fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu  (61)

xU gUe;jpd; fPo;

VO jpq;fs;fs; fopj;J ehL jpUk;gpa nfhyk;g];!

xU ehl;bd; Fbkfd; xUtd; ,d;ndhU ehl;Lf;Fg; gazk; nra;J NtnwhUtDf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd ehl;by; jdJ murH my;yJ murpapd; ngaupy; xU nfhbia epyj;jpy; ehl;b "",e;j ehL vdJ murUf;Fr; nrhe;jkhdJ"" vd;W $Wtjw;F  vd;d cupik ,Uf;fpwJ? ,e;jf; Nfs;tpf;F tpil nrhy;tJ fbdkhFk;. Mdhy;> xU gioa nghd;nkhop "ty;ytd; tFj;jNj tha;f;fhy;"" (Might is right) vd;W nrhy;fpwJ.  

nghd;nkhop gonrd;whYk; mJ ,d;Wk; eilKiwapy;  ,Uf;fpwJ. ntspehl;Lg; gilnaLg;ghYk; cs;ehl;Lg; NghupdhYk; rpf;fpr; rPuope;j twpa ehlhd Mg;fdp];jhd; ehL kPJ gaq;futhjj;Jf;F vjpuhd NghH vd;w rhf;fpy; mnkupf;fh 7>000 - 10>000 tiu fpNyh vilAs;s Fz;Lfisg; Nghl;Lj; jfHj;J tUfpwJ. ,e;jf; Fz;Lfs; mZf;Fz;LfSf;F mLj;jgb rf;jp tha;e;jjhFk;. mnkupf;fhtpw;F Mjuthf gpupj;jhdpahTk;> fdlhTk; nfhLf;iff; fl;bf; nfhz;L Aj;jfsj;jpy; ,wq;fpAs;sd. 

Ie;EhW Mz;LfSf;F Kd; nfhyk;gRf;F ,Ue;j mNj nfhydpj;Jt - Vfhjpgj;jpa kdg; ghd;ik ,d;W (2002) NahH[; G\;> Nuhdp gpNsaH> Nad; fpur;rpaDf;F ,Ug;gJ fz;$L. gy Ehw;whz;L fhykhf "fUg;gHfs; nts;isaupd; Rik" (Blacks are Whiteman’s burden)  vd;W nrhy;ypf; nfhz;L Mrpa> Mgpupf;f> mnkupf;f ehLfisj; Jg;ghf;fp Kidapy; ifg;gw;wp> mq;F tho;e;j G+HtPf Fbkf;fis Ntl;ilahb> mtHfspd; rkak;> nkhop gz;ghLfis mopj;J>  tsq;fisf; nfhs;isabj;Jf; nfhOj;j ,e;j ehLfs; ,d;Wk; mNj mupg;NghLk;> jiyf; fdj;NjhLk;> jpkpNuhLk; ele;J nfhs;fpd;wd. gaq;futhjj;jpd; nkhj;j cUtkhd ,e;j ehLfs; gaq;futhjk; gw;wpg; NgRtJ kpfTk; Ntbf;ifahf ,Uf;fpwJ. 

nfhyk;g]; xU jPtpypUe;J kw;wj; jPT vd khwp khwp Ngha;f;  nfhz;bUe;jhH. Gjpjhfg; ghHj;j xt;nthU jPTk; fhNjf;F mUfpy; jd;idf;  nfhz;L nry;tJ NghyTk;> mq;F gspq;fpdhy; fl;lg;gl;l Myaq;fs;>  jq;fj;jpdhy; Ntag;gl;l muz;kidfs; epiwe;j gs gsg;ghd efuq;fisg; ghHf;fg; NghtjhfTk; nfhyk;g]; vjpHghHj;jhH. 

Mdhy;> Myaq;fNsh my;yJ muz;kidfNsh vq;Fk; fhzg;gltpy;iy. fpA+ghtpd; flw;fiuia mile;jNghJ ",Jjhd; Mrpahtpd; jiyepyg; gug;G (mainland)” vd vz;zpdhH. clNd jdJ nkhopngaHg;ghsH Yhaprplk; "khl;rpik jq;fpa fhNj ehl;bd; rf;futHj;jpf;F" Kftupapl;L vOjpa fbjk; xd;iwf; ifapy; nfhLj;J mDg;gp itj;jhH. mjd; gpd; Yhaprpd; tUiff;F topNky; tpopitj;Jf; nfhyk;g]; ehs; fzf;fpy; fhj;jpUe;jhH.  

Yhap]; nrd;W gy ehs;fs; fope;jd. Mdhy;> rf;futHj;jpiaNah>  mtupd; muz;kidiaNah> efuj;ijNah> jq;fg; ghsq;fisNah> thridj; jputpaq;fisNah> Kf;fpakhff; fhNj ehl;ilNah fhz Kbatpy;iy. Yhaprpd; fz;Zf;Fj; njupe;jJ vy;yhk; kug;gl;il> Gy;Yfshy; Nta;e;j Fbirfs;> Nrhok; gauplg;gl;l tay;fs; kw;Wk; rhjhuz kf;fs; kl;LNk. mtHfshy; fhNj my;yJ rpg;gd;Nfh (Cipango) my;yJ ,e;jP]; vq;fpUf;fpwJ vd;w jfty; vjidAk; nrhy;y Kbatpy;iy.  

vdNt nfhyk;g]; ehs;NjhWk; fhNjiaj; Njb xt;nthU jPT jPthf miye;jhH. mjd; nghOJ mq;nfhd;W ,q;nfhd;whfr; rpwpJ jq;fk;> nfhQ;r Kj;Jf;fs;> rpwpJ nts;sp> Vuhskhd gwitfspd; Njhy;> ,wf;if> mzpkzpfs; (trinkets)  Nghd;wit nfhyk;gRf;Ff; fpilj;jd. 

nfhyk;gir jz;lay; myd;Nrh gpd;nrhd; gpe;jh vd;w fg;gypy; gpd; njhlHe;J te;jijg; ghHj;Njhk; my;yth? gpd;nrhDf;F NtW Nahrid Njhd;wpaJ. "ehd; vd;ghl;by; Nghdhy; fhNjiaf; fz;L gpbf;fyhk;. fz;L gpbj;jhy; Vuhskhd jq;fk; Kj;Jf;fis ms;spf; nfhs;syhk;" vdr; nrhy;ypf; nfhz;L xU ehs; gazk; Gwg;gl;lhH. mtH vd;dthdhH vd;gij nfhyk;g]; mjd; gpd;dH mwpe;J nfhs;sNt ,y;iy.  

jz;lay; gpd;nrhd; vd;dthdhH vd;w ftiyNahL gazg;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUe;j nfhyk;g]; xU ehs; N`apl;bia (Haiti) nrd;wile;jhH. fpA+gh fhNj ( my;yJ rPdh) Mf ,Ue;jhy; N`apl;b epr;rakhf rpg;gd;Nfh (my;yJ ag;ghd;) Mf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy;> ej;jhH jpdj;Jf;F Kjy;ehs; rhe;jh Nkup fg;gypd; jz;lay; vy;yhk; gj;jpukhf ,Uf;fpwnjd;w epidg;gpy; ,d;ndhU khYkpaplk; Rf;fhidf; nfhLj;Jtpl;L epj;jpiu nfhs;sg; Ngha;tpl;lhH. Vida khYkpfSk; epj;jpiuf;Fg; Ngha;tpl;lhHfs;. mDgkpy;yhj me;j khYkp rhe;jh Nkup fg;giy xU ePubg;ghiwapy; Nkhj tpl;Ltpl;lhH. fg;gy; ftpo;e;J Nrjkile;jJ. mjid kPz;Lk; kpjf;f vLj;j Kaw;rpfs; tPzhfpd. fg;gy; xU gf;fkhff; Filrha;e;J tpl;lJ. gyiffs; tpupe;J mjDhlhf jz;zPH cs;Sf;Fs; GFe;jJ. miyfs; gykhf mbj;jjhy; gha;kuk; Kwpe;J tpOe;jJ. ,tw;why; rhe;jh Nkupapd; MAs; KbTf;F te;jJ.

nfhyk;g]; gyj;j ,f;fl;Lf;Fs; js;sg;gl;lhH. gpe;jh fg;gy; mtiuf; iftpl;L tpl;Lr; nrd;W tpl;lJ. rhe;jh Nkupah Nrjj;Jf;Fs;shfp tpl;lJ. vQ;rpapUe;j ePdh vd;w fg;gy; rhe;jh Nkupahit tpl mstpy; rpwpaJ. mjpy; vy;yh khYkpfisAk; Vw;wpf; nfhz;L ,Rg;ghdpah jpUk;g KbahJ. Mdhy;> nfhyk;g]; ,Rg;ghdpahtpw;F clNd jpUk;g Ntz;Lk; vd;W tpUk;gpdhH.  

,g;gbahd ,f;fl;Lfspy; ,Ue;J kPsf; nfhyk;g]; Jupj eltbf;ifapy; ,wq;fpdhH. re;jh Nkupah fg;giyg; gpupj;njLf;FkhW jdJ Ml;fSf;F mtH fl;lis ,l;lhH. mg;gbg; gpupj;njLj;j gyiffs;> fhl;Lf;Fs; ,Ue;j kuq;fs;> fiuapy; fhzg;gl;l  fw;fs; ,tw;iwf; nfhz;L nfhyk;g]; xU Nfhl;iliaf; fl;bdhH. Nfhl;iliar; Rw;wp Mop> fhty; NfhGuk; kw;Wk; ghyk; mikf;fg;gl;lJ.  

