fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

nfhyk;g]; tpy;ydh? fjhehafdh?   

(71)

 

NfHf;gw;wpf; Nry; (Kirkpatrick Sale) vd;w vOj;jhsH jhd; vOjpa The Conquest of Paradise and: Columbus and the Columbian Legacy (NY: Plume Books, pp.160-161) vd;w Ehypy; ,e;j ,dg; gLnfhiygw;wp gpd;tUkhW vOJfpwhH>

 

"fpwpj;jtHfs; jq;fsplk; ,Ue;j Fjpiu> ths;> <l;b ,tw;iwf; nfhz;L ,e;jpaHfis ,k;irg;gLj;jpg; gLnfhiy nra;jhHfs;. efuq;fisj; jhf;fpf; nfhiyf;fsj;jpy; ML khLfis ntl;bj; Jz;L NghLtJNghyf; Foe;ijfs;> fpotHfs;> fw;gpzpg; ngz;fs;> FkHg; ngz;fs; vy;NyhiuAk; ntl;b> cliyf; fpopj;Jj; Jz;L Jz;lhf;fpdhHfs;. xUtd; thshy; xU kdpjid xNu tPr;rpy; vt;tsT tpiuthf ,uz;L Jz;lhf ntl;l KbAk; vd;gJgw;wpg; ge;jak; itj;jhHfs;.

 

jha;khHfspd; Kiyapy; ghy; Fbj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;j gr;rpsq; Foe;ijfspd; fhy;fisg; gw;wpj; jiyfPohfg; njhq;fg; gpbj;Jg; ghiwapy; Nkhjpf; nfhd;whHfs;. Mz;fisg; gpbj;Jf; fhy; jiuapy; rw;Nw gLkhW fOj;jpy; fapw;iw khl;b xU jlitf;F gjpd;%d;W Nguhf ("vq;fs; jpUkPl;gH NaRtpdJk; mtuJ 12 rPlHfspd; epidthf") Jhf;fpy; Nghl;lhHfs;. mjd;gpd;  mtHfsJ fhy;fSf;F mbapy; tpwFf; fl;ilfis mLf;fp mjw;F neUg;G %l;b capNuhL nfhSj;;;;;;jpdhHfs;."

 

,t;tstpw;Fk; nfhyk;g]; ijNdh];  kf;fs;  cyfpYs;s  kf;fspy; md;ghdtHfs;> kpfTk; rhJthdtHfs;> ngUe;jd;ik tha;e;jtHfs; vd;W %r;Rf;F Ke;EhW juk; rpj;;;jupj;Js;shH!  

 

nfhyk;g]; mopj;j gz;ghl;L vr;rq;fsJ moF> nja;tPfk;  xUNghJk; czug;gl khl;lhJ. cyfk; ,g;NghJk; nfhyk;g]; Muk;gpj;J itj;j moptpdhy; FUjp nfhl;bf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. nkf;rpf;Nfh> fTj;jkhyh Nghd;w ehLfspy; thOk; G+HtPf kf;fs; jq;fs; cupikf;fhf MAjk; Ve;jpg; Nghuhb tUfpwhHfs;.

 

nfhyk;g]; kl;Le;jhd; G+HtPf kf;fisf; nfhz;nlhopg;gjpy; mf;fiwahf ,Ue;jhH vd;gjy;y. MSeH epf;fy]; b xyd;NlhTk; jd; gq;fpw;F ,dnthopg;gpy; <Lgl;lhH. xU Kiw ,e;jpa murpahd mdhNfhdh (Anacaona)   vd;w tpjitiaj; jPtpd; Gjpa MSeuhfg; gjtpNaw;w jd;id tuNtw;FKfkhf xU tpUe;Jgrhuj;Jf;F Vw;ghL nra;Ak;gb Nfl;lhH. me;jj; jPtpy; ,Ue;j 80Fk; mjpfkhd jiyahupfs; xU ngupa tPl;by;  tpUe;Jz;zf; $baNghJ ,Rg;ghdpa giltPuH me;j tPl;il Rw;wp tisj;J mjw;Fj;  jP %l;bdhHfs;. jPapy; ,Ue;J jg;gp XbatHfis Juj;jpg; gpbj;J rpj;jputij nra;J gpd;dH  nfhiy nra;jhHfs;. mdhNfhdh Jhf;fpy; ,lg;gl;lhH.

me;jj; jPtpy; jiyahup vd;W nrhy;ypf; nfhs;tjw;F mg;NghJ ahUk; ,y;yhj fhuzj;jhy; vjpHfhyj;jpy; ,Rg;ghdpaUf;F vjpuhd vjpHg;G KisapNyNa fps;sp vwpag;gl;lJ.

  

rhtpy; ,Ue;J jg;gpa  ,e;jpaHfs;  kdk; cile;J NghdhHfs;. mtHfshy; fkr; nra;ifapy; kdijr; nrYj;j Kbatpy;iy. Mapuf;fzf;fhd ,e;jpaHfs; tpuf;jpahYk;> kdr; NrhHtpdhYk; rhitj; jOt Muk;gpj;jhHfs;. ,Rg;ghdpaHfsJ gpbapy; ,Ue;J jg;Gtjw;Ff; fkj;jpw;F neUg;G itj;Jtpl;L CHfisf; fhyp  nra;jhHfs;. ,e;j 'vjpHg;G' eltbf;if gQ;rj;ijAk; gl;bdpiaAk; Njhw;Wtpj;J mtHfsJ epiyikia NkYk; Nkhrkhf;fpaJ. Ntjidapd; tpopk;gpw;Fj; js;sg;gl;l  gyH njhif njhifahfj; jw;nfhiy nra;J nfhz;lhHfs;.

 

1518 Mk; Mz;by; mk;ikNeha; (small pox ) me;jj; jPtpy; Kjd; Kiwahf mwpKfkhfpaJ. ,Rg;ghdpaHfs;  me;jj; jPitf; ifg;gLj;jpa Kjy;  25 Mz;L fhyj;jpy; ijNdh]; kf;fspd; njhif 50>000 Mff; Fiwe;J NghdJ. mLj;j 75 Mz;Lfspy; mtHfs; Kw;whf mopj;njhopf;fg; gl;lhHfs;. jw;fhy tuyhw;W MrpupaHfs; ,Rg;ghdpaHfsJ nraiy ,dg;gL nfhiy vd tifg;gLj;jp cs;shHfs;.

 

,e;jpaj; jiyahupfspy; xUtuhd fj;JNt (Hatuey) fpA+ghtpw;Fj; jg;gpNahb mq;fpUe;J nfhz;L ,Rg;ghdpaHfSf;F vjpuhd MAjg; Nghuhl;lj;jpy; <Lgl;lhH. Mdhy;  tPuk;nrwpe;j mNjrkak; rk gykw;w Nghuhl;lk; Njhy;tpapy; Kbe;jJ. fj;JNt  capNuhL gpbf;fg;gl;Lr; rpj;jputij nra;J rhfbf;fg;gl;lhH.  

 

nfhyk;grpd; flw;gazj;jpd; Nehf;fk;  mnkupf;fhitf;  fz;Lgpbg;gjy;y. Kd;dH $wpathW mtUf;F mnkupf;fh vd;w xU ngupa fz;lk; ,Ue;jJ filrptiu njupatpy;iy. mtuJ Kjy; Nehf;fk; fPioj; Njrj;NjhL thzpfk; nra;tjw;F Nkw;Fj; jpirapy; flw; ghij jpwg;gNj. ,uz;lhtJ Nehf;fk; ma;Nuhg;gpaH my;yhNjhiuf; fpwpj;Jt kjj;jpw;F khw;wk; nra;tJ. ,d;W tl-njd; mnkupf;fhtpy; fpwpj;Jt kjNk ngUk;ghd;ikNahuJ kjkhf tpsq;FfpwJ.

Mgpupf;fhtpy; ,Ue;J mbikf; fUg;gHfis Vw;wpte;j Kjy; fg;gYf;Fg; ngaH ",NaR" (Jesus).  

 

mnkupf;fhtpd; G+HtPf Fbfs; jq;fis ,e;jpaHfs; vd;W miof;ftpy;iy. mJ nfhyk;g]; mtHfSf;F itj;j ngaH.

 

,d;iwa mnkupf;f G+HtPf Fbkf;fs; nfhyk;gir xU njhlH nfhiyahspahf> jdpj;jd;dhl;rpahsuhf (Dictator) fpwpkpdy; Fw;wthspahf> ,dg;gLnfhiy ntwpadhf (genocidal maniac) jpUldhf> ngha;adhfg; ghHf;fpwhHfs;.

 

nfhyk;grpd; epidTehs; nfhz;lhl;lk; khngUk; nfhiy> mbikj;jdk;> Ruz;ly;> tuyhw;Wg; Gul;L ,tw;wpw;F vLf;Fk; tpoh vdf;Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gLfpwJ.

 

nts;is ,dj;jtHfs; nfhyk;gir Gjpa cyFf;F Nkw;Fehl;L ehfupfj;ij nfhz;L te;jtH vd;W Nghw;WfpwhHfs;. nfhyk;g]; fhyb vLj;J itf;F kl;Lk; nkf;rpf;Nfhtpd; m];njf;]; (Aztecs of Mexico) NgU ehl;bd; ,q;fh]; (Incas of Peru) fTj;jkhyh-nfhe;Jwh]; ehl;L khad; (Mayans)  ,dj;jtHfsplk; nja;tq;fSf;F eugyp nfhLf;Fk; nfhba gof;fk; ,Ue;jJ. mjw;F Kw;Wg;Gs;sp itj;jtHfs; ma;Nuhg;gpaHfs; vd;W ,e;jj; jug;gpy; nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ.

 

nfhyk;g]; fhyj;J ma;Nuhg;gpauplk; %lf;nfhs;iffs;> FUl;Lg; gof;f tof;fq;fs; ,Ue;jhYk;> mtw;wpy; rpy nfhyk;gNrhL mnkupf;fh te;jpUe;jhYk; Nkw;F ehl;ltupd; mwpTj;jhfk;> Kd;Ndw Ntz;Lk; vd;w mth> kdpjTupik>  rl;lj;jpd; Ml;rp ,tw;iwg;gw;wpa fUJNfhs;fs;> vy;yhtw;wpw;Fk; Nkyhf ePjpKiwik>  gz;gpay; gw;wpa A+bNah-fpwpj;Jt kjj;jpd; NghjidAk; te;J NrHe;jd.  

 

xNu kdpjH Ntypapd; ve;jg; Gwj;jpy; ahH epw;fpwhHfs; vd;gijg; nghWj;J Nghw;wTk; Jhw;wTk; nra;ag;gLfpwhH. nfhyk;g]; ,jw;F ey;y vLj;Jf;fhl;L.

 

15 Mk; Ehw;whz;by; tho;e;j nfhyk;g];gw;wpa kjpg;gPL ,d;W fUj;J khWghl;Lf;Fupajhf ,Ue;jhYk; nkhj;jj;jpy; mtH ,d;iwa mnkupf;fhtpd; Njhw;Wtpg;ghsuhf nts;is ,dj;jtuhy; nfhz;lhlg;gLfpwhH> kjpj;Jg; Nghw;wg;gLfpwhH vd;gij ehk; xg;Gf;nfhz;Nl MfNtz;Lk;.

 

,d;iwa cyfpy; mwpTjhd; ngupa rf;jpahf kjpf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,d;W Nkw;Fyf ehLfs;> Fwpg;ghf mnkupf;fh cyif Ml;bg; gilg;gjw;F mJ mwptpaiy trg;gLj;jpf; nfhz;lJjhd; Kf;fpa fhuzk;.

epyEhy;> thdtpay;. ,aw;gpay; (Physics) Ntjpapay; (Chemistry) fzpjk; Nghd;w mwptpay; Jiwfspy; md;iwa ma;Nuhg;gh mile;j Kd;Ndw;we;jhd; nfhyk;grpd; fly; gazj;Jf;F topNfhypaJ.  mwptpay; fz;L gpbj;j Jg;ghf;fp> gPuq;fp Nghd;w etPd NghHf; fUtpfs; %ye;jhd; nfhyk;g]; fpA+gh> nfapl;b Nghd;w ,lq;fspy; tho;e;j G+HtPf kf;fis mbikg;gLj;jTk; gpd;dH ,dg;gLnfhiy nra;aTk; Kbe;jJ.

 

,uz;L Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH (2000) mnkupf;fh njhlHe;j 70  ehs;fs; thdj;jpy; ,Ue;J A+Nfhrpyhtpah kPJ Fz;L nghope;J mjid mbgzpa itj;jJ. ,t;tstpw;Fk; xU mnkupf;f my;yJ Nel;Nlh ,uhZtr; rpg;gha; jd;Dk; A+Nfhrpyhtpah kz;zpy; fhy; itf;ftpy;iy.

 

,yq;if 25 iky; Jhuj;jpy; ,Ue;Jk; jkpoHfs; mjid Kw;whfg; gpbf;ftpy;iy. Mdhy; nfhyk;g]; 5000 iky; Jhuj;ijf; fle;J mnkupf;fhitf; fz;L gpbj;jhH.

mwptpaYf;F ,d;W$l jkpoHfs; Kd;Dupik nfhLg;gjpy;iy. nfhyk;g]; fz;L gpbj;j mnkupf;fhtpw;F 500 Mz;Lfs; fopj;J ehLgpbahsHfshf my;yhky; mfjpfshf te;j jkpoHfs; GFe;j ,lj;jpYk; jq;fs; Neuj;ijAk; epidg;igAk; rpe;jidiaAk; tUthiaAk; NjHj; jpUtpohf;fspy;jhd; nrytpLfpwhHfs;. mq;Nf Rw;jp te;j mNj etf;fpufq;fisj;jhd; ,q;F te;Jk; Rw;WfpwhHfs;!

 

,q;Fs;s xU Nfhapypy; xU miuFiwj; Njiuf; fz;lnghOJ vdf;Fr; rpupg;G te;jJ. NjUf;Fr; rpy;Yf;Fg; gjpy; kpr;rpypd; iuaH Nghl;bUe;jhHfs;!

 

,q;Fs;s nra;jpj;jhs;fs; Nrhjplj;Jf;Ff; nfhLf;Fk; Kd;Dupikia mwptpaYf;Ff; nfhLg;gjpy;iy. thndhypfs;> rkaj;Jf;Ff; nfhLf;Fk; Kd;Dupikia mwptpaYf;Ff; nfhLg;gjpy;iy.  njhiyf;fhl;rpfs; %d;whe;juj; jpiug;glq;fSf;Fk;> jpiug;gl ebfH ebiffSf;Fk; nfhLf;Fk; Kf;fpaj;ij mwptpaYf;Ff; nfhLg;gjpy;iy.

 

,e;j Ntfj;jpy; jkpod; 'Kd;Ndwpf;'; nfhz;bUe;jhy; mLj;j  Ehw;whz;bYk; jkpoDf;F xU Nehgy; gupR jd;Dk;  fpilf;fhJ!

 

mwptpaypd; mtrpaj;ij mwpTWj;jNt nfhyk;grpd; flw;gazq;fs; gw;wpAk; mwptpaYf;Ff; fpNuf;f jj;JthrpupaHfspd; gq;fspg;Gg; gw;wpAk; tpupthf vOj Ntz;b Neupl;lJ. cq;fis `thdhtpy; mjpf ehl;fs; fhj;jpUf;f itj;J tpl;Nld;. ,dp tpl;l ,lj;jpy; ,Ue;J gazj;ijj; njhlUNthk;!

 

 

 


 

 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

 

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

 

ghHf;Fk; ,lnkyhk; Guhjdr; rpd;dq;fs;  

 

(72)

 

fpA+ghitf; ifg;gw;wp mjpy; ,Rg;ghdpaHfisf; FbNaw;w  ,Rg;ghdpah KbT nra;jNghJ mjd; mur MSeuhf nlhd; bNfh nty];Ft]; (Spanish conquistador Diego Velázquez) mDg;gp itf;fg;gl;lhH. 1512 - 1519 Mz;LfSf;F ,ilapy; MSeH nty];Ft]; Kjy; VO efuf; FbapUg;Gf;fisf; fpA+ghtpd; ntt;NtW jpirfspy; epWtpdhH. ,d;Wk; mtw;wpd; ngUk;gFjp  goikapd; trPfuk; Fd;whJ ngUikNahL  tpsq;Ffpd;wd. mjpy; xd;Wjhd; rhd; fpwp];Njhgy; b yh `thdh (San Cristobal de La Habana) MFk;.

 

Kd;dH xUKiw Fwpg;gpl;lJNghy gioa `thdh If;fpa ehLfs; fy;tp> mwptpay;> gz;ghl;L mikg;gpd; Mjutpy; ngUk; gzk; nrytopf;fg;gl;L kWrPH nra;ag;gl;lJ. mjdhy; gioa `thdh fhyNjtd; fPwpa fPwy;fshy; ,oe;j tdg;igAk; tz;zj;ijAk; kPz;Lk; ngw;Wg; nghypNthLk; vopNyhLk; Jyq;FfpwJ!  

 

gpshrh b mHkh]; (Plaza de Armas) gioa `thdhtpd; ikag; gFjpapy; ,Uf;fpwJ. `thdhitr; Rw;wpg; ghHf;f tpUk;Gk; Rw;Wyhtpfs; ,e;jr; rJf;fj;jpy; ,Ue;Nj Muk;gpf;fpwhHfs;. Kd;dH nrhy;ypathW gfypy; ,e;jr; rJf;fk; ,Uf;Fk; ,lj;ijr; Rw;wpg; gioa Gj;jf tpahghupfs; fil tpupj;J itf;fpwhHfs;. xU js;Stz;bypy; Fiwe;jJ EhW my;yJ Ehw;W  ma;k;gJ Gj;jfq;fis mLf;fp itj;Jg; NghNthH tUNthUf;F tpw;fpwhHfs;. RkhH 100-150 NgH ,e;j tpahghuj;jpy; <L gl;Ls;shHfs;. ,lg;gw;whf;Fiw fhuzkhf gf;fj;jpy; cs;s tPjpfspYk; ,tHfs; Fb GFe;Js;shHfs;. ,tHfisg; NghyNt XtpaHfSk; jhq;fs; tiue;j glq;fisf; ifapy; itj;Jf; nfhz;L mtw;iw tpiyg;gLj;j epd;W nfhz;bUe;jhHfs;.

 

gioa `thdhitr; Rw;wp tuyhw;Wr; rpwg;Gg;ngw;w MNdf mUq;fhl;rpafq;fs; ,Uf;fpd;wd. ve;jg; gf;fk; ghHj;jhYk; Guhjd fhyj;Jf; fl;llq;fs;> Njthyaq;fs;> khspiffs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.

 

,jpy; jtwhky; ghHf;f Ntz;baJ ,Rg;ghdpahtpd; MSeHfs; khspifapy; (Palace of the Spanish Governors)  ntt;NtW gFjpfspy; ,Uf;Fk; `thdh efu mUq;fhl;rpafk; (Museum of the City of Havana)  ,aw;if mwptpay; mUq;fhl;rpafk; (Museum of Natural Sciences) njhy;nghUs;g; gzpkid ( Archaeological Bureau)  jhdpaq;fp Nkhl;lhH fhl;rpafk; (Automobile Museum)  kw;Wk; mz;ikapy; jpwe;J itj;j Ez;fiy mUq;fhl;rpafk; (Museum of Fine Arts) MFk;.

 

,e;j mUq;fhl;rpafk; ehw;rJu tbtpy; fl;lg;gl;l %d;W khbf; fl;llk;.  eL Kw;wj;jpy; ngupa ghk;]; kuq;fs; (palms) ky;ypif> ee;jpahtl;il> myup> Nuhrh kuq;fs; nropj;J tsHe;J epw;fpd;wd. mit me;j kj;jpahd nta;apypYk; fz;Zf;Ff; FspHr;rpahf ,Ue;jd.  

 

%d;W khbfspYk; ,Ue;j Kg;gJ ehw;gJ  miwfisAk;  tyJ  Gwkhfg; Gwg;gl;L ,lJgf;fk; te;J xt;nthU khbahf Vwp ,wq;fpNdhk;.

 

Kd;dhs; MSeHfs; gad;gLj;jpa cilths;> <l;b> ftrk;> njhg;gp> rg;ghj;J> rl;ilfs; ,q;F fhl;rpf;F itf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. rhg;ghl;L miw> Nkir> Nfhg;ig> rikaYf;Fg; gad;gLj;jpa ghid rl;bfs;> mz;lhf;fs; kw;Wk; gz;lk; ghj;jpuq;fs; Nghd;wtw;iw ,q;F  ghHf;ff; $bajhf ,Ue;jJ. md;iwa fhy fl;lj;jpy; Nghupy; gad;gLj;jpa gPuq;fpfs;> Fz;Lfs; fhl;rpf;F itf;fg;gl;bUe;jd.

 

,e;jf; fz;fhl;rpg; nghUs;fis vy;yhk; ftdkhfg; gj;jpug;gLj;jp ,d;iwa re;jjpapdUk; mtw;iwg; ghHj;Jg; gad;ngwf; $bajhf itj;jpUg;gJ Nghw;wg;gl Ntz;ba nrayhFk;. ,g;gbahd Jiwfspy; Nkw;F ehl;ltuplk; ,Ue;J  ehk; gbf;f Ntz;ba ghlq;fs; epiwa ,Uf;fpd;wd.

 

cz;ikapy; KOf; `thdh efuNk xU mUq;fhl;rpakhf fhl;rpaspf;fpwJ vd;W nrhd;dhy; mJ nfhQ;rKk; kpifay;y.

 

,e;jr; rJf;fj;jpy; xU thDaHe;j nfha;gh kuk; xd;W epw;fpwJ. ,e;j kuk; fpA+gh ehl;L kz;Zf;Fr; nrhe;jkhdJ. 1519 Mk; Mz;L ,Rg;ghdpa  ehLgpbg;ghsuhd bNfh nty];Ft]; (Spanish conquistador Diego Velázquez)  mtHfspd; fl;lisg;gb gd;tpypNah b eHth]; ( Panfilio de Narváez) Njhw;Wtpj;j `thdh efuj;jpd; epidTr; rpd;dk; ,JthFk;. xt;nthU Mz;Lk; nehtk;gH 16 Mk; ehs; md;W `thdhtpy; elhj;jg;gl;l Kjy; jpUg;gyp G+iria epidT $Ukhf ,e;jj; Njthyaj;jpy; njhOif elf;fpwJ.

