpatH. ,Rg;ghdpa ehl;bw;F vjpuhf 1895 ,y; ele;j MAjk; jhq;fpa tpLjiyg; Nghupy; tpOg;Gz; gl;L ,we;J NghhdH. Rje;jpuj;ijAk;> tpLjiyiaAk; Nerpg;gtHfSk; ahrpg;gtHfSk; mtuJ tho;f;if tuyhw;iwf; fl;lhak; njupe;J itj;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;.  mtiu mLj;j fpoik mwpKfg;gLj;jyhk; vd ,Uf;fpNwd;. 

 

 


 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

fpA+ghtpd; Njrpa tPuH Nah]; khHb

 (84)

Nah]; khHb (José Martí ) 1853 ij 28 Mk; ehs; `thdhtpy;  gpwe;jhH.  mtuJ je;ij xU ,Rg;ghdpaH. jahaH fNdup jPitr; (Canary Islands) NrHe;jtH. jdJ 16 MtJ tajpy; tpLjiyg; Nghuhl;lj;jpy; <Lglj; njhlq;fpdhH. me;j  tajpNyNa nfhydpj;Jtj;Jf;F vjpuhf The  Free Fatherland    vd;w xU Vl;ilj; njhlf;f cjtpdhH. rf khztH xUtH ,Rg;ghdpaH elj;jpa CHtyj;jpy; fye;J nfhz;lijf; fz;bj;jhH. khHb Njrj; JNuhff; Fw;wr;rhl;by; ifJ nra;ag;gl;L MW Mz;L  f^opar; rpiwj;  jz;lid ngw;whH. jz;lidapd; xU gFjpahf xU fy;Yilf;Fk; Ruq;fj;jpy; Ntiy nra;jhH. NehQ;ry; clk;NghL ,e;jf; fLikahd Ntiyapy; <Lgl;ljhy; mtuJ fz; ghHit gOJgl;lJ. Koq;fhypy; epue;jukhd jSk;Gfs; (gpw;fhyj;jpy; iftpyq;fpy; ,Ue;J nra;ag;gl;l Nkhjpuj;ij vg;NghJk; mzpe;J ,Ug;ghH) Vw;gl;ld.

MW khjq;fspd; gpd;dH muR mtiu kd;dpj;J tpLjiy nra;jJ.  Mdhy;> ,Rg;ghdpahtpw;F 1871 Mk; Mz;L ehL flj;jg;gl;lhH. mq;fpUe;J nfhz;L fpA+ghtpy;  ,lk;ngWk;  murpay;  ifJfs; gw;wpAk; mq;F fhzg;gLk; nfhLq;Nfhy; Ml;rpgw;wpAk; gl;lwpT mbg;gilapy; xU Jz;Lg; gpuRuk; mbj;J ntspapl;lhH.

1874 Mk; Mz;L rwnfh];;rh ((Saragossa) ) gy;fiyf; fofj;jpy; ,Ue;J rl;lk; jj;Jtk; ,uz;bYk; ,sq;fiyg; gl;lk;ngw;W  ntspNawpa Nah]; khHb gpuhd;]; kw;Wk; ,q;fpyhe;J ehLfSf;Fr; nrd;whH. gpd;dH nkf;rpf;Nfh ehl;Lf;Ff; FbngaHe;J jdJ vOj;Jg; gzpiaj; njhlq;fpdhH.  nkf;rpf;Nfhtpy; ,uhZtk; Gul;rp %yk; Ml;rpiaf; ifg;gw;wpaNghJ mjid Nah]; khHb (José  Martí)  fLikahf vjpHj;jhH. mjd; fhuzkhf mtH me;j ehl;iltpl;L fTj;jkhyhTf;Fg; nry;y Ntz;b Neupl;lJ.  Mdhy;> mq;Fk; ,lk;ngw;w murpd; nfLgpbfs; mtiu me;j ehl;by; ,Ue;Jk; ntspNaWk;gb itj;jJ.

1877 My; fhHnkd; vd;gtiu Nah]; khHb jpUkzk; nra;J nfhz;lhH. 1878 ,y; mtHfSf;F xU  Mz; Foe;ij gpwe;jJ. ngaH Nah]; gpuhd;rp];Nfh (Jose Francisco) vd;gjhFk;. 1880 ,y; ngz; Foe;ij gpwe;jJ. ngaH khupah ke;jpyh ( Maria Mantilla) vd;gjhFk;.

1878 Mk; Mz;L Nah]; khHb vjpHg;ghsHfSf;Fg; nghJ kd;dpg;Gf; nfhLf;fg;gl;lij mLj;J kPz;Lk; fpA+gh te;J NrHe;jhH. Mdhy;> mtH ,Rg;ghdpa muRf;F vjpuhfr; nray;gl;lhH. mjdhy;  ,Rg;ghdpahtpw;F Xbg;Nghf Neupl;lJ.  mq;fpUe;J 1879 ,y; mnkupf;fh te;J NrHe;jhH. xH Mz;L epa+ NahHf; efupy; tho;e;jhH. mq;fpUe;J ntdp#yhtpw;Fg; (Venezuela) NghdhH.

ntdp#yhtpy; epue;jukhfj; jq;fp mq;F tho vz;zpdhH. Mdhy;> mq;Fk; ,uhZt Ml;rp Vw;gl;ljhy; me;j vz;zj;ijf; iftpl;L kPz;Lk; epA+ NahHf; nrd;whH. epA+ NahHf;fpy; 1881-1895 tiu tho;e;jhH. Muk;gj;jpy; mtUf;F mnkupf;fh kpfTk; gpbj;Jf; nfhz;lJ. ',q;Nf Rje;jpuf; fhw;iwr; Rfkhfr; Rthrpf;fyhk;. fhuzk; ,q;F Rje;jpuk; Njrj;jpd; mj;jpthuk;> ftrk;> tho;f;ifapd; gpopT' (''One can breath freely, for here, freedom is the foundation, the shield, the essence of life'') vd vOjpdhH.

Mdhy;> mtuJ mnkupf;f gf;jp kpf tpiutpy; fiue;J tpl;lJ. ,yj;jPd; mnkupf;fhtpd; Rje;jpuj;Jf;F mnkupf;fhjhd; Kjy; vjpup vd;w KbTf;F te;jhH. "ehd; ,e;jg; G+jj;NjhL  tho;e;J tpl;Nld;. mjd; jhHg;gupak; vd;dntd;gJ vdf;Fj; njupAk;. vdJ mk;G Nltpl;bd; mk;G Nghd;wJ' vd vOjpdhH.

gjpide;J Mz;Lfs; njhlHe;J murpay; gw;wp vOJtjpy;> ciuahw;Wtjpy;> VLfSf;Ff; fl;Liu jPl;Ltjpy;> MAjq;fs; thq;Ftjpy;> mdy; ff;Fk; Ngr;Rf;fis tbg;gjpy;> ftpij Gidtjpy; Xa;nthopr;ry; ,d;wp <Lgl;lhH.

1885 Mk; Mz;L Rje;jpug; ghly;fs; ((Free verses ) vd;w ftpij EhiyAk; 1891 Mk; Mz;L vspa ghly;fs; (Simple Verses) vd;w ftpij EhiyAk; vOjpdhH. ,e;j Ehy;fNs Nkw;Fyf ,yf;fpa tof;fhw;wpy; 'GJik'  (Modernism)  ,af;fj;ij Muk;gpj;J itj;jit MFk;.

Nah]; khHb vOjpa Guajira    Guantanamera    vd;w ftpij ,d;W fpA+ghtpd; cj;jpNahfG+Htkw;w ehl;Lg; gz;zhff; nfhz;lhlg;gLfpwJ.

Nah]; khHb nfhQ;rkhfNt rhg;gpl;lhH> nrhw;g NeuNk cwq;fpdhH. Mdhy;> mtuplk; mgupkpjkhd rf;jp nfhSe;J tpl;L vupe;jJ.   

epA+ NahHf;fpy; tho;e;j fhyj;jpy; ,yj;jPd; mnkupf;f ehLfspy; kf;fshl;rp cUthFtjw;F mnkupf;fh jilf; fy;yhf ,Uf;Fk; vd;gij Nah]; khHb Gupe;J nfhz;lhH. ntWkNd thHj;ij mstpy; epw;fhky; 1892 My; fpA+ghit ,Rg;ghdpa nfhydpj;Jt Ml;rpapy; ,Ue;J kPl;L vLg;gjw;Ff; fpA+gd; Gul;rpf; fl;rpiaj; njhlf;fpdhH.

me;jf; fl;rpf;F cWg;gpdHfisr; NrHg;gjw;F GNshuplh khfhzj;jpy; cs;s RUl;Lj; njhopw;rhiyfspy; Ntiy ghHj;j Gyk;ngaHe;j fpA+ghdpaiu  Nah]; khHb re;jpf;f mbf;fb gazg;gl;Lg; NghthH. vg;NghJk; ey;y  fWj;j Nfhl;#l; mzpe;J> fOj;jpy; tpw;gl;b (bow-tie) fl;b> kPiria mofhff; fj;jupj;J rPtpf; nfhz;Ljhd; fpsk;gpg; NghthH.

nghUshjhu> ,d> ghy; rkj;Jtk; ,y;yhky; fpA+gh xU  epiwthd Rje;jpu  ehlhfj; jpfo KbahJ vd;W Nah]; khHb thjhbdhH. NtW tpjj;jpy; nrhd;dhy; ehl;L tpLjiyNahL nghUshjhu r%f khw;wj;ijAk; mtH typAWj;jpdhH.  

%d;W Mz;Lfs; fopj;J fpA+ghtpd; tpLjiyg; Nghuhl;lj;ij KLf;fp tpLtjw;F Ntz;ba jpl;lj;ij Nah]; khHb jPl;b mjid xU fpA+gd; RUl;by;  kiwj;J itj;J  ,uhZtj; jsgjpahd me;NjhdpNah khrpNahTf;F (Antonio Maceo)    mDg;gp itj;jhH. me;NjhdpNah khrpNah xU fWg;gH vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. 

1895 ,y; njhlf;fg;gl;l fpA+gh Rje;jpug; Nghupy; gq;Nfw;f Nah]; khHbAk; kf;rpNkh Nfhk]; (Maximo Gomez)  vd;gtUk; xU rpwpa glfpy; fpA+ghtpd; njd;fpof;Ff; fly;fiuNahukhfg; Ngha; ,wq;fpdhHfs;. mtHfs; gazk; nra;j me;jr; rpd;dg; glF Gaypy; rpf;fp Jz;L Jz;lhf cila ,Ue;jJ. ey;y fhykhf mJ jg;gpaJ.  gpd;dH mq;fpUe;J Gwg;gl;L Xwpad;l; khfhzj;ijg; (Oriente Province ) Ngha;r; NrHe;jhHfs;. Ehw;Wf;fzf;fhd nfupyhg; gilapdH mtHfSld; NrHe;J nfhz;lhHfs;.

nfupy;yhg; Nghuhsp tho;f;if Nah]; khHbf;F fLikahf ,Ue;jJ. jplfhj;jpuk; ,y;yhj mtuJ cliy vg;NghJk; me;jg; ghukhd fWg;G Nfhl;#l; %bapUe;jJ. mjw;Fk; Nkyhf mtuJ KJfpy; njhq;fpa nghjp> Njhspy; njhq;fpa iwgps; ,tw;wpd; ghuk; mtuJ KJif Kwpj;jJ. gy jlit kiyg; ghijapy; tpOe;J vOe;jhH.

1895 Nk 19 Mk; ehsd;W khHb Kjd;Kjyhf nlh]; iwNah]; (Dos Rios)   vd;w ,lj;jpy; eilngw;Wf; nfhz;bUe;j rz;ilf; fsj;jpy; ,wf;fp tplg;gl;lhH. mg;NghJ mtuJ fOj;jpy; neQ;Rf;F NeNu mtuJ ngz;Foe;ijapd; glk; njhq;fpf; nfhz;bUe;jJ. vjpup gilia Nehf;fp efHe;J nfhz;bUf;Fk;NghNj Rl;L tPo;j;jg;gl;lhH. jdJ Jg;ghf;fpiag; gad;gLj;Jtjw;Nf mtUf;F mtfhrk; fpilf;ftpy;iy! (jsgjp Nfhk]; khHbia gilapd; gpd; mzpapy; epd;W NghupLkhW gzpj;jij mtH Nfl;ftpy;iy vd;W nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ) mtuJ epidthf fpA+gh Gul;rpthjpfs; %d;W Mz;Lfs;  njhlHe;J MAjk; jhq;fpg; NghuhbdhHfs;.

tPur;rhitj; jOtpf; nfhz;l khtPud; Nah]; khHb md;W Kjy; fpA+ghtpd; tuyhw;W ehafdhff; fpA+ghdpauhy; topglg;gl;L tUfpwhH. mtuJ cUtr; rpiy ,y;yhj CNu fpA+ghtpy; ,y;iy vd;W nrhy;Ykstpw;F vq;Fk; mtuJ cUtr; rpiy> epidTr; rpd;dk; fhzg;gLfpwJ. fpA+ghtpw;F ntspapy; ,yj;jpd; mnkupf;f ehLfspYk; Nah]; khHb cUtr; rpiyfs; epiwa ,Uf;fpd;wd. ,d;W mtuJ thHj;ijfs; murpaypy; ,U JUtq;fshfg; gpupe;J vjpUk; GjpUkhf ,Uf;Fk; fpA+ghdpaHfs; vy;NyhUf;Fk; (f];Nwh MjuthsH> vjpHg;ghsH) Ntj thf;fhf ,Uf;fpd;wd.

f];Nwhtpd; ghHitapy; Nah]; khHb fpA+gh kz;zpy; Gul;rpf;F tpj;jpl;l cs;ehl;L tPuH MthH.  mNj Neuk; tyJrhup kpahkp fpA+ghdpaHfs; jq;fsJ thndhyp> njhiyf;fhl;rp ,uz;Lf;Fk; KiwNa khHb thndhyp> khHb njhiyf; fhl;rp vd;W ngaH itj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;.

re;jpahNfh (Santiago) fpA+ghtpd; ,uz;lhtJ ngupa efuk;. 1514 ,y; ,e;j efuk; ,Rg;ghdpauhy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. fpA+ghtpd; jiyefuhf 1524 njhlf;fk; 1549 tiu  re;jpahNfhjhd; tpsq;fpaJ. mjd; Mokhd ,aw;ifj; JiwKfk; fhuzkhf 1700> 1800 fspy; ,lk;ngw;w mbik thzpfj;jpd; ikakhf re;jpahNfhNt jpfo;e;jJ.

re;jpahNfhjhd; fpA+gh Gul;rpapd; njhl;byhfTk; fpA+gh Njrpaj;jpd; Nfhl;ilahfTk; fUjg;gLfpwJ. mjdhy; me;j efiu 'khtPuH efH' (''Heroes City'' ) Mfg; gpufldg;gLj;jp ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. ,q;Nfjhd; 1953 Mk; Mz;L A+iy 26 Mk; ehs; nkhd;fhlh Nfhl;il kPJ f];Nwhtpd; jiyikapy;  Njhy;tpapy; Kbe;j Kjy;  nfupyhj;  jhf;Fjy;  Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. gw;wp];jh ,uhZtj;jpd; ruzhfjpia f];Nwh Vw;Wf;nfhz;lJk; ,Nj re;jpahNfhtpy;jhd;.