,Jjhd; ma;Nuhg;gpaH Gjpa cyfj;jpy; fl;ba Kjy; Nfhl;il MFk;. Nfhl;ilapd; kPJ ,Rg;ghdpah ehl;bd; Njrpaf; nfhb gl;nlhsp tPrpg; gwe;jJ vd;W  nrhy;y Ntz;bajpy;iy. Nfhl;il kjpy; RtHfspy; fg;gypy; ,Ue;J fhg;ghw;wg;gl;l gPuq;fpfs; nghUj;jg;gl;ld. me;jf; Nfhl;ilf;F yh Netplhl; (La Navidad)  vd;;w ngaH #l;lg;gl;lJ. yh Netplhl; vd;why; ej;jhH jpdj;jpy; ftpo;e;j fg;gypy; ,Ue;J gpwe;j Nfhl;il vd;W nghUs;.  ej;jhH jpdk; NaRehjupd; gpwe;j ehs; (Christ’s Nativity) vd;W nfhz;lhlg;gLfpwJ.     

jd;Dld; te;j khYkpfspy; 45 Ngiuj; NjHe;njLj;Jj; jhd; ,Rg;ghdpahtpw;Fr; nrd;W jpUk;Gk; tiu me;jj; jPtpy; jq;FkhW nfhyk;g]; mtHfisg; gzpj;jhH. ngUk;ghNyhH mg;gb mq;F jq;fpapUf;f kfpo;r;rpNahL xg;Gf; nfhz;ldH. xd;W me;jj; jPT kpfTk; mofhf ,Ue;jJ. ,uz;L me;jj; jPtpYs;s jq;fg; ghsq;fis Nrfupj;Jf; Nfhl;ilf;Fs; Ftpg;gjpy; nghOJ Ngha;tpLk; vd;w epidg;G. jhd; jpUk;gp tUk;NghJ mtHfs; Fiwe;jJ xU njhd; jq;fg; ghsq;fisahtJ Nrfupj;J itf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W nfhyk;g]; fl;lis ,l;lhH.   

mtHfSf;F xU Mz;Lf;Fg; NghJkhd czTk;> ntbkUe;Jk; nfhLf;fg;gl;ld. ,e;jpaHfNshL el;NghL ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. mNj rkak; ftdkhfTk; mtjhdkhfTk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vdf; nfhyk;g]; mtHfsplk; nrhd;dhH. mg;gbr; nra;Ak; gl;rj;jpy; ,Rg;ghdpa murpahUk; murUk; kdk; kfpo;e;J mtHfSf;Fj; jFe;jgb rd;khdk; nra;thHfs; vd;W nrhy;yg;gl;lJ.  

fpgp 1493 Mk; Mz;L rdtup 4 Mk; ehs; ePdh vd;w fg;gypy; jha;ehL Nehf;fpa jdJ gazj;ij nfhyk;g]; njhlq;fpdhH. mg;NghJ mtUf;F xU tpag;Gf;  fhj;jpUe;jJ. njhiye;J Ngha;tpl;ljhf nfhyk;g]; epidj;j gpe;jh vd;w fg;giyf; fz;lhH. jz;lay; myd;Nrh gpd;nrhDf;Ff; nfhyk;girg; ghHf;f ntl;fkhf ,Ue;jJ. nfhyk;gir tpl;Lr; nrd;wjpw;Fupa fhuzj;ijg; gpd;nrhd; tpsf;f Kw;gl;lhH. Mdhy;>> nfhyk;gRf;Fg; gpd;nrhd; jq;fg; ghsq;fisj; Njbj;jhd; NghdhH vd;gJk; mJ fpilf;ftpy;iy vd;gJk; njupe;jpUe;jJ. Mdhy;> mjid mtH tha;tpl;Lr; nrhy;ytpy;iy. ,uz;L  fg;gy;fSk; ,g;NghJ ,Rg;ghdpah Nehf;fpj; jkJ gazj;ij Muk;gpj;jd.  

jhafk; Nehf;fpa fly; gazk; nfhe;jspg;ghf ,Ue;jJ. gyH the;jp vLj;jhHfs;. xU rkak; fly; kpfTk; nfhe;jspg;ghf ,Ue;jjhy; ePdh mijj; jhf;Fg; gpbf;fhJ %o;fg; NghfpwJ vd;w gak; nfhyk;gRf;F Vw;gl;lJ. clNd nfhyk;g]; jhd; mJtiu nra;jijAk; fz;lijAk; ,d;ndhU Fwpg;Gj; Gj;jfj;jpy; vOjpdhH. mjid ,Rg;ghdpa murpahUf;Fk; murUf;Fk; Kftupapl;L xU gPg;ghtpy; Nghl;L flypy; tPrpdhH. 

Mdhy;>> ePdh flypy; %o;ftpy;iy. ngg;utup khjk; 18 Mk; ehs; nfhyk;g]; mNrhH]; jPitr; (mnkupf;fhtpw;Fk; INuhg;ghTf;Fk; ,ilapy; mj;jpyhe;jpf; ngUq;flypy; INuhg;ghit mz;bf; fplf;Fk; jPTfs;) nrd;wile;jhH. me;jj; jPtpd; NghHj;Jf;Nfa MSeUf;F xNu tpag;G. mNj rkak; ,e;j ,j;jhypa tprud; Rfkhfj;  jpUk;gp te;jijf; fz;l mtUf;F kfh Nfhgk; te;jJ. nfhyk;grpd; gazj;jhy; NghHj;Jf;fy; my;y ,Rg;ghdpah ehL ,yhgk; milag; Nghfpwnjd;W epidj;j MSeH nfhyk;girr; rpiwapy; milf;f vj;jdpj;jhH. Mdhy;> nfhyk;g]; mtUf;Fj; jz;zpfhl;b tpl;Lg; NghHj;Jf;Nfaf; flw;fiuia Nehf;fpg; gazg;gl;lhH. mq;F eq;$ukpl;l gpd; NghHj;Jf;Nfa murH Nahidr; re;jpj;jhH.  

,Nj murHjhd; xU fhyj;jpy; jd;idf; fdk; gz;zhky; kpfTk; Gwq;fhl;b ele;J nfhz;lhH vd;gij nfhyk;g]; kwe;J tpltpy;iy. ,g;NghJk; mg;gbNa kd;dH Nahd; nfhyk;gir elhj;jpapUg;ghH. Mdhy;> ,g;NghJ nfhyk;g]; Kd;idg;Nghy rhjhuz Ms; my;y.  xU ePz;l mghak; epiwe;j gazj;ij ntw;wpfukhf Kbj;Jf; nfhz;L ehL jpUg;gpapUf;fpwhH. jsgjp nfhyk;gRf;F mtkjpg;Gr; nra;tij ,Rg;ghdpa murH murpahH tpUk;g khl;lhHfs;. ,j;jpahjp fhuzq;fSf;fhf murH Nahd; nfhyk;;gir  ,uhr kupahijAld; tuNtw;whH. nfhyk;g]; jhd; fhNjapy; ,Ue;J jpUk;gp tpl;l nra;jpia ,Rg;ghdpa murH murpaH ,UtUf;Fk; xU JhJtH %yk; mDg;Gtjw;F murH Nahd; mDkjp mspj;jhH.  

nfhyk;g]; ePdh vd;w fg;gypy; jdJ gazj;ij kPz;Lk; Muk;gpj;jhH. Mdhy;> mtuJ gioa ez;gd; jz;lay; mnyhd;Nrh gpd;nrhd; kPz;Lk; xUKiw nfhyk;girf; iftpl;;lhH. nfhyk;g]; xU Gaypy; rpf;fpaNghJ> gpd;nrhd; mtiuf; iftpl;L ,Rg;ghdpah Nehf;fp tpiue;jhH. ,Rg;ghdpa ehl;bd; JiwKfk; xd;iw mile;j gpd;nrhd; gazj;jpd; ntw;wpf;fhd ghuhl;il jhd;kl;Lk; jl;bf;nfhs;Sk; vz;zj;jpy; murpf;Fk; murUf;Fk; jhd; fhNjapy; ,Ue;J jpUk;gptpl;ljhfTk;>  Neupy; nrhy;tjw;F epiwar; rq;fjpfs; ,Ug;gijAk; njuptpj;J  xU fbjj;ij mtru mtrukhf mDg;gp itj;jhH. mq;fpUe;J gpd;nrhd; ghNyhRf;F gazg;gl;lhH. 

Nkw;F Nehf;fpg; gazk; Gwg;gl;L VO jpq;fs; fopj;J fpgp 1493 Mk; Mz;L khHr; khjk; 15 Mk; ehs; nfhyk;g]; ghNyh]; JiwKfj;ij nrd;wile;jhH. kf;fSf;F ePdh vd;w me;jr; rpwpa fg;giy milahsk; fhz mjpf Neuk; vLf;ftpy;iy. nrhyk;g]; jpUk;gp tpl;lhH vd;w nra;jp fhl;Lj; jPNghy; vq;Fk; gutpaJ.  

nfhyk;g]; fhNjiaf; fz;L gpbj;J tpl;lhH. $Nu! $Nu! vd;W vy;NyhUk; fj;jpdhHfs;. Mya kzpfs; mbj;jd> gPuq;fpfs; Koq;fpd> tPjp vq;Fk; kf;fs; epiwe;jdH. khYkpfs; midtUk; kfpo;r;rpNahL tuNtw;fg; gl;lhHfs;. mtHfs; nrhd;d fijfis kf;fs; Mr;rupaj;NjhL thiag; gpoe;j tz;zk; Nfl;lwpe;J nfhz;lhHfs;. 

nfhyk;g]; ghNyh]; jpUk;gp tpl;lhH. mtiuf; fz;l vy;NyhUk; tho;j;Jf; $wp jlGlyhf tuNtw;whHfs;. " ghNyh]; JiwKfg; gl;bdj;J khYkpfis ,Oj;Jf; nfhz;L flypy; gazk; nra;J  mtHfis g+kpapd; tpopk;gpy; itj;J fPNo js;sp tpOj;jg;Nghd tprH ,j;jhypad;" vd;W ,g;NghJ  nfhyk;gir ahUk; vs;sp eifahltpy;iy. (tsUk;)

 


 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

xU gUe;jpd; fPo;

nfhyk;grpd; ,uz;lhtJ fly; gazk;!