 

ghHf;f Ntz;ba ,d;ndhU ,lk; irdh efuk; (China Town) MFk;. mJ vd;dNth njupahJ cyfpd;  ve;j ehl;Lf;Fg; NghdhYk; my;yJ ve;j efuj;Jf;Fg; NghdhYk; rPdf; FbapUg;Gf;fisg; ghHf;fhky;  tuKbahJ. fil fz;zp> cztfq;fs;> fl;llq;fs; vy;yhk; rPd ghzpapy; ,Ug;gjhy; mry; rPdh ehl;by; epw;gJNghd;w xU gpuik Vw;gLfpwJ.  Nghjhf;Fiwf;F mq;fhbfspd;  ngaHfis vy;yhk; ngupjhfj; jbj;j rPd Xtpa vOj;jpNy vOjp itj;J tpLfpwhHfs;.

 

,e;jg; ngaHg; gyiffspy; Mq;fpy nkhopngaHg;igf; fhz;gJ mupjhf ,Uf;Fk;. mg;gbg; Nghl Neupl;lhYk; mJ rPd vOj;ijtpl mstpy; rpwpjhfNt ,Uf;Fk;.

 

jkpoHfs; ,jw;F NeHkhW> Mq;fpyj;jpy; kl;Lk; ngupjhf vOjp itg;ghHfs;. tpjp tpyf;fhfNt  rpd;djhfj; jkpopYk; vOJthHfs;. ngaH jdpj; jkpopy; ,Ug;gJ mijtpl mG+Htkhf ,Uf;Fk;.

 

nrd;idapy; mq;fhbfspd; ngaHg;gyiffisj; jkpopy; vOjp itf;FkhW Kd;ida jpKf mikr;rHfspy; xUtuhd jkpo;f;Fbkfd; glhjghL gl;lhH. fhyf; nfL nfhLj;Jg; ghHj;jhH. jkpopy; ngaHg;gyif itf;fhjtHfs; jz;bf;fg; gLthHfs; vd;Wk; kpul;bg; ghHj;jhH. mq;fhbr; nrhe;jf;fhuHfs; miraNt ,y;iy. rpyH  ghtk; mikr;rH vd;W gupjhgg;gl;L Mq;fpyg; ngaHfis mg;gbNa jkpopy; xypngaHj;J vOjp itj;jhHfs;!

 

jkpo;ehl;bd; njUf;fspy; jkpo;thotpy;iy vd;why; jkpo;nkhop NtW vq;Fjhd; thog;NghfpwNjh njupatpy;iy.

 

irdh efuj;jpy; ,Ue;J xU nrhw;g njhiytpy; xU gioa ghJfhg;Gr; Rtupd; ,bghLfs; njd;gLfpd;wd. ,e;jr; RtH `thdhtpd; ghJfhg;Gf;fhf fl;lg;gl;lJ. 1674 ,y; njhlq;fpa fl;Lkhd Ntiy 1740 ,y;jhd; KbTw;wJ. gpd;dH 1863 Mk; Mz;L `thdh efiu tpupTgLj;jNtz;b ,Ue;jjhy; ,e;jr; RtH ,bf;fg;gl;lJ.

 

mLj;jjhf gpshrh b yh fjPl;wy; (Plaza de la Catedral) rJf;fj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk; fjPl;wy; b yh `ghdh (Catedral de la Habana) Njthyaj;Jf;Fg; NghNdhk;.

 

`thdhtpd; rJg;G epyg;gFjpapy; filrpahff; fl;ba rJf;fj;jpw;F gpshrh b yh rpadfh ( Plaza de la Cienaga (Swamp Square) vdg; ngauplg;gl;lJ. 1587 Mk; Mz;L `thdh JiwKfj;jpw;F te;J Nghd fg;gy;fSf;Fj; jz;zPH gq;fPLnra;a ,e;j ,lj;jpy;jhd;; xU Foha;f; fpzW Njhz;lg;gl;;lJ. ma;e;J Mz;Lfs; fopj;J mq;F  tho;e;j efukf;fSf;Fk;  jz;zPH toq;fg;gl;lJ.

 

Kd;dH ,e;jj; Njthyak;  n[Rapw; Njthyhakhf ,Ue;jJ. gpd;dH 1788 Mk; Mz;by;  fjPl;wy; b yh `thdh vdg; ngaH khw;wk; nra;ag;gl;lJ.  mg;NghJ ,jw;F Kd;dpUe;j rJf;fk; gpshrh b yh fjPl;wy; vd;W ngaH khw;wk; nra;ag;gl;lJ. Rz;zhk;gpdhYk; KUff;fw;fshYk; fl;lg;gl;l ,e;jj; Njthyak; fk;gPukhf thidj; njhLk; mstpw;F caHe;J epw;fpwJ.

 

,yj;jPd; mnkupf;fhtpNyNa kpfTk; mofhd Kfg;Gj;Njhw;wj;ijf; nfhz;l Njthyak; ,JthFk;. ,jd; fl;bl Ntiyfs; n[Rapw; rka epWtdj;jpdhy; 1748 ,y; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;L 1777 ,y; fl;b Kbf;fg;gl;lJ. Mdhy; ,e;j n[Rapw; rka epWtdk;  1767 ,y; fpA+ghittpl;L ntspNaw;wg;gl;L tpl;lJ.

 

,gpshrh b yh fjPl;wYf;F NeH vjpNu nfhydpay; fiy mUq;fhl;rpak; (Museo de Arte Colonial) mike;Js;sJ. 1720 ,y; fpA+ghtpd; MSeuhf ,Ue;j Yhap rhf;nfhd; (Governor General Louis Chacon) mtHfs; FbapUf;f ,e;j khspif fl;lg;gl;lJ. md;iwa fl;llq;fspd; tbtikg;Gf;F mika ,JTk; eLtpy; Kw;wKk; Rj;jptu miwfSk; mike;j khspifahFk;.  

 

ehY Ehw;whz;Lfhy nfhydp Ml;rpapd; fiyj;njhopy; Ntiyg;ghL mike;j mUk;nghUs;fs; (Artefacts)  ,q;F fhl;rpf;F itf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. rpy miwfs; 19 Mk; Ehw;whz;by; tho;e;j xU nry;te;juJ FLk;gj;jpd; nropg;ghd tho;f;ifia vLj;Jf; fhl;LtJNghy myq;fupf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.  

 

,e;jr; rJf;fj;jpd; Xukhfj;jhd; ehd; Kd;dH cq;fSf;F mwpKfg;gLj;jpa ngz; NrhjplH (mj;jpahak; 15) njhopy; nra;J nfhz;bUf;fpwhH. nts;is cil cLj;jpUe;jhH. jiyiar; Rw;wp nts;isj; Jzpahy; jiyg;gh xd;W fl;bapUe;jhH. ,uz;L fhJfspYk; nrt;tuj;ijg; G+f;fs;. vjpHT Nfl;gtHfs; NrhjplUf;F NeH vjpNu cl;fhHe;J ,Ue;jhHfs;.

 

jiuapy; ntt;NtW rpj;jpuq;fs; (ths;> murpahH> Fjpiu> Njtijfs;> Nga;fs;) tiuag;gl;l fLjhrpfs; gutg;gl;L ,Ue;jd. ntspehLfspy; gpugy;akhd tarot reading vd;w M&lj;ijj;jhd; me;jg; ngz; jdJ thbf;ifahsHfSf;Fr; nrhy;ypf; nfhz;bUe;jhH.  Tarot   vd;w nrhy;ypd; %yk; vfpg;J nkhop. me;j nkhopapy;  uh vd;why; top  vd;W nghUs;. Nwh vd;why; murd; vd;W nghUs;. vdNt uhww; vd;why; murtop vd;W nghUs;.  

 

78 ntt;NtW rpj;jpuq;fisf; nfhz;l fljhrpf; $l;lj;ij itj;Jg; gyd; nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ.  Kjypy; vjpHT (MUlk;)  Nfl;gtH me;jf; fljhrpf; $l;lj;ij ,uz;L Kiw ,uz;lhf ntl;LfpwhH. gpd; me;jf; fljhrpfs; %d;W %d;whfg; gpupj;Jg; Nghlg;gl;L mjpy; fhzg;gLk; rpj;jpuq;fis itj;J vjpHT nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ. vq;fs; CH fpsp NrhjplUf;Fk; ,e;jg; ngz;Zf;Fk; mjpf Ntw;Wik ,y;iy vd;W epidf;fpNwd;.

 

kdpjHfSf;Fj; jq;fs; ,we;jfhyk; kw;w vtiuAk;tpl ed;whfj; njupAk;. epfo;fhyKk; mg;gbNa. Mdhy; mij xU Nrhjpld; XusT rupahfr; nrhy;yptpl;lhy; NghJk;. Nrhjplk; nka; vd;W ek;gp tpLfpwhHfs;. mNjhL epd;Wtplhyky; kw;wtHfSf;Fk; mijr; nrhy;yp mtHfisAk;  NRhjplHfsplk; mDg;gp itf;fpwhHfs;!

 

mLj;j fpoik nts;is khspifiar; Rw;wpg; ghHg;Nghk;.

 

 


 

 

 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

 

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

 

'tuyhW vd;id tpLtpf;Fk;"

 

(73)

 

nts;is khspif vd;why; ahUf;Fk; mnkupf;f nts;is khspifjhd; epidTf;F tUk;. vdNt fpA+ghtpy; nts;is khspif VJ? vd;W ePq;fs; epidj;jhy; mjpy; gpioapy;iy. fpA+ghtpy; mr;nrhl;lhf mnkupf;f nts;is khspifapd; mikg;ig mg;gbNa fy;Yf;Ff; fy; gbkk; vLj;Jf;  fl;bapUf;fpwhHfs;. mjd; ngaH  Capitolio Nacional  (National Capital) vd;gjhFk;.

 

nts;is khspif mikg;gpy; Njrpa jiyefuk; fl;lg;gl;ljw;F 1902 Mk; Mz;L njhlf;fk; mnkupf;fh fpA+gh kPJ nrYj;jpa nry;thf;Nf fhuzkhFk;. ,e;jf; fhy fl;lj;jpy; fpA+ghtpd; Ml;rp mjpfhuk; ,Rg;ghdpah  nfhydp; ehl;bw;Fg; gjpy; mnkupf;fhtpd; iff;Fg; ngUksT te;Jtpl;lJ. vdNt ,e;j khspif nts;is khspif vd;Nw  miof;fg;glyhapw;W.  `thdhtpd; ikag; gFjpapy; ,e;j khspif fk;gPukhf vOe;J epw;fpwJ.

 

,e;j khspif 1929Mk; Mz;L fl;b Kbf;fg;gl;lJ. mjd;gpd; gy khw;wq;fisf; fz;Ls;sJ. cyfpy; cs;s mofhd fiy mk;rq;fs; epiwe;j khspiffspy; ,JTk; xd;whff; fzpf;fg;gLfpwJ.

 

,e;j khspif rpnke;J> ,Uk;G> ntq;fyk; kw;Wk; gspq;Ff; fw;fshy; fl;lg;gl;Ls;sJ. NkYk; ,e;jg; gpukhz;lkhd  khspif fl;l 25 kpy;ypad; (,uz;liuf; Nfhb) vilAs;s fw;fs;> xU kpy;ypad; ePsKs;s kuk;> 40>000 gpsh];lH> 150>000 rpnke;Jg; gPg;ghf;fs;>  5 kpy;ypad; nrq;fw;fs;  gad;gLj;jjg; gl;Ls;sd. ,e;j khspifapy; fbfhuq;fs; kl;Lk; Ehw;Wf;Fk; mjpfkhd vz;zpf;ifapy; itf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.  

 

1959 Mk; Mz;L ele;j Gul;rpf;F Kd;dH> fpA+gh xU kf;fshl;rp ehlhf tpsq;fpaNghJ ,q;Nfjhd; kf;fs; NguitAk; Nky;rigAk; (House of Representatives and Senate) ,aq;fpaJ. md;iwa murpay; mikg;Gf;$l mnkupf;f ghzpapy;jhd; (rdhjpgjp Ml;rp Kiw) ,Ue;jJ.

 

,g;NghJ ,e;j khspifapy;jhd; fpA+gh mwptpay; fofk; kw;Wk; mwptpay; njhopy;El;g Ehyfk; (Cuban Academy of Sciences and the National Library of Science and Technology) ,aq;FfpwJ. fpA+gh xU nghJTlik ehlhf ,Ug;gjhy; mwptpaYf;F Kd;dplk; nfhLj;jpUg;gjpy; tpag;NgJk; ,y;iy.

 

mLj;J `thdhtpy; fl;lhakhfg; ghHf;f Ntz;ba ,lq;fspy; xd;whd Gul;rpapd; mUq;fhl;rpafj;ijr; (Museum of Revolution)  Rw;wpg; ghHj;Njhk;. ,q;Nf 1953 Mk; Mz;L muirf; ftpo;f;f Nkw;nfhz;l nfupy;yhj; jhf;Fjy;>  1959 Mk; Mz;L ele;Njwpa Gul;rp ,tw;iw epidT gLj;Jk; rpd;dq;fisf; fhl;rpf;F itj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. Gifg;glq;fs;> thDhHjpfs;> glFfs;> jhq;fpfs; kw;Wk; tuyhw;W Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;e;j epidTr; rpd;dq;fs; vdg; gy;NtW nghUs;fs; fhl;rpf;F itf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.

 

1953 Mk; Mz;L Nkw;nfhz;l jhf;Fjypy; tPu kuzj;ijj; jOtpf;nfhz;l 23 taJ epuk;gpa gpuhq;f; ga]; ( 23-year-old Frank Pais,)   vd;w Nghuhspapd; KO mstpyhd rpiyia ,q;F itj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;.  ,e;j khspifapd; Eio thrypy; "vg;NghJk;> ve;ehSk; Gul;rp" ("Always, Everyday Revolution") vd;w thrfk; ngupa vOj;jpy;  nghwpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

 

,e;j khspifapd; Nkw;Fg; gf;fkhf `thdhtpd; Gfo;ngw;w  gioa  RUl;Lj; njhopw;rhiy mike;jpUf;fpwJ. ehDhw;Wf;Fk;  mjpfkhd njhopyhsHfs; ,q;F Ntiy nra;fpwhHfs;.

 

,e;j mUq;fhl;rpafk; Gul;rpf;F  Kd;dH fpA+gh  ehl;bd; rdhjpgjp khspifahf ,Ue;jJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.

 

cz;ikapy; `thdhtpy; ,d;W vq;Nf jpUk;gpdhYk; fl;llq;fs; tPjpfs; vd vq;Fk; Gul;rpf;F tpj;jpl;l khtPuHfspd; epidTr; rpd;dq;fisf; fhzyhk;.

 

gply; f];Nwhittpl Nr Fthuh  (Ernesto Che Guevara) mtHfSf;F `thdh efuk; fhzpf;ifahf;fg; gl;bUf;fpwJ vd;W nrhd;dhy; mJ kpifay;y. mq;fhbfspy; Nr Fthuh up Nrl;> jpwg;Gf; NfhHit> nghj;jhd;fs; epiwa tpw;gidf;F itj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. me;jsTf;F gply; f];Nwhtpd; epidTr; rpd;dq;fisg;  ghHf;f KbahJ. ,ij Kd;dUk; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;Nsd;. mG+Htkhf xU fhty; epiyaj;Jf;F Kd;dhy; mWgJfspy; vLj;j gply; f];Nwhtpd; glq;fspd; gpd;Gyj;jpy; fhtyHfs; epw;gijf; fhz Kbe;jJ.  

   

Nr Fthuh MHn[d;Bdh ehl;ilr; NrHe;jtH. 1950 spy; gply; f];Nwhitr; re;jpj;J mtNuhL NrHe;J nfhz;lhH. gpd;dH 1967 ,y; nghy;tpah ehl;by; Gul;rp xd;iw Kd;ndLj;j nghOJ nfhy;yg;gl;lhH. fpA+ghtpy; gazk; nra;Ak; NghJ tPjpr; re;jpfspy; Nr Fthuhtpd; ngupa Xtpaj;ij tiue;J mjd; fPo; ",tH vq;fSf;F xU vLj;Jf;fhl;L kw;Wk; topfhl;b"" ("He is Our Example and Guide”)   vd 100 mb ePsr;  RtHfspy; vOjp itj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;.

 

Nr Fthuh gad;gLj;jpa gy nghUs;fs; fhl;rpf;F itf;fg;gl;bUe;jd. mtuJ KO msT cUtj;ijr; rpiyahf tbj;J itj;jpUe;jhHfs;. mijg; ghHf;Fk;NghJ Nr Fthuhit Neupy; capNuhL ghHg;gJNghy ,Ue;jJ. Nr Fthuh jdJ M];kh tpahjpf;Fg; gad;gLj;jpa %r;R ,Og;Gg; fUtp (Asthma inhaler) mtuJ ,ae;jpuj; Jg;ghf;fp Nghd;wit itf;fg;gl;bUe;jd.  Nr Fthu gad;gLj;jpa NfhNtW fOij> Fjpiug; nghk;ikfs; itf;fg;gl;bUe;jd.

 

Gul;rpf;Fg; gpe;jpa Nr Fthuhtpd; Gifg;glq;fs; Vuhsk;. Nr Fthuh ,uhZt rPUilapy; gply; f];NwTld; kUq;F ,Ue;J ciuahLtJ> njd; mnkupf;f Ml;rpj; jiytHfisr; re;jpg;gJ ,e;jg; glq;fspy; rpythFk;. Nr Fthuh gw;wp rw;W tpupthfg; gpd;dH vOJNtd;.

 

gply; f];NwhTk; mtuJ 81 nfupy;yhg; NghuhspfSk; 1956 Mk; Mz;L nkf;rpf;Nfhtpy; ,Ue;J fly; topahff; fpA+ghtpw;Fg; gazk; nra;j glif ed;whf nts;is ikG+rp xU ngd;dk; ngupa fz;zhbf; $z;Lf;Fs; itj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. me;jg; glfpd;  ngaH fpwhd;kh (Granma)  vd;gjhFk;.

 

1953 ,y; nkhd;fhNlh ,uhZtg;  ghriw kPJ nfupy;yhj; jhf;Fjy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. ,Jjhd; Gul;rpf;F tpj;jpl;l Kjy; ngupa jhf;Fjy; MFk;.  

,e;jj; jhf;Fjiy vjpup vjpHghuhj Neuj;jpy; f];Nwh Nkw; nfhz;lhH. ,uhZtj;ijj; jhf;fpg; gytPdg;gLj;jpdhy; rHthjpfhup gj;up];jh jdJ rdhjpgjp gjtpia tpl;L tpyf KbT nra;thH vd;gJ f];Nwhtpd; fzpg;G. NkYk; ,uhZtj;jpduJ fl;Lg;ghL kpff; Fiwthf ,Uf;Fk; vd;Wk; f];Nwh vjpHghHj;jhH. Mdhy; me;j vjpHghHg;Gf;fs; gpioj;J tpl;ld.

 

nfupyhf;fspd; jhf;Fjiy vjpHj;J ,uhZtk; gykhfg; Nghupl;lJ. gy nfupy;yhg; Nghuhspfspdhy; KfhKf;Fs; Gf Kbatpy;iy. GFe;jtHfs; Rl;Lf; nfhy;yg;gl;lhHfs;. vdNt  jhf;Fjy; ngupa Njhy;tpapy; Kbe;jJ.

 

f];Nuh jg;gp Xb  kiyfSf;Fs; kiwe;J nfhz;lhH. Mdhy; ,uhZtk; mtiug; gpbj;jJ. ePjp kd;wj;jp;y; epWj;jg;gl;l f];NwhTf;Fr; rpiwj; jz;lid toq;fg;gl;lJ. mtuJ cld;gpwg;G ,uhTy; f];Nwh kw;Wk; Gul;rpf;fhuHfSf;Fk; rpiwj; jz;lid mspf;fg;gl;lJ.

 

ePjpkd;wj;jpy; epWj;jg;gl;l f];Nwh jdJ gf;f epahaj;ij typAWj;jp> jdJ jhf;Fjiy epahag;gLj;jp ePz;l nrhw;nghopnthd;iw Mw;wpdhH. mg;NghJ "tuyhW vd;id tpLtpf;Fk;" ("History Will Absolve Me”) vd;W ePjpgjpiag; ghHj;Jr; nrhd;dhH.

 

gpd;dH f];Nwh rpiwapy; ,Ue;jNghJ jdJ Ngr;ir xOq;FgLj;jp vOjp "tuyhW vd;id tpLtpf;Fk;" vd;w jiyg;gpy; Mapuf;fzf;fpy; Jz;Lg; gpuRukhf ntspapl;lhH. mjd; ifnaOj;Jg; gbtk; rpiwapy; ,Ue;J fsthf ntspapy; cs;stHfSf;Ff; flj;jg;gl;L fpA+gh ehL KOJk; toq;fg;gl;ld.

 

Mdhy; me;jg; gpuRuk; kf;fspilNa ngupa jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;jtpy;iy. xd;W mJ vy;NyhH iff;Fk; Ngha;r; Nrutpy;iy. ,uz;L ,uhZtj;jpd; kPjhd jhf;Fjy; jw;nfhiyf;F xg;ghdJ> gadw;wJ vd;W ngUk;ghyhd kf;fs; epidj;jhHfs;.     

jhf;Fjy; Njhy;tp mile;jhYk; f];Nwh jiyik jhq;fpa fk;A+dp];l; fl;rpf;Fj; Njrpa mstpy; ey;y ngaH fpilj;jJ.

 

,e;jj; jhf;Fjypd; NghJ kuzpj;j Nghuhspfspd; ,uj;jk; Njha;e;j rPUilfs; fhl;rpf;F itf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.

 

,uhTy; f];Nwh rpiwapy; cLj;jpa [Pd;]; rl;ilia ,q;F gj;jpug;gLj;jp itj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. gply; f];Nwh rpiwapy; ,Ue;J ntspNawpaNghJ vLj;j Gifg;glk; (jhbapy;yhky; kPir kl;Lk;) ,Uf;fpwJ.