Nah]; khHbapd; thDaHe;j epidTf; fl;blk; re;jpNahfhtpy; cs;s rhe;jh ,tp[pdpah kahdj;jpy;  ( Santa Ifigenia cemetery) epWtg;gl;Ls;sJ.

,Rg;ghdpa gilgyk; fpA+ghNthL xg;gpLk;NghJ ma;e;Jf;F xd;whf ,Ue;jJ. ,Rg;ghdpa  fly;gil gyk; tha;e;jjhf ,Ue;jJ. n[duy; khHbd]; fk;Ngh]; (General Martinez Campos) jiyik jhq;fpa ,uhZtk; fpA+gh Gul;rpg; gilazpfistpl etPd MAjq;fisf; nfhz;ljhf tpsq;fpaJ. ,Rg;ghdpa muR "filrp Ms; kl;Lk; filrpf; fhR kl;Lk;' ( ''To the last man and to the  last peseta'' )  rz;il ,lg;Nghtjhfr; #Siuj;jJ. 

fpA+gh gilfs; iftrk; ,Ue;j iugps;fisAk; ntl;Lf;fj;jpfisAk; ( rifles and machetes)  gad;gLj;jpaJ. ,Rg;ghdpa fhyhl;gilfis mtHfs; vjpHghuhj Neuj;jpy; fpA+ghdpag; gil jhf;fp mopj;jJ.

fpA+gh gilazpfs; ,d;ndhU je;jpuj;ijAk; ntw;wpfukhff; ifahz;lhHfs;. fpA+ghtpd; nghUshjhuj;ij Kw;whf  mopg;gJjhd; me;jj; je;jpuk;. rPdpj; njhopw;rhiyfs;> fl;blq;fisj; jPapl;Lf; nfhSj;jpdhHfs;.  mjd; %yk; fpA+gh ,Rg;ghdpahtpw;Fg; nghUshjhuj;jpy; cjthj ehlhf khw;wpdhHfs;.

 

 


fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

ehd; xU nts;is Nuhrhit tsHf;fpNwd;

 (85)

jPtpd; Nkw;Fg; gFjpia fpA+gh gilfs; jhf;fpd. me;j ntw;wpfukhd jhf;Fjyhy; MLz;LNghd ,Rg;ghdpah jdJ Kd;dzp ,uhZt jsgjpfspy; xUtuhd n[duy; ntapyiu ( General Weyler ) fsk; ,wf;fpaJ. %Hf;fj;jdj;jpw;Fg; ngaHNghd ntapyH nghJkf;fisf; ifJ nra;J jLg;G Kfhk;fspy; milj;J itj;jhH. Gul;rpg; gilazpfSf;F czT kw;Wk; Ml;NrHg;G Nghd;wtw;iwj; jLg;gNj mtuJ Nehf;fkhf ,Ue;jJ. 

1896 Mk; Mz;L me;NjhdpNah khrpNah (Antonio Maceo ) Nghupy; nfhy;yg;gl;lhH. Nah]; khHbapd; tPur;rhitg; NghyNt ,tuJ rhitAk; ,Rg;ghdpaH ek;gpf;ifNahL vjpHghHj;jhHfs;. Mdhy;> ,Rg;ghdpaH fpA+gh nfupy;yhg; gilfis xd;Wk; nra;a Kbatpy;iy.

fpA+gh gf;fk; 60>000 gilapdH ,Ue;jhHfs;. ,Rg;ghdpah gf;fk; ,ijtplf; $Ljyhd gilapdH ,Ue;jhHfs;. ,Ue;Jk; NghH xU KbTf;F tUfpw mwpFwp njd;gltpy;iy. jsgjp ntapyH jpUg;gp miof;fg;gl;lhH.

NghH NkYk; rpyfhyk; ePbj;jJ. fpA+gh gilj;jsgjp fypf;];Nuh fhHrpah ( Calixto Garcia) fpof;fpy; ,Ue;j Victoria de la Tunas vd;w efuj;ijf; ifg;gw;wpdhH.

,Rg;ghdpah kf;fsplk; NghUf;F vjpuhd Nghf;F #L gpbf;fj; njhlq;fpaJ. ,uhztj;jpdH ngUksT Nghupy; kbtijapl;L  mtHfs; Nfhgk; mile;jhHfs;.     

,e;jr; #o;epiyapy; mnkupf;f ty;yhjpf;fthjpfs; ,Rg;ghdpah mnkupf;f rz;ilf; fg;gy; xd;iw epH%ykhf;fptpl;ljhff; Fw;wk;rhl;b mjd; kPJ NghH njhLf;f itj;jhHfs;. mnkupf;f ,uhZtk; kw;Wk; fly;gilf;F ,Rg;ghdpahthy; <LnfhLf;f Kbatpy;iy. rz;ilapy; ,Rg;ghdpahit kpf vspjhf mnkupf;fh Njhw;fbj;jJ. mjdhy; fpA+gh cl;gl gy nfhydpj;Jt ehLfis ,Rg;ghdpah ,oe;jJ.

Nah]; khHb ,Rg;ghdpa cyfpd; kpfr; rpwe;j  vOj;jhsuhf vz;zg;gLfpwhH. mnkupf;f thrfHfSf;F  mtuJ Kf;fpaj;Jtk; mtuJ rpe;jid cyfg; nghJikgw;wpAk; fhyj;Jf;F Vw;wthWk; ,Ue;jjhy; Vw;gl;lJ. Nah]; khHb fpA+ghtpd; nfhydpj;Jt Ml;rpf;F Kw;Wg;Gs;sp itf;fj; jdJ tho;ehs; KOtijAk; nrytpl;lhH. mJ kl;Lk; my;yhJ fpA+gh jPT mnkupf;fh cl;gl NtW ehLfspd; gpbf;Fs; tpOe;Jtplf; $lhJ vd;gJ mtuJ Nfhl;ghL MFk;.

mnkupf;fhtpd; murpay; Nfhl;ghLfs; jdJ Kw;Nghf;Ff; nfhs;ifSf;F khwhf ,Ug;gjhf Nah]; khHb vz;zpajpy; tpag;gpy;iy. Fwpf;NfhSlDk;> fpA+ghtpd; Rje;jpuk; ,yj;jpd; mnkupf;fhtpd; ghJfhg;Gf;Fk;>  cyf ehLfspd; rkgyf; Nfhl;ghl;Lf;Fk; Nfe;jpukhfkhf ,Uf;fpwnjd;w cz;ikapd; mbg;gilapy;  Nah]; khHb jdJ nraw;wpwd; kdj;jpwd; ,uz;ilAk; ,izj;J xU Njrj;ijf; fl;b vOg;Gk; gzpf;Fr; nrytopj;jhH.

Nah]; khHb xNu Neuj;jpy; Gul;rpahsdhfTk; topfhl;bahfTk; Kf;fpakhf mwpTiuahsuhfTk; ( mentor )  tpsq;fpdhH. mtUf;F ,Ue;j mDgtk; kw;Wk; fy;tpj;jifik gy;NtW khWgl;l Jiwfspy; jdJ Kj;jpiuiag; gjpg;gjw;Fk; gbg;gpidfs; tsj;NjhL tpsq;Ftjw;Fk;  Jizahf ,Ue;jd.  

Nah]; khHb xU murpd; %iyf;fw;fs; Rje;jpuk; ePjp ,e;j ,uz;bd; kPJk; fl;bnaOg;gg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;W ek;gpdhH. mtuJ gilg;Gf;fisg; gbj;jhy; mjw;fhf mtH Nkw;nfhz;l RaNghuhl;lq;fs;gw;wp mwpe;J nfhs;syhk;. kdpjdJ Md;k vOr;rpf;F vy;iy NghLtij mtH Vw;Wf; nfhs;stpy;iy. kdpjdJ Md;k  <Nlw;wk; md;G> fl;Lg;ghlw;w rpe;jid ,e;j ,uz;bd; mbg;gilapNyNa fl;b vOg;g  KbAk; vd mtH ek;gpdhH. vdNt mtuJ jj;Jtq;fs; Nfhl;ghLfs; fpA+ghtpy; epytpa rHthjpfhu Nfhl;ghl;Lf;F Kuzhf ,Ue;jjpy; tpag;gpy;iy.

Nah]; khHbapd; mwpTiufs; jdpkdpj Rje;jpuj;ijAk; nghJTlikiaAk; ikakhff; nfhs;shj murpay; Nfhl;ghl;Lf;F Kuzhf ,Ue;jd. mtuJ gilg;Gf;fs; VfNghf  ty;yhl;rpfisAk; kdpj cupikfisf; fl;Lg;gLj;Jk; vj;jdq;fisAk; fz;bj;jd. fpA+ghtpd; rHthjpfhu Ml;rpiaAk; mjd;  nrUf;ifAk; td;ikahff; fz;bj;jhH.

Nah]; khHb jdJ FWfpa tho;ehspy; ,Rg;ghdpa kw;Wk; mnkupf;fhtpd; Mjpf;fj;jpy; ,Ue;J jdJ rpd;dQ; rpW jPTf;F tpLjiy ngw;Wf; nfhLf;fg; NghuhbdhH. mNj Neuk; tpLjiy> Rje;jpuk;> kdpjNeak; ,tw;iw filg;gpbf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gjpYk; mirahj ek;gpf;if itj;jpUe;jhH.

'tpLjiy vd;gJ xt;nthUtDk; cz;ikahf ,Uf;f>  rpe;jpf;f> ghrhq;F nra;ahky; cz;ikiag; Ngr ,Uf;Fk; cupikahFk;. xU nghy;yhj muRf;F mbgzpgtd; cz;ikahd kdpjd; my;y.'

'kiyapy; ,Ue;J fw;fs; fPNo cUz;NlhLtJ Nghy> ey;y rpe;jidfs; vj;jid jilfs; my;yJ jLg;Gf;fs; ,Ue;jhYk; mit jkJ ,yf;if mile;Nj jPUk;. mtw;wpd; Ntfj;ijf; Fiwf;fyhk; my;yJ $l;lyhk;. Mdhy;> mtw;iw jLj;J epWj;JtJ vd;gJ Kbahj nray;.'

'tpLjiyNa! cd;idg;gw;wpg; NgRtJ fbdk;. Kf;fpakhf eP ,y;yhky; thOk; xUtDf;F. xU fhl;L tpyq;F jd;idg; gof;Ffpwtd; Kd; Koq;fhy; ,l;L  kz;bapLtjw;F Kd;dH jdJ rPw;wj;ijf; fhl;lj; jtWtjpy;iy. xUtd; eufj;jpd; Moj;ijf; fz;L gpbj;jgpd; mq;fpUe;J Rje;jpukhdtHfisr; nrUf;NfhL ghHf;fpwhd;. xUtd; Xeha; jdJ $z;bd; fk;gpfisf; fbg;gJNghy fhw;iwf; fbf;fpwhd;.  eQ;#l;lg;gl;l kdpjd; Nghy; xUtdJ Md;kh kdpjdJ clYf;Fs; Ntjid jhq;f KbahJ nespfpwJ.  Rje;jpuj;jpd; mUik njupahJ thOk; ,opad; njUr; rfjpia vLj;Jg; G+rp kfpOk; gapj;jpaf;fhuDf;F xg;ghdtd;. tpLjiyNa! cd;id itj;jpUg;gtHfSf;F cd;idj; njupahJ. cd;id itj;jpuhjtHfs; cd;idg;gw;wpg; Ngr mUfij mw;wtHfs;. mtHfs; cd;id ntd;nwLf;f Ntz;Lk;.'

Nah]; khHb xU rpwe;j ftpQH vdr; nrhd;Ndd;. gy ftpijfis ,Rg;ghdpa nkhopapy; vOjpAs;shH. mit Mq;fpyk; cl;gl NtW nkhopfspy; nkhopngaHf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. 'ehd; xU nts;is Nuhrhit tsHf;fpNwd;' ( I cultivate a white rose) vd;w jiyg;gpy; mtH ghba ftpij ,J.

ehd; xU nts;is Nuhrhit tsHf;fpNwd;
rdtup NghyNt A+iyapYk;
vdf;F ntspg;gilahff; if nfhLf;Fk;
vdJ cz;ikahd ez;gDf;fhf!

ePq;fs; xU Eiuj;j kiyiaf; fz;lhy;
vdJ ftpijiaj;jhd; ePq;fs; ghHf;fpwPHfs;
vdJ ftpijfs; xU kiyNghd;wJ
mNj Neuk; mJ xU gwitapd; ,wF Nghd;wJ!

vdJ ftpijfs; <l;bfs; Nghd;wit
mjd; gpbapy; ,Ue;J kyHfs; kyHfpd;wd
vdJ ftpijfs; ePH Cw;Wg; Nghd;wJ
mJ ghiwj; jz;zPiuj; njspf;fpwJ!

vdJ ftpijfs; ,sk;gr;ir epwk; Nghd;wJ
mNj Neuk; rptg;G epwr; RlH Nghd;wJ
vdJ ftpijfs; fhl;by; milf;fyk; NjLk;
fhag;gl;l khd; Nghd;wJ!

vdJ ftpijfs; tPuHfis kfpo;tpf;Fk;
vdJ ftpijfs; RUf;fkhdJ> cz;ikahdJ
$H thSfis tbf;Fk;
cUf;fpd; Ntfj;ijf; nfhz;lJ!

gfYk; ,uTk; ehd; fz;fis
tpopj;j tz;zk; fdT fhz;fpNwd;
miyfspd; Eiuf;F Nky;
nfhe;jspf;Fk; fly; Nghy!

ghiytdj;jpy; cUSk; kz;Ftpay;Nghy;
xU typa rpq;fj;jpd; nky;ypa fOj;jpy;
,Ue;J rthup nra;tJNghy;
ehd; vdJ cs;sj;jpy; FbapUf;Fk; murd;
vg;NghJk; kpjf;Fk; Foe;ijiaf; fhz;fpNwd;
mJ vd;id miof;fpwJ!

ehd; thof;$ba vdJ ,jaj;ij
fpopj; njwpAk; nfhbatDf;F>
ehd; Kl;nrbfis tsHg;gjpy;iy
ehd; xU nts;is Nuhrhit tsHf;fpNwd;!

mLj;j fpoik  ,we;J 30 Mz;LfSf;Fg; gpd;dUk;  fpA+gh kf;fshy; kl;Lky;y midj;J  cyf kf;fshYk; G+rpf;fg;gLk;  Nr Fthuhit cq;fSf;F mwpKfg; gLj;JNtd;. ,tH MHn[d;jpdpahtpy; gpwe;J nghy;tpahtpy; kuzpj;j Gul;rpahsd;.