(62)

,e;jf; nfhz;lhl;lj;jpd; kj;jpapy; gpe;jh vd;w fg;gy; ghNyh];; JiwKfj;ij te;jile;jJ. jiuapy; elf;Fk; nfhz;lhl;lj;jpd; rj;jk; jz;lay; mnyhd;Nrh gpd;nrhd; fhjpy; tpOe;jJ.

nfhyk;gir Ke;jpf;nfhz;L Gjpa ehLfisf; fz;Lgpbj;j nra;jpia muruplKk; murpahuplKk; nrhy;yp mjw;Fupa ghuhl;ilAk; gupirAk; jl;bf; nfhs;syhk; vd;w gpd;nrhd; fdT fiye;J NghdJ  gpd;nrhdpDf;F Vkhw;wkhf ,Ue;jJ. jdJ gioa  ez;gidg;  ghHj;J kd;dpg;Gf; Nfl;gjw;Fg; gjpy; gpd;nrhd; NeNu jdJ ,y;yj;Jf;F VfpdhH.  

mq;F  mtUf;F  murH murp ,Utuplj;Jk; ,Ue;J te;j xU fbjk; fhj;jpUe;jJ. mjpy; mtH  ele;J nfhz;l tpjk; fLikahff; fz;bf;fg; gl;bUe;jJ. jdJ Kaw;rpfs; vy;yhk; Njhy;tpapy; Kbe;jJ gpd;nrhDf;F gyj;j kd csr;riyAk;  mspj;jJ. me;jf; ftiyapy; Neha;tha;g;gl;Lg; ghapy; tpOe;j gpd;nrhd; rpy ehs;fs; fopj;J ,we;J NghdhH. 

nfhyk;g]; Kjypy; jdJ gioa ez;gH Athd; ngu];  (Juan Perez) vd;w ghjpupahiur;  re;jpj;Jj; jdJ gaz mDgtq;fis tpupthff;  $wpdhH. mjd; gpd; ghrpNyhdh (Barcelona) nrd;W jdJ tUiff;fhff; fhj;jpUe;j ngHbdd;l; muriuAk; ,rngy;yh murpahiuAk; muz;kid nrd;W re;jpj;jhH. Vw;fdNt ,UtUk; nfhyk;g]; fhNjiaf; fz;Lgpbj;jijg; ghuhl;b  kly; mDg;gpapUe;jhHfs;. mJ kl;Lk; my;yhky; nfhyk;gir ,uz;lhtJ gazj;Jf;F Maj;jkhFkhWk; Nfl;bUe;jhHfs;.  

nfhyk;g]; jhd; fz;L  Nfl;lij vy;yhk;  tpupthf vLj;Jr; nrhd;dhH. jhd; fhNjapy; ,Ue;J nfhz;L te;jpUe;j jq;fk;> etuj;jpdq;fs;> gwitfs; Nghd;wtw;iwf; fhl;bdhH. murUk; murpahUk; mtuJ rhjidiag; Gfo;e;J NgrpdhHfs;. xU twpa fk;gpsp nerthspahd nfhyk;gir xU ,sturUf;F my;yJ xU ngupa gpuGTf;F cupa kupahijNahL jq;fs; mUF ,Uj;jpf; fTutpj;jhHfs;. nfhyk;g]; mtuJ Nflaj;NjhL  my;yJ jiyf; ftrj;NjhL mur rpd;dq;fisAk; #lyhk; vdTk; mtUf;Fr; nrhy;yg;gl;lJ.  

nfhyk;grpd; ,uz;lhtJ fly;  gazj;Jf;F  Ntz;ba fg;gy;fs;> khYkpfs; Maj;jk; nra;ag;gl;ld. ,e;j ,uz;lhtJ gazj;jpy; epr;rak; nfhyk;g]; gspq;fpdhy; Md  Myaq;fs;> jq;fj;jpdhy; Md muz;kidfs; nfhz;l fhNj ehl;bd; efuq;fis miltJ epr;rak; vdTk; mg;NghJ nfhyk;g]; fhNj ehl;Lr; NguurNuhL jq;fk;> etuj;jpdq;fs; kw;Wk; thridj; jputpaq;fs; Nghd;wtw;wpy; thzpfk; nra;a xg;ge;jq;fis vOjpf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vdTk; murUk; murpahUk; njuptpj;jhHfs;.  

mg;NghJ$l nfhyk;g]; mnkupf;fhitf; fz;L gpbj;jijNah my;yJ mg;gb xU ngupa fz;lk; ,Ug;gijNah murNuh murpahNuh mwpe;jpUf;ftpy;iy. khHf;Nfh NghNyh jdJ Mrpag; gazj;jpd;NghJ ghHj;j nry;tr; nropg;ghd ehLfisNa nfhyk;g]; ghHj;Jj; jpUk;gpAs;sjhf ,UtUk;  epidj;jhHfs;!  

nfhyk;g]; nry;Yk; ,lnky;yhk; mtUf;F ,uhr kupahij nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. kf;fs; $l;lk; mtiug; ghHf;fj; jpuz;lJ. jq;fisAk; fhNj nry;Yk; fg;gypy; mioj;Jr; nry;YkhW mtuplk; gyH nfQ;rpdhHfs;.  

nfhyk;gRf;F vt;tsT tpiuthf jdJ ,uz;lhtJ fly; gazj;ij njhlq;f  KbANkh mt;tsT tpiuthf mjidj; njhlq;f Mirg;gl;lhH. jhd; fz;l mofhd jPTfspy; fpilf;ff;$ba jq;fj;ijAk; etuj;jpdq;fisAk; ms;s Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ mtuJ ftiyahf ,Ue;jJ. ,k;Kiw nkhj;jk; 17 fg;gy;fspy;> 1500 khYkpfNshL  1493 Mk; Mz;L nrg;jk;gH khjk; 25Mk; ehs; nfhyk;g]; gazk; Gwg;gl;lhH.  

,e;jj; jlit fhNj> ,e;jpah kw;Wk; rpg;gd;Nfh ehLfisf; fz;L gpbj;J mq;F ,Uf;fpd;w efuq;fspy; fpilf;ff; $ba mstpl Kbahj> fhZjw;F mupa nry;tq;fis vy;yhk; nfhz;L te;J ,Rg;ghdpa ehl;L murH murpaH ,UtuplKk; nfhLj;J ey;y ngaH thq;f Ntz;Lk;  vd;W nfhyk;g]; kdJf;Fs; fzf;Fg; Nghl;lhH.

fhb]; JiwKfj;jpy;  ,Ue;J nfhyk;g]; Gwg;gl;lhH. fle;j Mz;L ghNyh]; Jiw Kfj;jpy; ,Ue;J  jdJ Kjy;  gazj;ij 3 rpW fg;gy;fspy; nfhyk;g]; Nkw;nfhz;l NghJ mtuJ khYkpfs; Ntz;lh ntWg;NghL ,Ue;jhHfs;. mtuJ ez;gHfsJ vz;zpf;if nrhw;gkhf ,Ue;jJ. gyH mtiu tprud; vd;W epidj;jhHfs;. gazk; ntw;wp ngWkh vd;gjpy; gyj;j ma;ak; gyUf;F ,Ue;jJ. ,g;NghJ vy;yhNk jiy fPo; khw;wk; mile;Jtpl;ld.   

Nkupah fye;Nj (Maria Galante )  vd;w nfhbf; fg;gypd; (Flag ship) mzpaj;jpy; epd;W  ngUq;fliyf; fz;fshy; msf;Fk; nfhyk;g]; ,g;NghJ ngupa Gs;sp. murH murpau; ,UtUk; "ngUq;flypd; fly; jsgjp (“Admiral of the Ocean Seas”)   ",e;jpahtpd; Njrhjpgjp" (Viceroy of Indies)  vd;w caH gjtpfSf;Fd; nfhyk;gir epakdk; nra;jpUe;jhHfs;.  

nfhyk;g]; $g;gpl;l FuYf;F Xbtu Ntiyahl;fs;> rpwpaJk; ngupaJkhd 17 fg;gy;fSf;Fk;  mtNu Vf jsgjp> Jizf;F 1>500 khYkpfs;> rpg;gha;fs;> Fjpiu tPuHfs;. fg;gy; epiwa ,e;jpaHfSlDk;> fhNj ehl;Lg; ngUq;Fb tzpfHfSlDk; thzpfk; nra;tjw;F  Ntz;ba  nghUs;fs;> Nghfpw ,lq;fspy; jq;fptpl tpUk;GgtHfSf;F tPLfs; fl;bf; nfhLg;gjw;F Ntz;ba fl;llg; nghUs;fs; vy;yhk; ngUthupahf ,Ue;jd.  

vy;yhNk ey;ygbahf ,Ue;jd. vjpHfhyk; ek;gpf;ifahdjhfTk;> xspkakhdjhfTk; njupe;jJ. nfhyk;g]; jdJ Mirf; fdTfs;> vjpHghHg;Gf;fs; vy;yhk; epiwNtwg; Nghfpwnjd;Wk; cz;ikapy; jhd; ngupa Ms; kl;Lky;y mjpl;lrhypAk; $l vd jdf;Fs; epidj;Jg; ngUkpjg; gl;Lf; nfhz;lhH.  

,e;jg; gazk; jq;fg; ghsq;fSf;fhd Ntl;ilahf ,Uf;Fk;. me;jj; jq;fj;ij tpw;why;  50>000 tPuHfisf; nfhz;l xU fhyhy; giliaAk;> 4>000 tPuHfisf; nfhz;l Fjpiug; giliaAk; jpul;b n[&ryk; efiuAk; mq;Fs;s ,NaRehjupd; fy;yiwiaAk; ifg;gw;wp itj;jpUf;Fk; Gwr;rkapfshd JUf;fpaiuj; Juj;Jtjw;Fg;  NghJkhdjhf ,Uf;Fk; vd VyNt nfhyk;g]; murUf;Fk; murpahUf;Fk; rj;jpak; nra;J nfhLj;jpUe;jhH.  

fpwpj;jtHfSf;Fg; Gdpj efukhd n[&ryj;ij  JUf;fpauplk;  ,Ue;J kPsf; ifg;gw;w Ntz;Lk; vd;w Miria ma;Nuhg;gpa fpwpj;Jtkf;fs; Mz;lhz;L fhykhf tsHj;J te;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. me;j Kaw;rpapy; gy Nghuhspfs; Nghupl;Lj; Njhw;whHfs; my;yJ ,we;Jgl;lhHfs;. ,g;NghJ  jd;dhy; me;j Miria epiwT nra;a KbAnkd;W nfhyk;g]; epidj;jhH.  Kd;dH NghyNt  nfhyk;g];  Kjypy; fduP]; jPtpy; jiuapwq;fpdhH. mq;F gazj;Jf;F Njitg;gl;l tpwF> jz;zPH> ML> khL> gd;wp Nghd;wtw;iwr; Nrfupj;jhH.  

ehs;f;fzf;fpy; xU jPT khwp kW jPT vd;W nfhyk;g]; Ngha;f; nfhz;bUe;jhH. rpytw;wpy; ,wq;fp mtw;Wf;Fg; ngaH #l;bdhH. Mdhy;> xd;Wk; fhNj ehl;ilf; fz;L gpbf;f cjttpy;iy. Kbtpy; nfapl;b my;yJ mtH mioj;jJ Nghy `p];ghdpNahyh (Hispaniola)  Nehf;fpg; gazkhdhH. mq;Nfjhd; yh ehtplhl; vd;w Nfhl;iliaf; fl;bdhH vd;gJ njupe;jNj.     