 

,uhTy; f];Nwh> gply; f];Nwhtpd; cld; gpwg;G. ,d;W fpA+ghtpd;  ghJfhg;G mikr;ruhfg; gzpahw;WfpwhH. f];Nwhtpw;Fg; gpd;dH ,tHjhd; mLj;j rdhjpgjpahf tUthH vd vjpHghHf;fg;gLfpwJ.

 

fpwhd;kh jhf;Fjy; njhlHGila epidTr; rpd;dq;fs; Vuhsk; ,Ue;jd. nfwpy;yhf;fs; gad;gLj;jpa Ks;Sf;fuz;bfs;> Nfhg;igfs; $l mq;F fhzg;gl;ld. ngUk;ghYk; tpsf;fj;ij ,Rg;ghdpa nkhopapNyNa vOjp itj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. ey;y fhykhfg; ngUk;ghyhd rpd;dq;fisg; ghHj;jhNy mtw;wpd; tpsf;fk; jhdhfNt GupfpwJ.

 

1955 Mk; Mz;by; ehlshtpa Nghuhl;lk; fhuzkhf muRf;F  mtHfisr; rpiwapy; ,Ue;J tpLtpf;f Ntz;ba fl;lhak; Vw;gl;lJ. Mdhy; tpLjiyahd gply; f];Nwh ehLflj;jg;gl;lhH.

 

ehL flj;jg;gl;l gply; f];Nwh Nr Fthuhit nkf;rpf;Nfh ehl;by; re;jpj;jhH. f];Nwh gj;jp];jh Ml;rpiaf; ftpo;;g;gjw;fhd Nghuhl;lj;jpw;F Ml;fisj; jpul;Ltjw;F nkf;fpf;Nfh Nghd;w gf;frhHgw;w ehnlhd;iwj; Njbf; nfhz;bUe;jhH.

 

 


 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

eP gply; f];Nwhitg; gpbj;jhy; vd;d nra;tha;?

(74)

gply; f];NwhTk; mtuJ NjhoHfSk; NghHg; gapw;rpngwj; njhlq;fpdhHfs;. nkf;rpf;Nfh muR> mnkupf;f csTj;Jiw (FBI)  gj;jp];upahtpd; ifahl;fs; vdg; gyNuhL mtHfs; Nghuhl Ntz;bapUe;jJ. n[duy; my;NgHl;Nlh ghNah ( General Alberto Bayo) vd;gtH ,uhZt je;jpNuhghaq;fisg; gw;wpg; gapw;rp mspj;jhH. Nr Fthuh Mszpf;Fg; nghWg;ghf ,Ue;jhH. gply; f];Nwh nkf;rpf;Nfh fhty;Jiwapduhy; ifJ nra;ag;gl;lhH. A+iy 26 vd;W miof;g;gl;l ,af;fj;ijr; rhHe;j midtUk;  rpiwapy;  milf;fg;gl;lhHfs;. rpiwapy; ,Ue;J tpLtpf;fg;gl;l gpd;dH fue;J tho;e;J jq;fs; gapw;rpiaj; njhlHe;jhHfs;. nghJ ,lq;fspy; elkhLtijg; ngUksT jtpHj;Jf; nfhz;lhHfs;.

gy khjq;fSf;Fg; gpd;dH jq;fs; $l;lhspfspy; xUtd; ,af;fj;Jf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd glifAk; jfty;njhlH fUtpiaAk; tpw;Wtpl;lhd; vd;gijj; njupe;J nfhz;lhHfs;. ,Ue;Jk; FWfpa fhyf; nfLtpy; ,d;ndhU glF jahH nra;ag;gl;lJ. rPUil> iugps; Jg;ghf;fpfs;> ,uz;L jhq;fp vjpHg;Gg; gPuq;fpfs;> nfhQ;rj; Njhl;lhf;fs; rfpjk; 1956 nehntk;ngH 25 Mk; ehs; fhiy nkf;rpf;Nfh ehl;Lj; JiwKfq;fspy; xd;whd jf;];ghd; (Tuxpan) JiwKfj;jpy; ,Ue;J tpsf;if mizj;j tz;zk; fhyepiy rupapy;yhj Neuj;jpy; Gwg;gl;lhHfs;.

Nghuhspfs; midtUk; fpA+gh ehl;bd; Njrpag; gz;izAk;> A+iy 26 ghliyAk; ghbdhHfs;. xU ma;e;J kzpj;Jsp nrd;wpuhJ vy;NyhUk; the;jp vLf;f Muk;gpj;jhHfs;. gyH tapw;iw ,Wf;fpf; nfhz;L thspfspy; Kfj;ijg; Gijj;J the;jp vLj;jhHfs;. kw;wtHfs; ntWkNd fg;gypd; jsj;jpy; Mlhky; mirahky; gLj;jhHfs;.

nehntk;ngH 30 Mk; ehsd;W gpuhq;f; gha;]; (Frank Pais) vd;gtH rhe;jpahf;Nfh b fpA+ghtpy; xU fpsHr;rpia Muk;gpj;j nra;jpia thndhyp %yk; Nfl;lhHfs;. mLj;j ehs; fpA+gh fiuia  Nehf;fpg; glfpd; gazj;ij njhlq;fpdhHfs;. ,jw;fpilapy; glfpy; ,Ue;j czT> Fbjz;zPH> vupnghUs; vy;yhk; jPHe;Jtpl;lJ.

bnrk;ngH 2 Mk; ehs; gfy; glF yh]; nfhnyhwlh]; flw;fiuiar; nrd;wile;jJ. fpA+gh fiuNahuf; fhty; glnfhd;W jiu jl;ba gliff; fz;Ltpl;lJ. mLj;j rpy kzpj;Jspfspy; tpkhdq;fs; Fz;L tPrpj; jhf;fj; njhlq;fpd. mjd; kj;jpapy; Nghuhspfs; jiuapwq;fp mUfpy; cs;s jhsk;gw;iwf;Fs; gJq;f ,lk; Njb XbdhHfs;. f];NwhTk; rf NghuhspfSk; nkf;rpf;Nfhit tpl;Lg; Gwg;gl;L 7 ehs;fs; fle;J tpl;ld. mjd;NghJ grp> the;jp mtHfis thl;b vLj;jd. NkYk; %d;W ehs;fs; njhlHr;rpahd gazj;jpd; gpd; (,ilapilNa %Hr;ir> fisg;G> Xa;T) myf;wpah b gpNah (Alegria de Pio) vd;w ,lj;ij mile;jhHfs;. ,jpy; Ntbf;if vd;dntd;why; 'myf;wpah' vd;why; kfpo;r;rp vd;W nghUs;!

mq;F xU ehs; jq;fp Xa;ntLj;Jf; nfhz;L gazj;ijj; njhlHe;jhHfs;. kUe;Jg; nghUs;fs; Kw;whfj; jPHe;J Nghapd> czTg; nghl;lyq;fs;  flw;fiur; Nrw;wpy; gwpNgha;tpl;ld. Kjy; ehs; ,uT xU fUk;G tay; Clhfg; gazk; nra;jhHfs;. mg;NghJ fUk;ig Kwpj;Jj; jq;fs; grpiaAk; jhfj;ijAk;  jPHj;Jf; nfhz;lhHfs;. Mdhy; gl;lwpTf; FiwTk; Kd; vr;rupf;ifAk; ,y;yhjjhy; fbr;Rj; Jg;gpa fUk;Gr; rf;if vy;yh ,lKk; rpjwpf; fple;jd. mJ mur gilfs; mtHfisj; Njbf; fz;L gpbf;Fk; gzpiar; Rygkhf;fp tpl;lJ vd;W nrhy;y Ntz;bajpy;iy.

mLj;j fzk; rd;dq;fs; kiokhjpup nghopaj; njhlq;fpd. gply; f];Nwh mq;F fhzg;gl;l xU nfhl;bYf;Fs; vy;NyhiuAk; XLkhW fl;lis ,l;lhH. Mdhy; mjDs; Xbj; jg;G Kd; gyH ,we;J gl;lhHfs;. tpkhdq;fs; jhog; gwe;J me;j ,lj;jpy;  Fz;Lfis tPrpd. Fz;L tPr;Rf; fhuzkhf fUk;G tay; jPg;gpbj;Jf; nfhz;lJ.

(gy Mz;LfSf;Fg; gpd;dH jq;fSf;F topfhl;bahf te;j Ms;  jq;fisj; jpl;lkpl;Nl me;j topahff; $l;br; nrd;W jq;fis ,uhZtj;Jf;Ff; fhl;bf; nfhLj;J ,uz;lfk; nra;jhd; vd;gij mwpe;J nfhz;lhHfs;).

Nghuhspfs; njhlHe;J ele;jhHfs;. fisg;G mtHfis NkYk; elf;f Kbahjgb nra;jJ. grpf;fis xU Gwk;> jhfj;Jf;Fj; jz;zPH ,y;yhj Fiw kWGwk;. Nghjhf; Fiwf;F vf;fr;rf;fkhd Esk;Gfs; mtHfisg; gjk; ghHj;jd. vy;NyhUk; gLj;J cwq;fpdhHfs;. nkhj;jk; 81 Nghuhspfspy; xU rpyNu ,g;NghJ vQ;rp ,Ue;jhHfs;.

1957 rdtup 14 Mk; ehs; yh gpyhl;jh (La Plata)  vd;w ,uhZt Kfhik te;J mile;jhHfs;. Kfhikj; Jhu ,Ue;J Nehl;lk; tpl;l Nghuhspfs; rdtup 16 Mk; ehs;  ,uT mq;F Xbf; nfhz;bUe;j mjpf Mo;g;gk; ,y;yhj yh gpyhl;jh Mw;iwf; fle;J mq;F FbapUe;j ,uz;L tptrhapfisf; 'ifJ' nra;jhHfs;. mtHfs; me;j ,uhZt Kfhkpy; 15 ,uhZtj;jpdH kl;Lk; ,Uf;Fk; ,ufrpaj;ijr; nrhd;dhHfs;. mJ kl;Lky;y> mjpy; xUtd; ,d;Dk; nfhQ;r Neuj;jpy; me;j topahf xU NfhNtW fOijapy; tu ,Uf;Fk; nra;jpiaAk; nrhd;dhHfs;.  

mtHfs; nrhd;dJ NghyNt rpNrh xNrhwpNah (Chicho Osorio) me;j ,lj;jpy; xU NfhNtW fOijapy;  te;J nfhz;bUe;jhd;. mtDf;Fg; gpd;dhy; xU fUg;G epwg; igad; cl;fhHe;J nfhz;bUe;jhd;. rpNrh ed;whff; Fbj;jpUe;jhd;. mg;NghJ "epy;" vd;W cuj;j Fuypy; fl;lis  gpwg;gpf;fg;gl;lJ.  clNd rpNrh "Esk;G' vd;w thHj;ijiar; nrhd;dhd;. me;j thHj;ijjhd; rq;Nfjr; nrhy;. mtHfis ahH vd;W fz;Lnfhs;s rpNrhtpw;F mjpf Neuk; vLj;jpuhJ. Mdhy; Ms; ey;y kg;gpy; ,Ue;jjhy; mtHfis ahnud;W fz;L nfhs;s Kbatpy;iy.

mg;NghJ gply; f];Nwh Kd;Df;F te;J mjpf Nfhgj;Jld; jhd; xU Nfzy; vd;Wk;> vjpup gil Vd; ,d;Dk; gpbf;fg;gltpy;iy vd;gijf; fz;lwpa Neupy; te;jpUg;gjhfTk; nrhd;dhH. me;j ntwpapYk; rpNrh cz;ikiar; nrhd;dhd;. jhq;fs; KfhKf;Fs; Klq;fpf; nfhz;L ve;j NeuKk; rhg;gpl;Lf; nfhz;L Rk;kh ,Ug;gjhfr; nrhd;dhd;. NkYk; jhd; ,uz;L Ngiuf; nfhd;W Nghl;ljhfTk; nrhd;dhd;. mg;NghJ f];Nwh Nfl;lhH.

"eP gply; f];Nwhitg; gpbj;jhy; vd;d nra;tha;?"

" ehq;fs; mtuJ ............ ntl;bg; NghLNthk;.  ,q;Nf ghUq;fs;. ,e;jr; rg;ghj;J mg;gb ntl;bg; Nghl;ltDf;Fr; nrhe;jkhdJ!"

Kbtpy; f];NwhitAk; kw;wtHfisAk; KfhKf;F mioj;Jg; Nghfr; rpNrh rk;kjk; njuptpj;jhd;. mg;gbj; jpBnud;W ve;j Kd;dwptpj;jYk; ,d;wpf; $l;bg; Ngha; mtHfis tpag;Gf;Fs; Mo;j;JtJ kl;Lky;y mtHfs; vt;thW jahH mw;w epiyapy; jq;fs; flikfis xOq;fhfr; nra;ahJ ,Ue;jhHfs; vd;gijAk; vz;gpf;f vz;zpdhd;.

f];NwhtpdJ mzpaplk;  ,g;NghJ 22 Jtf;FfNs ,Ue;jd. mtHfsplk; Nghjpa Njhl;lhf;fSk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. vdNt mtHfs; Kfhikj; jhf;fp MAjq;fisf; ifg;gw;wpdhy; kl;LNk jq;fisf; fhg;ghw;wpf; nfhs;s KbAk; vd;w epiy fhzg;gl;lJ.  Nghuhspfs; itj;jpUe;j  gpNurpy;  ehl;Lj; jahupg;ghd iff;Fz;Lfs; ntbf;f kWj;jd. vdNt mtHfs;  capiug; gzak;  itj;J KfhKf;F kpf mz;ikapy; Nghf Ntz;b ,Ue;jJ.

Kfhik mz;kpj;jJk; mjw;Fj;  jP itj;jhHfs;. Muk;gj;jpy; rpwpJ vjpHg;igf; fhl;ba gilapdH gpd;dH gpd;thq;fpf; nfhz;lhHfs;. jq;fs; gf;fk; xU NrjKk; ,d;wp Kfhikf; ifg;gw;wpf; nfhz;lhHfs;. mjd; gpd; ifg;gw;wpa MAjq;fisAk; vLj;Jf; nfhz;L gy;kh Nkhl;r (Palma Mocha) vd;w ,lj;ij Nehf;fp efHe;jhHfs;. mq;fpUe;J ,Nyrpy;  nry;y Kbahj rPwh Nk];jh (Sierra Maesta) gpuNjrj;ij Nehf;fpg; Gwg;gl;lhHfs;.

njhlf;f fhyk; my;yy;fs; epuk;gpa fhykhf ,Ue;jhYk;> ,lk;tpl;L ,lk; mbf;fb efHe;J nfhz;bUe;jjhy; Nghuhspfs; tpiutpy; kiyg;ghq;fhd gpuNjrq;fisj; jq;fs; fl;Lg;ghl;Lf;Fs; nfhz;L te;jhHfs;. ,jdhy; mtHfs; ntspg;gilahff; fpuhkq;fspy; FbapUe;jhHfs;. kf;fs; MjuT mtHfs; gf;fk; ,Ue;jJ. ,y;yhtpl;lhy; ,g;gb ntspg;gilahff; fpuhkq;fspy; tho;tJ rhj;jpakhf ,Ue;jpUf;f KbahJ.

1957 A+iy 12 Mk; ehs; f];Nwh fk;A+dp];l; fl;rpapd; nfhs;if mwpf;ifia ntspapl;lhH. mjpy; murpay; ifjpfSf;F tpLjiy> nra;jpj;jhs;fs; kw;Wk; jdpkdpj murpay; Rje;jpuk; murpay; ahg;gpy; cWjp nra;ag;gLk; vd;W mwptpf;fg;gl;lJ. ,J kf;fisj; jdJ gf;fk; itj;jpUg;gjw;fhd xU Fiwe;jgl;rj; jpl;lk; vd;gij f];Nwh ed;F czHe;jpUe;jhH. epyr; rPHjpUj;jk;gw;wpAk; f];Nwh fl;rpapd; nfhs;ifia ntspapl epidj;jhH. Mdhy; mg;gbr; nra;a KbahjthW rpyH jLj;J tpl;lhHfs;. ,e;j vjpHg;ghsHfs; gpd;dH kpahkp xg;ge;jk; xd;iwg; gpufldg;gLj;jp Gul;rpiaf; fhl;bf; nfhLj;J tpl;lhHfs;.

A++iy 26 ,af;fk; ,uz;L gpupTfshfg; gpupf;fg;gl;ld. xd;W rPwh ( Sierra) kw;wJ yhNdh (Llano) MFk;.  yhNdhefHg;Gw  jiykiwT ,af;fkhFk;. mJ gpuhq;f; gha;]; ( Frank Pais) vd;gtuJ jiyikapy; ,aq;fpaJ. ntw;wpfukhf Nkw;nfhz;l gy ,uhZtj; jhf;Fjy;fs;> fpsHr;rpfs; Nghd;wtw;Wf;Fg; gpd; 1958 Vg;upy; 26 Mk; ehs; A+iy 26 ,af;fk; xU nghJ Ntiy epWj;jj;jpw;F miog;G tpLj;jJ.   

nghJNtiy epWj;jk; ngupa ntw;wpiag; ngwtpy;iy. ,jdhy; ,af;fk; mlf;FKiwf;F cs;shdJ. mjdhy; rpy ,lq;fspy; ,Ue;J ntspNaw Ntz;ba fl;lhaKk; vOe;jJ. ,e;jg; gpd;dilitg; gad;gLj;jpf; nfhz;L muR Xwpad;w; kfhzhj;jpw;Fj;  jdJ ,uhZtj;ij efHj;jpaJ. 1958 Nk 3 Mk; ehs; rPwh Nk];jhtpy; ele;j $l;lj;jpy; yhNdh jiyik fz;ldj;Jf;F cs;shfpaJ. ,jd; tpisthfr; rPwhg; gpupit ,af;fk; jdJ fl;Lg;ghl;Lf;Fs; vLj;Jf; nfhz;lJ. mjd; ,uhZtj; jsgjpahf f];Nwh Kjd;Kiwahf epakdk; nra;ag;gl;lhH.

mg;NghJ ,af;fj;jpw;Fk; f];NwhTf;Fk; ghupa eltbf;iffs; Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;bapUe;jd. murpd; murpay;-,uhZt ,ae;jpuj;ij mopj;njhopg;gJ> kj;jpa khfhzj;ijj; jhf;fp mjid kPl;nlLg;gJ mtw;wpy; rpythFk;. ,e;jf; Fwpf;Nfhis vl;bg; gpbf;f 7 khj fhyk; vLj;jJ.

1957 Nk 12 Mk; ehs; muR xU ghupa vjpH ,uhZt eltbf;ifia Nkw;nfhz;lJ. gj;jhapuk; ,uhZtj;jpdiu vjpHnfhs;sg; Gul;rpg; gilaplk; 200 Jg;ghf;fpfNs ,Ue;jd. ,Ue;Jk; ,uz;liu khjkhf ,lk;ngw;w fLQ; rz;ilf;Fg; gpd;dH mur jug;gpy; 1>000 ,uhZtj;jpdH nfhy;yg;gl;ldH. 450 NgH rpiw gpbfg;gl;ldH. mtHfs; nrQ;rpYitr; rq;fj;jplk; ifaspf;fg;gl;ldH. ,jd; %yk; Gul;rpg; gil itj;jpUe;j  Jg;ghf;fpfspd; vz;zpf;if 600 Mf caHe;jJ.     

A+iy khjk; vy; [Pf; (El Jigue)  vd;w ,lj;jpy; ele;j Nghupy; Gul;rpg;gil cWjpahd ntw;wpia <l;baJ. ,J mjd; vjpHj;jhf;FjYf;fhd njhlf;fkhf mike;jJ. Mf];l; khjf; filrpapy; Gul;rpg;gilfspd; ,uz;L mzpfs; rPwh Nk];jpwhtpy; ,Ue;J Gwg;gl;ld. fkpNyh rpad;G+nfh]; (Camilo Cienfuegos) jiyik jhq;fpa mzp fpA+ghtpd; Nkw;fpy; ,Ue;j gpdhH nly; iwNah (Pinar del Rio) Nehf;fp efHe;jJ. Nr Fthuh jiyik jhq;fpa mzp yh]; tpyh]; (Las Villas Province) khfhzj;ij Nehf;fp efHe;jJ. ,uz;L mzpANk topapy; kpfTk; Nkhrkhd ,lHg;ghLfs; kw;Wk; gpd;dilTfisr; re;jpj;jd.

grp jhff; fisg;gpdhy; Nr Fthuh jiyikapy; nrd;w mzpf;F elf;fNt ngykpy;yhky; ,Ue;jJ. fhy;fspy; k];rnkhwh (Mazamorra) vd;w Neha; gpbj;Jf; nfhz;lJ. ,jdhy; gilapdH vLj;J itj;j xt;nthU mbAk; mtHfSf;Fg; nghWf;f Kbahj Nehit Vw;gLj;jpaJ.

bnrk;gH khjk; mstpy; Gul;rpg; gil mzpfs; ,uz;Lk; yh]; tpyh]; khfhzj;;jpy; cs;s mNef efuq;fisf; ifg;gw;wp tpl;ld. ,jdhy; fpA+gh ,uz;lhf ntl;lg;gl;Ltpl;lJ. Nr FthuhtpdJ mzp khfhzj;jpd; jiyefUk; Nghf;Ftuj;Jf;F ikakhf mike;jpUe;j rhe;jh fpyhw (Santa Clara) itf; ifg;gw;Wtjw;fhd jhf;Fjiyj; njhlq;fpaJ.

 


 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;  

Ml;lq;fhzj; njhlq;fpa gh];jpah Ml;rp 

(75)

rHthjpfhuj;Jf;F vjpuhd ,uhZg; Nghuhl;lk; xU Gwk; ele;J nfhz;bUf;f kWGwk;  murpay; kw;Wk; rpe;jhe;jg; Nghuhl;lKk; rkfhyj;jpy; ele;J nfhz;bUe;jJ.