 


 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

Gul;rpf;F ,yf;fzk; tFj;j  Nr Fthuh

(86)

mWgJfspy; ,lJrhup Gul;rp ,af;fq;fspd; fjhehafdhf tpsq;fpa Nr Fthuhtpd; KOg; ngaH VHd];l; FNtuh (Earnest  Guevara ) (1928-67) vd;gjhFk;.   MHn[d;Bdhtpy;  xU kj;jpa tFg;Gf; FLk;gj;jpy; gpwe;jhH. ,uz;L taJf; Foe;ijahf ,Ue;j NghJ Nr Fthuh %r;R ,Og;G Nehapdhy; Jd;Gw;whH. ,jdhy; mtuJ FLk;gk; my;lh fpNurpah (Alda Gracia) vd;w fpuhkg;Gw CUf;F ,lk; khwpaJ.  mg;gb ,Ue;Jk; mtuJ Neha; Fzkhftpy;iy. mtuJ njhlf;ff; fy;tp mtuJ jhahuhd nrypah b yh nrHdh ( Celia de la Serna) mtHfshy; mspf;fg;gl;lJ. Nr Fthuh Ehy;fis tpUk;gpg; gbg;gjpy;  nfl;bf;fhuuhf tpsq;fpdhH. jdJ je;ijapd; tPl;L Ehyfj;jpy; ,Ue;j khHf;];> vd;[y;]; (Angels) kw;Wk; Freud  Nghd;NwhH vOjpa Ehy;fisg; gbj;J Kbj;jhH. gpd;dH  nfhHNlhghtpy; ,Ue;j Bd;]; G+d;]; Njrpa fy;Yhupapy; (Colegio National Dean Funes)   NrHe;J jdJ caH epiyf; fy;tpiaj; njhlHe;jhH. gbf;Fk;NghJ ,yf;fpak;> tpisahl;L ,uz;bYk; rpwe;J tpsq;fpdhH. 

,Rg;ghdpa cs;ehl;Lr; rz;il> MHn[d;Bdhtpd; myq;Nfhykhd murpay; mtuJ cs;sj;jpy; ghjpg;ig Vw;gLj;jpaJ. mjidg; gad;gLj;jp Ml;rpiaf; ifg;gw;wpa  rHthjpfhup Athd; ngNwhd; (Juan Peron) ',lJrhup grp];l;' Ml;rpia mtH ntWj;jhH. ,e;jr; rk;gtq;fs; ehlhSkd;w kf;fshl;rpj; jj;Jtj;jpy; mtiu ek;gpf;if ,of;f itj;jJ. ,uhZt murpay;thjpfs; kw;Wk; ,uhZtk;> Kjyhspj;Jt ty;yhz;ik ,tw;iwr; Nr Fthuh ntWj;jhH. vy;yhtw;wpw;Fk; Nkyhf mnkupf;fhTk; mnkupf;f nlhyUk; nrYj;jpa Nkyhjpf;fj;ij mbNahL ntWj;jhH.

1949 Mk; Mz;L Kjd; Kiwahf ePz;l gazq;fis Nkw;nfhz;lhH. MHn[d;Bdhit Jtpr;rf;fu tz;bapy; Rw;wpg; ghHj;jhH. mg;NghJ Viofs; kw;Wk; rptg;G ,e;jpa kf;fspd; re;jjpapduJ mty tho;f;ifia Neupy; ghHj;Jj; njupe;J nfhs;Sk; tha;g;G mtUf;Ff; fpl;baJ. .

1951 ,y; NkYk; ePz;l gazq;fis Nkw;nfhz;lhH. ,k;Kiw mtUld; mtuJ ez;gH xUtUk; NrHe;J nfhz;lhH. MHn[d;Bdhtpd; njd; gFjp> rpyp (Chile) ehLfisr; Rw;wpg; ghHj;jhH. $yp Ntiy nra;J mjpy; tUk; tUkhdj;ijf; nfhz;L tho;f;ifia Xl;bdhH. rpyp ehl;by; ry;tNlhH myd;Nl (Salvador Allende) iar; re;jpj;jhH. NgU ehL nrd;W mq;Fs;s Fl;lNuhfpfs; kUj;Jt kidapy; rpwpJ fhyk; gzpahw;wpdhH. jdJ kUj;jtg; gl;lg; gbg;gpw;fhd ,Wjpg; guPl;iria vLf;fr; nrhe;j ehl;Lf;Fj; jpUk;gpdhH. Mdhy;> xU tplaj;jpy; mtH cWjpahf ,Ue;jhH. xU kj;jpa tFg;igr; NrHe;j  kUj;Jtuhf njhopy; Guptjpy;iy vd KbT nra;jhH. 1953 Mk; Mz;L kUj;jt ,Wjpr; Nrhjidapy; NjwpdhH. mtH Njhiyg;gw;wpa kUj;Jtj;jpy; (Dermatology) epGzuhf tpsq;fpdhH.

1952y; MHn[d;Bdh rHthjpfhup Athd; NgNwhd; (Juan Pero¢n) f;F vupuhf ele;j fpsHr;rpapy; gq;F gw;wpdhH. 1953 ,y; fTj;jkhyhTf;Fr; nrd;W mg;NghJ mq;F Nafg; MHngd;]; F];khd; (Jacobo Arbenz Guzman) Ml;rpnra;J nfhz;bUe;j fk;A+dp];l; rhHghd murpy; NrHe;J nfhz;lhH. gpd;dH 1954 Mk; Mz;L me;j Ml;rp fTz;lNghJ  mq;fpUe;J jg;gp nkf;rpf;NfhTf;Fg; NghdhH. mq;Nfjhd; NrFthuh gply; f];NwhitAk; mtuJ fpA+ghdpa NjhoHfisAk; re;jpj;jhH.

1956 ,y;  f];Nwhtpd; nfupy;yhg; gil fpA+ghtpd; rHthjpfhup gl;b];jhTf;F (Fulgencio Batista)  vjpuhfj; njhLj;j nfupy;yh Aj;jj;jpy; Nr Fthuh Kf;fpa jsgjpfspy; xUtuhf tpsq;fpdhH vd;gij Kd;dNu ghHj;Njhk;.  mtuJ  gd;Kf gl;lwpT kpf tpiutpy; mtiuf; f];Nwhtpd; ek;gpf;iff;Fupa kpf neUq;fp ez;gdhf Mf;fpaJ.

kPz;Lk; Nr Fthuh fTj;jkhyhTf;Fg; Gwg;gl;Lr; nrd;whH. ,g;NghJ jdJ nryitr; rupf;fl;l $yp Ntiy nra;tjw;Fg; gjpy; gazk; kw;Wk; mfoha;T gw;wpa fl;Liufis VLfSf;F vOjpdhH. mfoha;T gw;wpa fl;Liufs; goq;Fbfshd ,q;fh (Inca) kw;Wk; khah ( Maya) kf;fs; gw;wp ,Ue;jd.

fTj;jkhyhtpy; Nrhryp];l; rdhjpgjpahf MHngd;]; tpsq;fpdhH. Nr Fthuh xU khHf;rPathjpahf ,Ue;jhYk; fk;A+dp];l; fl;rpapy; Nru kWj;J tpl;lhH. mjdhy; me;j ehl;by; kUj;Jtuhfg; gzpGupaf;$ba tha;g;ig ,oe;jhH. mjdhy; mtH ifapy; ry;ypf; fhR$l  ,y;yhky; fe;ij cLf;Fk; epiyik cUthfpaJ.

,e;jj; jUzj;jpy;jhd; `py;lh fhBah (Hilda Gadea)  vd;w khHf;rpathjpapd; mwpKfk; fpilj;jJ. fhBah ,e;jpa tk;rh topapdH. mtH Nr FthuhTf;F cjtp nra;jhH. mj;NjhL mtiug; gply; f];Nwhtpd; neUq;fpa jsgjpfspy; xUtuhd epNfh Nyhng]; (Nico Lopez ) vd;gtUf;F fhBah mwpKfk; nra;J itj;jhH.

fTj;jkhyhtpy; mnkupf;f csT epWtdkhd rpma;V vjpHg;Gul;rpahsHfspd; KftHfshfr; nraw;gLtijg; ghHj;jhH. me;j mDgtk; MAjg; Nghuhl;lj;jpd; %yNk Gul;rpia cUthf;fyhk;  vd;w cz;ikia mtUf;F czu itj;jJ. MHngd;]; muR KbTf;F te;jNghJ> Nr Fthuh nkf;rpf;Nfh efUf;F (nrg;njk;gH> 1954) nrd;whH. mq;F xU nghJ kUj;jtkidapy; gzpahw;wpdhH. mg;NghJjhd;  Nr Fthuh  murpay; mfjpfshf mq;F Vw;fdNt FbNawp tho;e;j gply; f];Nwh kw;Wk; whTy; f];Nwh ,UtiuAk; re;jpj;jhH. 

f];Nwh cld;gpwg;Gf;fsJ trPfu MSik Nr Fthuhit ntFthff; ftHe;jJ. gply; f];Nwhtpy; jhd; Njbf; nfhz;bUe;j  jiytiuf; fz;lhH. mtHfNshL NrHe;J nfhz;l Nr Fthuh Vida fpa+gd; Gul;rpahsHfSf;F mspf;fg;gl;l fLikahd nfupy;yhr; rz;ilg; gapw;rpia Nkw;nfhz;lhH.

me;jg; gapw;rpapid mspj;jtH ,Rg;ghdpa Fbaurpd; ,uhZt jsgJ my;NgHNuh ghNah (Alberto Bayo) MthH. ghNah jdJ nrhe;j mDgtq;fis kl;Lk; my;yhJ kh Nr Jq; nfupy;yh Aj;jj;ijg;gw;wpf; fw;gpj;j ghlq;fisAk; NrHj;Jr; nrhy;ypf; nfhLj;jhH. gapw;rp Kfhkpy; Nr Fthuh mtuJ el;rj;jpu khztdhfj; jpfo;e;jhH. mjdhy; mtH gapw;rpahsHfsJ jiytuhf epakpf;fg;gl;lhH. mg;NghJjhd; vy;NyhUk; Fthuhit  Nr (Che) vd;W miof;f Muk;gpj;jhHfs;. 'Nr' vd;why; Njhod;(H) ( buddy or chum) vd;W nghUs;. mjd; %yk; ,j;jhyp nkhopahFk;.

,tHfsJ gapw;rp Kfhk; fhty;JiwapduJ ftdj;ij <Hj;jJ.  Nr Fthuh ifJ nra;ag;gl;lhH. ey;y fhyk; xU khjk; fopj;J (A+d; 1956) mtH tpLjiy nra;ag;gl;lhH. fpA+ghitj; jhf;f mtHfs; nrd;wNghJ Nr Fthuh Kjypy; xU kUj;JtuhfTk; gpd;dH Gul;rpg;gilapd; jsgjpfspy; xUtuhfTk; gzpahw;wpdhH. Vida nfupy;yhj; jsgjpfNshL xg;gpLk;NghJ Nr FthuhNt kpfTk; ntw;wpfukhd jsgjpahfj; jpfo;e;jhH. kw;wtHfSf;F nydprj;ijg; gbg;gpg;gjpYk; mtH Kd;dzp tfpj;jhH.

fpA+ghtpy; Gul;rp ntw;wp ngw;W f];Nwh jiyikapy; Ml;rp mikf;fg;gl;lNghJ> mtUf;F mLj;j epiyapy; Nr Fthuh ,Ue;jhH. mJ kl;Lky;y f];Nwhitf; fk;A+dprg; ghijg; gf;fk; ,Oj;J te;jjpy; Nr FthuhTf;F ngupa gq;Fz;L. Mdhy;> Nr Fthuhtpd; fk;A+dprk; goia> nkh];ft; ghzp fk;A+dprk; Mf ,Uf;ftpy;iy. fpA+ghtpd; epyTlik kWgq;fPl;Lj; jpl;l rl;lq;fis mKy;gLj;j cUthf;fg;gl;l  Njrpa epWtdj;ij epHtfpf;Fk; nghWg;G Nr FthuhTf;Ff; nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. ngupa epyTlikahsHfsJ epyj;ijg; gwpj;J Vio tptrhapfSf;F rpW Jz;Lfshfg; gfpHe;jspf;fg;gl;lJ. fpA+ghtpd; Njrpa tq;fpf;F Nr FthuhNt jiytuhf epakpf;fg;gl;lhH.

1959 ,y; mnybah khHr; (Aledia March ) vd;w ngz;iz Nr Fthuh kze;J nfhz;lhH. ,UtUk; vfpg;J> ,e;jpah> ag;ghd;> ,e;Njhdprpah> ghfp];jhd; kw;Wk; A+NfhrpNytpah Nghd;w ehLfSf;Fg; gazk; nra;J fpA+gh jpUk;gpdhHfs;.  1960 Mk; Mz;L ngg;utup khjk; ifj;njhopy; mikr;rH vd;w Kiwapy; Nrhtpaj; ehl;NlhL xU thzpf xg;ge;jj;ijr; Nr Fthuh nra;J nfhz;lhH. ,e;j xg;ge;jj;jpd;  mbg;gilapy; fpA+ghtpd; rPdp Vw;Wkjpf;F mnkupf;f re;ijia ek;gpapUf;Fk; epiyik khw;wg;gl;lJ.

Nr Fthuh xU Nfhl;ghl;il Kd;itj;jhH. 'Gul;rpf;Fj; jf;f #o;epiyfSf;fhff; fhj;jpUf;f Ntz;bajpy;iy. mjw;fhd #o;epiyia Kd;$l;bNa cUthf;fyhk;' vd;gJ mtH Kd;itj;j Nfhl;ghL MFk;. kh Nr Jq; Nghy 'ngUk;ghYk; tptrhapfisf; nfhz;l ehl;by; Gul;rp fpuhkg;Gwq;fspy; ,Ue;J gl;bdq;fSf;Ff; nfhz;L tug;gl Ntz;Lk;' vd;W Nr Fthuh epidj;jhH. NkYk;  jdf;F cupj;jhd fk;A+dpr jj;Jtj;ij tpsf;fpdhH. mJ gpd;dH (1965 Mk; Mz;L khHr;R 15) 'kdpjDk; NrhryPrKk;'' vd;w ngaupy; Ehyhfg; gpuRupf;fg;gl;lJ.