nehntk;gH 27 ,y; nfhyk;grpd; fg;gy;fs;  yh Netplhl; Nfhl;ilf;F mUNf eq;$uk; gha;r;rp epd;wd. te;J NrHe;j Neuk; ,uT Neuk;. fz;fSf;F xd;WNk njupatpy;iy. Nfhl;il kjpy; RtHfs; njupfpwjh vd;W $He;J ghHj;jNghJ mJTk; fz;Zf;Fj; njd;gltpy;iy. nfhyk;g]; gPuq;fpf; Fz;nlhd;iw mbj;jhH. mLj;J ,d;ndhd;W.  Fz;Lfspd;  vjpnuhyp jtpu Ntnwhd;iwAk; Nfl;f Kbatpy;iy.  

jhd; tpl;Lr; nrd;w me;j khYkpfs; rupahd Fk;gfHzd;fs; vd;W nfhyk;g]; kdJf;Fs; vz;zpdhH. filrpahf xU ts;sj;ij ahNuh fk;Gfshy; typj;Jf; nfhz;L tUk; rj;jk; Nfl;lJ.  nfhyk;grpd; ngaiur; nrhy;yp ahNuh Fuy; nfhLj;jhHfs;. Mdhy;> mJ ,Rg;ghdpa nkhopapy; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. ey;y fhyk; Kd;dH  ,Rg;ghdpahtpw;Fr; rpiwg; gpbj;Jr; nrd;w ,e;jpaupy; xUtiu ,e;jg; gazj;jpy; nfhyk;g]; jd;NdhL nkhopngaHg;ghsuhff; $l;b te;jpUe;jhH.  

fg;gypy; ,Ue;j ntspr;rj;jpd; cjtpAld; me;j ts;sj;jpy; xU ,e;jpaH ,Ug;gJ kq;fyhfj; njupe;jJ. mtH nfhyk;gRf;Fg; gupRg; nghUs;fs; nfhz;L te;jpUe;jhH. mjpy; ftdk; nrYj;jhJ  vd;Dila Ml;fs; vq;Nf> mtHfs; vd;dthdhHfs; vd;W nfhyk;g]; Nfl;lhH. mg;NghJ mtUf;F me;jr; Nrhff; fij nrhy;yg;gl;lJ.  

yh Netplhl; vd;w me;jf; Nfhl;il jfHf;fg;gl;L tpl;lJ. khYkpfs;  midtUk; ,we;J NghdhHfs;. ,Rg;ghdpah Kjy;Kiwahf Gjpa cyfpy; Muk;gpf;f ,Ue;j nfhydp gL Njhy;tpapy; Kbe;jJ. mjw;F ,Rg;ghdpaHfs; jq;fisj; jhq;fNs nehe;J nfhs;tijtpl NtW top ,Uf;ftpy;iy.  

nfhyk;g]; me;j khYkpfis tpl;Lg; Nghdgpd;dH mtHfs; mtH  gzpj;jgb elf;ftpy;iy. mtHfs; nfhyk;gRf;Ff; nfhLj;j thf;FWjpg;gb ele;J nfhs;sTk; ,y;iy. mtHfs; Nrhk;Ngwpfshf ,Ue;jhHfs;. me;jj; jPT kf;fisf; nfhLikahf ,uf;fkpd;wp elj;jpdhHfs;.  mJ Nghjhnjd;W  mtHfs; jq;fSf;Fs; rz;il Nghl;Lf; nfhz;lhHfs;. rpyH fhl;Lf;Fs; nrd;W trpj;jhHfs;.

Neha; NtW te;J  mtHfisg;  gPbj;Jf; nfhz;lJ. khYkpfs; ,uz;L fd;idfshfg; gpupe;J xUtH kPJ xUtH nghwhikg;gl;Lf; nfhz;lhHfs;. ,e;jpaHfs; mtHfSila vjpupfshf khwpdhHfs;. ,e;jpaHfSila NghHj; jiytd; xUtd; ,e;jpaHfisj; jpul;b nts;isaHfSf;F vjpuhfg; Nghupl;lhd;. mtdJ ngaH fhxdNgh (Caonabo) vd;gjhFk;.  Nfhl;ilAk; mjidr; Rw;wp ,Ue;j ,Ug;gplq;fSk; Rw;wp tisj;Jj; jhf;fp mopf;fg;gl;ld. 

ehLgpbg;ghsHfs; (Conquerors)  vd;W jq;fis ,Wkhg;Gld; nrhy;ypf;nfhz;l ,RghdpaHfs; nty;yg;gl;Lf; nfhy;yg;gl;lhHfs;!  

,e;jr; nra;jpfs; nfhyk;gRf;Fg; ngupa Vkhw;wj;ijf; nfhLj;jJ. jhd; ek;gpf;if itj;j kdpjHfs; me;j ek;gpf;ifia ngha;ahf;fp  tpl;lhHfs;. jq;fg; ghsq;fis NrUq;fs; vd;W jhd; Nghl;l fl;lisia mtHfs; cjhrPdk; nra;Jtpl;lhHfs;. nfhyk;grpd; jpl;lq;fs; vy;yhk; Njhw;Wg; Ngha; tpoYf;F ,iwj;j ePuhfp tpl;lJ.

Mdhy;> Njhy;tpfisf; fz;L Jts;gtH my;y nfhyk;g];. Nfhl;il jfHf;fg;gl;L tpl;lJ> khYkpfs; nfhy;yg;gl;L tpl;lhHfs;> jhd; Njhw;Wtpf;f tpUk;gpa ,Rg;ghdpa FbNaw;wk; njhlf;fj;jpNyNa  Njhy;tp fz;L tpl;lJ. gUthapy;iy> NghtJ Nghfl;Lk; nrd;wtw;iwapl;Lf; ftiyg;gl;L Mfg; NghtJ xd;Wkpy;iy. Kaw;rp jpUtpidahf;Fk;. kPz;Lk; xUKiw Kaw;rpj;Jg; ghHf;fyhk; vd nfhyk;g]; KbT nra;jhH.

 


fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

fpA+ghit Mrpah vd;W ek;gpa nfhyk;g];

(63)

flypy; ftpo;e;j rhe;jh Nkupah vd;w fg;gypd; cile;j gyiffis itj;Jf; fl;ba Netplhl; vd;w Nfhl;il ,Ue;j ,lk; nfhyk;gRf;F Vw;wjhf ,Uf;ftpy;iy. mJ jho;thd> mRj;jkhd> Fspuhd ,lj;jpy; ,Ue;jJ. vdNt Nfhl;il  fl;Ltjw;F NtW ,lk; ghHf;f vz;zpdhH.  me;jj; jPitr; Rw;wpg; ghHj;j nfhyk;g]; mjd; tlgFjp  Nfhl;il fl;Ltjw;F cfe;j ,lkhfj; NjHe;njLj;jhH. cyf tiuglj;ijg;  ghHj;jhy;  Nkw;F ,e;jpaj; jPTfspy; xd;whd n`apl;bjhd; me;jj;  jPT vd;gJ  njupatUk;. ,rngy;yh Kidf;F (Cape Isabella) mUfpy; cs;sJ. 

fg;gy;fs; eq;$uk; tpl;L epw;gjw;Fj;  Njitahd JiwKfk;> ghiwf; fw;fshy; Md Fd;wpy; xU Nfhl;il> Njhl;lk; nra;tjw;F ey;y nropg;ghd epyk; nfhyk;grpdhy;  ,dk; fhzg;gl;lJ. me;j ,lj;jpy; xU Gjpa efuk; cUthfj; njhlq;fpaJ. mjw;Ff;  nfhyk;g]; jdJ Gutyuhd ,rngy;yhtpd; ngaiur; #l;bdhH.  

efuj;jpd; ikag; gFjpapy; xU rJf;fk; mikf;fg;gl;lJ. mijr; Rw;wp xU njU. nghUs;fisr; Nrkpj;J itg;gjw;Ff; fw;fshyhd foQ;rpak;> Njthyak;> MSeH khspif fl;lg;gl;ld. VidatHfSf;Fj; njUtpd; ,d;ndhU gf;fj;jpy; tPLfs; fl;lg;gl;ld. mq;Fs;s kiyf; Fd;wpd; cr;rpapy; fz;fhzpg;Gf; NfhGuk; epWtg;gl;lJ. ,JNt Ie;EhW Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH nts;isaHfshy; Gjpa mnkupf;f cyfpy; cUthf;fg;gl;l Kjy; FbapUg;ghFk;.  

nfhyk;grpd; Ml;fs; ,g;NghJ GWGWf;fj; njhlq;fpdhHfs;. Gjpa cyfpy; jq;fk; Njhz;b vLj;J FNguHfshf thoyhk; vd epidj;J te;NjhNknahopa tPLfs; fl;Ltjw;F epyj;ij Njhz;l tutpy;iy vd;gJjhd; mtHfsJ GWGWg;Gf;Ff; VJthFk;. clNd nfhyk;g]; jq;fk; NjLk; Ntl;ilapy; ,wq;fpdhH. mjpy; ntw;wp ngwyhk; vd;w ek;gpf;if Kjypy; Njhd;wpaJ. ,e;jpaHfs; n`apl;b kiyg; ghiwfspy; jq;fk; ,Ug;gjhfr; nrhd;dhHfs;. kiyf;Fr; nrd;w nfhyk;grpd; Ml;fs; jq;fk; fhzg;gLk; mwpFwp ,Ug;gjhf njuptpj;jhHfs;. mij mbg;gilahf itj;J ,Rg;ghdpa murUf;Fk; murpahUf;Fk; kfpo;r;rpahd nra;jp xd;iw nfhyk;g]; mDg;gp itj;jhH.  

kQ;rs; epwj; jq;fj;Jf;fhd Ntl;ilapy; nfhyk;gRk; mtuJ Ml;fSk; KO %r;rhf ,wq;fpdhHfs;. ePNuhilfspy; NjbdhHfs;. epyj;ijj; Njhz;bg; ghHj;jhHfs;. ,e;jpaHfsplKk; Ntiy thq;fpdhHfs;. ,g;NghJ ,e;jpaHfSf;Fj; jq;fk; vd;w thHj;ijiaf; Nfl;lhNy ntWg;G te;jJ. ,e;jj; jq;fj;Jf;Fj;jhd; ,e;j nts;isaH capH tho;fpwhHfs; NghYk; vd;W kdJf;Fs; rgpj;jhHfs;. xU rpd;dj; jq;ff; fl;bia ifapy; itj;Jf; nfhz;L ",Jjhd; nts;isaupd; flTs;" vd;W xUtUf;F xUtH Nfypahfg; Ngrpf; nfhz;lhHfs;.  

tho;f;ifapy; ,g;gb vy;yhk; ehupKwpa Ntiy nra;J gof;fg;glhj ,e;jpaHfs;> nfhyk;grpd; cgj;jputj;jpy; ,Ue;J jg;gg; ngha;f;FNky; ngha; nrhy;yj; njhlq;fpdhHfs;. mq;F>  ,q;F> rw;Wj; js;sp  vd;W vy;yh ,lq;fisAk; fhl;bdhHfs;. nfhyk;grpd; Ml;fs; Xb Xb me;j ,lq;fisr; ry;yilNghl;Lj; Jisj;J vLj;jhHfs;. jq;fk;  kl;Lk;  mfg;glNt ,y;iy.  