1958 xf;NjhgH 10 Mk; ehs; Gul;rpg; gil xU rl;lj;ijg; gpufldg;gLj;jpaJ. Fj;jiff;F Ntshz;ik nra;NthH> mlhj;jhff; FbapUg;NghH> mWtilapy; gq;fpw;fhf ciog;NghH Nghd;w njhopyhsHfSf;F mtHfs; Ntiy nra;j fhzp nrhe;j khf;fg;gl;lJ. xNunahU epge;jid> mg;gbahd fhzpapd; nkhj;jg; gug;gsT 67 Vf;fUf;F Nkyhf ,Uf;ff; $lhJ.

ve;jnthU Gul;rpapd; NghJk; khztHfsJ gq;fspg;G> Fwpg;ghfg; gy;fiyf; fof khztHfsJ gq;fspg;G> capH %r;Rg; Nghd;wJ. fpA+gh Gul;rpAk; mjw;F tpjp tpyf;fy;y.

1954 nehntk;gH khjj;jpy; ele;j NjHjypy; gh];jpah ve;j vjpHg;Gk; ,d;wp ntw;wp ngw;whH. Mdhy; me;jj; NjHjy; NeHikahf elj;jg;gltpy;iy. me;j Nkhrbj; NjHjy; Kbit Vw;f kWj;j vjpHf;fl;rpfs; rdhjpgjp gh];jpahitg; gjtp tpyff; NfhupdhHfs;. Mdhy; gh];jpah me;jf; Nfhupf;ifia epuhfupj;J tpl;lhH.

rdhjpgjp gjtpf;Fupa 4 Mz;L fhyk; 1958 ,y;jhd; KbfpwJ. mJ kl;Lk; jhd; gjtpapy; ,Uf;fg; Nghtjhf gh];jpah gpbthjk; nra;jhH. mur jug;gpdUk; vjpHf; fl;rpg; gpujpepjpfSk; xU rkur Kbit Nkw;nfhs;s 1955 Mk; Mz;L KOJk; mbf;fb re;jpj;Jg; NgrpdhHfs;. Mdhy; mtHfshy; xU KbTf;F tu Kbatpy;iy. rkurg; Ngr;R thHj;ijfs; Njhy;tp mile;jjhy; mJ  xU cs;ehl;L Aj;jj;jpw;F> Fog;gj;jpw;F> Gul;rpf;F fpAghit ntF Ntfkhf ,Oj;Jr; nrd;wJ.

1955 Mk; Mz;L Kbtpy; rkurj;Jf;fhd Kaw;rpapy; Nfzy; Cosme de La Torriente vd;gtH <Lgl;lhH. ,tH ,uhZtj;jpy; gy;yhz;L gzpGupe;J Xa;T ngw;wtH. fpA+ghtpd; ,uhrje;jpupahfTk; ,Ue;jtH. 83 mfit epiwe;j ,tH jiyikapy; xU murpay; fl;rp ,aq;fpf; nfhz;bUe;jJ.  mtH gh];jpahitr; re;jpf;f xU tha;g;Gf; Nfl;lhH. gh];jpah mjw;F kWj;Jtpl;lhH. Mdhy;  gh];jpah Cosme de La Torriente iar; re;jpf;f kWj;jJ mtiuj; Njrpa mstpy; gpugy;akhf;fp tpl;lJ. Vida murpay; fl;rpfSk;> khztHfSk; mtiu Mjupj;J mtupd; gpd;dhy; mzp jpuz;lhHfs;.

jdf;F vjpuhf kf;fs; mzp jpus;tijg; ghHj;j gh];jpah jdJ kdij khw;wpf; nfhz;L vjpHf;fl;rpfNshL kPz;Lk; rkurk; Ngrj; jahuhdhH. muR-vjpHf;fl;rpg; gpujpepjpfs; $bg; NgrpdhHfs;. rkurj;Jf;fhd Ngr;RthHj;ij ePz;L nfhz;L Nghapw;W. mJ Njhy;tpapy; Kbag; NghfpwJ vd;gJ vy;NyhUf;Fk; Gupe;J tpl;lJ. 1956 khHr;R khjk; Gjpa NjHjy; eilngwNtz;Lk;  vd;w vjpHf;fl;rpg; gpujpepjpfspd; Nfhupf;ifia gh];jpah FO epuhfupj;jNghJ Ngr;R thHj;ij Kwpe;J NghdJ.

murpay; jiytHfs; elj;jpa mikjpg; Ngr;R thHj;ij Kwpe;J NghdJ khztHfs; kj;jpapy; ngupa MNtrj;ij cUthf;fpaJ. ehnlq;Fk; fytuq;fs; ,lk;ngw;wd. 1871 nehntk;gH 27 Mk; ehs; ,Rg;ghdpa Ml;rpahsHfshy; nfhy;yg;gl;l 8 khztHfsJ epidT ehs; nfhz;lhlg;gl;lJ.

me;jf; $l;lk; gh];jpahtpw;F vjpuhd Nguzpahf cUntLj;jJ. fhty;Jiw  elj;jpa jbabg; gpuNahfj;jpy; gy khztHfs; gL fhak; mile;jhHfs;. ,d;Dk; gyH ifJ nra;ag;gl;lhHfs;. kw;w efuq;fspYk; muRf;F vjpuhd MHg;ghl;lq;fs; ntbj;jd.  khztHfs; nghJ Ntiy epWj;jj;jpw;F miog;G tpLj;jhHfs;. muR rfy gy;fiyf; fofq;fisAk; fy;YhupfisAk; ,Oj;J %baJ.

fpsHr;rpia kl;lhd topKiwfs; %yk; fl;Lg;ghl;Lf;Fs; nfhz;L tUtjw;Fg; gjpy; muR gaq;futhjj;ij mlf;fg; mur gaq;futhjj;ijg; gad;gLj;jpaJ.

1957Mk; Mz;L KOJk;  ehnlq;Fk; njhlHe;J khztHfsJ fpsHr;rp ,lk; ngw;wJ. `thdh jiy efuj;Jf;Fk; mJ gutpaJ. `thdh gy;fiyf; fof khztHfs; muR xOq;F nra;j ,isQH epfo;r;rp xd;wpid  xspgug;gpf; nfhz;bUe;j mur njhiyf; fhl;rp epiyak; kPJ fw;fis tPrpdhHfs;. mjdhy; epfo;r;rpapy; gq;F nfhz;l gyH gLfhak; mile;jhHfs;. mjw;F vjpH eltbf;ifahf ,uhZtk; gJf;fp itj;jpUf;Fk; MAjq;fisj; NjLk; rhf;fpy; `thdh gy;fiyf; fofj;ijr; Rw;wp tisj;J mq;fpUe;j jsghlq;fs;> Mtzq;fs;> mwptpay; fUtpfs; Nghd;wtw;iw cilj;J ehrk; nra;jJ.

mjw;F vjpw;Gj; njuptpj;j gy;fiyf; fof epHthf gPlj;jpw;F "gy;fiyf; fofq;fSf;F jd;dhl;rp cupik cz;L. Mdhy;> mJ kl;Lg;gLj;jg;gl;l xd;whFk;. muirf; ftpo;f;f epidf;Fk; rf;jpfspd; Gfyplkhf mJ khWk; NghJ rl;lk; xOq;if ehl;Lk; nghWg;G muRf;F Vw;gLfpwJ"" vd muR mwptpj;jJ.  

gioa jiyKiwiar; NrHe;j khztHfs;  Grau/Chibas Nghd;w Mw;wYk; ftHr;rpAk; epiwe;j jiytHfisg; ngw;wpUe;jhHfs;. Mdhy; 50 spy; mg;gbahd jiytHfSf;Fg; gyj;j gQ;rk; ,Ue;jJ.

,t;tpjk; khzt rKjhak; xU Gwk; Nghuhbf; nfhz;bUe;j NghJ gh];jpah muirf; ftpo;g;gjw;F NtW gyUk; Kaw;rp nra;J nfhz;bUe;jhHfs;. 1956 Vg;upy; khjk; Montecristi  vd;w jPtputhj mikg;G  ,uhZtj;jpd; cjtpAld; gh];jpahitf; ftpo;f;f Kaw;rpj;jJ. Mdhy; me;j Kaw;rp fz;L gpbf;fg;gl;L mjd; Kf;fpa #j;jpujhupfs; ifJ nra;ag;gl;lhHfs;.

ehl;bd; murpay; rl;lj;ij ,ilepWj;jp> nra;jpj;jhs;fis jilnra;Jtpl;L fpsHr;rpia Kw;whf mlf;fr; rpj;jputijf;Fg; ngaH Nghd ,uhZt fhty;Jiwia gh];jpah Vtp tpl;lhH. ,uhZtf; fhty;Jiwia `thdhit ,uT gfyhf Nuhe;J te;J Gul;rpNahL njhlHGilatHfs; vd;W ma;ag;gl;l midtiuAk; ifJ nra;J rpiwapy; js;spaJ.  Mdhy; td;KiwAk; MHg;ghl;lq;fSk; njhlHe;J ,lk; ngw;wd. gy;fiyf; fofq;fs; 1959 Mk; Mz;L Kw;gFjp tiu %bf; fple;jd.

gh];jpahitg; nghWj;jstpy; khzt rKjhaj;jpd; njhlHr;rpahd vjpHg;G mtuJ Ml;rpf;Fg;  ngupa Ks;shf ,Ue;jJ. ehyhz;L fhyk; ,e;j vjpHg;G ve;jj; njha;Tkpd;wp ePbj;jJ.

fy;YhupfisAk; gy;fiyf;fofq;fisAk; %b khztHfsJ vjpHg;igr; rupf;fl;l vLj;j Kaw;rpfs; tPzhfpaJ kl;Lky;y mJ vjpHghHj;jjw;F khwhd vjpH tpisTfis Vw;gLj;jpaJ. gjpnzz;zhapuj;Jf;Fk; mjpfkhd khztHfisj; Njrpa murpay; Ropf;Fs; tYf;fl;lhakhfj; js;spaJ!

fhyk; Nghfg; Nghf khztHfsJ nghWik tw;wpf; nfhz;L  NghdJ. gyH fpsHr;rpf; FOf;fspy; NrHe;jdH. mtHfsJ Fwpf;Nfhs; xd;W kl;Le;jhd;. gh];jpahtpd; rHthjpfhu Ml;rpia vg;ghL gl;Lk; ftpo;f;f Ntz;Lk;. gh];jpahtpd; Ml;rpiaf; ftpl;lhy; fpA+ghit gPbj;Js;s Neha;fs; mj;jidf;Fk; mJ midj;JNeha;fisAk;  jPHf;Fk;  kUe;jhf mikAk; vd vy;NyhUk; epidj;jhHfs;.

,e;jtpj NkNyhl;lkhd vz;zk; rPwh Nk];jpwhtpy;  ,Ue;j gply; f];NwhTf;F tug;gpurhjkhf mike;jJ. ed;whf tiuaiw nra;ag;gl;l Nfhl;ghL vJTk; ,y;yhjNghJk;> gply; f];Nwh gh];jpahtpd; Ml;rpiaf; ftpo;f;FkhW kf;fSf;Fg; gfpuq;f miog;G tpLj;jhH.

fpuhkg;Gwq;fspy; rz;ilfs; ,lk;ngw;W te;jNghJ efuq;fspy; muRf;F vjpuhd rjp NtiyfSk; mopT NtiyfSk; ,lk;ngw;wd. Ng&H> rpw;WhH vy;yhtw;wpYk; muRf;F vjpuhd vjpHg;G ,af;fk; tYg;ngw;W te;jJ. Ms;flj;jy;> Fz;L tPr;R> mopT Ntiy> gug;Giu ehnlq;Fk; ,lk;ngw;wd. ,itnay;yhk; fpA+ghtpy; xU cs;ehl;Lg; NghUf;Fupa #o;epiyia cUthf;fpf; nfhz;bUe;jJ. ,e;j vjpHg;G ,af;fNk gh];jpahtpw;F vjpuhd fpsHr;rpapd; KJnfYk;ghf tpsq;fpaJ.

muRk; Rk;kh ,Uf;ftpy;iy. kpff; fLikahd vjpHj;jhf;Fjy;fisj; njhLj;jJ. gh];jpahtpd; fhty;Jiw Gul;rpf;fhuHfs; my;yJ Gul;rpf;fhuHfs; vd ma;ag;gl;ltHfs; vy;NyhiuAk; rpj;jputij nra;J nfhd;wJ. Fz;L Jisf;fg;gl;l ,isQHfsJ rlyq;fs; jiyefupd; Kf;fpa njUf;fspy; tPrg;gl;ld. Gul;rpf;fhuHfSf;F ve;jtpjkhd jz;lid fhj;jpUf;fpwJ vd;W njuptpg;gJNghy; Fz;Lfs; NrHj;Jf; fl;lg;gl;l rlyq;fs; gutyhf vq;Fk; fhzg;gl;ld.

murpd; fLikahd mlf;FKiwf;F vjpuhf ehl;L kf;fsplk; vjpHg;GzHT mjpfupj;jJ. muR fpl;lj;jl;l kf;fspd; xl;L nkhj;j Mjuit ,oe;j epiyapy; ,Ue;jJ.

If;fpa mnkupf;fhtpd; ntspAwTf; nfhs;ifAk; gh];jpahtpw;Fr; rhjfkhf ,Uf;ftpy;iy. 1958 Mk; Mz;Lf;F Kd;dH mnkupf;fh gh];jpah muir Mjupj;J te;jJ. fpA+ghtpw;fhd mnkupf;f JhJtH tof;fj;jpw;F Nkyhd ey;YwitAk; el;igAk; fhl;b te;jhH.

1957 Mk; Mz;Lf; filrpapy; mnkupf;fh fpA+ghtpw;fhd MAj tpw;gidia ,ilepWj;jp itf;fj; njhlq;fpaJ. 1958 khHr;rpy; mnkupf;fh fpA+ghtpw;fhd MAj tpw;gidia Kw;whfj; jilnra;jJ.

,e;j MAjj; jil gh];jpah murpd; ,uhZt gyj;ijg; ngupjsT ghjpf;fhtpl;lhYk; mnkupf;fhtpd; eltbf;if Vw;fdNt ,wq;F Kfj;jpy; ,Ue;j muR kw;Wk;  ,uhZtj;jpd; kd epiyia ntFthfg; ghjpj;jJ.

kuj;jhNy tpOe;jtid khNlwp kpjpg;gJNghy muir mJtiufhyKk; Mjupj;j my;yJ mJtiu muRf;F vjpuhf vJtpj vjpHg;Gk; fhl;lhj gy r%f mikg;Gf;fs; jq;fs; Mjuit tpyf;fpf;nfhs;s Muk;gpj;jd. fpwpj;jt Njthyak;> njhopy;rhH ty;Ydupd; rq;fq;fs;> tzpfHfs;> Clfq;fs; ehl;by; Gjpa NjHjy; xd;W ,lk;ngw Ntz;Lk; vdf; Nfhup mOj;jk; nfhLf;fj; njhlq;fpd.

Mdhy; 1958 Mk; Mz;L ele;j Nkhrbj; NjHjypd; gpd;dH gyUf;Fj; NjHjy; ehl;bd; Nehiaf; Fzg;gLj;j cjTk; xU kUe;jhf mikAk; vd;w ek;gpf;ifia ,of;fr; nra;J tpl;lJ. khwhf td;Kiw %yNk fpA+ghtpy; xU r%f khw;wj;ijf; nfhz;L tuyhk; vdg; ngUk;ghNyhH fUjpdhHfs;.

Nr FthuhtpdJ mzpapd; jhf;FjYf;F ,uhZtj;jpdhy; <L nfhLf;f Kba tpy;iy. mjdhy; rhe;jh fpyhw (Santa Clara) ,uhZt Kfhk; kpf vspjhff;

nfupyhf;fspd; ifapy; tPo;e;jJ. mjidj; njhlHe;J bnrk;gH khjk; 20 Mk; ehs; Oriente gpuNjrj;jpy; ,Ue;j Cristo Garrison Nr Fthuhtpd; gilazpfsplk; ruz; mile;jJ. mLj;J  Alto Songo kw;Wk;  Boniato efuq;fis Gul;rpg; gilfs; ifg;gw;wpd. bnrk;gH 21 Mk; ehs;  Caimanera vd;w efuk;tPo;e;jJ. mjw;F fpA+gh flw;gil ,uhZtj;Jf;F Mjuthf Ml;bywpj; jhf;Fjy;fis elj;j kWj;J tpl;lJ Kf;fpa fhuzkhFk;.

bnrk;gH 22 Mk;  ehs; gh];jpah jdJ kfid  kpahkpf;F mDg;gp itj;jhH. ,d;ndhU ez;giu epA+NahHf; efuj;Jf;F mDg;gpj; jdJ tq;fpf; fzf;Ff;F itg;G itf;f 40 kpy;ypad; nlhyHfis mtuplk; nfhLj;jhH.  ,jw;fpilapy; gh];jpah  1959 rdtup 6Mk; ehs; ehl;il tpl;L Xlj; jpl;lk; ,LfpwhH vd;w tje;jp vq;Fk; gutpaJ. ehl;il tpl;Lg; gwf;f  gh];jpah 3 tpkhdq;fis jahH epiyapy; itf;FkhW fl;;lis ,l;lhH. rdhjpgjp khspifapy; itf;fg;gl;bUe;j Kf;fpa Mtzq;fisj; jPf;fpiuahf;Fk; gzpAk; njhlq;fpaJ. 

 


 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

Gul;rp ntd;wJ!

(76)

rdhjpgjp gh];jpah ehl;il tpl;L tpkhdj;jpy; Xbj; jg;Gtjw;F Maj;jk; nra;fpwhH vd;gijf; Nfs;tpg;gl;l ,uhZtk; fpsHr;rpg; gilf;F vjpuhfr; rz;il nra;tij epWj;jp tpl;lJ. bnrk;gH 23 Cabaiguan vd;w gpuNjrj;ij ve;jtpj rz;ilAkpd;wp ,uhZtk; fpsHr;rpg; gilaplk; ifaspj;jJ. mLj;j ehs; Lacetas, Santi-Spiritus, Maffo vd;w gpuNjrq;fs; mNj ghzpapy; fpsHr;rpg; gilfsplk; tPo;e;jd.

bnrk;gH 25 ,uhZtj; jsgjpfs; Rio Chaviano and Rosell  ngUthupahd MAjq;fisf; nfhz;L nrd;w xU  Giftz;bNahL vjpup gilaplk; ruz; mile;jhHfs;. ,e;j MAjq;fs; vjpup gilapdUf;F vjpuhd filrpr; rz;ilf;Fg; gad;gLj;j ,Ue;jtifahFk;.

mjw;F vjpHkhwhf xU neUf;fbahd fl;lj;jpy;  f];NwhTf;Fj; Njitahd MAjq;fs; mtuJ iff;Fg; Ngha;r; NRHe;jd. Nwhry; (Rosell) MAjq;fisf; ifaspj;j gpd;dH xU glfpy; kpahkpf;F Xbj; jg;gpdhH! Rio-Chaviano xU tpkhdj;jpy; rhe;Njh nlhkpq;Nfhtpw;Fj; jg;gp XbdhH.

bnrk;gH 25 ,y; Remedios gpuNjrKk;  mLj;j ehs; Caibarien gpuNjrKk; Gul;rpg;  gilfsplk; tPo;e;jd.

flypy; %o;fpw  fg;gypy; ,Ue;J ntspNaWk; vypfs; Nghy gh];jpahtpd; caHkl;l ,uhZtj; jsgjpfs; gyH ehl;iltpl;L Xbj; jg;gpdhHfs;.

bnrk;gH 31 tpyh]; khfhzj;jpy; cs;s gy;kh (Palma) ; Sorianotpy kw;Wk; Oriente  gpuNjrq;fsp;y; epiynfhz;bUe;j mur gilfs; fj;jpapd;wp ,uj;jkpd;wpf; fpsHr;rpg; gilfsplk; ruz; mile;jd. bnrk;gH khjj;jpy; ,uz;L gf;fj;jpYk; ,we;j NghH tPuHfsJ vz;zpf;if 800 iwj; jhz;l tpy;iy. vjpHf;fpsHr;rpg; gilapy; ,we;jtHfspy; ngUk;ghd;ikNahH A+iy 26 ,af;fj;ijr; NrHe;jtHfs; my;y> mtHfs;  PRC vdg;gLk; kf;fs; Gul;rpf; FOitr; NrHe;jtHfs; MtH.

Gj;jhz;L jpdkhd rdtup 1 Mk; ehs;  mjpfhiy 2.00 kzpf;Fg; gh];jpahTk; mtuJ neUq;fpa rfhf;fSk; fpA+ghit tpl;Lf; nfhyk;gpahTf;F  ,uhZt tpkhdk; xd;wpy; jg;gp XbdhHfs;.

epidj;jpUe;jhy; ahuhtJ xU Jzpr;ryhd ,uhZt jsgjp 40>000 tPuHfisf; nfhz;l ,uhZtj;Jf;Fj; jiyik jhq;fp f];Nwhtpd; nfupy;yhg; gil mzpfisAk; kw;Wk; mtuJ 100>000 fk;A+dp];l; fl;rp cWg;gpdHfisAk; Aj;j fsj;jpy; Njhw;fbj;jpUf;fyhk;. ,uhZtj;jpw;F vjpuhd fpsHr;rpg; gilfs; Oriente and Las Villas khfhzq;fspy; kl;Lk; epiy nfhz;bUe;jd. jPtpd; Vida gFjpfspy; fpsHr;rpg; gilfspd; Njhw;wk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. Mdhy; gh];jpahtpd; ,lj;ij epug;gp Ml;rpiaf; ifapy; vLf;f ve;jnthU ,uhZt jsgjpNah my;yJ murpay;thjpNah Kd;tutpy;iy.

rdtup 1 ,y; kPz;Lk; ruzhfjpg; glyk; njhlq;fpaJ. mNj ehs; f];Nwh rhe;jh fpswhtpy; epiynfhz;bUe;j  KjyhtJ gilazpia ve;j vjpHg;Gkpd;wpf; ifg;gw;wpdhH. `thdhtpy; yh `ghdtpy; epiynfhz;bUe;j ,uz;lhtJ gilazpiaf; ifg;gw;WkhW Nr Fthuhitf; f];Nwh gzpj;jhH. me;jg; gilazp njhiyNgrp %yk; ruzile;jJ. Vida gilazpfSk;  njhiyNgrp %yk; ruzile;jd. ruzile;j gilapdiu tPl;Lf;F mDg;gptpl;L mtHfs; ,Ue;j Kfhk;fspy; fk;A+dp];l; gilapdH cl;GFe;jdH.