'kdpjd; vg;NghJ khdpl epiyia milfpwhd;? mtd; jd;id xU gz;ilkhw;Wg; nghUshf tpw;gid nra;af; fl;lhag; gLj;jg; glhj epiyapy;jhd; mJ rhj;jpak;' vd;W Nr Fthuh ek;gpdhH. ,jdhy;  mtH 'nkh];ft;' gf;fk; ,Ue;J khNth gf;fk; rhaj; njhlq;fpdhH. Nrhtpaj; fk;A+dp];l; fl;rpNahlhd ,Wjp KwpT Mgpupf;f-Mrpa ehLfsJ ma;f;fpak; (ngg;utup 1965) njhlHghf ele;j khehl;by; Nr Fthuh NgRk; NghJ Vw;gl;lJ. Nrhtpaj; ehL fk;A+dpr ehLfNshL kl;Lk; thzpfk; nra;ahJ mJ kw;w ehLfNshLk; thzpfk; Nkw;nfhs;tij Nr Fthuh fz;bj;jhH. mJ kl;Lk; ,y;yhJ tsHr;rp Fd;wpa NrhryPr ehLfSf;F ve;jf; ifkhWk; fUjhJ Nrhtpaj; ehL epjpAjtp nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd;W miog;G tpLj;jhH. Nrhtpaj; ehl;bd; rftho;Tf; nfhs;ifiaAk; (policy of co-existence) kw;Wk; tuyhw;Wj; jpupGthjj;ijAk; Nr Fthuh td;ikahff; fz;bj;jhH.  

jdJ Gul;rpf; nfhs;ifia eilKiwg;gLj;j %d;W fz;lq;fsJ (Mrpah> Mgpupf;fh> njd; mnkupf;fh)  khehl;ilf; $l;bdhH. mjpy; xU Gul;rpfukhd> fpsHr;rpf;fhd nfupy;yhj; jpl;lj;ij eilKiwg; gLj;j KbT nra;ag;gl;lJ. mNj Neuk; fpA+ghtpd; ma;f;fpa ehLfs; rigapd; gpujpepjpahf ,Ue;j Nr Fthuh mnkupf;fhtpd; Nguhir kw;Wk; njd; mnkupf;fhtpy; mjd; ,iltplhj jiyaPL kw;Wk; Ruz;ly; Mfpatw;iwf; fLikahff; fz;bj;jhH.

tsHKf ehLfspy; tptrhapfisj; jskhff; nfhz;l Gul;rp ,af;fq;fs; cUthf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;W Nr Fthuh tw;GWj;jpdhH. fk;A+dpr - Kjyhspj;Jt ehLfSf;F vjpuhf mtuJ tpl;Lf; nfhLf;fhj kdg; Nghf;F f];Nwhit cj;jpNahf G+Htkhf ,y;yhtpl;lhYk;  eilKiwapy; Xuq;fl;l itj;jJ.  cs;sj;jhYk; czHthYk; Gul;rpahsdhf tho;e;j Nr Fthuh ntWkNd xU epUthfpahf ,Uf;f tpUk;ghky; fpA+ghit tpl;L 1965 Mk; Mz;L rLjpahf khakhf kiwe;jhH.  khjf; fzf;fpy; mtuJ ,Ug;gplk; vJntd ahUf;Fk; njupahky; ,Ue;jJ. mtH ,we;J tpl;lhH vd;w tje;jp cynfq;Fk; gutpaJ. 

cz;ikapy; Nr Fthuh mg;NghJ Mgpupf;f ehLfspy; xd;whd nfhq;Nfhtpy; ,Ue;jhH. mjd; jiyefuk; fpd;rhrhtpy; (Kinshasa) ele;J nfhz;bUe;j fpsHr;rpia fpA+gh ghzpapy;  xU nfupy;yhg; Nghuhf khw;wf; $ba rhj;jpaq;fis mtH Muha;e;J nfhz;bUe;jhH. fpA+gh jpUk;gpa Nr Fthuh 120 gapw;rp ngw;w  nfupy;yh tPuHfis mioj;Jf; nfhz;L nfhq;Nfh NghdhH. mtuJ tPuHfs; ed;whfr; rz;il nra;jhHfs;. Mdhy;> fpd;rhrh fpsHr;rpahsHfshy; mt;thW Nghuhl Kbatpy;iy. ngy;[pad; $ypg;gilfSf;F vjpuhf cjthjtHfshf ,Ue;jhHfs;. 1965 Mk; Mz;Lf; filrpapy; nfhq;Nfh fpsHr;rpahsHfSf;Ff; nfhLf;fg;gl;l fpA+ghtpd; cjtpia tpyf;fpf; nfhs;s f];NwhTf;F MNyhrid toq;fpdhH.

Nr Fthuhtpd; ,Wjp Gul;rpg; gazk; nghy;tpahit Nehf;fp ,Ue;jJ. nghy;tpahtpd; Gul;rpf;F Ntz;ba tha;g;igf; fzpg;gjpy; mtH ngupa gpio tpl;lhH. mtuJ Kaw;rp Njhy;tpiaj; jOtpaJ. nghy;tpah ,uhZtj;jpdhy; ifJ nra;ag;gl;l Nr Fthuh mLj;j ehs; Rl;Lf; nfhy;yg;gl;lhH. mtH ,wf;Fk;NghJ mtUf;F taJ 39.

Nr Fthuhtpd; trPfuj; Njhw;wk;> ve;jr; rkurj;ijAk; Vw;Wf; nfhs;s kWf;Fk; Nghf;F> rPHjpUj;jj;ij kl;Lk; typAWj;Jtijg; Gwf;fzpf;Fk; Nehf;F> td;Kiwapy; ,Ue;j ehl;lk; mtiug; Gul;rpr; rpe;jid nfhz;l ,yl;rf;fzf;fhd ,isQHfsJ Muhjidf;Fupa Nghuhspahfg; ghHf;f itj;jJ. mWgJfspYk;> vOgJfspYk; Kjyhspj;Jt murpay;-nghUshjhuj; jsq;fis jfHj;njwpe;J nghJTlikr; rKjhaj;ijf; fl;b vOg;g epidj;j ,isQHfSf;F xU ek;gpf;if el;rj;jpukhf Nr Fthuh tpsq;fpdhH.

1997 xf;NjhgH 11 Mk; ehs;  Nr Fthuh ,we;j 30 MtJ Mz;L epidT ehs; fpA+ghtpy; nfhz;lhlg;gl;lJ. ,yl;rf;fzf;fhd kf;fs; nghy;tpahtpy; ,Ue;J fz;nlLj;Jf; nfhz;L tug;gl;l mtuJ clypd; kpr;rj;ijj; ( vYk;Gj; Jz;Lfs;) juprpf;f ePz;l tupirapy; fhj;jpUe;jhHfs;. fpA+ghtpd; Njrpaf; nfhbahy; NghHj;jg;gl;bUe;j mtuJ kpr;rk;  `thdhtpYk; rhe;jh fpNywhtpYk; ghHitf;F itf;fg;gl;bUe;jd. mjd; gpd;dH xU khtPuDf;Fupa mur kupahijNahL mtH mlf;fk; nra;ag;gl;lhH.

f];Nwh Nr Fthuhitg; gw;wpf; Fwpg;gpLk; NghJ  "mtH ,g;NghJjhd; vg;NghijAk; tpl  GfNohL ,Uf;fpwhH' vd;W nrhd;dhH. Nr Fthuh jdJ Foe;ijfSf;F vOjpa fbjk; xd;W mtuJ caupa Nfhl;ghl;il> gue;j rpe;jidia ntspg;gLj;JfpwJ.    

ey;y Gul;rpahsHfshf tsUq;fs;. Kaw;rp nra;J gbAq;fs;. mg;NghJjhd; ,aw;ifia trg;gLj;Jk; jpwik cq;fSf;F tUk;. vy;yhtw;wpw;Fk; Nkyhf cyfpd; ve;j %iyapYk; vtUf;fhtJ vd;d mePjp ,iof;fg;gl;lhYk; mijapl;L Mokhfr; rpe;jpAq;fs;. ,Jjhd; xU Gul;rpahsDf;F ,Uf;f Ntz;ba kpfr; rpwe;j Fzk;.'   (tsUk;)

 


 

 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

ehw;gj;J %d;W Mz;Lfs; gjtpapy; ePbf;Fk; gply; f];Nwh

(87)

Gul;rp mUq;fhl;rpafj;jpy; Njhy;tpapy; Kbe;j nkhd;fhlh ,uhZt tpLjp (Moncada Barracks ) kPJ f];Nwhtpd; nfupy;yhg; gilazp Nkw;nfhz;l jhf;Fjypd;NghJ mtH mzpe;jpUe;j ,uj;jk; Njha;e;j rPUiliaf;  fhl;rpf;F itj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. mNjNghy; f];NwhTf;F vjpuhd Gfo;ngw;w tof;fpy; (''tuyhW vd;id tpLtpf;Fk;'') mtH mzpe;jpUe;j fWg;Gf; Nfhl;ilAk; mq;F ghHitf;F itj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. rpiwapy; ,Ue;jNghJ Gul;rpf; ifjpfs; gad;gLj;jpa fPjhH (Guitar) xd;Wk;  itf;fg;gl;bUe;jJ.  Gul;rp mUq;fhl;rpafj;jpy;jhd; gply; f];Nwhtpd; rdhjpgjp mYtyfk; ,aq;FfpwJ.

fpA+gh Gul;rpapd; fjhehafd; gply; f];Nwhjhd;; vd;gij nrhy;yj; Njitapy;iy. 1959 Mk; Mz;L Ml;rpiaf; ifg;gw;wpajpy; ,Ue;J ,d;Wtiu f];Nwh fpA+ghtpd; Ml;rpj; jiytuhf ,Ue;J tUfpwhH. ,J xU rhjid vd;gjpy; Iakpy;iy. ,e;j 43 Mz;L fhykhf fpA+gh kf;fspilNa mtuJ nry;thf;Ff; Fiwe;J Nghapw;W vd;Nwh my;yJ Fiwe;J tUfpwJ vd;gjw;Nfh  rhd;Wfs;  vJTk; fhzg;gltpy;iy. mtUf;F Nky;kl;l kw;Wk; eLj;ju kf;fspilNa  vjpHg;G ,Ue;jhYk; fPo;kl;l fpA+ghdpaH kj;jpapy;> Fwpg;ghf Mgpupf;f fpa+gd; kf;fspilNa mtUf;F ey;y nry;thf;F ,Uf;fpwJ.

f];Nwh fpa+ghtpd; Xwpad;l;  khfhzj;jpy; (Oriente  province)  gpuhd; vd;w ,lj;Jf;F mUfpy; mtuJ FLk;gj;Jf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd fUk;Gj; Njhl;lj;jpy;  1927 Mk; Mz;L ( 1926 vd;W NtW jfty;fs; njuptpf;fpd;wd) gpwe;jhH. mtuJ je;ijf;F 23>000 Vf;fH fUk;Gj; Njhl;lk; nrhe;jkhf ,Ue;jJ. f];Nwh rpWtdhf ,Ue;jNghJ ,e;jf; fUk;Gj; Njhl;lj;jpy; Ntiy nra;jpUf;fpwhH. 1942 ,y; `thdhtpy; cs;s Colegio Belen vd;w Gfo;ngw;w  fy;Yhupapy; NrHf;fg;gl;lhH. ,e;jf; fy;Yhupia fj;Njhypf;f kjgPlj;ijr; NrHe;j n[Rapl;]; (Jesuits) ghjpupkhHfs;  elj;jpdhHfs;. 1943-44 Mk; Mz;L f];Nwh Colegio Belen   fy;Yhupapd; rpwe;j tpisahl;L tPuH vd;w tpUijj; jl;bf; nfhz;;lhH.

1945 Mk; Mz;L f];Nwh  gl;lk;  ngw;W ntspNawpdhH. gpd;dH `thdh gy;fiyf; fofj;jpy;  NrHe;J rl;lg; gbg;gigj; njhlHe;jhH. mjpy; KidtH gl;lk; ngw;W 1950 Mk; Mz;L ntspNawpdhH. 

mNj Mz;L  f];Nwh tof;fwpQH njhopiy `thdhtpy; njhlq;fpdhH. mg;NghJ fpA+ghtpy; ,aq;fpa kpjthj murpay; fl;rpahd kf;fs; fl;rpapy; NrHe;jhH. me;jf; fl;rp rhHghf 1952 Mk; Mz;L ,lk;ngw;w ehlhSkd;wj; NjHjypy; Nghl;bapl f];Nwh jpl;lkpl;lhH. Mdhy;> jsgjp gj;jp];jh ( Fulgencio Batista) khHr;R 10 Mk; ehs; ,uj;jk; rpe;jhj ,uhZtg; Gul;rp %yk; rdhjpgjp Carlos Prio Socarras  Ml;rpiaf;  ftpo;j;Jtpl;L mjpfhuj;ijf; ifg;gw;wpdhH. mijaLj;Jj; NjHjy; eilngWtij ,y;yhJ nra;jhH. mjdhy; f];Nwhtpd; murpay; Mir  epiwNtwhJ Ngha;tpl;lJ. 

khHr;R 27 Mk; ehs; tyJrhup gj;jp];jh muRf;F  mnkupf;fh  ,uhrje;jpu kl;lj;jpy; mq;fPfhuk; toq;fpaJ. mjw;Ff; ifkhwhf gj;jp];jh fpA+ghtpd; thzpfj;ij mnkupf;f KjyhspfSf;Fj; jpwe;J tpl;lhH.

gj;jp];jh murpay; ahg;G tpjpfis kPwptpl;lhH vd;W f];Nwh ePjpkd;wj;jpy; tof;Fg; Nghl;lhH. Mdhy;> ePjpkd;wk; mjid epuhfupj;J tpl;lJ. 1953 Mk; Mz;L A+iy 26 Mk; ehs; re;jpahNfh b fpA+ghtpy; ( Santiago de Cuba) ,Ue;j nkhd;fhlh ,uhZt tpLjp kPJ f];Nwhtpd; nfupy;yhg; gilazp jhf;Fjy; njhLj;jJ. ,e;jg; gilazpapy; 160 nfupy;yhg; Nghuhspfs; gq;F gw;wpdhHfs;. mNj rkak; re;jpahNfh b fpA+ghtpw;Fj; njw;Nf 90 fpkP  Jhuj;jpy; ,Ue;j ghaNkh fhtw; Nfhl;ilia (Bayamo garrison) gpwpnjhU mzp jhf;fpaJ.

,uz;L jhf;FjypYk; 80 nfupy;yhg;  Nghuhspfs; ,we;J gl;lhHfs;.  gyUk; vjpHghHj;jJ Nghy jhf;Fjy; ngupa Njhy;tpapy;  Kbe;jJ. ngUk;ghd;ikapdH  ifJ nra;ag;gl;l gpd; rpj;jputij nra;ag;gl;L my;yJ Jg;ghf;fpahy;  Rlg;gl;Lf;  nfhy;yg;gl;lhHfs;. f];Nwh kw;Wk; mtuJ cld; gpwg;G whTy; rpiw gpbf;fg;gl;L  ePjpkd;wj;jpy; epWj;jg;gl;lhHfs;. ePjp tprhuizapd; gpd;dH mtHfSf;F 15 Mz;L f^opar; rpiwj; jz;lid tpjpj;J ePjp kd;wk; jPHg;G toq;fpaJ.

ePjpkd;wj;jpy; jd; rhHghf thjhba  f];Nwh ePz;l  Neuk;  thjhbdhH. mtuJ njhFg;Giu gy kzpj;jpahyq;fs; ePbj;jJ. "g];jpahtpd; nfhLq;Nfhy; Ml;rpf;F vjpuhff; fpsHe;J vOe;J Nghuhl nghJkf;fSf;F fpA+ghtpd; murpay; ahg;G cupik toq;FfpwJ" vd;W f];Nwh thjhbdhH. 

me;j ePz;l thjj;jpd; NghJjhd; f];NwhTf;Fg; gpd;dH Gfo; Njbf; nfhLj;j xU nrhy;yhl;rpiag;  gad;gLj;jpdhH. "vd;id vg;gb Ntz;Lk; vd;whYk; jz;bAq;fs;. mijapl;L vdf;Ff;; ftiy ,y;iy.  tuyhW vd;id tpLtpf;Fk;.' ("Condemn me. It does not matter. History will absolve me." )

f];Nwh 1955 Nk 15 Mk; ehs; jz;lidf; fhyk; KbA Kd;dNu  rpiwapy;  ,Ue;J tpLtpf;fg;gl;lhH. rpiwapy; ,Ue;J ntspNawpa f];Nwh nkf;rpf;Nfh nrd;whH. mq;F ,Ue;J nfhz;L A+iy 26 Gul;;rp ,af;fj;ij cUthf;fpdhH. 1956 bnrk;gH 2 Mk; ehs; f];Nwh> mtuJ cld;gpwg;G whTy; f];Nwh kw;Wk;  Gul;rpg;  Nghuhspfs; Xwpad;l; khfhzj;jpd; tlf;Ff; fiuiaj; jhf;fpdhHfs;.  mjd;gpd; f];Nwh Sierra Maestra  vd;w kiyg; gFjpapy; gJq;fp tho;e;J Gul;rpf;F kf;fs; kj;jpapy; MjuT jpul;bdhH.  kf;fs; MjuT ngUfpaJ. nfupy;yh gilazpapd; gyk; ,g;NghJ 3>000 Mf caHe;jJ.  gj;jp];jh muRf;F vjpuhfg;  gy ntw;wpfukhd nfupy;yhj; jhf;Fjy;fis f];Nwh Nkw;nfhz;lhH.