1494 rdtup 13 Mk;  ehs; ntspf;fpl;L te;j 17 fg;gy;fspy; 14 fg;gy;fisf; nfhyk;g]; ,Rg;ghdpahtpw;Fj; jpUg;gp mDg;gp itj;jhH. me;jf; fg;gy;fspy; xU mTd;R jq;fk; $l vLj;Jr; nry;yg;gltpy;iy vd;gijr; nrhy;y Ntz;bajpy;iy. Mdhy;> murpahUf;Fk; murUf;Fk; vOjpa fbjj;jpy; ntF tpiutpy; jq;fk; mDg;gg;gLk; vd cWjp $wg;gl;lJ.  

,d;ndhU NahridiaAk; nfhyk;g]; Kd;itj;jhH. me;jj; jPtpYs;s ,e;jpaHfisg; gpbj;J ,Rg;ghdpahtpw;F mDg;gpdhy; mtHfis mq;F mbikfshf tpw;Wg; gzk; rk;ghjpf;fyhk;. mjw;F mDkjp mspf;FkhW Nfl;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;jpaHfisg; gpbj;J mDg;Gtjhy; jpiwr;Nrupf;Fg; gzk; FtptJ kl;Lky;y NtW ed;ikAk; cz;L. mtHfs; vy;NyhiuAk; ey;y fpwpj;jtHfshf kjkhw;wKk; nra;J tplyhk;.  

nfhyk;g]; Nghd;w xU flNyhb> ,g;gb vy;yhk; nra;jhH vd;gij epidf;f tUj;jkhfj;jhd; ,Uf;fpwJ. Mdhy;> mtHjhd; mnkupf;ff; fz;lj;jpy; mbik thzpfj;ij njhlf;fp itj;j Kjy; kdpjH vd;gJ cz;ikNa. ma;e;EhW Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH r%f kjpg;gPL Ntwhf ,Ue;jJ. nfhba mbik thzpfk; ngupa Fw;wkhff; fUjg;gltpy;iy. Vida nghUs;f;fis thzpfk; nra;tJNghy; kdpjHfisAk; thzpfk; nra;ayhk; vd;w epidg;G ,Ue;jJ. rpy ey;y kdpjHfs; mbik thzpfj;ij vjpHf;fj;jhd; nra;jhHfs;. Mdhy;> me;j vjpHg;ig ahUk; nghUl;gLj;jtpy;iy. mbik thzpfj;jhy; mnkupf;fg; G+HtPf Fbkf;fs; nrhy;nyhzhj; Jauj;Jf;Fk; Jd;gj;jpw;Fk; my;yy;fSf;Fk; mdHj;jq;fSf;Fk; MshdhHfs;. mnkupf;fh tlf;F-njw;fhfg; gpupe;J xU cs;ehl;Lg; Nghupy; Fjpj;jjw;F nfhyk;g]; njhlf;fp itj;j mbik thzpfNk fhuzpahFk;.  

jq;fk; Njbf; fisj;j rpyH Njhl;lk; nra;aj; njhlq;fpdhHfs;. Mdhy;>  Njhl;l NtiyAk; ,yFthf ,Uf;ftpy;iy. jq;fk; NjLtJ Njhl;lk; nra;tijtpl ,yhgfukhf ,Uf;Fk; vd;W mtHfs; epidj;jhHfs;. Mdhy;> jq;fj;ij MW> Fsk;> kiy vd;W NjbdtHfSf;F me;j Ntiy fbdkhf ,Ue;jJ. 

me;jj;jPtpd; ePNuhilfspy; fpilj;j nfhQ;rj; jq;fk; nfhyk;gRf;Fj; jpUg;jp mspf;ftpy;iy. mj;NjhL mtuJ Ml;fspd; GWGWg;Gk; mjpfupf;fj; njhlq;fpaJ. xU ehs; nfhyk;g]; jq;fr; Ruq;fq;fis NtW jPTfspy; fz;L gpbg;gjw;Fj; jdJ 5 fg;gy;fspYk; Gwg;gl;lhH. ahH fz;lhHfs; fhNj ehl;ilAk; mjd; gsgsf;Fk; efuq;fisAk; ,e;jKiw fz;L gpbj;jhYk; gpbf;fyhk; vd nfhyk;g]; epidj;jhH. 

njw;Fj; jpirg; gf;fk; gazk; nra;j nfhyk;g]; [Nka;f;fh jPitf; fz;L gpbj;jhH. mjd;gpd; mUfpYs;s fpA+ghtpd; flNyhukhfg; gazk; nra;jhH. fpA+gh gy iky; Jhuk; tpupe;J fplg;gijf; fz;l nfhyk;g]; mJjhd; Mrpahtpd; jiy epyg;gug;ghf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W ek;gpdhH. mtH mg;gb ek;gpdjpy; jtwpy;iy. mq;F fhzg;gl;l gy rpW jPTfs; mtH gbj;j fhNjgw;wpa Gj;jfj;jpy; Fwpg;gpl;lthNw ,Ue;jd. me;jj; jPTfspy; fhzg;gl;l kuq;fSk; goq;fSk; $l  fhNj nrd;W te;j gazpfs; nrhd;dthNw ,Ue;jd.  

nfhyk;g]; fhz epidj;j gspq;Fj; Njthyaq;fs;> nghd;Nta;e;j khspiffs;> fz;izf; ftUk; efuq;fs; ,d;Dk; njd;gltpy;iy vd;gJ  cz;ikjhd;. Mdhy;>  Mrpahitf; fz;L gpbj;jJ cz;ik. clNd jd;NdhL te;j khYkpfsplk; xU gj;jpuj;ijf; nfhLj;J me;j epyg;gug;G MrpahNtjhd; (cz;ikapy; mJ fpA+gh jPT) vdf; ifnaOj;J thq;fpf; nfhz;lhH. khYkpfs; gpd;dH jhq;fs; Mrpahitg; ghHf;fNt ,y;iy  vd;W nrhy;ypj; jdJ fhiy thuptpLthHfNsh vd;w gaj;jpNyNa nfhyk;g]; me;jg; gj;jpuj;jpy;  Kd;NahridNahL vOjp thq;fpf; nfhz;lhH! gpd;dH ahuhtJ jhd; fz;L gpbj;jJ fhNj ,y;iy vd;W nrhd;dhy; mtUf;F 100 nlhyH jz;lk; my;yJ 100 firabNahL mtuJ ehf;Fk; gpLq;fg;gLk; vd;Wk; vOjp thq;fpf; nfhz;lhH! 

,jd; gpd;dH nfhyk;g]; jdJ gioa ,rngy;yh efUf;Fg; gazg;gl;lhH. mq;FNgha;r; NrUKd; nfhyk;g]; fLikahd RfaPdj;Jf;F MshdhH. khYkpfSf;Ff; fl;lis gpwg;gpg;gjw;Ff; ifia caHj;jpNah jiyia Ml;bNah rkpf;if nfhLf;Fk; gyk;$l mtuplk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy.  

Nehapdhy; ma;e;J ePz;l khjq;fshff; nfhyk;g]; jdf;F ,rngy;yh efHr; rJf;fj;jpy;  fl;ba fy;tPl;by; gLf;ifapy; fple;jhH. ey;yfhykhf 3 fg;gy;fspy; nfhyk;gRf;Fj; Njitahd czTg; nghUl;fSld; te;j mtuJ cld;gpwg;G ghj;njhyNk (Bartholomew) nfhyk;grpd; flikfisg; ghuNkw;Wf; nfhz;lhH.  

,g;gbf; nfhyk;g]; gLf;ifapy; tpOe;J fple;j tha;g;igg; gad;gLj;jp rpy khYkpfs; ghj;njhyNk te;j fg;gy;fspy; xd;iwf; ifg;gw;wp ,Rg;Ngdpahtpw;Fg; gazk; Gwg;gl;lhHfs;. mq;F Ngha;r; NrHe;j mtHfs; nfhyk;girg; gw;wp murpahUf;Fk; murUf;fk; ,y;yhj nghy;yhj fijfisr; nrhy;ypj; jpup itj;jhHfs;.  

mtHfs; ,Rg;ghdpaHfs;. nfhyk;g]; ,j;jhypf;fhuH. ,jdhy; jq;fSf;F Nkyhf gjtp epakdk; nra;ag;gl;l nfhyk;g]; kPJ mtHfSf;F ,aw;ifahfNt  nghwhik ,Ue;jJ. mijtpl fhNjapd; mofhd efuq;fs;> xsptpLk; jq;fr; Ruq;fq;fs; Nghd;wtw;iwf; fhl;Ltjhf  cWjpnkhop $wp mioj;J tug;gl;l jq;fis mk;kzkhfj; jpupAk; fhl;Lkpuhz;bfspd; jPTfspy; ,wf;fp xU nfhQ;rj; jq;fj;jpw;fhf nfhyk;g]; Ntiy thq;fpaijapl;L mtHfSf;F mtH kPJ gaq;fuf; Nfhgk; Vw;gl;lJ. gzf;fhuHfshfyhk; vd;w mjPj ek;gpf;ifNahL te;jtHfs; ,g;NghJ Gwg;gl;lij tpl Viofshfj; jpUk;gp ,Ue;jhHfs;. ,itnay;yhk; nfhyk;g]; kPJ msT fle;j ntWg;ig cz;lhf;fpaJ. nfhyk;girj; jhWkhwhfj; jpl;bj; jPHj;jhHfs;. ,Rg;ghdpa murpAk; murUk; mtHfsJ ngupa fly; jsgjp nfhyk;girj; Njbf; fz;L gpbf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,y;yhtpl;lhy; me;jj; jPTfspy; fz;nlLf;fg;gl;l nfhQ;rj; jq;fj;ijAk; nfhyk;g]; jd;NdhL itj;Jf; nfhz;LtpLthH vd;W Kiwapl;lhHfs;.   

nfhyk;grpd; cly; eyj;jpy; ,g;NghJ nfhQ;r Kd;Ndw;wk; fhzg;gl;lJ. jd;idf; iftpl;L xU rpyH Xbg;Ngha; tpl;lJ mtUf;Ff; ftiyia mspj;jJ. jdf;F murpahUk; murpAk; Nkw;nfhz;L cjtp nra;a kWj;J tpLthHfs; vd;w gak; NtW mtiug; gpbj;Jf; nfhz;lJ. ,tw;why; 1496 khHr; khjk; 10 Mk; ehs; nfhyk;g]; ,Rg;ghdpah Nehf;fpg; gazk; Gwg;gl;lhH. 