Kg;gjpuz;L tajhd f];Nwh Xwpae;Nj (Castro Oriente) ,y; ,Ue;J jhq;fpapy; Gwg;gl;L jiyefukhd `thdhtpw;F rdtup 9 Mk; ehs; te;J NrHe;jhH. mtiu Mapuf;fzf;fhd kf;fs; Muthuk; nra;J tuNtw;whHfs;. f];Nwh ehlshtpa nghJ NtiyepWj;jk; xd;Wf;F Ntz;LNfhs; tpLj;jhH. mjw;Ff; fpilj;j ntw;wp Gul;rpapd; ,Wjp ntw;wpiag; giwaiwe;jJ!

Gul;rp Vw;gl;l fhy fl;lj;jpy; fpA+gh ehl;bd; fpuhkg;Gw kf;fsJ ruhrup Mz;L tUkhdk; 91 m.nlhyuhf kl;LNk ,Ue;jJ. ,J mnkupf;f kprprpg;gp khepyj;jpd; Mz;L tUkhdj;jpy; vl;by; xd;whFk;. kprprpg;gp khepyNk mnkupf;fhtpd; Vio khepykhFk;.

fpA+gh kf;fspy; 11 tpOf;fhl;bdNu ghy; mUe;jpdhHfs;. ehd;F tpOf;fhl;bdNu ,iwr;rp rhg;gpl;lhHfs;. ,uz;L my;yJ %d;W tpOf;fhl;bdUf;Nf Foha;j; jz;zPH trjp ,Ue;jJ. xd;gJ Gs;sp xd;W (9.1) tpOf;fhl;bdUf;Nf kpd;rhu trjp ,Ue;jJ. Kg;gj;jhW tpOf;fhl;bdH Fly; xl;Lzpahy; (Intestinal parasites) ghjpf;fg;gl;bUe;jhHfs;. gjpdhd;F  tpOf;fhl;bdUf;F vYk;GUf;fp Neha; ,Ue;jJ. kf;fs; njhifapy; 43 tpOf;fhl;bdH jw;Fwpfshf ,Ue;jdH.

1959 rdtup 2 ,y; muR xU mwptpj;jiy tpLj;jJ. frpNdhtpy; ,Ue;J ngwg;gLfpw tUkhdj;jpy; 50-60 tpOf;fhL Mf;feyj; jpl;lq;fSf;Fr; (Welfare Programmes) nrytplg;gLk; vdj; njuptpj;jJ.

tpLjiyg; Nghuhl;l fhyj;jpy; ,U gf;fKk; 20>000 NgH nfhy;yg;gl;lhHfs;. f];Nwh Gul;rpiag; ghJfhf;f 50>000 iwgps;]; kw;Wk; ,ae;jpuj; Jg;ghf;fpfis cldbahf ,wf;Fkjp nra;tjw;Ff; fl;lis gpwg;gpj;jhH. f];Nwh fpA+gh ,uhZtj;jpd; jiyikafj;ijj; jhf;fpg; gpbf;ftpy;iy. mjw;fhd mtrpak; votpy;iy.

gh];jpahTk; mtuJ MjuthsHfSk; murpay; ahg;gpd; gpufhuk; rl;lk; xOq;if epiy ehl;Ltjw;Fg; gjpy; Xbj; jg;gpaJ Nfhioj;jdk; vd kf;fs; epidj;jhHfs;. mjpfhuj;ijf; iffOtpaJ> fUT+yj;ijf; nfhs;isabj;jJ mtHfs; ,ioj;j ghupa Fw;wq;fshFk;. ,Ue;Jk; gpuhQ;R ehl;il Mz;l 16 MtJ Yhap kd;didg; Nghy gh];jpah filrptiu rdhjpgjp khspifapy; jq;fpapUe;J ifjhthH vd;Wjhd; fpA+gh kf;fs; vjpHghHj;jhHfs;!

rhj;jhidr; rpYitapy; vg;NghjhtJ miwe;J nfhy;y epidjhy; mJ mjd; nfhLikf;F Mf ,Uf;f KbahJ. khwhf mJ mjd; Kl;lhs;j;jdj;Jf;F my;yJ mrl;Lj;jdj;Jf;fhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.   

gh];jpahtpd; mikr;ruit cWg;gpdHfspy; gyH jq;fs; FLk;gq;fNshL rdtup 1 Mk; ehs; "tpLKiw" apy; ehl;Lf;F ntspNa ,Ue;jhHfs;. gh];jpah Kjypy; NghHj;Jf;fy; nrd;W mq;fpUe;J ,Rg;ghdpahTf;F ,lk;ngaHe;J tho;e;jhH. vz;gJ Kw;gFjpapy; gh];jpah fhykhdhH.  

gh];jpahtpd; ,lj;ij epug;Gtjw;F A+iy 26 ,af;fNk jFjp tha;e;jjhf ,Ue;jJ.  mwpTg; gpiog;ghsHfs;> njhopy;rhH ty;YdHfs; kw;Wk; gy;fiyf; fofg; NguhrpupaHfs; Nghd;wtHfshy; njhlq;fg;gl;l nghJkf;fs; vjpHg;G ,af;fk; (The Civic Resistance  Movement) rupahd jiyikj;JtNkh fl;Lf;Nfhg;Ngh ,y;yhJ ,Ue;jJ.

mjw;F khwhff; f];Nwhtpd; trPfukhd MSik> mtuJ mHg;gzk;> mtNu jq;fsJ kPl;ghsH (Messiah)  vd;w kf;fsJ ek;gpf;if mtNu ehl;bd; Ml;rpj; jiytuhf tuNtz;Lk; vd;w VNfhgpj;j vz;zj;ij Vw;gLj;jpaJ. f];Nwh kzpf;fzf;fpy; ve;jf; Fwpg;igAk; ghHf;fhJ Ngrf;$ba ey;y Ngr;rhsuhf tpsq;fpdhH. mghukhd epidthw;wy; cs;stH vd;w ngaUk; mtUf;F ,Ue;jJ.

f];Nwh khztuhf ,Ue;j NghJk; mjw;Fg; gpd;dUk; r%fj;jpy; kype;J fhzg;gl;l nfhLikfisg; gw;wpAk;> caHT jho;T gw;wpAk; mtw;iwj; JupjkhfTk; MokhfTk; nfy;yp vwpag;gl Ntz;ba mtrpak; gw;wpAk; ePz;l ciufs; Mw;wpapUf;fpwhH!  

gh];jpah Ml;rpapd;NghJ ehl;by; epytpa mtek;gpf;if kiwe;J vjpHfhyk;gw;wpa ek;gpf;if gpwe;jJ. gh];jpah muRf;F vjpuhd Nghuhl;lj;jpy; <LglhjtHfSk; ,g;NghJ nfhQ;rk; Fw;wkdj;NjhL Gul;rpapd; gf;fk; NrHe;J nfhz;lhHfs;.

mnkupf;fh cl;gl gy cyf ehLfs; f];Nwh vj;jifa Gul;rp muir epWtg; NghfpwhH vd;gij ntF MtNyhL ftdpj;jd. f];Nwh %tH mlq;fpa xU Ml;rpgPlj;ij epWtpdhH. mtuhy; nghWf;fp vLf;fg;gl;l kDNty; cWrpah ( Manuel Urrutia )  rdhjpgjpahfTk;> Nah]; kpNwh fhHbNahdh (Jose Miro Cardiona) gpujkuhfTk; epakpf;fg; gl;lhHfs;. gilfspd; jsgjpg; nghWg;ig mtNu vLj;Jf; nfhz;lhH.  

gjtp Vw;Wg; gy fpoikfs; fopj;Jk; f];Nwh ,uhZtj;Jf;Fj; jiyik jhq;fpdhNunahopa Ml;rpapy; Neubahfg; gq;F gw;wtpy;iy. f];Nwh ,uhztj;jpd; vz;zpf;ifia 40>000 ,y; ,Ue;J 600>000 Mf caHj;jpdhH. ,jpy; miuthrp wpNrHt; gilfs; MFk;. 1959 njhlq;fp 1963 tiu xt;nthU Mz;Lk; ,uhZtj;Jf;F Nkyjpf NghHtPuHfs; NrHf;fg;gl;lhHfs;.

rdhjpgjp kDNty; cWrpah mikr;ruit xd;iw mikj;J mjpy; gh];jpahtpw;F vjpuhf ,aq;fpa murpay;thjpfis ,lk;ngwr; nra;jhH. mjd; gpd;dH gh];jpah fhyj;J Ml;rpapd; fl;Lkhdj;ij cilf;Fk; Ntiyapy; ,wq;fpdhH. njhlHr;rpahd rl;lg; gpufldq;fs; %yk; mJtiu fhyKk; gjtpapy; ,Ue;j Nguit (Congress) fiyf;fg; gl;lJ. Nguit cWg;gpdHfs;> khfhz MSeHfs;> NkaHfs; kw;Wk; Ng&H cWg;gpdHfs; MfpNahuJ gjtpfs; gwpf;fg;gl;L vy;NyhUk; tPl;Lf;F mDg;gp itf;fg;gl;lhHfs;.

gh];;jpah fhyj;Jr; nra;jpj; jzpf;if> NghHf;fhyr; rl;lk; (Martial Law) xopf;fg;gl;ld. NkYk; mur ,ae;jpuj;jpy; xl;bapUe;j gh];jpahtpd; MjuthsHfs; Kw;whff;  fisnaLf;fg; gl;lhHfs;.

Mdhy; ehl;bd; cz;ikahd Ml;rp mjpfhuk; f];Nwh kw;Wk; mtuJ thypg vjpHf;fpsHr;rpj;  jsgjpfspd; ifapy; ,Ue;jnjd;gJ njspthfpaJ. f];Nwh jdJ ciufspy; Ml;rpgw;wpa nfhs;iffisr; rdhjpgjp cWrpahthy;  cUthf;fg;gl;l mikr;ruitNahL fye;jhNyhrpf;fhky; gpufldk; nra;jhH. mJ kl;Lky;yhJ r%f nghUshjhu rPHjpUj;jq;fs; ke;jnfjpapy; eilngWtjhfTk; Fw;wk; rhl;bdhH.

ngg;utup  eLg;gFjpapy; gpujkH Nah]; kpNwh fhHNlhdh  jdJ gjtpapypUe;J tpyfpdhH. f];Nwh ,uhZtj; jsgjp  gjtpNahL gpujkH gjtpiaAk; Vw;Wf; nfhz;lhH. f];Nwh gpujkuhdJk; gy mjpub eltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhz;lhH.  

Kjypy; f];Nwh Kd;ida rHthjpfhup gh];jpahtpd; Kf;fpa MjuthsHfs;> cle;ijahsHfs; (collaborators) gf;fk; jdJ ftdj;ijj; jpUg;gpdhH. MWkhj ,ilntspapy; 500 Fk; mjpfkhd vjpHg;Gul;rpahsHfs; Gul;rp ePjpkd;wq;fspd; Kd; tprhuizf;F epWj;jg;gl;lhHfs;. ePjp tprhuiz njhiyf;fhl;rpapy; fhl;lg;gl;lJ. Gul;rp ePjpkd;wq;fspdhy;  kuz jz;lid tpjpf;fg;gl;ltHfs; cldbahf Nky;tprhuiz vJTkpd;wpj; Jhf;fpy; Nghlg;gl;lhHfs;.

,e;j mjpub eltbf;iffs; fpA+gh ehl;Lf;F cs;NsAk; ntspNaAk;> Fwpg;ghf mnkupf;fhtpy; ngupa Gaiyf; fpsg;gpaJ. ehl;Lf;F cs;NsAk; ntspNaAk; te;j fz;ldf; fizfSf;F Kfk; nfhLf;f Ntz;ba epHg;ge;jk; vOe;jNghJ gfpuq;f tprhuizfis epWj;jptpl;L ,ufrpa tprhuizfis muR KLf;fp tpl;lJ.

gh];jpahtpd;  Ml;rpf; fhyjjpy; mtUf;F  MjuthfTk; cle;ijahfTk; ,Ue;jtHfsJ fhzp G+kpfSk; gwpf;fg;gl;ld.  

epyr; rPHjpUj;jj;Jf;fhd  Kjy; fl;l khw;wq;fs; Nk 17 ,y; mwptpf;fg;gl;ld. Gjpjhf cUthf;fg;gl;l epyr; rPHjpUj;jr; rl;lj;jpd; fPo; Njrpa epyr; rPHjpUj;jj;jpw;fhd epWtdk; (National Institute for Agrarian Reform) xd;W mikf;fg;gl;lJ. ngupa Njhl;lq;fs; ifNaw;fg;gl;L mur gz;izfshf khw;wg; gl;ld. fhzpfs; rpW Njhl;lf;fhuHfSf;Ff; ifaspf;fg;gl;lJ. fUk;Gj; Njhl;lq;fs; $l;LwTg; gz;izfshf khw;wg;gl;ld.

US United Fruit Company   vd;w mnkupf;f epWtdk; cl;gl gy epWtdq;fs; ,og;gPL vJTkpd;wp ehl;Llik Mf;fg;gl;ld. ehl;Llik Mf;fg;gl;l mnkupf;f epWtdq;fSf;F ,og;gPL nfhLg;gJgw;wp mnkupf;fhNthL Ngrf; fpA+gh Kd;te;jJ. Mdhy; mnkupf;fh mjid epuhfupj;J tpl;lJ.

 


 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

Gul;rpf;Fg; gpd; Gul;rpfu khw;wq;fs;!

(77)

1961Mk; Mz;L f];Nwh fpA+ghtpy; ,lk;ngw;w Gul;rp NrhryPr Gul;rp vd;W gpufldk; nra;jhH.  mjidj; njhlHe;J muR nghUshjhu jsj;jpy; mjpub khw;wq;fis mKy;gLj;jpaJ. tptrha fhzpfs; ifafg;gLj;jg;gl;L mit tptrhapfSf;Fg; gfpHe;jspf;fg;gl;ld. ngupa> eLj;ju  ifj;njhopy;fs; ehl;Llik Mf;fg;gl;L gd;Kfg; gLj;jg;gl;ld. mjd; %yk; Kf;fpa Vw;Wkjpg; nghUshd rPdpapy; kl;Lk; jq;fpapUf;Fk; fl;lhak; Fiwf;fg;gl;lJ.

,aw;if tsq;fs;> Clfq;fs;> gs;spf;$lq;fs;> nra;jpj;njhlH rhjdq;fs;> kpd;rhuk; vy;yhk; mur nrhj;jhf;fg;gl;ld.

fpuhkg;Gwq;fSf;Fk; efuq;fSf;Fk; ,ilapy; epytpa ntspg;gilahd nghUshjhu Vw;wj; jho;Tfis xopg;gjw;Fupa eltbf;iffs; Nkw; nfhs;sg;gl;ld.

tPby;yhjtHfSf;F FbapUg;Gj; jpl;lq;fs; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;ld.  fy;yhikiag; Nghf;f ehL jOtpa gug;Giu elj;jg;gl;lJ. fpA+ghtpy; Gul;rpf;F Kd;dH 30 tpOf;fhl;bdNu vOjg; gbf;fj; njupe;jtHfs;. ,d;W fpA+ghtpy; Ehw;Wf;F EhW tpOf;fhl;bdH vOjg; gbf;fj; njupe;jpUf;fpwhHfs;.

mbkl;lj; njhopyhsHfsJ rk;gsk; mjpfupf;fg;gl;lJ. mNj Neuk; njhopy;El;gj; njhopyhsHfsJ rk;gsk; Fiwf;fg;gl;lJ. Nky; jl;L tHf;fk; Kw;whf xopf;fg;gl;lJ. eLj;jl;L tHf;fk; jdf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd fhzpfis ,oe;jJ. Gul;rpahy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l ,yl;rf; fzf;fhd fpA+gh kf;fs; mnkupf;fhtpw;F Xbj; jg;gpdhHfs;.  

xU nghJTlik ehl;iltpl;L Xb tUgtHfs; ahuhapUe;jhYk; mtHfSf;F FbAupik toq;fNtz;Lk; vd;w rl;lj;jpd; fPo; mnkupf;fh mtHfSf;F cldbahff; FbAupik toq;fpaJ. ,d;W kpahkpapy; 49 ,yl;rk; fpA+gd;-mnkupf;fHfs; tho;fpwhHfs;. mJ xU Fl;b fpA+ghthf fhl;rpaspf;fpwJ. mq;F ehd; nrd;wpUe;j NghJ jpUk;gpa gf;fnky;yhk; fpA+ghdpaHfs; fz;zpy; gl;lhHfs;.

kf;fs; vy;NyhUk;> Fwpg;ghf mur gzpahsHfs; (bureaucrats) Nkyhd xOf;fj;ijf; filg;gpbj;J elf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W f];Nwh tw;GWj;jpdhH. Gul;rpf;F Ke;jpa fpA+ghtpy; xOf;fk; Kjyhspj;Jtj;NjhLk; mjd; nfhLikfNshLk;  rk;ge;jg;gl;L ,Ue;jd. NrhryPr nghUshjhuj;ijf; fl;b vOg;g Ntz;Lk; vd;why; Nrhk;gy;> kbapd;ik xopf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. vdNt mit xopf;fg;gl;ld.

NkYk; Kjyhspj;Jt murpapy;-nghUshjhu mikg;gpy; r%fj;jpy; kype;J fhzg;gLk; guj;ijik (prostitution)  #jhl;lk;> FUl;Ltha;g;Gr; rPl;L (lottery) Nfhopr; rz;ilg; Nghl;b ,tw;Wf;F vy;yhk; Kw;Wg;Gs;sp itf;fg;gl;ld.

nghJ xOf;fk;gw;wp xU Kf;fpa rPHjpUj;jk; nfhz;L tug;gl;lJ. mJ nghJg; gzj;ijf; ifahLtJ gw;wpaJ.  nghJg; gzj;ijf; ifahLgtHfSf;Fj; jz;lid Jhf;fhFk;. ,jd; %yk; mur epHthfj;jpy; rfy kl;lj;jpYk; epytpa Coy; xopf;fg;gl;lJ. ,d;Wk; fpA+ghtpy; ifA+l;L vd;w Ngr;Rf;Nf ,lkpy;iy vd;W nrhy;fpwhHfs;.

Gul;rpf;Fg; gpe;jpa Ml;rp ngz;fSf;Fr; rkTupik toq;fp mtHfSf;Ff;  fy;tpapy;> njhopypy; rktha;g;G toq;fpaJ. Gul;rpf;Fg; gpd;dH 5 ,yl;rk; ngz;fSf;F Ntiy tha;g;G toq;fg;gl;lJ. ngz;fs; murpaypy;> tpisahl;by; <Lgl Cf;fptpf;fg; gl;lhHfs;. Kd;diutplg; ngz;fs; gy;fiyf; fofq;fspy; gbj;J gl;lk;ngw;W ntspNawpAs;shHfs;.

f];Nwhtpd; fpA+ghtpy; ngz;fSf;Fupa ,lk; tPL vd;w Nfhl;ghL cilj;njwpag;gl;L tpl;lJ. ,J ed;ikf;fh jpd;ikf;fh vd;gij mstpLtJ rpf;fyhd tplak;. ngz;fSf;F toq;fg;gl;l cupikfs;> tha;g;Gf;fs; FLk;gf; fl;Lf;Nfhg;ig rPHFiya itj;jpUf;fpwJ> Mz;-ngz; cwtpy; tpupry; Vw;gl;Ls;sJ>  Foe;ijfs; ngw;NwhUf;F mlq;fp> mtHfs; nrhy;iy kjpj;J elg;gjpy;iy> ngUk;ghyhd gps;isfs; gs;spf;$l tpLjpapy; jq;fpg; gbg;gjhy; Mz;by; ,uz;nlhU KiwNa ngw;NwhHfisg; ghHf;fpwhHfs; Kjypa khw;wq;fs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. ,tw;why; kzKwpTfs; mjpfupj;J tUfpd;wd> fztd;-kidtp gpupe;J tho;tJNghy; mtHfsJ gps;isfSk; jha; je;ijaiug; gpupe;J tho;fpwhHfs;.

tpag;G vd;dntd;why; ,e;j khw;wq;fis muNr jpl;lkpl;L  Cf;Ftpf;fpwJNghy; gLfpwJ.  fpA+ghtpd; Gjpa rkTlik kdpjid  cUthf;Ftjw;F xNu  top FLk;gk;> kjk; ,uz;ilAk; mopj;njhopg;gNj vd;W muR ek;GfpwJ.

1961Mk; Mz;L fpA+gh nghUshjhu tsHr;rpiaj; Jupjg;gLj;j xU ika jpl;lkply; Mizaj;ij cUthf;fpaJ. ,J ngUk;ghYk; md;iwa fpof;F  ma;Nuhg;gpa nghJTlik  ehLfsJ nghUshjhu mikg;igg; gpd;gw;wpr; nra;ag;gl;l khw;wkhFk;.

ifj;njhopy; mikr;Rf;F Nr Fthuh mikr;ruhf epakdk; nra;ag;gl;lhH. jdpahH nghUshjhuk; mur fl;Lg;ghl;by; nfhz;Ltug; gl;lghJ tPz; tpuak;> jpwikapd;ik> rPHFiyT> gztPf;fk; jiyJhf;fpd. ,jdhy; tpthrha cw;gj;jp tPo;r;rp mile;jJ. ,jd; fhuzkhf 1961Mk; Mz;L Kjd;Kiwahf czTg; gq;fPl;Lj; jpl;lk; nfhz;Ltug;gl;lJ.