1958 Mk; Mz;bd; ,Wjpg; gFjpapy; 3>000 nfupy;yhg; Nghuhspfisf; nfhz;l f];Nwhtpd; nfupy;yh gilazpfs; 30>000 vz;zpf;if nfhz;l gj;jp];jh murpd; njhopy;rhH ,uhZtj;ijg; GwKJF fz;lJ. f];Nwhtpd; MAjg; Gul;rp ntw;wp ngw;wJ. 

ghjp];jh Gj;jhz;L jpdj;jpy; ehl;il tpl;L Xbj; jg;gpdhH. f];Nwh jiyikapy; 1959 rdtup 7 Mk; ehs; ,ilf;fhy muR gjtp Vw;wJ. me;j ,ilf;fhy muir mnkupf;fh mq;fPfupj;jJ. ngg;utup khjk; 18 Mk; ehs; f];Nwh fpA+ghtpd; gpujkuhfg; gjtpNaw;whH.

f];Nwh 1959-1976 tiu ehl;bd; gpujkuhfr; nray;gl;lhH. 1976 Md; eLg; gFjpapy; Gjpa murpay; ahg;G eilKiwg; gLj;jg;gl;lNghJ rdhjpgjp gjtpiaf; f];Nwh Vw;Wf; nfhz;lhH.

kpf tpiutpy; f];Nwh jd;id xU fk;A+dp];l; vd mwptpj;Jtpl;L xU fl;rp Ml;rpiag; gpufldg;gLj;jpdhH. fk;A+dp];l; fpA+gh Nrhtpaj; xd;wpaj;jpd; kpf neUq;fpa el;G ehlhf tpsq;fpaJ.

ngupa epyr;Rthe;jHfspd; epyj;ij f];Nwh ehl;Llik Mf;fpaij Kd;dH ghHj;Njhk;. 1960 Mk; Mz;L f];Nwh fUk;Gj; Njhl;lq;fs;> vz;nza; Rj;jpfupg;G Miyfs;> kpd;Dw;gj;jp epiyaq;fs; Nghd;wtw;iw ehl;Llik Mf;fpdhH. f];Nwhtpd; fk;A+rpr muir tpUk;ghj Nky;jl;L kw;Wk; ,ilj;jl;L tFg;G kf;fs; Mapuf;fzf;fpy; ehl;il tpl;L ntspNawp mnkupf;fhtpy; FbNawpdhHfs;. ,d;W kpahkp> Gsuplhg; gFjpfspy; 40 ,yl;rj;jpw;Fk; mjpfkhd fpA+gd; mnkupf;fHfs; tho;fpwhHfs;.

fpA+ghtpy; ,Ue;J rpW glFfspy; fliyf; fle;J mnkupf;fhtpw;Fj; jg;gpNahba Ehw;Wf; fzf;fhd kf;fs; ,ilapy; glFfs; ftpo;e;J flypy; %o;fp ,we;Jgl;bUf;fpwhHfs;. 

2000 Mk; Mz;L ele;j rdhjpgjp NjHjypy; NahH[; G\; gyj;j ,Ogwpf;Fg; gpd;dH kpff; Fiwe;j ngUk;ghd;ik thf;Ffshy; ntw;wp ngw;whH. me;j ntw;wpf;Ff; fpA+gd; mnkupf;fHfsJ thf;Ffs; Nfe;jpu ,lk; tfpj;jJ. mJ NghyNt rdhjpgjp G\; mtHfsJ cld;gpwg;G n[g; G\; GNshuplh khepy MSeH NjHjypy; ntw;wp ngWtjw;Fk; fpA+gd; mnkupf;fHfsJ MjuT Kf;fpa gq;F tfpj;jJ. vdNt mnkupf;f murpaypy; fpA+gd; mnkupf;fHfs; FbauRf; fl;rp rup> rdehaff; fl;rp rup ,uz;Lf;Fk; Ntz;lg;gLgtHfshf  ,Uf;fpwhHfs;.  

fpA+ghtpd; EhwhtJ Rje;jpu ehsd;W (Nk 20) ciuahw;wpa rdhjpgjp G\;> 'fpA+gh kPjhd nghUshjhuj; jil jsHj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;why; fpA+gh muR Rje;jpukhd NjHjiy elj;j Ntz;Lk; kf;fSf;Fg; Ngr;Rr;  Rje;jpuk; toq;f Ntz;Lk; mikg;G uPjpahfr; nray;gLk; Rje;jpuk; toq;f Ntz;Lk;. murpay; ifjpfs; tpLjiy nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk; Rje;jpukhd njhopw; rq;fq;fs; cUthFtjw;F mDkjp toq;f Ntz;Lk;' vd;w epge;jidfis tpjpj;jhH.

xU fpoik fopj;J G\; mtHfsJ ciuf;F f];Nwh fhl;lkhfg;  gjpy; ,Wj;jhH. 'r%f eyd;fs; NgZtjpy;  ve;jnthU ,yj;jPd; mnkupf;f ehl;ilAk; tpl fpA+gh Kd;dzpapy; ,Uf;fpwJ. fpA+ghtpd;  njUf;fspy; ve;jf; Foe;ijAk; gpr;ir Nfl;L miyatpy;iy. fpA+gh ,isQHfs; xUtuhtJ Nghij kUe;Jf;Fg; gypahf tpy;iy. ,J G\; nrhy;tJNghy; mlf;FKiw my;y. G\; mtHfSf;F vy;yhr;  rpf;fy;fisAk; jPHj;J itf;Fk; gzk; ,Uf;fpw ,lj;jpy; kl;LNk rdehafk; ,Uf;fpwJ vd;W epidf;fpwhH. G\; tpUk;Gk; rdehafk; Viofis Xuq;fl;b CoiyAk; NeHikapd;ikiaAk; Nghw;Wk; ehlhff; fpA+ghit khw;wptpLk;. gpd;dH r%fr; rpf;fy;fisAk; cyfr; rpf;fy;fisAk;  jPHj;J itg;gjw;F xU jl;Lf;F 25000 nlhyHfs;  nfhLj;Jr; rhg;gplf;  $batHfNs Njitg;gLthHfs;. mJ Vo;ikapYk;> gl;bdpapYk; thLk; Nfhbf;fzf;fhd kf;fis mtkjpg;gjhFk;."

fpA+ghtpy; Foe;ijfs; gpr;ir vLf;ftpy;iy vd;gJ cz;ikjhd;. Mdhy;> `thdh jiy efupy; ,uz;nlhU gpr;irf;fhuHfisg; ghHj;Njd;. rpy taJNghd fpotpfs; Rw;Wyhg; gazpfsplk; jaq;fpj; jaq;fp jq;fs; iffis  ePl;LfpwhHfs;. mg;gbg; ghHj;jhy; epA+NahHf; efupYk; Ehw;Wf; fzf;fhdtH> ngUk;ghYk; fWg;gHfs;> NghNthH tUNthuplk; gpr;ir Nfl;fpwhHfs;.

mnkupf;fh> fdlh Nghd;w ehLfspy; Nghij kUe;Jf; flj;jy;> mjd; ghtid ngupa rpf;fyhf cs;sJ. Nghij kUe;J flj;JtJ Nfhbf;fzf;fhd ngWkjp tha;e;j tzpfkhf ,Uf;fpwJ. mt;tg;NghJ fhty;Jiw Nghij kUe;J flj;JfpwtHfisj; Njbg; gpbj;Jf; ifJ nra;fpwhHfs;. Mdhy;> Nghij kUe;Jf; flj;jy; njhopy; Kw;Wg;ngw;wjhf ,y;iy.

,q;Fs;s jkpo; ,isQH FOf;fs;  Nghij kUe;ijr; rhg;gpl;L tpl;Lj;jhd; xUtiu xUtH Rl;Lf; nfhs;fpwhHfs;. my;yJ ntl;bf; nfhs;fpwhHfs;.  mtHfs; thahNyNa ,jid ehd; nrhy;yf; Nfl;bUf;fpNwd;. 

fpA+gh xU jPthf ,Ug;gjhy; Nghijg; nghUisr; Rygkhff; flj;j KbahJ. tpkhd epiyaq;fspy; te;jpwq;Fk; gazpfs; Nghij kUe;ijf; nfhz;L tUfpwhHfsh vd;gijf; fz;lwpa ry;yil Nghl;L Ml;fisak; nghjpfisAk; Nrhjid NghLfpwhHfs;. Nghijg; nghUis Nkhe;J fz;L gpbf;f eha;fs; NtW  itj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. ehl;by; Coy; ,y;yhjjhy; gzk; nfhLj;J Nghijg; nghUl;fisf; flj;j KbahJ.

Mdhy;> fpA+ghtpy; tWik  ,y;iyNa xopa Vo;ik ,Uf;fpwJ. mjdhy;jhd; me;j ehl;iltpl;Lg; gyH mnkupf;fhtpw;F Xbj; jg;GfpwhHfs;.

 


 

 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

f];Nwh Gul;rp tPudh? my;yJ nfhiyahspah?

(88)

,e;jf; fpoik fNdba Clfq;fspy; fpA+gh gw;wpa nra;jp mbgl;ld. fdlhtpw;F tUif je;j Nghg;ghz;ltH 2 MtJ mUsg;gH rpd;dg;giuj; juprpf;f te;j fpA+ghdpaHfspy; 23 NgH murpay; milf;fyk; NfhupAs;shHfs;.  nghJthff; fpA+ghdpaHfs; ntspehLfSf;F tpisahl;Lg; Nghl;bapy; fye;J nfhs;sg; NghFk;NghJ. mtHfspy; rpyH  me;j ehLfspy; murpay; milf;fyk; Nfl;gJ toik MFk;. Nrhtpaj; xd;wpak; ,Ue;j fhyj;jpNyNa ,t;thW tpisahl;Lg; Nghl;bfspy; fye;J nfhs;sg; NghFk; tPuHfs; jiykiwthfp tpLtJ tof;fkhf ,Ue;jJ.  vdNt ,e;j 23 fpA+ghdpaHfs; fdlhtpy; murpay; milf;fyk; Nfhupajpy; tpag;gpy;iy vd;Nw nrhy;y Ntz;Lk;. kw;iwa ehLfspy;  ,Ue;J fdlhtpw;F  tUfpwtHfSk; ,t;thW murpay;  milf;fyk; NfhUfpwhHfs;.

fpA+ghdpaHfisg; Nghy mq;Nfhyhtpy; ,Ue;J Nghg;ghz;ltiuj; juprpf;f te;j rpyUk; ,q;F murpay; milf;fyk; Nfl;Ls;shHfs;.

Nfs;tp vd;dntd;why; ve;j mbg;gilapy; fdlh ,tHfsJ Nfhupf;ifia Vw;fg; NghfpwJ? fpA+ghdpaHfs;  jhq;fs; kj mbg;gilapy;  Jd;Gwj;jg;gLtjhfr; ( persecution) nrhy;y KbahJ. Mdhy;> fpA+ghtpy; jdpf; fl;rp ty;yhz;ik Ml;rp eilngWtjhff; $wp murpay; milf;fyk; Nfl;fyhk;. mg;gbahd Nfhupf;ifia fdlh Vw;ff; $Lk;. mnkupf;fhitg; nghWj;jstpy; fpA+ghdpaHfs; murpay; milf;fyk; Nfhupdhy; mJ  cldbahf Vw;fg;gl;L tpLfpwJ. fhuzk; fk;A+dp];L ehLfspy; ,Ue;J jg;gp Xb tUfpwtHfSf;F murpay; milf;fyk; nfhLg;gij mnkupf;fh jdJ FbtuTf; nfhs;ifahfNt itj;jpUf;fpwJ.

mnkupf;fh> fdlh kw;Wk; INuhg;gpa ehLfSf;F  ,uz;lhtJ %d;whtJ cyf ehLfspy; ,Ue;J ngUe;njhifg; gzj;ij KftHfSf;Ff; nfhLj;Jf; fsthf cs; Eioa  ,yl;rf;fzf;fpy; Ml;fs; fhj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;!

vdNt ,q;F Nghg;ghz;ltiuj; juprpf;f te;j  fpA+ghdpaHfs;> mq;NfhypaHfs;  milf;fyk; Nfl;bUg;gjpy; tpag;NgJk; ,y;iy. mjw;F murpaiytplg; nghUshjhuNk Kf;fpa fhuzpahFk;.

fpA+gh ehl;L murpay; ahg;gpd; fPo; 10>000  gjpT nra;ag;gl;l  thf;fhsHfs;  ifnaOj;jpl;L xU kDitf; nfhLj;jhy; me;j kDtpy; Nfl;Lf; nfhz;l Nfhupf;iffs;gw;wp   fpa+gh Njrpa rl;l rig $b tpthjpf;f Ntz;Lk;. mz;ikapy; murpay; ahg;gpy; gy khw;wq;fs; Nfhup  mg;gbahd xU kD muRf;F vjpuhd mikg;Gfshy;  ifaspf;fg;gl;lJ. nrd;w Nk khjk; fpA+ghtpw;F nryT Nkw;nfhz;l Kd;dhs; rdhjpgjp fhl;lH mjid Mjupj;Jf; fUj;J ntspapl;lhH.  

,jw;Fg; gjpybahf A+d; 10 Mk; ehs;  fpA+gh muR murpay; ahg;gpy; xU jpUj;jj;ij Kd;nkhope;jJ. mjd;gb fpA+ghtpd; NrhryPr  murKiwia ahUk; 'njhlf;$lhJ" (  “Untouchable”)  vd;gNj me;jj; jpUjjkhFk;.                                                     jpUj;jj;ij Mjupj;Jf; f];Nwh jiyikapy; ,yl;rf; fzf;fhd kf;fs; CHtyq;fspy; fye;J nfhz;lhHfs;. fpA+gh KOJk;  RkhH  800 CHtyq;fs; elj;jg;gl;ld.