,uz;L Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH vy;yhNk xsp kakhf ,Ue;jJ. vjpHfhyk; ek;gpf;if nfhLg;gjhf ,Ue;jJ. Mdhy;> ,d;W vy;yhNk ,Uz;L Vkhw;wk; mspg;gjhf ,Ue;jJ. ,e;jpahtpw;fhd ,uz;lhtJ gazk; Njhy;tpaile;J tpl;lJ.

khYkpfisf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lf;Fs; itj;jpUg;gJ nfhyk;gRf;Ff; fisg;ig; nfhLj;jJ. fhNj vq;Nf ,Uf;fpwJ vd;W mupj;njLj;jjhYk;> jq;fk; Kj;J ,tw;iwf; fz;L gpbg;gjw;Ff; fLikahf Ntiy thq;fg;gl;ljhYk; ,e;jpaHfs; ,g;NghJ nfhyk;gRf;F  ez;gHfshf ,y;iy. khwhf vjpupfshf khwpapUe;jhHfs;.  

Neha;> cisr;ry;> fiur;ry;> Vkhw;wk;> vjpupfshf khwptpl;l ,e;jpaHfspd; mr;RWj;jy;> nrhe;j ehl;by; tYthd vjpupfs;> Jf;fk;> foptpuf;fk;> gak; ,tw;Wf;F kj;jpapYk; nfhyk;g]; JzpNthLk; ek;gpf;ifNahLk; tPl;Lf;F  vg;NghJ Ngha; NrHNthk; vd;w mq;fyha;g;NghL ,Ue;j 250 khYkpfNshL jdJ ehL Nehf;fpg; gazk; nra;J nfhz;bUe;jhH.  1496 A+d; 11k; ehs; mtH gazk; nra;j ,uz;L fg;gy;fSk; fhb]; (Cadiz) JiwKfj;ij mile;jJ. 

fly;gazk; kpfTk; kdr; NrhHT jUtjhf ,Ue;jJ. Nghjpa cztpy;iy. mt;tg;NghJ fg;gy;fs; #whtspapy; khl;bf; nfhz;L jtpj;jd. fg;gy;fspy; ,Ue;J khYkpfs; tpuf;jpNahLk; NrhHNthLk;; jiu ,wq;fpdhHfs;. nfhyk;girg;gw;wp KiwapLtjw;F mtHfsplk; Vuhskhd tplaq;fs; iftrk; ,Ue;jd.  

kw;wtHfisg; Nghy; nfhyk;gRk; ,be;J NghapUe;jhH. Kjy; gazj;jpy; ntw;wpNahL  rPUil mzpe;J fk;gPukhf jiu ,wq;fpdJ Nghyy;yhky; ,k;Kiw rhjhuzkhfg; ghjpupkhHfs; mzpAk; ePz;l mq;fpnahd;iw mzpe;jtz;zk;  jiu ,wq;fpdhH. jd;idg; gw;wp vd;ndd;d fijfisj; jdJ vjpupfs; murpahUf;Fk; murUf;Fk; gw;w itj;jpUg;ghHfs; vd;w ftiy xU Gwk;> jd;id mtHfs; vt;thW tuNtw;ghHfs; vd;w gak; ,d;ndhU Gwk;>  nfhLj;j thf;FWjpfNsh gy> epiwNtw;wg;gl;litNah rpy. Gwg;gLk;NghJ vt;tsNth ek;gpf;ifNahL Gwg;gl;L> jpUk;Gk;NghJ nrUf;Fk; kpLf;Fk; ngUkpjKk; Ngha; kw;wtHfsJ ntWg;Gf;Fk; Vsdj;Jf;Fk; Mshd kdpjHfspy; xUtHNghy; nfhyk;g]; ntWq;ifNahL ehL jpUk;gp ,Ue;jhH.  

1492 ,y; nfhyk;g]; cyfpd; kpfg; Gfo; tha;e;j  kdpjHfspy; xUtH. 1496 ,y; ntw;wpia ,oe;j> ez;gHfis ,oe;j> nry;thf;F ,oe;j xU kdpjuhff; fhl;rp je;jhH. 

tho;f;ifapy; ntw;wp epiyahdjy;y. mJ epr;rakw;wJ. ,d;W FNgudhf ,Ug;gtH ehis gpr;irf;fhudhf khwyhk;. ,d;W gpr;irf;fhudhf ,Ug;gtd; ehis FNgudhf khwyhk;. kz;Fbir khspif Mfyhk;. khspif kz;Fbir Mfyhk;. tz;b Xlj;jpYk;> Xlk; tz;bapYk; Vwyhk;. mjdhy;jhd; mt;itahH "Mw;wq; fiuapd; kuKk; murwpa tPw;wpUe;j tho;Tk; tpOkd;Nw"  vdg; ghbtpl;Lg; NghapUf;fpwhH! 

 


 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

Vnjd; Njhl;lj;ijf; 'fz;L gpbj;j' nfhyk;g];

(64)

nfhyk;g]; gae;jJNghy mtiu murUk; murpahUk; ntWj;J xJf;ftpy;iy. vJ vg;gb vd;whYk; nfhyk;g]; ,Rg;ghdpa ehl;Lf;F xU Gjpa cyiff; fz;L gpbj;jtH. mq;F vjpHghHj;jJNghy  jq;fk;> nts;sp ,y;yhky; ,Uf;fyhk;. Mdhy;> mtw;iw vjpHfhyj;jpy; fz;L gpbf;Fk; tha;g;G ,Uf;fpwJ. vdNt murUk; murpahUk; nfhyk;g]; jq;fis te;J ghHf;FkhW jfty; mDg;gpdhHfs;. mNjhL jq;fs; md;ghd tho;j;Jf;fisAk; mtUf;Fj; njuptpj;jhHfs;.

,e;j vjpHghuhj tuNtw;G %d;whtJ gazj;ij Nkw;nfhs;Sk; njd;ig nfhyk;gRf;Ff; nfhLj;jJ. vdNt jdJ gazj;Jf;F Ntz;ba  Vw;ghLfisr; nra;J jUkhW mtH muruplKk; murpahuplKk; Nfl;lhH. jdf;F MW fg;gy;fs; nfhLj;J cjtpdhy; NghJk; vd;W njuptpj;j mtH>  ,k;Kiw vg;gbAk; n`apl;bf;F mg;ghy; cs;s fhNjiaf; fz;L gpbg;gJ cWjp vd;W nrhd;dhH.  

gaz Vw;ghLfs; nra;tjpy; jhkjk; Vw;gl;lJ. murUk; murpahUk; NtW rpf;fy;fspy; jq;fs; Gyidr; nrytopj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;jhHfs;. Kd;gpUe;j cw;rhfk; ,g;NghJ mtHfsplk; ,y;yhky; ,Ue;jJ. gzg; gw;whf;Fiw mjw;nfhU fhuzk;.  ehs;fs; fpoikfshfp> fpoikfs; khjq;fshfpg; Ngha;f; nfhz;bUe;jd. mNj Neuk; murUk; murpahUk; Kfj;ij Kwpf;fhky; nfhyk;gNrhL md;ghfg; Ngrpf; nfhz;lhHfs;.  filrpahf nfhyk;grpd; fly; gazj;jpy; vg;NghJk; muriutpl  mjpf mf;fiw  fhl;bte;j murpahH mtUf;Ff; ifnfhLj;jhH. nfhyk;g]; Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lgb MW fg;gy;fs; nfhLf;fg;gl;ld.  

nfhyk;g]; jdJ %d;whtJ gazj;ij 1498 Mk; Mz;L Nk khjk; 20 Mk; ehs; njhlf;fpdhH. Kd;ida frg;ghd mDgtq;fs; fhuzkhf gy khYkpfs; gazk; Gwg;gl kWj;jhHfs;. kpFe;j jilfspd; kj;jpapy; 200 khYkpfisj; jpul;bf; nfhz;L gazk; Gwg;gl;lhH. ,k;Kiw Mrpahit vg;gbAk; fz;L gpbg;gJ vd;W #Siuj;Jf; nfhz;lhH. Kd;nghUKiw Mrpahitf; fz;L gpbj;Jtpl;ljhf khYkpfsplk; xU mwpf;if vOjp thq;fpf; nfhz;lhYk; mijf; nfhyk;gNr ek;gtpy;iy. jhd; fz;L gpbj;jtit midj;Jk; jPTfs; vd;gij mtuJ cs;kdk; nrhy;ypf; nfhz;lJ.

vdNt 3 fg;gy;fis ,rngy;yh FbapUg;G Nehf;fp gazk;  nra;AkhW  gzpj;J tpl;L vQ;rpa  3 fg;gy;fNshL njd;Nkw;fhff; nfhyk;g]; gazk; nra;J nfhz;bUe;jhH. Mf];l; khjk; 1 Mk; ehs; jpupdpehl; (Island of Trinidad )  vd;w ngupa jPtpy; cs;s %d;W kiyf; Fd;Wfs; fz;Zf;Fj; njupe;jd. nfhyk;g]; mjd; fiuia Nehf;fp tpiue;jNghJ Nkw;Nf xU ngupa jPT njupe;jJ. mJ fpof;Fyfpd; jiyepyg;gug;G vd;W vz;zpdhH. Mdhy;> cz;ikapy;  mtUf;Fj; njupahky; mtH fz;Kd; tpupe;J fple;j njd; mnkupf;fhtpd; fiuNahuj;ijNa fz;lhH. mJjhd; ,d;ndhU ngaupy; fz;Lgpbf;f (Mrpah) epidj;j fz;lk; vd;gij mtH czutpy;iy.  