,d;Wk; fpA+ghtpy; czTg; gQ;rk; ,Uf;fpwJ>  tWik ,Uf;fpwJ> NrhryPr ehLfs; tWikia xopf;f Kbahky; ,Ug;gJ xU ngupa FiwahFk;.  mjdhy;jhd; cUrpah> rPdh Nghd;w ehLfs; NrhryPr nghUshjhuj;ijf; iftpl;L Kjyhspj;Jt my;yJ re;ijg; nghUshjhu Kiwikia (Capitalist or market oriented economic system) tpLjy; mwpah tpUg;NghL fl;bj; jOtpAs;sd.

khNr Jq; NrhryPr nghUshjhuj;ijf; iftpl;L kPz;Lk; Kjyhspj;Jt nghUshjhuj;ijf; iff;nfhz;lNghJ  "G+id fUg;gh rptg;gh vd;gjy;y Nfs;tp. mJ vyp gpbf;fpwjh  ,y;iyah vd;gJjhd; Nfs;tp" vd;W mofhfr; nrhd;dhH. mjhtJ nghUshjhu Kiwik NrhryPrkh Kjyhspj;Jtkh vd;gjy;y Nfs;tp. Kiwik vJthdhYk; mJ nghUs; cw;gj;jpia mjpfupf;f Ntz;Lk;. kdpjdJ mbg;gil czT> cil> ciwtplj; Njitfis epiwNtw;w Ntz;Lk;.

ehd; Kd;dH Fwpg;gpl;lJNghy ,d;W cyfpy; ,uz;Nl ,uz;L NrhryPr  ehLfs;jhd; vQ;rp ,Uf;fpd;wd. xd;W fpA+gh> kw;wJ tl nfhupah. ,uz;LNk Vio ehLfs;! ehk; xj;Jf; nfhz;lhYk; rup xj;Jf; nfhs;shtpl;lhYk; rup NrhryPr G+idahy;  vypiag; gpbf;f Kbahky; ,Uf;fpwJ! fpA+ghtpd; Vo;ikf;F mnkupf;fh mjd; kPJ fle;j 43 Mz;Lfshf tpjpj;Js;s fLikahd nghUshjhuj; jil  xU fhuzk;.  Mdhy;> mJNt KOf; fhuzk; vd;W nrhy;y KbahJ.       

,e;jf; fpoik Kd;dhs; mnkupf;f rdhjpgjp fhl;lH (1977-81) jdJ JiztpahH NwhrypNdhL ( Rosalynn ) fpA+gh nrd;wpUf;fpwhH. ,jd; %yk; fpA+gh Gul;rpf;Fg; gpd;dH mq;F nryT (gazk;)  Nghd Kjy;  Kd;dhs; my;yJ ,d;dhs; rdhjpgjp vd;w ngaiuf; fhl;lH jl;bf; nfhz;bUf;fpwhH. mtUf;F ,g;NghJ mfit 75. mtuJ gjtpf;fhyj;jpy; fpA+ghNthL mnkupf;f ,uhrje;jpu  cwTfisg; GJg;gpf;f KbT nra;jhH. mjw;fhf fpA+ghtpy; xU JhJtuhyaj;ijj; jpwg;gjw;Fg; gjpy; eyd;fs; gpupT (Interests Section) xd;wpidj; jpwe;jhH.

mnkupf;f Fbkf;fs; vtUk; mnkupf;f murpd; Kd; mDkjpapd;wpf; fpA+ghTf;Fr; nry;y KbahJ. fhl;lH mnkupf;f murpd; mDkjpNahLjhd; fpA+gh nrd;wpUf;fpwhH.

fpA+ghtpw;F mnkupf;f Fbkf;fs; ,g;NghJ fsthfg; Ngha; tUfpwhHfs;. mnkupf;fhtpy; ,Ue;J Neubahfg; Nghfhky; gfhkh];> nkf;rpf;Nfh> [Nka;f;fh> fdlh Nghd;w ehLfSf;Fr; nrd;W mq;fpUe;J fpA+ghtpw;Fg; NghfpwhHfs;. fle;j Mz;L 50>000 mnkupf;fHfs; jilia kPwpf; fsthf fpA+ghTf;Fr; Rw;Wyh nrd;W jpUk;gpapUf;fpwhHfs;.

gjtp tpyfpa gpd;dH fhl;lH  cyfshtpa kdpjNeag; gzpfspy; <Lgl;L tUfpwhH. mjw;F cjTKfkhf kdpj Nkk;ghl;Lf;fhd Nwhrypd; fhl;lH epWtdk;  (The Rosalynn Carter Institute for Human Development ) vd;w ngaupy; xU epWtdj;ij 1987 ,y; epWtpdhH. ,e;j epWtdk; Kjy; ngUkhl;b Nwhrypid Nkd;ikg;gLj;jj; Njhw;Wtpf;fg;gl;lJ. ,J NahH[pah njd;Nkw;F gy;fiyf; fofj;jpy; (Georgia Southwestern State University (GSW) in Americus) ,aq;FfpwJ. ngUkhl;b Nwhrypd; ,e;jg; gy;fiyf; fofj;jpd; gioa khztp vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.

,e;j epWtdj;jpd; Fwpf;Nfhs; jdp kdpjHfs;> FLk;gq;fs; kw;Wk; njhopy;rhH guhkupg;ghsHfsJ kdeyk; kw;Wk; ey;tho;T njhlHghf Muha;r;rp> fy;tp> gapw;rp mspg;gjhFk;. tPby;yhjtHfSf;F tPLfs; fl;bf; nfhLg;gJ fhl;lH Nkw;nfhs;Sk; kdpj eyj;jpl;lq;fspy; Kjyplk; tfpf;fpwJ. ,e;j ew;gzpfs; mtUf;F ew;ngaiuAk; GfioAk; cyfstpy; ngw;Wf; nfhLj;Js;sd. rdhjpgjp f];Nwhtpd; ePz;l ehs; miog;ig Vw;Wj;jhd; fhl;lH fpA+gh nryit Nkw;nfhz;Ls;shH.

rdhjpgjp f];Nwh jdJ Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpy; ,Jtiu nkhj;jk; 10 mnkupf;f rdhjpgjpfs; gjtpf;F te;J Ngha;tpl;lijg; ghHj;jpUf;fpwhH;! mtHfspy; fhl;lH xUtNu fpA+ghNthL el;Gwit itj;Jf;nfhs;s tpUk;gpa xNu rdhjpgjp MthH.

FbauRf; fl;rpiar; NrHe;j ,d;iwa tyJrhup mnkupf;f rdhjpgjp G\; f];Nwh kPJ fLg;ghf ,Uf;fpwhH. nrd;w tuhuk; G\; fpA+gh ehl;il "Nghf;fpup muRfs; (Rogue States) gl;baypy; NrHj;jpUf;fpwhH.

fpA+gh capupay; NghH Muha;r;rpapy; (Biological warfare research) <LgLtjhfTk;> MAj cw;gj;jp njhopy;EZf;fj;ij Vida ehLfSf;F Vw;Wkjp nra;tjhfTk; mJ gaq;futhjk; jioj;Njhq;f cjTtjhfTk; mnkupf;fh Fw;wk; rhl;bAs;sJ.

,jid Kw;whf kWj;j fpA+gh>  mnkupf;fhtpd; Fw;wr; rhl;L "KOg; ngha;" vd;W tHzpj;Js;sJ. mjid vz;gpf;f "fpAghtpd; capupay; Muha;r;rp  epiyaq;fs; midj;ijAk; fhl;lH ghHitaplyhk;. mjw;fhd Vw;ghl;ilr; nra;J nfhLf;f ehq;fs; Maj;jkhf ,Uf;fpNwhk;" vdf; f];Nwh $wpapUf;fpwhH. mJ kl;Lky;yhky; fhl;lH vijg; Ngr tpUk;GfpwhNuh mjidg; Ngrg; Gul;rp rJf;fj;jpy; gpukhz;lkhd $l;lj;ij xOq;F nra;J nfhLf;fTk; jahH vdf; f];Nwh mwptpj;jpUf;fpwhH.

f];Nwhtpd; jdpf; fl;rp Ml;rpf;F fpA+ghtpy; vjpHg;G ,Uf;fpwJ vd;gJ vd;dNkh cz;ikjhd;. gy vjpHg;ghsHfs; rpiwapy; itf;fg; gl;bUf;fpwhHfs;. ,jpy; Vladimiro Roca Antunez  vd;gtH Kf;fpakhdtH. fhl;lupd; tUifianahl;b xU ey;nyz;z rkpf;ifahf mtH rpiwapy; ,Ue;J tpLjiy nra;ag;gl;Ls;shH. rpiwapy; ,Ue;J tpLjiy nra;ag;gl;l Vladimiro Roca Antunez   fhl;lupd; tUifiag; gad;gLj;jp fpA+ghtpy; ghupa r%f> murpay;> nghUshjhu khw;wq;fs; nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk; vdf; Nfl;L 11>020 NgH ifnaOj;jpl;l tpz;zg;gj;ijf; fpA+gh Njrpa mitf;Ff; (Cuba National Assembly) nfhLj;jpUf;fpwhH.  xU tpz;zg;gj;jpy; 10>000 thf;fhsHfs; ifnaOj;jpl;lhy; me;j tpz;zg;gk; Njrpa mitapy; tpthjj;jpw;F vLj;Jf; nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ murpay; ahg;gpy; fhzg;gLk; newpahFk;.  

Gul;rp %yk; ghupa r%f> murpay;> nghUshjhu khw;wq;fs;  eilKiwg; gLj;jg; gl;l xU ehl;by; mNj r%f. murpay; nghUshjhu khw;wq;fs; nfhz;L tUkhW tpz;zk; nra;jpUg;gJ xU tpe;ijahFk;.

vt;tsTjhd; f];Nwhtpd; Ml;rp Vw;wj; jho;T ,y;yhj> Mz;lhd; mbik vd;w Ngjkpy;yhj njhopyhsH-tptrhapfs; Ml;rpia epWtpapUe;jhYk; mJ xU jdpkdpj my;yJ jdpf;fl;rp rHthjpfhu Ml;rp vd;gij ahUk; kWf;f KbahJ.

cyf tuyhw;wpy; nfhbfl;bg; gwe;j rHthjpfhupfs;> flTspd; kW mtjhuk; vd;W miof;fg;gl;l Kbkd;dHfs;  <w;wpy; kf;fshy; ftpo;f;fg;gl;lhHfs; vd;gJjhd; tuyhW gbg;gpj;Jf; nfhLf;Fk; ghlk;. MFk;.   

,d;iwa kf;fshl;rpapy; gy Fiwfs; ,Uf;fyhk;. gy gytPdq;fs; ,Uf;fyhk;. Mdhy;> fpNuf;fHfs; fz;L gpbj;j kf;fshl;rp newpiatplr; rpwe;j ,d;ndhU murpay; newpia ,Jtiu fz;L gpbf;fg;gltpy;iy!

fpA+ghtpy; fhyb itj;j fhl;lH ,Rg;ghdpa nkhopapy; NgRk;NghJ "fpA+gh Ml;rpahsHfNshL mikjp> kdpjTupikfs;> rdehafk;" gw;wpf; fye;Jiuahl ,Ug;gjhfj; njuptpj;Js;shH. New;W Kd;jpdk; fhl;lupd; ciu ve;jj; jzpf;ifAk; ,d;wpf; fpA+gh njhiyf; fhl;rpapy; Neub xspgug;ghdJ. fpA+gh kPjhd 43 Mz;Lfhy nghUshjhuj;jil kw;Wk; gazj;jil ,uz;ilAk; ePf;FkhW mnkupf;f muirf; Nfl;Lf; nfhz;l fhl;lH fpA+gh Nkw;Fyf rdehaf ehLfSld; ,iza Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lhH. fpA+gh kPjhd nghUshjhu> gazj; jilfis ePf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w fhl;lupd; Ntz;LNfhis nts;is khspifg; Ngr;rhsH epuhfupj;Js;shH.

fhl;lupd; tUif fpA+ghtpy; ngupjhf ve;j khw;wq;fisAk; Vw;gLj;jg; Nghtjpy;iy. ,Ue;jhYk; kdpjTupikfs;> murpay; njhlHghd nky;ypa khw;wq;fs; Vw;gl tha;g;G ,Uf;fpwJ vd Cfpf;f ,lKz;L vdyhk;..

 

 


 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

 

gd;wp tisFlhg; (Bay of Pigs) gilnaLg;G!

 

(78)

 

nrd;w fpoik fpA+gh kPjhd nghUshjhu> gazj; jilfis ePf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w fhl;lupd; Ntz;LNfhis nts;is khspifg; Ngr;rhsH epuhfupj;J tpl;lhH vd vOjpapUe;Njd;. ,g;NghJ mnkupf;f rdhjpgjp G\; mtHfSk; mjid cWjpg;gLj;jpAs;shH.

 

fpA+gh mnkupf;fhtplk; ,Ue;J tpLjiy ngw;w Ehw;whz;L ,e;jf; fpoik nfhz;lhlg; gLfpwJ. fpA+gh mnkupf;fhtplk; ,Ue;J 1902 Nk 20 Mk; ehs; Rje;jpuk; mile;jJ. ,Rg;ghdpahtpw;Fk;-mnkupf;fhtpw;Fk; ele;j Nghupy; fpA+gh mnkupf;fhtpd; fl;Lg;ghl;Lf;Fs; te;jJ.

 

nts;is khspifapy; ele;j fpA+gh Rje;jpu ehs; nfhz;lhl;lj;jpy; fye;J nfhz;l G\; fpA+ghtpd; fk;A+dpr Ml;rpiaj; jhf;fpg; NgrpdhH. "fpA+ghtpd; jiytH f];NwhTf;F rdehaf Nkirapy; ,lk; ,y;iy> f];Nwhtpd; fpA+ghtpy; Rje;jpuk; ,y;iy khwhf mq;F mbikj;jdk; njhlHfpwJ. mnkupf;ff; fz;lj;jpy; f];Nwhjhd; filrp fk;A+dp];l;> fhyk; mtH gf;fk; ,y;iy> fpA+gh kf;fSf;F epiwa cjtp nra;a Ntz;Lk;. Kjypy; mtHfSf;F kpd;dQ;ry;  %yKk; 'NwbNah khHl;b' (Radio Marti) %yKk; fpA+kh kf;fSf;Fr; Rje;jpukhd nra;jpfisf;  nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;. fpA+ghtpy; ,d;W nfhLq;Nfhy; Ml;rp elf;fpwJ. ,J Nwh]; khHl;b (Rose Marti) Nghd;w 20 Mk; Ehw;whz;Lj; jiytHfspd; jw;nfhilia mtkhdg; gLj;JtjhFk;.  

 

NkYk; mtH njhlHe;J NgRifapy; "gply; f];Nwh cz;ikapy; jdJ Ml;rpKiwapy; ek;gpf;if itj;jpUe;jhy; mtH  me;jj; jPtpy; Ngr;Rr; Rje;jpuj;ij mDkjpf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,d;W ehd; f];Nwhtpw;Ff; $wpf; nfhs;s tpUk;GtJ vd;dntd;why;  ckJ jj;Jtk; rupnad;why;> khw;Wf; fUj;Jf;fis xypgug;Gr; nra;Ak;.  thndhypfs; kPjhd jil ePf;fg;gl;L vz;zr; Rje;jpuk; cldbahf mDkjpf;fg; glNtz;Lk;. mijr; nra;Akl;Lk; ehq;fs; etPd njhopy;El;gl;ijg; gad;gLj;jp NtW NtW ,lq;fspy; ,Ue;J  tpLjiyapd; Fuy;fis xLf;Fk; Kaw;rpf;F vjpuhfr; nray;g;;gLNthk;."

 

G\; vd;d nrhy;fpwhH vd;why; fpA+gh kPjhd nghUshjhuj; jil ePf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;why; mJ mnkupf;f tho;f;if Kiwia> Fwpg;ghf mnkupf;fhtpd; Kjyhspj;Jt re;ijg; nghUshjhu Kiwiaj; jOtpf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

 

fpA+gh kf;fs; gd;Kf murpay; fl;rpfs;> Rje;jpu Clfk;> kdpjTupikfis kjpj;jy;> re;ijg; nghUshjhuk; ,tw;why; gadilayhk;. Mdhy; mtw;iw mnkupf;fh fpA+ghtpw;W cgNjrpg;gJ xU tpjj;jpy;  rhj;jhd; Ntjk; Xjpa fijia xf;Fk; vd;W $wyhk;.

 

,Nj mnkupf;fh nfhLikapd; mr;R (Axis of evil) vd tHzpj;j ,uhd;> ,uhf; kw;Wk; tl nfhupah ehLfNshL 500 Nfhb nlhyH ngWkjpahd thzpfj;ijf; fle;j Mz;L elj;jpAs;sJ. mNjNghy; xU fl;rp Ml;rp epyTk; rPdhNthL (ngaustpy; fk;A+dp] ehL) 12>000 Nfhb>  xU fl;rp Ml;rp epyTk; tpal;ehNkhL 150 Nfhb> kd;duhl;rp eilngWk; rTjp mNugpahNthL 1>900 Nfhb> ,uhZt xLf;FKiw Ml;rp epyTk; ikdkhNuhL 50 Nfhb ngWkjpahd thzpfj;ij mnkupf;fh elj;jpAs;sJ. fNdba gd;dhl;L epWtdq;fSk; ikdkhupy; filtpupj;J thzpfk; nra;fpd;wd.  

 

mnkupf;fh Vd; ,g;gb ,ul;il Ntlk; NghLfpwJ? ,d;W kpahkpapy; RkhH 40 ,yl;rk; mnkupf;f fpA+gHfs; tho;fpwhHfs;.  mtHfsJ thf;Fg; gyk;jhd;  nrd;w rhdhjpgjp NjHjypy; G\;Rf;F ntw;wpiaj; Njbf; nfhLj;jJ. me;j ed;wpf; flidj; jPHf;fj;jhd; G\; fpA+ghTf;F vjpuhff; fLk;Nghf;iff; filg;gpbf;fpwhH.  

 

Nkw;F ehLfspd; ,ul;il Ntlj;Jf;F> nrhy;tJ xd;W nra;tJ  ,d;ndhd;W vd;w Nghf;Ff;F xU vy;iy ,y;iyNghy; njupfpwJ.

 

mnkupf;f ,uhrhq;f jpizf;fsk; Mz;LNjhWk; cyf gaq;futhjk;gw;wp (Global Terrorism) xU ePz;l mwpf;ifiaj; jahupj;J ntspapLfpwJ. Mdhy; cyfpy; ,d;Ws;s kpfg; ngupa gaq;futhj ehL mnkupf;fhjhd;.

 

,uhf;fpd; rdhjpgjp rjhk; FNridg; gjtpapy; ,Ue;J ftpo;g;gjw;F ehSk; nghOJk; mnkupf;f csT epWtdkhd rpma;V jpl;lk;  jPl;b tUfpwJ. ,uhf; vjpHg;ghsHfSf;F mnkupf;fh gfpuq;fkhf epjpAjtp mspj;J tUfpwJ.

 

,it$lg; gUthapy;iy.  Neub ,uhZt  eltbf;if %yk;  rjhk; FNrdpd; Ml;rpiaf; ftpo;f;fg; Nghtjhf rdhjpgjp G\;  khH jl;LfpwhH.

 

tPL nfhSj;Jfpw ,uhrhTf;F neUg;Gf; nfhLf;Fk; ke;jpup Nghy gpupj;jhdpa gpujkH Nuhdp  gpNsaH G\; kr;rhDf;F MjuT njuptpj;Js;shH! gpNsaiu  rdhjpgjp G\;rpd; tsHg;G eha; vd;W mtuJ fl;rpf;fhuHfSk; kw;wtHfSk; Vsdk; nra;tijf;$lg; gpNsaH nghUl;gLj;Jtjhfj; njupatpy;iy.   

 

fpA+ghtpd; rdhjpgjp f];Nwhitf; nfhy;Ytjw;F ehw;gjw;Fk; Nkw;gl;l Kiw mnkupf;f rpma;V csTj; jhgdk; Kaw;rp nra;J Njhy;tp mile;Js;sJ!

 

ghfp];jhdpa ,uhZt Ml;rp> ikdkhH ,uhZt Ml;rp ,tw;Wf;F  mnkupf;fh Mytl;lk; tPRfpwJ. ghfp];jhd; mnkupf;fhtpd; ek;gj;jFe;j $l;lhsp ehnld rdhjpgjp G\; nfhQ;rk;$l  ntl;fNkh Jf;fNkh ,d;wpg; NgRfpwhH!  

 

Gul;rpia mLj;J f];Nwh Nkw;nfhz;l fhzpr; rPHjpUj;jk;> ,og;gPL vJTkpd;wpj;  njhopw; $lq;fisf;> Fwpg;ghf vz;nza;f; fk;gdpfs;> murTlik Mf;fpad Nghd;w eltbf;iffs; mnkupf;fhtpd; Nfhgj;ijf; fpswpd. NkYk; Gul;rp ele;j xU Mz;Lf;Fs; fpA+ghitr; Rw;wpAs;s ehLfspy; Ml;rpf;F vjpuhd MHg;ghl;lq;fs;> fpsHr;rpfs; jiy Jhf;fpd. fpA+ghitg; Nghy ,e;j ehLfspYk; cs;s ,lJrhup ,af;fq;fs; jq;fs; ehl;L rHthjpfhu Ml;rpfisf; ftpo;f;f Kaw;rpj;jhHfs;.

 

fpA+ghtpy; ,Ue;J gdhkh> nlhkpdpf;fd; FbauR kw;Wk; nfapl;b ehLfSf;F vjpuhd gilnaOr;rpfs;  (Expeditions)  fpsk;gpr; nrd;wd. ,tw;iwf;  f];Nwh Jhz;b tpl;lhNuh ,y;iyNah gop  mtH kPJjhd;  Rkj;jg;gl;lJ!

 

fpA+ghtpy; epytpa r%f> murpay;> nghUshjhu #o;epiy xU Gul;rpf;F tpj;jpl;lJNghy ,yj;jpd; mnkupf;f ehLfspYk; Gul;rp Vw;glyhk; vd f];Nwh> Nr Fthuh> whTy; ek;gpdhHfs;. 1960 tJ njhlf;fk; fpA+gh ,uhrje;jpupfs;> KftHfs;> xw;wHfs; Gul;rpf; FOf;fisr; re;jpj;Jg; gug;Giuf;Fj; Njitahd gpuRuq;fs;> epjp ,tw;iw toq;f Muk;gpj;jhHfs;. ,jdhy; fpA+ghtpd;  ,uhrje;jpupfs; cs;ehl;L tptfhuq;fspy; jiyapLtjhff; Fw;wk;rhl;lg;gl;L ehl;iltpl;L ntspNaw;wg; gl;lhHfs;.