A+d; 15 Mk; ehs; murpay; ahg;gpy; jpUj;jk; NfhUk; kDtpy; f];Nwh Kjy; Mshff; ifnaOj;jpl;lhH. fpA+ghtpd; nghUshjhu< murpay;> r%f Kiwapy; ve;j khw;wKk; nra;af; $lhJ vd me;j kDtpy; Nfhug;gl;Ls;sJ. vz;gJ ,yl;rk;  thf;fhsHfspy; 99  tpOf;fhl;bdH me;j kDit Mjupj;Jf; ifnaOj;Jg; Nghl;ljhhf muR njuptpj;Js;sJ.

mjw;F mLj;j fpoik me;jj; jpUj;jj;ij tpthjpf;f f];Nwh fpA+gh Njrpa rl;lrigapd; rpwg;G mkHitf; $l;bdhH.  A+d; 24 ,y; tpthjk; njhlq;fpaJ. %d;W ehs;fs; rl;l  rigapy; ,lk;ngw;w tpthjk; ehL KOJk; Neubahf xypgug;gg;gl;lJ. rl;lrigapd; 559 cWg;gpdHfs; fpA+ghtpd; murpay; ahg;G NrhryPr murpay; ahg;ghfNt vg;NghJk; ,Uf;Fk;  vd;W  xUkdjhf Kd;nkhope;j mjrpay; rl;l jpUj;jj;ij Mjupj;Jg; NgRtij njhiyf;fhl;rpapy; ghHg;gjw;F Ntiyj; jyq;fs; midj;Jk; %lg;gl;ld.

rl;lrigapy; ele;j tpthjj;jpy; fye;J nfhz;L ciuahw;wpa f];Nwh mnkupf;fh fpa+ghtpd; cs;ehl;L tptfhuq;fspy; jiyapLtij nghWj;Jf;  nfhs;shJ vd;W  $wpdhH. fpA+ghtpd; ,iwahz;ikf;F CW tpistpf;Fk; eltbf;iffspy;  mnkupf;fh njhlHe;J <Lgl;lhy; fpA+ghtpy; ,aq;Fk; mnkupf;f eyd;fs; gpupit %btpl Ntz;b tUk; vd;Wk;  vr;rupf;if tpLj;jhH.

fpA+ghtpy; cs;s mnkupf;f eyd;fs; gpupT Mapuf;fzf;fhd  rpw;wiy tupir thndhypfis fpA+ghdpaHfSf;F toq;fpAs;sJ. ,tw;wpd; %yk; mnkupf;f murpd; MjuTld;  Gyk;ngaHe;j fpA+ghdpaHfs; elj;Jk; Nah]; khHb thndhyp xypgug;igf; Nfl;f KbAk;.

,Nj rkak; fpA+gh kPjhd nghUshjhu kw;Wk; gazj; jilfisj; jsHj;Jtjw;F mnkupf;f fhq;fpu]; rl;l %yk; xd;wpid epiwNtw;wpAs;sJ. Mdhy;> mjd; jiytpjp Nky;rigapy; (Senate)  vg;gb MFNkh vd;gJ Nfs;tpf; Fwpahf cs;sJ. Nky;rig  Vw;Wf; nfhz;lhYk; nts;is khspif me;jr; rl;lj;ij Vw;Wf; nfhs;Skh vd;gJ mLj;j Nfs;tpahFk;. 'fpA+gh kPjhd nghUshjhu jilia ePf;FtJ me;j ehl;bd; filnfl;l mlf;FKiw Ml;rpf;F ifnfhLj;jjhf KbAk;. vdNt me;jr; rl;lj;ij rdhjpgjp ngUk;ghYk; epuhfupj;J tpLthH' vd nts;is khspif mwpf;if xd;iw ntspapl;Ls;sJ.

Mdhy;> f];Nwh "fpA+gh mnkupf;fhNthL ey;YWTfis itj;Jf; nfhs;sNt tpUk;GfpwJ> mjw;fhf fpA+ghtpy; NrhryPr jdpf; fl;rp Ml;rp Kiwia iftpLfpw vz;zk; ,y;iy' vdr; nrhy;yp tpl;lhH.

fpA+gh murpaypy; khw;wq;fs; elf;fyhk; vd;gjw;F ve;j mwpFwpiaAk; ehd; mq;F fhztpy;iy. cUrpah> rPdh> A+NfhrpNyhtpah Nghd;w ehLfspy; xU fl;rp Ml;rp mjpfhuj;ijj; jq;fs; iffspy; nfl;bahf itj;jpUe;j fk;A+dp];l; jiytHfs; ,we;j gpd;dH mq;F ngupa murpay; khw;wq;fs; ,lk;ngw;wd. fpA+ghtpy; f];Nwh kiwe;j gpd;dNu murpay; khw;wk; epr;rak; Vw;gLk; rhj;jpak; ,Uf;fpwJ vd;W murpay; vjpHT $wyhk;.    

fle;j A+iy jpq;fspy; ma;Nuhg;gpa xd;wpak; 127 Nfhb mnkupf;f nlhyHfis 63 Mgpupf;f fupgPd; grpgpf; ehLfSf;F (African Caribbean  Pacific (ACP) cjtp epjpahff; nfhLj;Js;sJ. Mdhy;> fpA+gh ,e;j epjpAjtpiag; ngWtjpy; ,Ue;J tpyf;fp itf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,e;j epjpAjtpiag; ngw Ntz;Lk; vd;why; fpA+gh kdpjTupik kw;Wk; rdehaf Kiwik Nghd;w Jiwfspy; Kd;Ndw;wk; fhz Ntz;Lk; vd ma;Nuhg;gpa xd;wpak; njuptpj;Js;sJ. midj;Jyf kd;dpg;Gr; rig jdJ 2001 Mk; Mz;L mwpf;ifapy; fpA+ghitg;gw;wpg; gpd;tUkhW $wpapUf;fpwJ:

'jdpkdpjHfSk;> FOf;fSk; mikjpahd Kiwapy; Ngr;Rr; Rje;jpuk;> $l;lk; $Lk; Rje;jpuk; Nghd;wtw;iwg; gad;gLj;Jk; NghJ murpd; mlf;F Kiwf;Fj; njhlHe;J Mshfp tUfpwhHfs;. epge;jidfNshL rpy kdr;rhl;rpf; ifjpfs; (Prisoners of conscience) tpLjiy nra;ag;gl;lhHfs;. mJ Kuz;ghl;lhsHfSf;F vjpuhd fpA+gh murpd; Nghf;fpy; rpwpjsT jzpT  Vw;gl;bUg;gjw;F mwpFwp vd;W ehk; epidj;Njhk;. Mdhy;> mj;jifa epidg;Gj; jtW vd;gij 2000 Mk; Mz;Lf; filrpapy; ,lk;ngw;w mjpfupj;j mlf;FKiwfs; vLj;Jf; fhl;bAs;sd. gj;jpupifahsHfs;> murpay; vjpHg;ghsHfs; kw;Wk; kdpjTupikg; ghJfhg;ghsHfs; Nkhrkhd njhe;juTfSf;F cs;shfp tUfpwhHfs;. gjpd;%d;W kdl;rhl;rpf; ifjpfs; cl;gl Ehw;Wf; fzf;fhdtHfs; murpay; Fw;wq;fSf;fhfr; rpiwapy; milf;fg;gl;Ls;shHfs;> murpay; vjpHg;Gf;fis kOq;fbg;gjw;Ff; Fiwe;jfhy jLg;Gf;fhty;> tPl;Lf;fhty;> mr;RWj;jy;fs; kw;Wk; njhe;juT nra;jy; Nghd;wtw;iw Ml;rpahsHfs; Nkw;nfhs;fpwhHfs;. ePjpkd;wq;fs; kuz  jz;lidiaj; njhlHe;J  eilKiwg; gLj;jp tUfpd;wd.'

f];Nwhtpd; murpay; vjpupfs; mtH Nrhtpaj;  xd;wpaj;jpd;  rHthjpfhup NahNrg; ];lhypd; ifahz;l jdpkdpj tzf;fk; Nghd;w Af;jpfisNa ifahs;tjhff; Fw;wk; rhl;LfpwhHfs;. Mdhy;> mit nfhQ;rk; nkd;ikahf> kdpjNea  Kfj;Jld;  ,Ug;gjhfr; nrhy;fpwhHfs;. ,Ue;Jk; fpA+ghtpy; kf;fshl;rp ,y;iy. 1959 Mk; Mz;L Vw;gl;l Gul;rpapd; MjuthsHfisf; f];Nwh Vkhw;wp tpl;lhH> mtUf;F vjpuhd cs;ehl;L vjpHg;G mlf;fg;gl;L tpl;lJ my;yJ mlf;fg;gl;L tUfpwJ vd;w Fw;wr; rhl;L gutyhf cs;sJ.

,g;gbr; nrhy;gtHfs; $l  f];Nwhtpd; jiyikapy; KOikahd gbg;gwpT> KOikahd cly;eyk;> tpisahl;L kw;Wk; fiyj; Jiwapy; fpA+gh <l;bAs;s mghukhd ntw;wpia kWf;f KbahJ vd;gJ cz;ik.

ehd; njhlf;fj;jpy; $wpaJNghy rpl;dpapy; ele;j 2000 Mz;L xypk;gpf;]; Nghl;bapy; 11 jq;fg; gjf;fq;fisf; fpA+gh ntd;nwLj;J gpupj;jhdpah> ag;ghd; kw;Wk; fdlh Mfpa ehLfis tplg; gjf;f tupirapy; 9 MtJ ,lj;ijg; gpbj;J Kd;dzpapy; epd;wij kwe;J tpl KbahJ. 

fpA+gh xU Vio ehL. Mdhy;> mnkupf;fh fle;j 40 Mz;Lfshf mjw;F vjpuhf eilKiwg; gLj;jp tUk; nghUshjhuj; jil ngupa fhuzpahFk;.   

,d;ndhU tplaj;jpy; f];Nwh ghuhl;Lf;F cupatH. mnkupf;fhtpd; nry;thf;Ff;F cl;gl;l gf;fj;J ehLfshd nfapl;b> epf;fUFth my;yJ rpyp ehLfspy; Vw;gl;l ,uj;jf;fsup Nghy; fpA+ghtpy; vJTk; Vw;gltpy;iy. vdNt f];Nwh Gul;rp tPudh? my;yJ nfhiyahspah? tuyhWjhd; mjidj;jPHkhdpf;f Ntz;Lk;!

 

  


 

 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

vyprngj; kfhuhzpf;F mLj;j ,lj;jpy; f];Nwh?

(89)

f];Nwhtpd; jdpg;gl;l tho;f;if gw;wp ahUk; fpA+ghtpy; thiaj; jpwg;gjpy;iy. gj;jpupiffspYk; mtiug;gw;wpa nra;jpfs; mjpfkhfr; nrhy;yg;gLtjpy;iy. f];NwhTf;Fr; rpd;d taJ Kjy; xU gl;lg; ngaH cz;L. mtiu vy;NyhUk; fgNyh (Caballo)  vd;W miog;ghHfs;. fgNyh vd;why; ,Rg;ghddpa nkhopapy; Fjpiu vd;W nghUs;. mtuJ neba fk;gPukhd cUtj;ij itj;J me;jg; gl;lg; ngaiu itj;jhHfs; NghYk;. 

f];Nwh `thdh gy;fiyf; fofj;jpy; rl;lg; gbg;Gg; gbj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;jNghNj nka;apay; gPlj;jpy; gbj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;j  khztp xUtiu 1948 Mk; Mz;L jpUkzk; nra;J nfhz;lhH. mtupd; ngaH Mirtha [Mirta] Diaz Balart de Nunez  vd;gjhFk;. jpUkzk; Xwpad;l; khfhzj;jpy; cs;s xU fj;Njhypf;f Njthyaj;jpy;jhd; eilngw;wJ. ,J f];Nwh gpwe;j CUf;F mz;ikapy; ,Ue;jJ. Njdpyit ,UtUk; GNsuplhtpy;jhd; fopj;jhHfs;. mg;NghJ nryitr; rkhspf;fj; jdJ iff;fbfhuk; kw;Wk; ngWkjpahd nghUs;fis milT itf;f Ntz;ba  fl;lhak; mtUf;F Vw;gl;lJ. Mdhy;> mtUf;F mtuJ FLk;gj;jhuplk; ,Ue;J gzTjtp tpiutpy; fpilj;jJ. mjidf; nfhz;L milT itj;j nghUs;fis kPl;Lf; nfhz;L Njdpyitj; njhlHe;jhH. 

nkhd;fhlh ,uhZt tpLjp kPJ f];NwhTk; mtuJ NjhoHfSk; jhf;Fjy; elj;jp mjpy; mtH gpbgl;Lr; rpiwapy; milf;fg;gl;lij Kd;dH ghHj;Njhk;. gpd;dH nghJ kd;dpg;G toq;fg;gl;L mtH rpiwapy; ,Ue;J ntspte;jhH. Mdhy;> mtH Isla de Pinos  rpiwapy; ,Ue;J ntspte;jNghJ mtuJ kidtpia vq;NfAk; fhztpy;iy. 1955 Mk; Mz;L f];Nwh nkf;rpf;Nfhtpy; tho;e;J nfhz;bUe;jNghJ kpHj;jh mtiu kzKwpT nra;J nfhz;lhH.

kpHj;jhtpw;F xU Foe;ij 1949 Mk; Mz;L nrg;njk;gH khjk; 1 Mk; ehs; gpwe;jJ. mjd; ngaH  Fidel [Fidelito] Castro Jr.

kpHj;jh kWkzk; nra;J nfhz;L mnkupf;fhtpy; tho;fpwhH. mtH rupahf vq;F ,Uf;fpwhH> mtuJ Foe;ij vq;Nf> NtW Foe;ijfs; mtUf;F cz;lh  vd;w nra;jpfs; %Lke;jpukhfNt ,Uf;fpd;wd.

kpHj;jhittplj; jpUkzj;Jf;Fg; Gwj;Nj f];NwhTf;Fg; gpwe;j xU ngz; ,Uf;fpwhH. mtuJ ngaH Alina Fernández Revuelta vd;gjhFk;.  fpA+ghit tpl;L 1993 Mk; Mz;L mnkupf;fhtpw;F xU fs;s ,Rg;ghdpa flitr; rPl;NlhL  jg;gpNahba ,tH f];Nwhtpd;  vjpupfNshL NrHe;J nfhz;L  jdJ je;ijapd; Ml;rpiaf; ftpo;g;gjw;Fr;  rjpnra;J nfhz;bUf;fpwhH.  ehs; NjhWk; fpA+ghtpw;F vjpuhf kpahkpapy; ,Ue;J gug;Giu nra;Ak; Nah]; khHb thndhypapy; Talk Show elj;JfpwhH!

mtH jahupj;J mspf;Fk; epfo;r;rpapy; xd;W 1980 Mk; Mz;L Mf];l; khjk; 125>000 NgH khwpay; (Mariel) JiwKfj;jpy; ,Ue;J glFfspy; fpA+ghit tpl;L  mnkupf;fhtpw;F Xb te;jijg; gw;wpajhFk;. mjpy; rk;ge;jg; gl;ltHfs; thd; miyf;F te;J jq;fs; mDgtq;fisg; gfpHe;J nfhz;lhHfs;.