nfhyk;g]; gy gpiofs; tpl;bUg;gij mtuJ tho;f;if  tuyhW  fhl;LfpwJ. jdJ Kjy; gazj;jpy; xU jPitf; fz;lJk; mJ fpof;Fyfpd; jiyepyg;gug;G vdg; gpioahf epidj;jhH. %d;whtJ gazj;jpy; Gjpa cyfpd; jiyepyg;gug;igf;  fz;lJk;  mJ gioa cyfpd; mUfpYs;s jPT vdg; gpioahf KbT nra;jhH. ,g;gbg; gpiofs;  gy mtH tpl;lhYk; Gjpa cyiff; fz;L gpbj;J tuyhw;wpy; Gfo; ,lj;ijg; gpbj;jhH.  

xU Foe;ijapd; kdk; gpbj;jkhd xd;wpy; gbe;J tpl;lhy; mijg; gw;wpNa kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; fijf;Fk;. Foe;ijfs; kl;Lky;y taJte;j Mz;fSk; ngz;fSk; mg;gbj;jhd;. jq;fSf;Fg; gpbj;jkhd xU nghUs; gw;wp XahJ nrhy;ypf; nfhz;Lk; rpe;jpj;Jj; nfhz;Lk; ,Ug;ghHfs;.  

nfhyk;gRk; mg;gbj;jhd;. Nkw;F Nehf;fpg; gazk; Gwg;gl;L Mrpahitf; fz;L gpbg;gNj mtUf;F md;d tprhuk; mJNt tprhukhf ,Ue;jJ. Mdgbahy;jhd; jpupdpehl; jPitr; Rw;wpg; Ngha;f; nfhz;bUf;Fk; NghJ Nkw;F Nehf;fp mnkupf;fhtpd; fiuNahuj;ijg;  ghHj;jJk; mJ Mrpahtpd; Gjpa gFjp vd epidj;jhH. Kd;dH fpA+ghit Mrpahtpd; jiyepyg; gug;G vd;W vz;zpathW ,jidAk; Mrpahtpd; jiyepyg;gug;G vd;W epidj;jhH. 

Mdhy;> ngupa xwpndhf;Nfh Mw;wpd; (Orinoco River) Kfj;J thuj;Jf;Fs; gazk; nra;J nfhz;bUe;jNghJ nfhyk;gRf;Fj; jpifg;G Nkypl;lJ. fhuzk; me;jj; jz;zPH cg;ghf ,y;iy. Nghfg; Nghf mJ  ey;y  jz;zPuhf khwpf; nfhz;bUe;jJ. me;jj; jz;zPH kpf Ntfkhf jpupdpehl;bd; tlf;Fj; njw;F Kidfspd; ,U gf;fKk; fiuGuz;L Xbf; nfhz;bUe;jJ. ,e;j kha tpj;ijia mtuhy; Kw;whf tpsq;fpf; nfhs;s Kbatpy;iy. 

gpd;dH mtUf;F xU Ehjdkhd Nahrid Njhd;wpaJ. nfhyk;g]; tptpypa jpUkiwiag; gbg;gjpy; MHtk; nfhz;ltH. mtuJ fhyj;J tptpypa jpUkiwiag; gbj;j GyikahsHfs; Vnjd; Njhl;lk;  (Garden of Eden)  fpof;Nf cs;s ehl;by; ,Ug;gjhfr; nrhd;dhHfs;. mq;Nf RtHf;fj;jpy; cs;s kiyfspy;  ,Ue;J Nguhnwhd;W XbtUtjhfTk; nrhd;dhHfs;. ,g;NghJ jhd; fhZk; fhl;rp tptpypa jpUkiwapy; $wg;gl;lJ NghyNt ,Ug;gijf; fz;l  nfhyk;g];  jhd; Mth-Vth tho;e;j Vnjd; Njhl;lj;jpd; thriyf; fz;L gpbj;J tpl;ljhf epidj;jhH! 

nfhyk;g]; njhlHe;J me;j Mw;wpd; filrp  vy;iytiug;  NghapUe;jpUg;ghH. Mdhy;> mtUf;Ff; fPy;thj Neha; gpbj;Jf; nfhz;lJ. NkYk; fz;zpy; Gz; te;J ghHit kq;fp tpl;lJ. mtuJ fg;gy;fspy; Xl;il tpOe;J jz;zPH frpa Muk;gpj;J tpl;lJ. vdNt jdJ rNfhjuUk; VidNahUk; jq;fp ,Ue;j ,rngy;yh jPTf;F cldbahfj; jpUk;g Nahrpj;jhH. 

mtuJ fg;gy; mtH RtHf;fk; vd epidj;j ,lj;ijtpl;L n`apl;biaf; Nehf;fpr; nrd;wJ. n`apl;bapy; ,Ue;J nfhz;L xU JhJtH %yk; ,rngy;yhtpy; ,Ue;j jdJ rNfhjuH ghHj;jNyhNkTf;Fr; nra;jp mDg;gpdhH. jikadhupd; cly;eyf; Fiwitf; Nfl;lwpe;j ghHj;jNyhNkhR mtiug; ghHf;f cldbahfg; Gwg;gl;lhH. 

ghHj;jNyhNk jkadhUf;Ff; ftiy epiwe;j fij xd;iwr; nrhd;dhH. mijr; nrtpkLj;j nfhyk;grpd; cly; epiy NkYk; Nkhrkile;jJ.  

xt;nthU ke;ijf; $l;lj;jpYk; xU fWg;ghL ,Ug;gJ toik. nfhyk;grpd; FbapUg;gpYk; fWg;ghLfs; ,Ue;jd. Nrhk;Ngwpfs;> nghwhikf;fhuHfs;> mjpUg;jpahsHfs; Nghd;NwhHfs; ,Ue;jhHfs;. mtHfs; xd;whfr; NrHe;J nfhz;L ,rngy;yh efuj;jpYk; jPtpd; ,d;ndhU gFjpapy; ghHj;jNyhNk fl;ba rhe;jh nlhkpd;Nfh (Santa Domingo ) efuj;jpYk; Fog;gk; tpistpj;jhHfs;. nfhyk;girg;gw;wp ,y;yhjJk; nghy;yhjJk; nrhd;dhHfs;. mtuJ gjtpfis ,Rg;ghdpa murUk; murpahUk; gwpf;fg; NghfpwhHfs; vd;w tje;jpiag; gug;;gpdhHfs;. nfhyk;grpd; jiyikia ,dpNky;g;gl;L Vw;Wf; nfhs;tjpy;iy vd;Wk; nrhy;yptpl;lhHfs;. ,tw;why; me;jf; FbapUg;gpy; rz;il rr;ruT mjpfupj;jJ. vy;NyhUk; fyfk; nra;a Muk;gpj;jhHfs;.  

fyff;fhuHfSf;F njhy;lhd; (Roldan)  vd;gtd; jiyik  jhq;fpdhd;. mtNdhL xU cld;ghl;Lf;F tu nfhyk;g]; KbT nra;jhH. njhy;lhd; jdf;Fk; jdJ MjuthsHfSf;Fk; epyk; xJf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;w Nfhupf;ifia Kd;itj;jhd;. mq;F tho;e;j G+HtPffs; Fbkf;fis me;j epyj;jpy; mbikfshf itj;jpUe;J Ntiy thq;fTk; mDkjp Nfl;lhd;. mtw;iw vy;yhk; NtW topapd;wpf; nfhyk;g]; Vw;Wf; nfhz;lhH.  

,jd;gpd; G+ry;fs; Fiwe;J XusTf;F mikjp jpUk;gpaJ. nfhyk;g]; ,uz;L fg;gy;fis ,Rg;ghdpahtpw;Fj; jpUg;gp mDg;g KbT nra;jhH. mtHfsplk; jdf;F Vw;gl;l rpf;fy;fisAk; gpd;dilTfisAk; njhy;lhd; fyfk; tpistpj;jijAk; tpgupj;J xU kliy murUf;Fk; murpahUf;Fk; mDg;gp itj;jhH. Mdhy;> me;j kly;  epyikia NkYk; Nkhrkhf;fNt cjtpaJ. fg;gypy; jpUk;gpa khYkpfs; jhq;fs; gpr;irf;fhuHfs;Nghy; jpUk;gpaijapl;Lf; Fiwgl;Lf; nfhz;lhHfs;. jq;fsJ Vo;ikf;F nfhyk;gNr fhuzk; vd;W Fw;wk; rhl;bdhHfs;.  

mg;NghJ nfhyk;g]; ,Rg;ghdpahtpw;F mDg;gp itj;j ,e;jpa mbikfs; ma;e;J fg;gy;fspy; te;J NrHe;jhHfs;. mj;NjhL nfhyk;g]; fyff;fhuj; jiytd; njhy;lNdhL cld;ghL nra;J nfhz;L mtDf;F n`apl;bapy; epyKk; gjtpAk; nfhLj;j fijAk; te;J NrHe;jJ.  

ngHbdd;l; murUf;Ff; nfhyk;g]; kPJ  njhlf;fk; njhl;Nl xU  ,de;njupahj ntWg;G ,Ue;jJ. nfhyk;gRf;F mjpfkhd mjpfhuk;> ,yhgj;jpy; mjpf gq;F nfhLj;J tpl;ljhf mtH vz;zpdhH. murpahUk; nfhyk;g]; ey;ynjhU flNyhl;b Mdhy;> jpwikapy;yhj MSeH vd;W epidj;jhH. mbikfis ma;e;J fg;gy;fspy; jdJ Kd; mDkjpapd;wp mDg;gp itj;jJk; murpahUf;Fg; gpbf;ftpy;iy.  