 

fpA+ghtpd; Gul;rp midj;Jyf kl;by; jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;jp fpsHr;rpfisj; Jhz;btpl;ld. `thdhtpy; ,Ue;J gzk;> gug;Giu> Ml;fs;> MAjq;fs; Vfhjpgj;jpaj;jpw;F  vjpuhd Gul;rpiaj;  Jhz;btpl Vtg;gl;ld.

 

fpA+gh-mnkupf;f cwTfs; rPHFiye;J nfhz;bUe;j mNj Neuk; fpA+gh-Nrhtpaj; cwTfs; gyg;glj; njhlq;fpaJ. 1960 Mk; Mz;L Nrhtpaj; ehl;bd; cjtpg; gpujkH me];jh]; kpf;Nfhad; (Anastas Mikoyan) `thdhTf;F tUif je;jhH. mjd; nghOJ fpA+ghtpd; rPdpia  Nrhtpaj;jpd; vz;nza;f;F khWnfhs;Sk; xg;ge;jk; vOjg;gl;lJ. Mdhy; mnkupf;fh> gpupj;jhdpah  ,uz;L ehLfSf;Fk; nrhe;jkhd vz;nza; Rj;jpfupg;Gj; njhopw;rhiyfs; Nrhtpaj; vz;nza;iar; Rj;jpfupf;f kWj;jd. ,jdhy; fLj;Jg;Nghd f];Nwh A+d; 28 md;W vy;yh vz;nza;j; njhopw;rhiyfisAk; ehl;Llik Mf;Ftjw;fhd gpufldj;ijr; nra;jhH. mLj;j khjk; mnkupf;fHfSf;Fk; fpA+ghdpaHfSf;Fk;  nrhe;jkhd vQ;rpa thzpf epWtdq;fs; ehl;Llik Mf;fg;gl;ld.

 

xf;NjhgH khjj;jpy; mnkupf;fh fpA+ghtpw;F Vw;WkjpahFk; nghUs;fspy; ngUk;ghydtw;Wf;F  jil tpjpj;jJ. f];Nwh mnkupf;f JhJtuhyaj;jpd; mYtyfHfspd; vz;zpf;ifia gjpndhd;whff; Fiwj;jNghJ mnkupf;fh "mnkupf;fhtpd; jd;khdj;J tpLf;Fk; miw$tiyg; nghWj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;Fk; xU vy;iyAz;L" vdf; fhl;lkhf mwptpj;Jtpl;Lg; gjpybahff; fpA+ghNthlhd ,uhrje;jpu cwTfisf; fj;jupj;Jf; nfhz;lNjhL jdJ JhJtiuAk;  mq;fpUe;J  jpUk;g mioj;Jf; nfhz;lJ.

 

,jd;gpd; f];Nwhtpd; Ml;rpf;F vjpuhff; fLk;Nghf;fpid mnkupf;fh ifahsj; njhlq;fpaJ. f];Nwh Ml;rpiaf; ftpo;g;gjw;Fupa mDkjpia mnkupf;f rdhjpgjp ma;rd;NfhtH (Eisenhower) rpma;Vf;F 1960 khHr;R 17 Mk; ehs; toq;fpdhH. me;jj; jpl;lj;jpw;Fr; #l;lg;gl;l ngaH "f];Nwh Ml;rpf;F vjpuhd kiwKf nray; jpl;lk;" (A Program of Covert Action Against the Castro Regime) vd;gjhFk;.

 

rpma;V f];Nwhitf; ftpo;f;Fk; Kaw;rpapy; Kk;kukhf ,wq;fpaJ. 1954 Mk; Mz;L fTj;jkhyhtpd; ,lJrhupj; jiytH rdhjpgjp Naf;fg; MHngd;];ir (President Jacobo Arbenz) gjtpapy; ,Ue;J ftpo;j;j Kd; gl;lwpT rpma;Vf;F ,Ue;jJ. me;jg; gl;lwptpd; mbg;gilapy; f];NwhitAk; ftpo;f;fj; jpl;lk; jPl;lg;gl;lJ. mjw;F Kd;Ndhbahf  f];Nwh Ml;rpf;F vjpuhf  thndhyp xypgug;Gj; njhlq;fg;gl;lJ. me;j thndhyp epiyak;  nfhd;Jwh]; ehl;Lf;F mUfpy; ,Ue;j Swan  jPtpy; ,Ue;J ,aq;fpaJ.

 

fpA+gh ehl;by; ,Ue;J mnkupf;fhtpw;F Xbte;jtHfisj; Njbg; gpbj;J mtHfSf;F ,uhZt Kfhk;fspy; mnkupf;f ,uhZt mjpfhupfshy;  gapw;rp mspf;fg;gl;lJ. fpA+gh kPJ xU  ,uhZt gilnaLg;Gf;F ,e;j vjpHg; Gul;rpg;giliag; (Counter Revolutionary force) gad;gLj;JtJ vd;gJ mnkupf;fhtpd; Nehf;fkhf ,Ue;jJ.

 

fpA+ghtpd; cs;ehl;L epyik f];Nwhtpd; Ml;rpiaf; ftpo;g;gjw;F ,irthf ,Ug;gJ Nghd;w Njhw;wk; mg;NghJ ,Ue;jJ. f];Nwhtpw;F kf;fs; MjuT ngUksT  ,Ue;jhYk; mJ Fiwe;J nfhz;Nl ,Ue;jJ. mtuJ A+iy 26 ,af;fk; fk;A+dpr Nfhl;ghL rk;ge;jkhd jiltpilapy; gpsT gl;Ltpl;lJ. efug;Gwq;fspy;  f];Nwhtpd; Kd;dhs; NjhoHfs;>  gh];jpahtpd; MjuthsHfs;>  fj;Njhypf;f  FOf;fs; kw;Wk; murpd; eltbf;iffshy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l  rf;jpfs; jpiukiwtpy; ,aq;fp te;jd. fpA+gh ,uhZtj;jpdH kj;jpapYk; xUtpj mikjpapd;ik fhzg;gl;lJ.

 

mnkupf;fh fpA+gh kPJ gilnaLf;Fk; gl;rj;jpy; ghjhs  rf;jpfs; ehL mshtpa ehr Ntiyfspy; <Lglj; jpl;lkpl;ld. ,e;j ehrNtiy fhuzkhf f];Nwhtpd; ,uhZtk;  gpsTgLk; mjdhy; Ml;rp kPjhd f];Nwhtpd; gpb jsUk; vd ,e;jr; rf;jpfs; vjpHghHj;jd. me;jj; jUzk; ghHj;J f];Nwhitj; jPHj;Jf; fl;LtJ Rygk; vd mit fzf;Fg; Nghl;ld. jhf;FjYf;F  Ke;jpa fpoik td;Kiw mjpfupj;jJ. ehnlq;Fk; gutyhff; Fz;Lfs; ntbj;jd. fil fz;zpfs; vupf;fg;gl;ld.

 

,Ue;Jk; ehl;iltpl;L XbatHfs; jq;fs; jhf;Fjy; jpl;lj;jpw;F cs;ehl;L mjpUg;jpahsHfspd; Mjutpy; ek;gpf;if itf;fhJ> jq;fs; nrhe;jg;gil typikapy; xUtpj mrl;L ek;gpf;if itj;jpUe;jhHfs;. ghjhs rf;jpfsJ mikg;Gf;fisf; f];Nwhtpd; csTj;Jiw CLUtp ,Uf;fyhk; vd;w ma;aNk mjw;Ff; fhuzkhFk;.   

 

jhf;FjYf;Fj; Njitg;gLk; MAjq;fs; fpA+ghtpw;Fs; nfhz;L nry;yg;gltpy;iy. gilnaLg;ghsHfSf;Fk; ghjhs rf;jpfSf;Fk; ,ilapyhd jfty; khw;wk; IjhfTk; Fog;gkhfTk; ,Ue;jJ. ghjhs rj;jpfSf;Fg; gilnaLg;G ehs;gw;wpa jfty;  Vg;uy; 17 kl;Lk; njupag;gLj;jg; gltpy;iy.  Mdhy; mNj ehs; mnkupf;f rpma;V csT mikg;gdhy; gapw;Wtpf;fg;gl;l 1>600 NgHnfhz;l vjpHg; Gul;rpg;gil gd;wp tisFlhtpy; (Bay of Pigs) jiuapwq;fpaJ! (tsUk;)

 

 


 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

 

vOgj;jpuz;L kzpj;jpahyq;fspy; Kwpabf;fg;gl;l gilnaLg;G!

(79)

fpA+ghit jhf;Ftjw;F vjpHg; Gul;rpg;gil Maj;jkhfp tUfpwJ vd;gJ fpA+ghtpw;F cs;NsAk; ntspNaAk; XusT njupe;jpUe;jJ. Mdhy; rupahf ve;j ,lj;jpy; vjpHg; Gul;rpg; gil jiuapwq;fpj; jhf;Fjiyj;  njhlq;Fk; vd;gJ ahUf;Fk; njupahky; ,Ue;jJ.

rpma;V fpA+ghtpw;F vjpuhd jhf;Fjypy; mnkupf;f tpkhdg;gilapd; Neub jiyaPl;il kiwf;F Kfkhf gp 52 tpkhdq;fs; fpA+gh tpkhdq;fs; Nghy; njupAkhW mjd; Njhw;wj;jpy; khw;wj;ijr; nra;jJ. ghHg;gtHfSf;F fpA+ghtpy; ,Ue;J jg;gpNahba tpkhdpfNs mtw;iw Xl;LfpwhHfs; vd;gijf; fhl;l ClftpayhsHfSf;F me;j tpkhdq;fSf;Fg; gf;fj;jpy; tpkhdpfis epw;f itj;J glk; vLf;f itj;jhHfs;.

NkYk; jhf;FjYf;F Kd;G rpma;V jdJ  csthspfis ,ufrpakhf fpA+ghtpw;F mDg;gp itj;jJ. fpA+ghtpy; tpLKiwiaf; fopf;fg; NghtjhfTk; jhq;fs; gy;fiyf; fofq;fspy; gbf;Fk; khztHfs; vd;W nrhy;ypf; nfhz;L csthspfs; NeNu `thdh tpkhd epiyaj;jpy; Ngha;f; Fjpj;jhHfs;.

mtHfSf;Fj; jiuapwq;Fk; vjpHg; Gul;rpg;gilapdUf;F cjtpahf  ghyq;fisj; jfHg;gJ> Fog;gj;ij cz;Lgz;ZtJ> td;Kiwiaj; Jhz;b tpLtJ Nghd;w gzpfs; nfhLf;fg;gl;ld. mjd; %yk; fpA+gh kf;fs; f];;Nwhtpw;F vjpuhf mzp jpuSfpwhHfs; vd;W fhl;LtJ rpma;Vapd; Nehf;fkhFk;.

vjpHg; Gul;rpg;gilapd; 2506 gilazp (Brigade) fTj;;jkhyhtpd; Nkw;Ff; fiuNahukhf $l;lg;gl;lJ. mjw;fhf xU gioa XLjsk; xd;wpid mnkupf;f nghwpapaYhsHfs; kPs;nrg;gdT nra;jhHfs;. Vg;gpuy; 14k; ehs; epf;fuFthtpd; rhngrh]; (Cabezas) JiwKfj;jpy; ,Ue;J MW fg;gy;fs; epiwa vjpHg; Gul;rpg;gilapdH Gwg;gl;lhHfs;. mtHfis tho;j;jp top mDg;gp itj;j epf;fUthtpd; rdhjpgjp Yhap Nrhnkhrh (Luis Somoza) jdf;F gply; f];Nwhtpd; jhbkapupy; nfhQ;rj;ijf; nfhz;L tUkhW gfpbahfr; nrhd;dhH. rdhjpgjp Yhap Nrhnkhrh mnkupf;fhtpw;F Ntz;batHfspy; xUtuhtH.   

Vg;gpuy; 15k; ehs; mnkupf;f gp-26 tpkhdq;fs; fpA+ghtpd; ehd;F tpkhd XL jsq;fisj; jhf;fj; njhlq;fpd. fpA+ghtplk; iftrk; ,Ue;j rpy tpkhdq;fs; jPT KOJk; gutyhf Maj;j epiyapy; itf;fg;gl;bUe;jd. vjpup mtw;iwf; fz;L nfhs;shjthW mit cUkhw;Wr; nra;ag;gl;bUe;jd.

Vg;gpuy; 17 Mk; ehs; (jpq;fl;fpoik) mjpfhiy 2 kzpf;F jpiug;glq;fspy; tUk; rz;ilf; fhl;rpfis epidT gLj;Jk; tifapy; gd;wp tisFlhj; jhf;Fjy; Muk;gkhdJ. Kjy;ehs; Vg;gpuy; 16k; ehs; (QhapW) ,uT  jz;zPUf;F mbapy; ePe;jpr; nry;Yk; jtis tPuHfs; (frogmen) rpyH fiuia mile;jhHfs;. Kf;fpa jhf;Fjy; gilfs; jiu ,wf;fg;gLtjw;Fupa ,lj;ijj; NjHe;njLj;J mq;F ntspr;rq;fis jahHnra;J flypy; epw;Fk; gilf;F rkpf;if nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ mtHfSf;Ff; nfhLf;fg;gl;l gzpahFk;. NkYk; jhf;Fjy;gil jiuapwq;Ftjw;Fj; jilahf ,Ug;gtw;iw ePf;Fk; nghWg;Gk; mtHfSf;Ff; nfhLf;fg; gl;bUe;jJ. fhiy 2.30- 3.00 kzpf;F ,ilapy; ,uz;L gilazpfs; ntt;NtW ,lj;jpy; ( Playa Larga and  Playa Gir¢n)  jiuapwq;fpd. fpA+gh tiuglj;ijg; ghHg;gtHfs; mtHfs; ,wq;fpa ,lk; rpf;fy; epiwe;jJ vd;gij vspjpy; Gupe;J nfhs;thHfs;.

vjpHg; Gul;rpg;gil jiuapwq;fpa ,lk; NrWk; rfjpAk; epiwe;j rJg;G epykhFk;. mJ kl;Lk; ,y;yhky; me;j ,lj;jpy; $uhd flw;ghiwfs; flYf;F mbapy; fple;jd. csT tpkhdq;fs; vLj;j glj;ijg; ghHj;j rpma;V mjpfhupfs; mJ rhjhisahf ,Uf;fyhk; vd KbT nra;jdH. NkYk; me;j ,lk; rd  neUf;fb ,y;yhj ,lk;. mf;fk; gf;fj;jpy; Xb xspe;J nfhz;L xU nfupy;yhg; Nghiu Nkw;nfhs;stjw;F trjpahf kiyfSk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy.

vjpHg; Gul;rpg;gil gd;wp tisFlhtpy; jiuapwq;fpaij mLj;J mjid Kwpabg;gjw;F gply; f];Nwh ,uhZtj;jpd; jiyikg; nghWg;igj; jdJ iff;F vLj;Jf;  nfhz;lhH.  ,uhZtk; kw;Wk; Fbg;gil (Militia) crhH gLj;jg; gl;lJ. jiuapwq;Fk; vjpHg; Gul;rpg;gil kPJ Fz;L tPrpj; jhf;FkhW vjpHg; Gul;rpg; gilapd; Kd;ida (Vg;gpuy; 13) tpkhdj; jhf;FjYf;Fj; jg;gpa fpA+gh tpkhdg;gilf;F f];Nwh cj;juT gpwg;gpj;jhH. vjpHj;jhf;Fjypy; up-33 gapw;rp tpkhdq;fs;> ,uz;L Sea Furies tpkhdq;fs;> ,uz;L gp-26 <LgLj;jg;gl;ld.

Vg;gpuy; 17 (jpq;fl;fpoik) vjpHg; Gul;rpg; gilapd; jhf;Fjy; Muk;gpj;j rpy kzpj;jpahy Neuj;jpy; Iehtpw;fhd mnkupf;f JhJtH ml;yha; ];uPtpd;rd; (Adlai Stevenson)  fpA+gh ehl;L ntspAwT mikr;rH Raúl Roa   mtHfs; jdJ ehl;Lf;F vjpuhf elj;jg;gLk; tpkhdj; jhf;Fjiyf; fz;bj;J rkHg;gpj;j mwpf;ifia Kw;whf epuhfupj;jhH. mjw;F Mjhukhf ehNsLfspy; ntspte;j glq;fis rigNahUf;Ff; fhl;bdhH!

Mdhy; glj;jpy; fhl;ba tpkhdj;jpd; %f;F fpAgh ehl;L gp-26 tpkhdj;ij xj;jpUf;ftpy;iy. rpy kzpj;jpahyq;fs; fopj;J cz;ik ntspahdJk; mnkupf;f JhJtH ml;yha; ];uPtpd;rDf;F ngupa rq;flkhfg; Ngha;tpl;lJ.

mJ kl;Lky;y rdhjpgjp nfd;db ""ml;yha; ];uPtpd;rd; vdJ ''cj;jpNahfG+Htkhd'' ngha;aH (‘my official liar") vd;W nrhd;dij mtuJ fhjpy; ahNuh Nghl;lhHfs;!

fpA+ghkPJ vjpHg; Gul;rpg;gilapd; jhf;Fjy; ele;J nfhz;bUe;jNghJ mnkupf;fhtpd; jiyefupy; mnkupf;f ,uhrhq;f mikr;rH Bd; w];f; (Secretary of State Dean Rusk ) VlhsHfspd; khehl;ilf; $l;b "" mnkupf;f kf;fSf;F ehq;fs; fpA+ghtpy; jiyapLfpNwhNkh my;yJ vjpH fhyj;jpy; jiyapLNthkh vd;gij mwpe;J nfhs;s cupikAilatHfs;. me;jf; Nfs;tpf;F vq;fsJ gjpy; ,y;iy vd;gjhFk;. fpA+ghtpy; elg;gij fpA+gh kf;fNs jPHkhdpf;f Ntz;Lk;'' vd mwptpj;jhH.   

ePz;l fhykhfj; jpl;lkpl;L gyj;j Muthuj;NjhLk; ek;gpf;ifNahLk;  vjpHg; Gul;rpg;gil fpA+gh kPJ Nkw;nfhz;l jhf;Fjy; fpA+gh ,uhZtj;jpd;  fLikahd vjpHj;jhf;jYf;F cs;shfpaJ. tpaf;fj;jf;f Kiwapy;  vjpHg; Gul;rpg;gil jiuapwq;fpj; jq;fs; epiyfisg; gyg;gLj;jp fhy; Cd;W Kd;dNu fpA+gh ,uhZtk; 122 kpkP gPuq;fpfs;> 22 kpkP gPuq;fpfs; nfhz;L  jhf;fpaJ.

Kjy;ehs; rz;ilapy; fpA+gh tpkhdg;gil flypy; eq;$ukpl;L epd;w khHNrhg;gh (Marsopa) fl;lisf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lf; fg;giyAk; (Command and Control Ship) gilapdUf;Fj; Njitahd MAjk; kw;Wk; czTg; nghUs;fisf;  nfhz;L nrd;w $];ud; (Houston)  vd;w toq;fy; fg;giyAk; (Supply Ship) 5 mq;Fy nwhf;fl; VTfizfis Vtpr;  Rf;F Ehwhfj; jfHj;J vwpe;jJ. ,e;j  tpkhd vjpHj;jhf;Fjypy; $];ud; fg;gypy; ,Ue;j 5MtJ gilazpAk; $z;NlhL ifyhrk; Ngha;r; NrHe;jJ.  

vjpHg; Gul;rpg;gilf;Fj; Njitahd MAjq;fisAk;  ntbnghUs;fisAk; Vw;wpte;j toq;ff; fg;gy; kw;Wk; fl;lisf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lf; fg;gy; Kjy;ehs; rz;ilapNyNa jhf;fp %o;fbf;fg;gl;lijj; njhlHe;J MAjq;fSf;Fk;> ntbnghUs;fSf;Fk; gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gl;lJ. njhiyj; njhlHGk; ntl;lg;gl;lJ.

fl;lisf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lf; fg;giyAk; gq;fPl;Lf; fg;giyAk; ,oe;j epiyapy; vjpHg; Gul;rpg;gilapd;  mzptFg;Gj; jpl;lk; (logistics of operation) Kw;whfr; rPHFiye;J NghdJ. Vida gq;fPl;Lf; fg;gy;fSk; fiuia neUq;fhjthW fpa+gh tpkhdg;gil ghHj;Jf; nfhz;lJ. Aj;jj;jpd;NghJ nghUs;fs; rk;ge;jkhd toq;fiy njha;tpd;wp nra;tJ kpf Kf;fpakhFk;.

vjpHg; Gul;rpg;gil fpA+gh ,uhZtk; kw;Wk; tpkhdg; gilapd; fLikahd vjpHj;jhf;FjYf;Fj; jhf;Fg; gpbf;f KbahJ jpzwpaJ. Vg;gpuy; 19 Gjd;fpoik khiy vjpHg; Gul;rpg;gil jiuapwq;fpa gFjpf;Fg; gpd;js;sg;gl;lJ.

vz;zp  72 kzpj;jpahyq;fs ePbj;j vjpHj; jhf;Fjypy; nkhj;jk; 114 NgH nfhy;yg;gl;lhHfs;. ruz; mile;jtHfs; cl;gl 1>189 NgH rpiw gpbf;fg;gl;ldH. ,tHfspy; 36 NgH fpA+gh rpiwr;rhiyfspy; ,we;J gl;lhHfs;. vQ;rpatHfSf;F fpa+gh muirf; ftpo;g;gjw;F rjp nra;jhHfs; vd;w Fw;wr;rhl;by; 20 Mz;Lfs; rpiwj; jz;lid tpjpf;fg;gl;lJ.

Aj;jk; ele;J nfhz;bUe;j NghJ Nrhtpaj; xd;wpaj;jpd; Ml;rpj; jiytH epf;fpl;lh FUNrt; ( Nikita Khrushchev ) mnkupf;f rdhjpgjp nfd;dbia vr;rupj;J xU mwpf;if tpl;lhH.