1997 ,y; ngHbndd;l]; jdJ epidTfis xU Ehyhf ntspapl;Ls;shH.  Ehypd; ngaH f];Nwhtpd; kfs; ( Castro's Daughter ) vd;gjhFk;. mjpy; ehw;wk; tPRk; RUl;ilg; gpbj;Jf; nfhz;L jdJ tPl;Lf;Ff; f];Nwh te;J NghtijAk;>  jd; kPJ f];Nwh nrYj;jpa Mjpf;fj;ijAk; tpgupf;fpwhH. xU Kiw f];Nwh tpisahl;Lg; nghk;ik vd;W $wp  gupR  nfhLj;jjhfTk; mijg; gpupj;Jg; ghHj;jhy; jhb> ,uhZt rPUil> njhg;gp> rg;ghj;J mzpe;j xU nghk;ik ,Ue;jjhfTk;  $WfpwhH. 

mypdhtpd; jhahH ngaH ehj;jp nwTy;j;jh. jhahH Xyd;Nlh ngHdhd;l]; NguH ( Dr. Orlando Fernandez Ferrer ) vd;w lhf;liu kzk; nra;jpUe;jhH. 1956 ,y; gpwe;j vypdh jha; je;ij ghl;ld; ghl;b ,tHfsJ mutizg;gpy; nry;tr; nropg;gpy; tsHe;jtH. 1959 Mk; Mz;L Gul;rpf;Fg; gpd;dH ngHdhd;l]; NguuJ kUj;Jtj; njhopiy %btpl muR cj;juT ,l;lJ. ,jdhy; kUj;Jtj; njhopiy mtuhy; njhlu Kbatpy;iy. mJ kl;Lk; my;yhJ jdJ kidtp f];NwhNthL nfhz;bUe;j miuFiwj; njhlHG fhuzkhf tPl;il tpl;Nl Ngha;tpl;lhH. 

nkhd;fhlh ,uhZtg; ghriw kPJ f];Nwh jhf;Fjy; njhLj;jNghJ me;jj; jhf;FjYf;F ehj;jp nwTy;j;jh jdJ eiffis tpw;W mjpy; fpilj;j  gzj;ijf; nfhLj;J cjtpajhf mypdh jdJ epidT Ehypy;  vOjpapUf;fpwhH. mq;Nfhyhtpw;Ff; f];Nwh fpA+gh ,uhZtj;ij mDg;gp itj;jNghJ> mjpy; ngUk;ghYk; fwg;gHfNs ,lk;ngw;wpUe;jhHfs; vd;Wk;>  mJ ,d mbg;gilapy; Ntz;Lnkd;Nw nra;ag;gl;l njupT vd;Wk; mypdh Fw;wk; rhl;LfpwhH.

ngHbndd;lrpd; khkpAk; f];Nwhtpd; cld;gpwg;Gkhd Aahdpl;jh f];NwhTk; (Juanita Castro)  kpahkpapy;jhd; FbapUf;fpwhH.  Mdhy;> khkpahUk; kUkfSk;  murpaypy;  xj;Jg; Nghtjpy;iy. mbf;fb xUtiu xUtH fLikahfr; rhbf; nfhs;fpwhHfs;.

'`thdhtpy; cs;s FLk;g cWg;gpdHfNshL njhlHG itj;Jf; nfhs;s vdf;F tpUg;gk;. Mdhy;> Kbatpy;iy. fhuzk; fpA+gh Ml;rpahsHfisg; nghWj;jstpy; ehd; xU vjpup. mg;gb vd;id epidg;gJ Kl;lhs;jdkhf ,Uf;fyhk;. Mdhy;> mJjhd; cz;ik' vd;fpwhH mypdh.  

f];Nwh fhykhdhy; kfs; my;y mtuJ jk;gpAk; ghJfhg;G mikr;rUkhd  whTy; f];Nwhjhd; gjtpf;F tUthH.

ngHbndd;]; ,isa jiyKiwiar; NrHe;jtH. mtUf;F ,g;NghJ 46 mfit MfpwJ. jdJ je;ijAk; cwtpdUk;  Ml;rp mjpfhuj;ijf; ifapy; vLj;J itj;jpUg;gJgw;wp mtUf;F kfpo;r;rp ,y;iy. 'fpA+tpd; cz;ikahd cUtj;ij ntspf; nfhz;LtUtjpy; vd;dhy; Mdtw;iwr; nra;J nfhz;bUf;fpNwd;' vd;fpwhH ngHbndd;];.

fpA+ghtpy; murpay; khw;wk; tUk; vd;W ngHdpd;l]; ek;GfpwhH. 'fpA+ghtpw;Fj; Njitg;gLtJ kf;fshl;rp. trPfuj; jiytHfs; my;y. fhuzk; rpy trPfuj; jiytHfs; rHthjpfhupfshf khwpapUf;fpwhHfs;. fhe;jp rpwe;j jiytH> NeU ey;y jiytH> Mdhy;> f];Nwh ehl;ilg; ghohf;fptpl;lhH! fpA+ghtpd; tuyhw;Wj; jpupGf;F vdJ jiyKiw gypf; flh Mf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ' vdf; nfhjpf;fpwhH.

fpA+ghit tpl;Lj; jg;gp XLgtHfs; ngUk;ghYk; Nky;jl;L tFg;gpdNu. mz;ikapy; (Mf];l; 1 Mk; ehs;) fk;A+dpl;L fl;rpapd; Kf;fpa cWg;gpdH xUtH fl;rpapypUe;J ntspNaw;wg;gl;Ls;shH.   

mtuJ ngaH NwhngHl;Nlh nwhigdh ( Roberto Robaina ) vd;gjhFk;. ,tH fpA+gh ehl;bd; Kd;dhs; ntspAwT mikr;rH. rdhjpgjpapd;  mDkjpapd;wp rpyNuhL cwTfis cUthf;fpdhH vd;Wk; nghJNkilfspy; NgrpdhH vd;Wk; mtH kPJ Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;lJ. xU fhy fl;lj;jpy; nwhigdh f];Nwhtpd; thuprhf tuf;$Lk; vd;W gutyhfg; Ngrg;gl;lJ.  ma;e;J Mz;L fhyk;  ( 1998 tiu) ntspAwT mikr;rH gjtpapy; ,Ue;J mtH tpyf;fg;gl;lNghJ f];Nwhtpw;Fg; gpbj;jkhd  Felipe Perez Roque  vd;gtH mtuJ ,lj;Jf;F epakdk; nra;ag;gl;lhH.

1998 Mk; Mz;L xf;NjhgH khjk; mnkupf;fhtpy; ,Ue;J ntsptUk;  Forbes vd;w rQ;rpif cyfj;jpd; gzf;fhu murHfs;> murpfs;> rHthjpfhupfs; gl;bay; xd;iwg; gpuRupj;jJ. me;jg; gl;baypy; f];Nwh 100 kpy;ypad; nlhyH nrhj;Jf;F mjpgjp vd;W tHzpj;J mtuJ ngaiu 11 MtJ ,lj;jpy; me;jr; rQ;rpif Nghl;bUe;jJ. mjhtJ vyprngj; murpahuJ ,lj;Jf;F xU ,lk; fPNoAk; ,uhf; ehl;L mjpgH rjhk; FNrd; mtHfSf;F %d;W ,lk; fPNoAk; gply; f];Nwhtpd; ngaH Nghlg;gl;bUe;jJ. ,e;jr; nra;jpia  nwhapl;lH epWtdk; xf;NlhgH khjk; 27 Mk; ehs; cyfk; KOJk; jz;Nlhuh Nghl;Lg; gug;gpaJ.

mjidg; gbj;j f];NwhTf;F mnkupf;f NghHg;]; rQ;rpif kPJ gaq;fuf; Nfhgk; Vw;gl;lJ.  me;jr; nra;jpia Kw;whf kWj;jNjhL me;jr; rQ;rpifiar; fLikahfr; rhbapUe;jhH. mtuJ rhly; mLj;j ehs; nrt;tha;f;fpoik fpA+ghtpy;  xyp xsp gug;gg;gl;lJ.

'vdf;F vjpuhfg; gytpjkhd Fw;wr;rhl;Lf;fis Kd;ida fhyq;fspy; tPrpapUf;fpwhHfs;. Mdhy;> ,e;j khjpup ahUk; Fw;wk; rhl;ltpy;iy. ehd; 100 kpy;ypad; ngWkjpahd nrhj;Jf;fisr; NrHj;J tpl;ljhfg;  ngha;fis vOj mtHfSf;F ,Uf;Fk; cupikjhd; vd;d? Gul;rpf;Fg; gpd;dH ehw;gJ Mz;Lfspy; mur fUT+yj;jpy; ,Ue;J ,e;j ehl;bd; jiytH> mikr;rHfs;> caH mjpfhupfs; xU nlhyiuj; jd;Dk; fsthbtpl;ljhf cyfpy; cs;s mj;jid ePjpgjpfs; xU ,lj;jpy; $bdhYk; nrhy;y khl;lhHfs;.''

1959 Mk; Mz;Lg; Gul;rpf;Fg; gpd;dH jhd; kl;Lky;y> jdJ FLk;g cWg;gpdHfs; my;yJ mur caH mjpfhupfs; ahNuDk; xU nlhyuhtJ fpA+ghtpw;F ntspNa itj;jpUg;gjhf ahUk; $w KbahJ vdf; f];Nwh gjpy; ,Wj;jhH.

' vq;fSf;F ntspehl;by; (fhg;gfk;) fzf;F vJTk; Njitapy;iy. fhuzk; ehq;fs; ,e;j ehl;bNyNa  khdj;Jld; tho;e;J kba Ntz;Lk; vd;gjpy; cWjpahf ,Uf;fpNwhk;. ehq;fs; fpA+gh kf;fspd; nrytpy;  gzj;ijf; Ftpj;J itj;jpUf;fpNwhk; vd;W nrhy;tJ ntWk; fw;gid. fl;Lf;fij. vk;kPJ tPrg;gLk; ,g;gbahd Jhw;wiy> mk;Gfis> <l;bfisj; jhq;fpj; jhq;fp vq;fsJ Njhy; jbj;J tpl;lJ.'

ntspehl;lhH> Fwpg;ghf Nkw;Fyf ehLfs; f];Nwhtpd; xUfl;rp murpay; Ml;rp Kiwia> kWg;ghsHfis rpiwapy; milg;gijf; fz;bj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;.  mtH xU Coy; NgHtop vd;W mtuJ vjpupfs; vtUk; mtH kPJ Fw;wk; rhl;baJ fpilahJ.

xf;NjhgH khj ,Wjpapy; 32 mnkupf;f nra;jpahsHfNshL f];Nwh nkhj;jk; MW kzpj;jpahyak; ciuahbdhH. mjd; Kjy; gFjp  jpq;fl;fpoikAk;> ,uz;lhtJ %d;whtJ gFjpfs; KiwNa mLj;j ehs; nrt;tha;> Gjd;fpoik ehs;fspYk;  thndhypapYk; njhiyf;fhl;rpapYk; xyp xsp gug;gg; gl;lJ.

,e;jr; nra;jpahsH re;jpg;gpy; mnkupf;fr; nra;jpj;jhs; MrpupaH  rq;fj;jpd; jiytH nkhl;ilahff; Nfl;l Kjy; Nfs;tp 'cq;fSf;Fg; gpd;dH fpA+ghtpw;F vd;d elf;Fk;?' 'mjhtJ ehd; ,we;j gpd; vd;d elf;Fk; vd;W Nfl;fpwPHfsh? vdf;Fg; gpd; Jiz rdhjpgjp fhHNyh]; yhNf ( Carlos Lage)> Njrpa rl;l rigapd; jiytH wpf;fhHNlh myhHnfhd; ( Ricardo Alarcon) kw;Wk; ntspAwT mikr;rH nwhNgHl;Nlh Nwhigdh vdJ gzpia ngUk; khWjy; vJTkpd;wpj; njhlHe;J nra;thHfs;. ehd; ,y;yhj fhyj;jpy; vJTk; ngupjhf elf;fhJ. xU Ntis ,g;Nghijtpl vy;yhk;  rpwg;ghf elf;ff; $Lk;' vdr; rpupj;Jf;nfhz;Nl f];Nwh gjpy; ,Wj;jhH.

'cq;fs; ehl;by; Rje;jpukhd NjHjy; itg;gJ ,y;iyNa?'

'kf;fshl;rpgw;wp vq;fSf;F tpj;jpahrkhd fUj;Jg;gbtk; cz;L!'

'cq;fSf;F vjpuhfr; nray;gLk; GNsuplhtpy; thOk; mnkupf;f fpA+ghdpaHfs;gw;wp vd;d epidf;fpwPHfs;?' ,e;jf; Nfs;tpiaf; Nfl;ltH kpahkp nfwhy;l; (Miami Herald) Vl;bd; jiytH Nltpl; Nyhnwd;]; (David Lawrance).

'mtHfs; epidf;fpwhHfs; flTs; kpfTk; nfl;ltH vd;W. fhuzk; vd;id mtH ,e;j cyfpy; ,Ue;J mg;Gwg;gLj;jhky; ,Uf;fpwhH vd;gjhy;!'

f];Nwh mur fUT+yj;ijf; nfhs;is mbj;jpUg;ghH vd;w nghJthd epidg;Gf;Ff; fhuzk; mjpgH khHf;Nfh];> mjpgH RfHl;Nlh> mjpgH rhdp mghr;rh (Sani Abacha) Nghd;w rHthjpfhupfs; KO ehl;ilNa nfhs;is mbj;Jf; NfhbRtuHfshf ,Ue;jpUf;fpwhHfs; vd;gjhf ,Uf;fyhk;. .   