""mnkupf;fh Aj;jj;jpd; jPr;Rthiy vq;Fk; gutp xU KO mstpyhd Aj;;jj;jpw;F toprikg;gij

,g;NghJk; jLf;f KbAk;. cyfpd; ,d;iwa murpay; ajhHj;jk; vd;dntd;why; ""rpW Aj;jq;fs;""rq;fpypj; njhlHghd vjpHtpisTfis cyfpd; gy gFjpfspy;  Vw;gLj;jyhk;....""

mnkupf;f rdhjpgjp nfd;db tpl;Lf; nfhLf;ftpy;iy.  FUr;Nrtpd; mwpf;iff;F gjpy; mb nfhLj;jhH.

""....... ntspehL VjhtJ ,uhZt uPjpahf (fpA+ghtpy;) jiyapl;lhy; ehq;fs; mnkupf;f ehLfSf;F ,ilapyhd cld;gbf;ifapd; mbg;gilapy; ,e;jf; fz;lj;ij ntspehl;L Mf;fpukpg;gpy; ,Ue;J ghJfhf;Fk; flg;ghl;il cldbahfr; nray;gLj;JNthk;....""

f];Nwh mnkupf;fh kiwKfkhf fpa+gh kPJ Nkw;nfhz;l ,uhZtj; jhf;Fjiy ntw;wpfukhf  Kwpabj;Jtpl;ljhf ehl;L kf;fSf;F thndhyp> njhiyf;fhl;rp %yk; mwptpj;jhH.

gd;wp tisFlh Aj;jj;jpd;NghJ f];Nwh gad;gLj;jpa v];VA+ 100 ];lhypd; jhq;fp (SAU 100 Stalin Tank)  mUq;fhl;rpa tstpd; Kd;wypy; epue;jukhf itf;fg;gl;bUf;fpwJ. mNjNghy;  rz;ilapy; gad;gLj;jg;gl;l tpkhdq;fs; cs;Ns itf;fg;gl;bUf;fpd;wd. rz;ilapd; NghJ Rl;L tPo;j;jg;gl;l mnkupf;f A+2 csT tpkhdj;jpd;  (U2 American Spy Plane) cjpupg; ghfq;fs; Nghd;wtw;iw Gul;rp mUq;fhl;rpafj;jpy; ( The Museum of the Revolution)  ghHitf;F itj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;.

fpA+gh tpkhd jsq;fs; kPJ Fz;L tPrpj; jhf;fp mjid epH%yk; nra;tjw;Fj; jPl;lg;gl;;l jpl;lj;ij Fog;gj;jpYk; jLkhw;wj;jpYk; ,Ue;j rdhjpgjp Nahd; nfd;db filrp  epkplj;jpy; iftpl;lhH. ,jdhy;jhd;  fpA+gh tpkhdg;gil vjpHGul;rpg;gilapd; gp52 uf tpkhdq;fis Rl;L tPo;j;jp thd;gug;gpy; jdJ Nkyhz;ikia epiyehl;baJ.

cyf mgpg;gpuhaj;Jf;Fg; gae;Njh my;yJ Nrhtpaj;ij jpUg;jpg;gLj;jNth nfd;db ,e;j Kbit vLj;jpUf;fyhk;. vJ vt;thW ,Ug;gpDk; fpA+ghtpy; Nkw;nfhz;L Neubahfj; jiyapLtij  epWj;JkhW rpma;Vf;F nfd;db cj;juT gpwg;gpj;jhH. xUNtis rpma;V kPjhd jdJ gpbia kPz;Lk; epiyehl;bf; nfhs;s nfd;db ,e;j Kbit vLj;jpUf;fyhk;.

mjpHr;rpapy; ,Ue;j rdhjpgjp nfd;db rpy ehl;fs; fopj;J fpA+gh kPJ vjpHg; Gul;rpg;gil Nkw;nfhz;l jhf;Fjypy; mnkupf;fhtpd; <Lghl;ilAk; jiyaPl;ilAk; mwpf;if %yk; xg;Gf; nfhz;lhH. mNj Nehuk; fpA+ghtpw;F vjpuhd mnkupf;fhtpd; vjpHfhy eltbf;iffs; fLikahf ,Uf;Fk; vd;Wk; vr;rupf;if tpLj;jhH. 

 


 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

vq;fSf;nfd;W tpj;jpahrkhd fyhr;rhuk;> jdpj;Jtkhd rpe;jid ,Uf;fpwJ!

ef;fPud;

(80)

mnkupf;fhitg; nghWj;jstpy; gd;wp tisFlh jhf;Fjy; mjd; ntspAwTf; nfhs;iff;F  Vw;gl;l gyj;j Njhy;tpahFk;. Nth\pq;ldpy; cs;s nts;is khspif nfhQ;rf; fhyk; mjpHr;rpapy; ciwe;Jtpl;lJ. tuyhw;W MrpupaHfs; gd;wp tisFlhj; Njhy;tpia "KOepiwthd Njhy;tp (perfect failure) vd tHzpj;Js;shHfs;. rdhjpgjp nfdbiag; nghWj;jstpy; ngupa rq;flj;ij me;jj; Njhy;tp Vw;gLj;jpaJ. ehw;gj;jpuz;L Mz;Lfs;  fope;j gpd;dUk; gd;wp tisFlhj; Njhy;tpapd; epidtiyfs; mnkupf;f-fpA+gh ,uz;L ehLfSf;Fk; ,ilapyhd ,uhrje;jpu cwTfisg; ghjpj;j tz;zk; cs;sJ.

,yj;jpd; mnkupf;f ehLfspy; mnkupf;fhtpw;F ,Ue;j nry;thf;Fg; gd;wpf; Flhtpd; jhf;Fjy; gL Njhy;tpapy; Kbe;jij mLj;J Kd;dH vg;NghJk; ,y;yhjthW gL ghjhsj;jpw;Fr; rupe;jJ.  

khwhfr; rdhjpgjp f];Nwhitg; nghWj;jstpy; gd;wp tisFlhg; NghH ehl;L kf;fis xd;WgLj;jTk; mnkupf;fhtpw;F vjpuhd gug;Giu Aj;jj;ijj; jPtpug;gLj;jTk; cjtpaJ.  

1600 NgH mlq;fpa vjpHGul;rpg;gil Nkw;f'nfhz;l "GSl;Nlh ,uhZt eltbf;if" (Operation Pluto) rdhjpgjp  ma;rd;NfhtH (Eisenhower)  gjtpf; fhyj;jpy Kbtpy;  jpl;lkplg;gl;lhYk;  mJ eilKiwg; gLj;jg;gl;lJ rdhjpgjp nfd;db gjtpf;F te;j iNahLjhd;.

fpA+gh kPjhd gilnaLg;Gf;Fr; rdhjpgjp ma;rd;NfhtH tuT-nryTj; jpl;lj;jpy; 4>400>000 nlhyHfs;> xJf;fPL nra;jhH. ,jpy; murpay; Ntiyj; jpl;;ljpw;F 950>000 nlhyHfs;> gug;Giuf;F 1>700>000 nlhyHfs;> ,uhZt Jizg;gilf;F (paramilitary ) 1>700>000 nlhyHfs;> csT Nrfupj;jYf;F 259>000 nlhyHfs; xJf;fg;gl;lJ. xU Mz;L fopj;J Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l jhf;FjYf;F nkhj;jk; 46 kpy;ypad; m. nlhyHfs; nrytopf;fg;gl;lJ.

1950 Yk; 1960 spd;  njhlf;fj;jpYk;  ,yj;jpd; mnkupf;fh gw;wpa mnkupf;f ntspAwTf;  nfhs;if mjd; nghUshjhu eyq;fisAk;> fk;A+dpr  vjpHg;Gf; nfhs;ifiaAk;  ikakhff; nfhz;bUe;jJ. Kf;fpakhf ,yj;jpd; mnkupf;fhtpd; %yg; nghUs;fis (raw materials) jq;F jilapd;wpg; ngWtJ> Nrhtpaj; xd;wpak; ,uhZt-murpay; kl;lj;jpy; ,yj;jpd; mnkupf;f kf;fs; kj;jpapy; nry;thf;Fg; ngw;W mtHfis cstpay; mbg;gilapy;  mnkupf;fhtpw;F  vjpuhfj; jpUg;Gtijj; jLg;gJ Nghd;wtw;iw ,yf;fhff; nfhz;bUe;jJ.  

,J njhlHghf rdhjpgjp nfd;dbapd; ,uhrhq;f nrayhsH Bd; w];f; (Dean Rusk) jdJ Ratuyhw;wpy; vOjpapUg;gJ fpA+gh gilnaLg;G Vd; gLNjhy;tpapy; Kbe;jJ vd;gij tpsf;Ftjhf cs;sJ.

""rpma;V fpA+ghtpy; cs;s epyikiag;gw;wp vq;fSf;Fg; gyJk; gj;Jk; nrhy;ypaJ. Kf;fpakhf vjpHg; Gul;rpg;gil fpA+ghtpy; jiu ,wq;fpaJk; vd;d elf;Fk; vd;gij  rpma;V tpyhthupahf tpsf;fpr; nrhd;dJ. Mdhy; rdhjpgjp nfd;dbf;F rma;IV mjpfhupfshy; nrhy;yg;gl;l 'fijfs;' cz;ikahf ,Uf;ftpy;iy. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf jhf;Fjy; njhlq;fpaJk;  fpA+gh ,uhZtj;jpd; xU gFjp f];Nwhitf; iftpl;L vjpHg; Gul;rpg;gilAld; NrHe;JtpLk; ehL jOtpa kf;fs; vjpHg;G MHg;ghl;lq;fs; jhkhfNt ntbj;Jf; fpsk;Gk; xUNtis vjpHg; Gul;rpg;gil tpy;yq;fj;jpy; khl;bf; nfhz;lhy; mtHfs; fpuhkg;Gw kf;fNshL kf;fshff; fiue;J NghthHfs;> gpd;dH f];Nwh  nra;jJNghy mtHfs; nfupyhg; gilahf khWthHfs;....""

gilnaLg;Gf;F vjpuhfj; jhd; Xq;fpf; Fuy; nfhLj;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W Bd; w];f; jdJ Ratuyhw;wpy; Fwpg;gpLfpwhH. mg;gbr; nra;ahjJ jhd;tpl;l jtW vd;Wk; mtH foptpuf;fg;gLfpwhH. cz;ik vd;dntd;why; rpma;V nfhLj;j ghl;bf; fijfspd; mbg;gilapNyNa rdhjpgjp nfd;db  fpA+ghkPJ  gilnaLg;gJ vd;w jtwhd KbTf;F te;jhH.

gd;wp tisFlh gilnaLg;Gj; Njhy;tpapy; Kbe;jijaLj;J mnkupf;fh fpA+ghitj; jdpikg;gLj;Jtjpy; Kk;kukhf ,wq;fpaJ.  

,uz;lhtJ cyf Aj;jk; Kbtile;j gpd;dH vz;gJfspd; ,Wjptiu mnkupf;fHfs; xd;wpy; kl;Lk; xw;Wikahf ,Ue;jhHfs;. Nrhtpaj; ehL mnkupf;fhtpd; vjpup> fk;A+dp];Lfs; jq;fisg; G+z;NlhL mopf;fg;ghHf;fpwhHfs;> jq;fs; ehl;Lr; Rje;jpuj;ijAk; tpOkpaq;fisAk; ghohf;fg; ghHf;fpwhHfs; vd;gNj mtHfsJ gakhFk;.  

nrdl;lH NahNrg; kf;fhjp (Senator Joseph McCarthy)  kiwe;jhYk; mtuJ fk;A+dpr vjpHg;Gf; Nfhl;ghL kl;Lk; tho;e;J nfhz;bUe;jJ. fk;A+dPr rpj;jhe;jj;jpw;F vjpuhd vjpHg;G vd;gJ mnkupf;f kf;fsJ FUjpapy; fye;jpUe;jJ. fk;A+dp];Lfs; ngha; nrhy;fpwhHfs;> Vkhw;WfpwhHfs;>  nfhiy nra;fpwhHfs;>  RUf;fkhfr;  nrhd;dhy; mtHfs; vjidAk; nra;aj; jahuhf ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. mg;gbnad;why; mtHfisj; Njhw;fbg;gjw;F mtHfs; vijnaijr; nra;fpwhHfNsh mjid ehKk; nra;a Ntz;Lk;> mjhtJ ehq;fs;  nty;y  Ntz;Lk; vd;why; mtHfs; ghzpapy; ehKk; mNj MAjq;fisf; ifapy; Jhf;f Ntz;Lk;.

,isQuhd nrdl;lH Nahd; nfd;db vg;gbAk; nts;is khspiff;Fs; Eioe;J rdhjpgjp ehw;fhypapy; cl;fhHe;Jtpl Ntz;Lk; vd;W fdT fz;lhH. nry;tr; nropg;NghL tho;e;j nfd;db FLk;gj;Jf;F mnkupf;fhtpy; mur FLk;gj;NjhL xj;j kupahij nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. nts;is khspiff;Fs; Eiotjw;F xU ,Nyrhd top ,Ue;jJ. mJ fk;A+dprj;Jf;F vjpuhd miyfisf; nfl;bahfg; gpbj;Jf; nfhs;tJjhd; me;j top. mjdhy; fpA+ghtpd; rdhjpgjp f];Nwh mtuJ guk vjpupahdhH.

mjw;Ff; fhuzk; fk;A+dprk; xU %yj;jpy; ,Ue;Jjhd; cw;gj;jpahfpwJ> mjd; Fwpf;Nfhs; Vfhjpgj;jpa muRfisf; ftpo;j;Jtpl;L cyifj; jdf;Fr; nrhe;jkhf;fpf; nfhs;tJ> fk;A+dprj;jpd; %yk; Nrhtpaj; xd;wpak; vd;gNj.

,g;NghJ ,tw;iwg; gbf;Fk;NghJ rpupg;ghf ,Uf;Fk;. jtwhd gpioahd gpw;Nghf;fhd Gj;jprhypj;jdkw;w nfhs;if vd;W $lr; nrhy;yptplyhk;. Mdhy; mg;NghJ> nfd;db fhyj;jpy; fk;A+dprj;jpd; gaKWj;jy; G+jhfhukhf vq;Fk; gue;jpUe;jJ. mnkupf;fhtpd; ntspAwTf; nfhs;if  ,e;jg;  gaKWj;jypd; mbg;gilapNyNa tFf;fg;gl;lJ.

fpA+ghNthL thzpfj; njhlHGfis itj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;j  jdJ el;G ehLfsplk; mtw;iwf; Fiwj;Jf; nfhs;SkhW mnkupf;fh Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lJ. mnkupf;fh rdtup 1962 ,y; ele;j mnkupf;f ehLfsJ mikg;Gf; (Organization of American States)    $l;lj;jpy; fpA+ghtpd; cWg;Gupikia ,ilepWj;Jk; jPHkhdj;ijf; nfhz;Lte;J nrhw;g ngUk;ghd;ikAld; epiwNtw;wpaJ. gy ehLfs; jq;fs; ,uhrje;jpu cwTfis mnkupf;fhtpd; Jhz;Ljypd; Ngupy; Jz;bj;Jf; nfhz;ld. nkf;rpf;Nfh ehL kl;LNk mnkupf;fhtpd; mOj;jj;jpw;F mbgzpa kWj;j ehlhFk;.  

mnkupf;f-fpA+gh cwTfs; rPHFiye;J nfhz;bUe;jNghJ Nrhtpaj;-fpA+gh cwTfs; neUf;fk; milaj; njhlq;fpd. 1961 Vg;upy; Kjy;ehs; f];Nwh fpA+gh Gul;rp xU NrhryPr Gul;rp vd;W gpufldk; nra;jpUe;jhH. mj;NjhL epw;fhky; jhd; xU khHf;rp];l;-nydp];l; vd;Wk; gfpuq;fkhf mwptpj;jy; nra;jhH.

mnkupf;fh fpA+ghkPJ gilnaLj;jhy; Nrhtpaj; cjtpiag; ngWk; Nehf;NfhLjhd; f];Nwh ,e;jg; gpufldj;ij mwptpj;jjhf ek;gg;gLfpwJ.

Nrhtpaj; ehl;Lf;F ,yj;jpd; mnkupf;f ehLfspd; %yg; nghUs;fisr; Ruz;l Ntz;Lk; vd;w Mir ,Uf;ftpy;iy. Nrhtpaj; rHthjpfhup NahNrg; ];lhypDf;Fg; gpd;dH Ml;rpf;F te;j epf;fpl;lh FUr;Nrt; ( Nikita Khrushchev) mnkupf;fhNthlhd gdpg;Nghiu xU KbTR;Ff; nfhz;LtUtjw;F VJthd ntspAwTf; nfhs;ifiag; gpd;gw;wpdhH. vdNt mtH fpA+ghtpw;fhf mnkupf;fhitg; gifj;Jf; nfhs;s tpUk;gtpy;iy.

NkYk; ma;k;gJfspy; Nrhtpaj; nry;thf;Ff;F cl;gl;l `q;Nfup> Nghye;J> nrf;NfhrpNyhtpah Nghd;w fpof;F ma;Nuhg;gpa ehLfspy; Nrhtpaj;Jf;F vjpuhf ntbj;j  fpsHr;rpfs; Nrhtpaj; xd;wpak; jiyik jhq;fpa  NrhyyPr Kfhkpd; gbkj;ij midj;Jyf kl;lj;jpy;  ntFthfg; ghjpj;jpUe;jJ. Nghjhf;Fiwf;F Nrhtpaj;-rPdh ,uz;Lf;Fk; ,ilapy; gyj;j jj;JthHj;j Nkhjy; ele;J nfhz;bUe;jJ. Nrhtpaj; - rPd vy;iyapy; mt;tg;NghJ jhf;FjYk;> vjpHj;jhf;FjYk;> CLUtYk; rpwpa mstpy; ,lk;ngw;wd. gug;Giuj; jsj;jpy; xU ehL kw;w ehl;bd; kPJ jhuhskhf Nrw;iw thup ,iwj;j;Jf; nfhz;bUe;jd.

,tw;Wf;F kj;jpapy; Nrhtpaj; ehl;Lf;Ff; fpilj;j xNu MWjy; ngupa ty;yurhd mnkupf;fh fpA+gh kPJ  gd;wp tisFlhj; jhf;Fjiyj; njhLj;J %f;F cilgl;l epfo;thFk;. mnkupf;fh fpA+gh kPJ KO mstpyhd gilnaLg;ig Nkw;nfhs;shjJ Nrhtpaj; ehl;Lf;F xU mrl;Lj; Jzpr;riyf; nfhLj;jJ. vdNt Nrhtpaj; ehL fpA+ghNthL thzpf> njhopy;El;g> fyhrhu  cwTfis tsHj;Jf; nfhs;s xg;ge;jq;fis vOjpf; nfhz;lJ.

1962 ,y; Nrhtpaj; ehL fpA+ghtpw;F ,ufrpakhf VTfizfs;> Fz;L tPr;R tpkhdq;fs; Nghd;w MAj cjtpiaf; nfhLj;J cjtpaJ.

gd;wp tisFlh Aj;jk; KbTw;whYk; mJ fpA+ghtpy; Nrhtpaj; mZ VTfiz njhlHghd ,d;DnkhU gdpg;NghUf;F fsk; mikj;Jf; nfhLj;jJ.

Vg;gpuy; 20 Mk; ehs; gply;  f];Nwh `thdh thndhypapy; NgRk;NghJ 'Gul;rp ntd;Wtpl;lJ....... Vfhjpgj;jpa mnkupf;f muR gy khjq;fs; nkj;jg; ghLgl;L cUthf;fpa vjpHg; Gul;rpg;gilia 72 kzpj;jpahyq;fspy; mopj;J tpl;Nlhk; " vdg; ngUkpjg; gl;Lf;nfhz;lhH. Vg;upy; 23 Mk; ehs; mNj thndhypapy; NgRk;NghJ>

"xU ntspehl;L Neub Mf;fpukpg;Gf;F cs;shFk; mghak; vg;NghJk; vq;fSf;F ,Ue;J te;Js;sJ. ,ijapl;L ehq;fs; ma;eh rigia vr;rupf;if nra;jpUe;Njhk;. VjhtJ xU rhl;by; vkJ ehl;bd; cs; eltbf;iffspy; jiyapLk; Kfkhf vk;kPJ  mtHfs; (mnkupf;fh) xU Mf;fpukpg;G gilnaLg;gig Nkw;nfhs;syhk;. mnkupf;fhtpw;F vkJ cs;ehl;L eltbf;iffspy; jiyapLtjw;F ve;j cupikAk; fpilahJ.

ehq;fs; Mq;fpyk; NgRtjpy;iy. ehq;fs; giria ( gum) nky;Ytjpy;iy. vq;fSf;nfd;W jdpj;Jtkhd ghuk;gupak; ,Uf;fpwJ> nrhe;jkhd fyhrhuk; ,Uf;fpwJ> jdpj;Jtkhd rpe;jid ,Uf;fpwJ.  vq;fSf;F ahNuhLk; vy;iyfs; fpilahJ. vq;fsJ vy;iy ed;whf tiuaiw nra;ag;gl;l fly;jhd;. kf;fistpl NeHikaw;w murpay;thjpfSf;Fk; Ruz;ly;fhuHfSf;Fk; vt;thW $Ljyhd cupikfs; ,Uf;f KbAk;? xU gzf;fhu ehl;Lf;F vq;fs; kf;fs; kPJ jdJ Nkyhz;ikiar; nrYj;j vd;d cupik ,Uf;fpwJ? mtHfsplk; NeHik ,y;iy Mdhy; gyk; ,Uf;fpwJ vd;gjhy; kl;Lk; midj;Jyf tpjpfis kjpf;fhky; elf;f KbAkh?  xU rpwpa ehl;NlhL xU ty;yuR rz;ilf;Fg; Nghtijapl;L> mJTk; mJ Njhy;tpapy; Kbe;jijapl;L  mtHfs; ntl;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;." vdf; Fwpg;gpl;lhH.

jhf;FjYf;Fg; gpd;dH ,uz;L fpoikfs; fopj;J `thdhtpy; Nk ehs; nfhz;lhl;lk; kpfg; ngupastpy;

ele;jJ. mjpy; me;jj; jhf;Fjiyf; fLikahff; fz;bj;J kPz;Lk; f];Nwh NgrpdhH.