 


 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

f];Nwh xU trPfukhd jiytH

(90)

ehl;bd; nry;tj;ij <T ,uf;fkpd;wp nfhs;is mbg;gjd; %yk; rHthjpfhupfs; rHthjpfhu Ml;rp Kiwf;F Nkyjpfkhd nfl;l ngaH thq;fpf; nfhLj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. jq;fs; vjpHfhyk; vg;gb ,Uf;FNkh vd;w jtpg;gpy; gjtpapy; ,Uf;Fk;NghNj Kd;Ndw;ghlhf jq;fs; vjpHfhyj;Jf;Fj; Njitahd gzj;ij ntspehl;Lf; fhg;gfq;fspy; Nghl;L itj;JtpLfpwhHfs;.  rptpypad; my;yJ ,uhZt rHthjpfhu Ml;rpiaf; ftpo;j;Jtpl;L Ml;rp ehw;fhypiaf; ifg;gw;Wk; ,uhZt rHthjpfhupfs; gpd;dH jhq;fNs  ,uhZt Ml;rpf; ftpo;g;Gf;F cs;shFtJ ,ay;ghf eilngWk; epfo;thFk;.

ehd; Kd;dH Fwpg;gpl;l gpypg;igd;]; khHf;Nfh];> ,e;NjhNerpah RfHl;Nlh> ie[Pupah rhdp mghr;rh  (Sani Abacha) Nghd;w rHthjpfhupfs;  Nfhbf;  fzf;fpy; mur fUT+yj;ijf; nfhs;is mbj;J Vg;gk; tpl;bUf;fpwhHfs;.

ngHbdd;l; khHf;Nfh]; 20 Mz;Lfs;  rdhjpgjpahf  ,Ue;jNghJ ntspehl;Lf; fhg;gfq;fspy; 5 gpy;ypad; (500 Nfhb)  mnkupf;f nlhyHfisg; gJf;fp itj;jpUe;jhH. 1986 ,y; mtUf;F vjpuhf kf;fs; Gul;rp ntbj;jNghJ Ml;rpf; fjpiuapy; ,Ue;J  mg;Gwg;gLj;jg; gl;lhH. `tha; jPtpy; murpay; jiykiwT tho;T Nkw;nfhz;l khHf;Nfh]; %d;W Mz;Lfs; fopj;J ,we;J NghdhH. ,e;j 500 Nfhbapy; 94 Nfhb nlhyHfis gpypg;igd;]; muR Rtp]; ehl;Lf; fhg;gfj;jpy; ,Ue;J kpfTk; ghLgl;L xUthW jpUk;gg; ngw;Wtpl;lJ. jpUkjp khHf;NfhRf;F vjpuhf 1993 Mk; Mz;L njhlug;gl;l Coy; tof;fpy; mtUf;Fg; gpypg;igd;]; cr;r ePjpkd;wk; 12 Mz;L rpiwj; jz;lid tpjpj;jJ.

,e;NjhNerpah rHthjpfhup RfHl;Nlh jdJ 32 Mz;L fhy Ml;rpapy; 500 Nfhb mnkupf;f nlhyHfs; ngWkjpahd tzpf rhk;uhr;rpaj;ij cUthf;fp ,Ue;jhH. ntspehl;by; cs;s  fhg;gfq;fspy;  150 Nfhb nlhyHfis itj;jpUe;jhH. ,jpy; mT];jpwpad; fhg;gfj;jpy; kl;Lk; 94 Nfhb nlhyHfisg; Nghl;bUe;jhH.

RfHl;Nlhtpd;  nfhs;isf;Fj; Jizahf ,Ue;jtH mtuJ ,isa kfd; Tommy vd;gtH.  1998 ,y; khztHfs; RfHl;NlhTf;F vjpuhff;  fpsHe;J vOe;jNghJ RfHl;Nlh gjtpapy; ,Ue;J Juj;jg;gl;lhH.

1993 Mk; Mz;L njhlf;fk; 1998 Mk; Mz;L tiu ie[Pupah ehl;L ,uhZt rHthjpfhupahf ,Ue;j rhdp mghr;rh RkhH 400 Nfhb nlhyHfis me;j ehl;L kj;jpa fhg;gfj;jpd; mDruizNahL Rtp];> ,yz;ld;> ghup]; efuq;fspy; cs;s tq;fpfspy; Nghl;bUe;jhH.  ie[Pupahtpy; cUrpah ehl;L epWtdk; xd;W  xU v/Fj; njhopw;rhiyiaf; fl;Ltjw;F xg;ge;jk;  vOjpapUe;jJ. me;j epWtdj;Jf;F mJ rkHg;gpj;j tpiyg;gl;baypd; mbg;gilapy; nfhLj;j gzk; rhdp mghr;rhtpd; fhg;gff; fzf;Ff;Fg; Ngha;r; NrHe;jJ!. me;j tpiyg;gl;bay;fs; Nghypahdit. mg;gbnahU v/F Miy filrptiu fl;lg;glNt ,y;iy!

1960 Mk; Mz;Lf;Fg; gpd;dH ie[Pupahit Mz;l ,uhZt rHthjpfhupfs; vg;gb mur gzj;ijf; ifahbdhHfNsh mjidNa rhdp ghr;rhTk; nra;jhH. xU NtWghL FWfpa fhyj;jpy; ngUe;njhifahd gzj;ij mtH RUl;bg; Nghl;lhH! Coypy; ie[Pupah cyfj;jpy; gj;jhtJ ,lj;jpy; ,Uf;fpwJ. 

1998 Mk; Mz;L rhdp ghr;rh khuilg;ghy; ,we;jNghJ Gjpa Ml;rp mtuJ fzf;F tof;Ffisf; fpsw Muk;gpj;jJ. mg;NghJjhd; ,e;j Nkhrb mk;gyj;Jf;F te;jJ. ,g;NghJ gj;J Nfhb &ghia itj;Jf; nfhz;L kpFjp 390 Nfhb gzj;ij ie[Pupahtpw;F jpUg;gpf;  nfhLf;f rhdp ghr;rh FLk;gKk; ie[Pupa muRk; xU cld;ghl;Lf;F te;Js;sd! ,e;jg; gj;Jf; Nfhb rhdjpgjpahf tUKd; rk;ghjpj;j gzk; vd;gJ rhdp mghr;rh FLk;gj;jpd; thjk;. xU rhjhuz ,uhZt mjpfhup vg;gb 10 Nfhb nlhyiu rk;ghjpf;f  KbAk;? mJTk; ntspehl;L ehzakhd nlhyHfis vg;gbr; rk;ghjpf;f KbAk;? Vw;fdNt ePjpkd;wg;  gbfs; Vwp  ,wq;fpa ie[Pupah muR fisj;Jg; Ngha;> NtW topapd;wp ,e;j cld;ghl;Lf;F te;Js;sJ.

ehd; ie[Pupahtpy; flikahw;wpa fhyj;jpy; (1980-87) rhdp mghr;rh gGr;rp (Bauchi) khepy MSeuhf epakdk; nra;ag;gl;bUe;jhH. Kd;ida Ml;rpapy; epytpa Coy;fis xopj;J> Coyw;w Ml;rpia epWTtNj jdJ Fwpf;Nfhs; vd;W mtH gjtpf;F te;jNghJ $wpa thHj;ijfs; ,g;NghJk; vd; epidtpy; ,Uf;fpwJ!

gd;dpuz;L Nfhb kf;fs; njhif nfhz;l ie[Pupah xU Vio ehL. xUtuJ  xU ehisa ruhrup tUkhdk; xU nlhyH kl;LNk. mjd; nghUshjhuk; Kw;W KOjhf vz;nza; Vw;Wkjpapy; jq;fp ,Uf;fpwJ. Mdhy;> Coy; fhuzkhf vz;nza; Vw;Wkjpahy; fpilf;fpw  tUtha;  rhjhuz kf;fSf;Fg; Ngha;r; RtWtjpy;iy. nghJthf Mgpupf;f Mrpa ehLfspy; mq;fpq;F vd;dhjgb vq;Fk; epiwe;jpUf;Fk;   Coy; xU  ngupa NehahfTk; rhgf; NflhfTk;  ,Uf;fpwJ!

,e;j rHthjpfs; Nghyy;yhJ gply; f];Nwh NeHikahdtH. rupNah gpioNah nghJTlikj; Nfhl;ghl;bw;F tpRthrkhf ,Uf;fpwhH! mtuJ murpay; vjpupfs; nrhy;tJNghy; mtH ntspehl;Lf; fhg;gfq;fspy; gzk; itj;jpUg;gJ cz;ikahdhy; mnkupf;f csT epWtdkhd rpma;V mjid vg;NghNjh Nkhg;gk; gpbj;J cyfk; mwpa mk;gyg;gLj;jp ,Uf;Fk;!

nghJg; gzj;ijj; jpULgtHfs; ahuhf ,Ue;jhYk; mtHfs; JNuhfpfNs. mjdhy;jhd; Nfhtpy; gzj;ijf; ifahly; nra;gtHfs; rptj; JNuhfpfs;. mtHfs; eufj;Jf;Fg; NghthHfs; vd;W nrhy;YfpwhHfs;! 

f];Nwhtpd; fk;A+dpr xU fl;rp Ml;rpapd; fPo; rpy mbg;gil kdpj Rje;jpuq;fs; gwpf;fg;gl;lhYk; r%f> fyhrhu nghUshju jsq;fspy; fpA+gh nkr;rj;jf;f Kd;Ndw;wk; fz;Ls;sJ.

fpA+ghtpy; epfo;e;j Gul;rp epyj;ijg; nghJTlikahf;fp kf;fsJ ruhrup tho;f;ifj; juj;ij caHj;jpAs;sJ. ehl;bd; nry;tk; my;yJ Vo;ik fpl;lj;jl;l kf;fspilNa  rup rkkhfg; gpupf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.  tWikapYk; xU nrg;gk; vd;ghHfNs me;j epyik mq;F fhzg;gLfpwJ.

fpA+gh fy;tpapy; EhW tpOf;fhL ntw;wp  fz;Ls;sJ.  vy;NyhUf;Fk; kUj;Jtk; ,ytrkhff; fpilf;fpwJ.

EhW NgH xU NgUe;Jf;Ff; fhj;jpUe;jhYk; NgUe;J te;jJk; xOq;fhf tupir jtwhJ> Mis Ms; js;shJ> Kjy; te;jtH Kjy; vd;w tupirpg;gb Vwpf; nfhs;fpwhHfs;. ,g;gbahd xOf;fj;ij Vida ,yj;jPd; mnkupf;f ehLfspy; fhz KbahJ. Vd;  mnkupf;fhtpd; ngupa efuq;fshd epA+ NahHf;> Nth\pq;ld;> XHyd;Njh Mfpatw;wpy; $lg; ghHf;f KbahJ!

f];Nwh xU Jzpr;ryhd> nfhs;ifg; gpbg;ghd mNj rkak; kf;fshy; tpUk;gg;gLk; xU trPfukhd jiytH vd;gij ahUk; vspjpy; kWf;f KbahJ.

f];Nwh epiwa thrpf;Fk; gof;fk; cilatH. fhHy; khHf;]; vOjpa The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte  mtH tpUk;gpg; gbj;j Gj;jfq;fspy; xd;W. ,g;NghJ $l Neuk; fpilf;Fk; NghJ mjidg; Gul;bg; ghHf;fpwhH. rpiwapy; ,Ue;j nghOJ tpf;lH fpA+Nfh (Victor Hugo) vOjpa Ehy;fisg; gbj;jhH.

tpf;lH fpA+Nfh 19 Mk; Ehw;whz;bd; jiyrpwe;j gpuQ;Rnkhop vOj;jhsH. Gfo;ngw;w ehlf MrpupaH Nrf;];gpaH> jhe;Nj> N`hkH Nghd;wtHfNshL xg;gpl;Lg; Ngrf; $batH. mNdf ehty;fs;> ftpijfs;> fijfs; vOjpAs;shH. r%f rPHjpUj;jk;> nghUshjhu Nkk;ghL ,uz;Le;jhd; mtuJ gilg;GfsJ fUthf ,Uf;Fk;. mtUf;F midj;Jyf mstpy; Gfo;Njbj; je;jJ  Les Miserables vd;w ehtyhFk;. xU Jg;gwpAk; fijNghyf;  fhzg;gLk; ,e;j ehty; ghup\; efu tho;f;ifia gpujpgypf;fpwJ. cz;ikahd ePjpiaj; Njb miyAk; kdpjidr; Rw;wpf; fij efUfpwJ.

,e;j ehty; Rj;jhde;j ghujpahuhy; jkpopy; 'Vio gLk;ghL' vd nkhopngaHf;fg;gl;lJ. mJ gpd;dH jpiug;glkhfTk; ntspte;jJ.  gok;ngUk; ebfH  ehifah Kf;fpa ghj;jpuj;jpy; ebj;jpUe;jhH.  tpf;lH fpA+Nfhtpd; ,d;ndhU ehty; Jhf;Fj; jz;lidngw;w ifjpapd; filrp ehs; (The Last Day of a Condemned Man) MFk;. Jhf;Fj; jz;lidf;F vjpuhd gilg;G ,J.

jhf;fNu vOjpa Vanity Fair, Turgenev's vOjpa A Nest of the Gentry, gpNurpy; ehl;L fk;A+dp];l; jiytHfspy; xUtuhd Carlos Prestes  vOjpa jd;tuyhW> Clausewitz’s vOjpa On War> nydpd; vOjpa muRk; Gul;rpAk; ((State and Revolution) gpuhq;f;ypd; Wh];nty;l; (Franklin Roosevelt) kw;Wk; my;Ngl; ma;apd;ijd; (Albert Einstein) vOjpa Ehy;fis f];Nwh gbj;jhH. ,e;j Ehy;fSk; mjd; MrpupaHfSk; mtuJ rpe;jidiar; nrg;gdpl cjtpd.   Nrf;];gpaupd; A+ypa]; rPrH (Julius Caesar).  ehlfj;ijg; gbj;Jtpl;L  rPrH Gul;rpthjp> GWhl;l]; ((Brutus)) vjpHg;Gul;rpthjp vd;w KbTf;Ff; f];Nwh te;jhH!

rpiwapy; ,Ue;jNghJ f];Nwh jdJ kfs; Natalia Revuelta vOjpa fbjk; f];Nwhtpd; gd;Kf MSikiag; glk;gpbj;Jf; fhl;LfpwJ.

"kdpjdJ  rpe;jid mtd; thOk; fhyj;jhy; epHzapf;fg;gLfpwJ. xU murpay; mwpQdpd; Njhw;wk; Kw;whf me;jf; fhyj;ijg; nghWj;jJjhd; ,Uf;Fk;.  nydpd; fjwPd; (Catherine the Great) fhyj;jpy; tho;e;jpUe;jhy; Mff; $baJ  mtH  cUrpa G+\th tHf;fj;ij Mjupf;Fk; xUtuhf ,Ue;jpUg;ghH! Nah]; khHb gpupj;jhdpahtpd; fPo; fpA+gh ,Ue;j fhyj;jpy; tho;e;jpUe;jhy; mtH jdJ je;ijiag; Nghy;  ,Rg;ghdpa nfhbapd;  fPo; epd;W nfhz;L  ,Rg;ghdpahit Mjupj;jpUg;ghH!

neg;Nghypad;> lhd;ld; (Danton) my;yJ Robespierre Nghd;wtHfs;  Charlemagne fhyj;jpy; tho;e;jpUe;jhy; mtHfs; rhjhuz fkf;fhuHfshf my;yJ Kftupapy;yhj Fbkf;fshf tho;e;J kiwe;jpUg;ghHfs;. A+ypa]; rPrH cNuhk Fbaurpd; njhlf;f fhyj;jpy;> cNuhk rKjhaj;jpd; mj;jpthuj;ij mirj;j tHf;fg; Nghuhl;lk; $Hikailtjw;F Kd;G> gpNygpad; fl;rp Njhd;wp rPriu Ml;rpf; fl;bypy; mkHj;j Ntz;b fl;lhak; kw;Wk; rhj;jpak; ,it ,y;yhtpl;lhy;   Whgpf;fid (Rubicon) mtH fle;jpUf;f KbahJ."