Gjpa cyif Ml;rp nra;Ak; cupik nfhyk;grpd; FLk;gj;Jf;Nf nfhLf;fg; gl;bUe;jJ. mq;F thzpfk; nra;Ak; cupikAk; mtHfSf;F kl;LNk nfhLf;fg;gl;bUe;jJ. Mdhy;> nfhyk;g]; thf;fspj;jthW jq;fk; kw;Wk; thridg; nghUs;fisg; ngw;Wj; jutpy;iy. vdNt murpahUk; murUk; jhq;fs; nfhyk;gRf;Ff; nfhLj;j thf;FWjpfis kPwj; jPHkhdpj;jhHfs;. mjd;gb Nkw;Fyfpy; ve;jj; jz;laYk; gazk; nra;J mq;F thzpfk; Nkw;nfhs;s mDkjpf;fg;gl khl;lhJ vd mwptpf;fg;gl;lJ.  

nfhyk;gRf;F vjpuhd Kiwg;ghLfs; njhlHe;J te;J nfhz;bUe;jd. mjdhy; mtUf;Fg; gjpy; me;jj; jPTfis MStjw;F NtW ahiuahtJ mDg;gp itf;f KbT nra;ag;gl;lJ.   

nfhyk;grplk; ,Ue;J fbjq;fs; te;J nfhz;bUe;jd. mjpy; xd;wpy; mbik thzpfj;ijj; njhlHe;J Nkw;nfhs;tjw;F mDkjp Nfl;bUe;jhH. mj;NjhL jdf;Fk; njhl;lhDf;Fk; ,ilapy; Vw;gLk; gpzf;Ffisj; jPHj;J itf;f xU ePjpgjpia mDg;gp itf;FkhWk; Nfl;lhH. mjidg; gbj;j murpahUk; murUk; nfhyk;g]; mDg;gp itj;j mbikfisj; jpUg;gp mDg;g Miz gpwg;gpj;jhHfs;. NkYk; nfhyk;grplk; ,Ue;J  Ml;rpiag; ghunkLf;f nghghjpy;yh (Bobadilla) vd;w mjpfhupia n`apl;bf;F mDg;gpitf;f KbT nra;jhHfs;.  

nghghjpy;yh n`apl;bf;F cldbahfg; gazkhdhH. n`apl;b Ngha;r; NrHe;jNghJ mq;F mtH fz;l fhl;rp mtUf;Fg; ngUk; tpag;ig mspj;jJ. 

 

 


fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (65)

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

if tpyq;F  fhy; tpyq;NfhL ifjpahfj; jpUk;gpa nfhyk;g];

fyff;fhuhHfspd; jiytdhd njhy;lhd; nfhyk;gNrhL ,zf;fk; nra;J nfhz;lJjhd; nghghjpy;yhtpw;F tpag;ig mspj;jJ. nfhyk;gRf;Fk; njhy;lhDf;Fk; ,ilapy; Nkhjy; ePbj;jpUe;jhy; mjidr; rhf;fhf itj;J nfhyk;gir tplg; ngupa Mshf te;J tplyhk; vd;W nghghjpy;yh vjpH ghHj;jhH. ,g;NghJ mtuJ gazk; tPzhfptpl;lJ. Mdhy;> ,g;gbNa jpUk;gpdhy; kw;wtHfs; rpupg;ghHfs;. vdNt nfhyk;Rf;Fk; njhy;lhDf;Fk; ,ilapy; ,g;NghJ Nkhjy; ,y;yhtpl;lhYk; jdJ gazj;jpd; Nehf;fj;ij epiwNtw;wg; nghghjpy;yh KbT nra;jhH.  

nfhyk;grpd; MNyhridiaNah mtuJ cjtpiaNah vjpHghuhJ me;jj; jPtpd; Ml;rpiaj; jdJ iff;Fs; nfhz;L te;jhhH. mq;F ,Ue;jtHfSf;F vy;yhk; jhNd Gjpa MSeH vd;W nrhd;dhH.  nfhyk;gRf;F vjpuhd Fw;wr; rhl;Lf;fis vtUk; ve;jg; gaKk; ,d;wpj; jd;dplk; njuptpf;fyhk; vdTk; mwptpj;jhH.  

nghghjpy;yh mtHfs; nrhd;d fijfisf; fhJ nfhLj;Jf; Nfl;lhH. jdf;F muruhYk; murpauhYk; nfhLf;fg;gl;l mjpfhuq;fisg; gad;gLj;jp  nfhyk;gir mtkhdg; gLj;jp mtiuj; jz;bf;f tpUk;gpdhH. Mdhy;> mg;gbahd eltbf;ifia  nfhyk;gRf;F vjpuhf vLf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W murUk; murpahUk; vz;ztpy;iy. 

nghghjpy;yh MSeH khspifapy; FbNawpdhH. mq;F jd;id te;J re;jpf;FkhW nfhyk;gRf;Fk; mtuJ cld;gpwg;Gf;fSf;Fk; fl;lis gpwg;gpj;jhH. nghghjpy;yhNthL Ngrp xU ,zf;fj;ijf; fhzyhk; vd;w ek;gpf;ifNahL te;j nfhyk;gRf;Fk; mtuJ cld;gpwg;Gf;fSf;Fk; mjpHr;rp fhj;jpUe;jJ. mtHfs; kPJ ek;gpf;ifj; JNuhff; Fw;wr; rhl;il tPrpa nghghjpy;yh mtHfsJ iffSf;Fk; fhy;fSf;Fk; tpyq;F Nghl;L rpiwr;rhiyapy; milf;FkhW cj;juT gpwg;gpj;jhH. 

nfhyk;gRf;F ,g;NghJ nfl;l fhyk;. jdJ  murUf;Fk;   murpahUf;Fk; Gjpa cyfk; xd;iwf; fz;L gpbj;j nfhyk;g];> me;jg; gzpapy; grp Jhf;fk; ghuhJ fLikahf cioj;j nfhyk;g]; ,g;NghJ xU fs;sd; my;yJ nfhiyfhud; vd;gJ Nghyr; rpiwf;Fs; js;sg;gl;lijr; nrupf;f KbahJ jpz;lhbdhH. 

nfhyk;g]; gy gpiofs; tpl;lJ vd;gJ cz;ikjhd;.  mjw;fhf  fly;gilj; jsgjp> ,e;jpahtpd; murg; gpujpepjp (Viceroy) ,Rg;ghdpahtpd;  Gfo; ngw;w gpuG> Vida ehLfspd; nghwhikf;Fupa flNyhb> mtH fz;L gpbj;j jPtpNyNa mjpfhuq;fs; gwpf;fg;gl;L xU ifjpahfr; rpiwapy; milf;fg;gl;lij epahak; vd;W nrhy;y KbahJ. nfhyk;grpd; %d;whtJ gazk; mtiug; nghWj;jstpy; ngupa Njhy;tpapy; Kbe;J tpl;lJ.  

fhNjiaf; fz;L gpbf;fyhk; vd;W nfhyk;g]; ek;gpdhH. Vnjd; Njhl;lj;ijAk; nrhHf;fj;jpd; Mw;iwAk; fz;L gpbj;J tpl;ljhfTk; ek;gpdhH. Kbtpy; mtH tpRthrj;NjhL gzpnra;j murH murpahH ,UtuJ fl;lisapd;gb ifJ nra;ag;gl;L> mjpfhuq;fs; gjtpfs; ,Rg;ghdpahtpy; ,Ue;J Jhjuhf te;j xUtuhy; gwpf;fg;gl;L tpl;ld. rpiwr;rhiy mtuJ FbapUg;ghf khwptpl;lJ.                                    tpyq;F G+l;lg;gl;l nfhyk;g];                                                                                                                                                                           

rpy ehs;fs; fopj;J nfhyk;gRk; mtuJ cld;gpwg;Gf;fSk; xU fg;gypy; Vw;wg;gl;L ,Rg;ghdpahtpw;F tprhuizf;fhfTk; jz;lidf;fhfTk; mDg;gp itf;fg;gl;ldH. ntw;wpfs; gw;wp vg;NghJk;  fdT fz;Lnfhz;bUe;j nfhyk;gRf;F ,g;gbahd xU Nrhf KbT  te;J NrUk; vd;W ahUk; vjpHghHf;ftpy;iy.    

nfhyk;gRf;F vjpuhd nghnjhy;yhtpd; jlhy; eltbf;iffs; nfhLikahfTk; ePjp epahakw;wjhfTk; Njhd;wyhk;. Mdhy;> md;iwa fhyk; ehk; ,g;NghJ thOk; fhyk; Nghd;wjy;y. murUk; murpahUk; nghnjhy;yhit mDg;gpf; nfhyk;gRf;Fk; njhy;yhlDf;Fk; ,ilapyhd gpzf;ifj; jPHj;J itf;FkhWjhd; Nfl;lhHfs;. Mdhy;> ,k;khjpupf;  fLikahd eltbf;if xd;iwf; nfhyk;gRf;F vjpuhfg; nghnjhy;yh vLg;ghH vd;W mtHfs; vjpHghHj;jpUf;f khl;lhHfs;.    

nghnjhy;yh jdf;Ff; fpilj;j mjpfhuj;ijg;  gad;gLj;Jtjpy; xU jdp ,d;gj;ijf; fz;lhH. md;W mjpfhuj;jpy; ,Ue;jtHfs; vy;NyhUk; nghJthf mg;gbj;jhd; ele;J nfhz;lhHfs;. ,rngy;yh murpahH $lj; jdf;Fg; gpbf;fhjtHfs;  kPJ fLikahd eltbf;if vLf;f vg;NghJk; jaq;fpajpy;iy. kw;wtHfSf;Ff; nfh^uk; ,iog;gJ rHt rhjhuzkhff; fUjg;gl;lJ. mjid "fhyj;jpd; Nghf;F" ("Spirit of the Age”) vd;W $lr; nrhy;yyhk;.  

fg;gypy; nfhyk;gRf;F tpRthrkhdtHfs;> mtiu tpUk;gpdtHfs; rpyH ,Uf;fNt nra;jhHfs;. mtHfspy; tpy;ypN[h (Villijo) vd;gtd; xUtd;. nfhyk;g]; xU rhjhuz Fw;wthspNghy; elj;jg;gLtij mtd; tpUk;gtpy;iy. fg;gy; nghnjhy;yhtpd; fz;fspy; ,Ue;J kiwe;jJk; mtd; nfhyk;grpd; fhy;fisg; gpizj;jpUe;j rq;fpypia mfw;wp tpl tpUk;gpdhd;.  

"gpuG! cq;fs; fhy;fisg;  gpizj;jpUf;Fk; ,e;j ,Uk;Gr; rq;fpypia mfw;wptplg; NghfpNwd.;" 

",y;iy. ,y;iy. mg;gb vijAk; nra;a Ntz;lhk;. ,e;jr; rq;fpyp mg;gbNa ,Uf;fl;Lk;. vdJ murUk; murpahUk; nghnjhy;yhtpd; fl;lisg;gb elf;FkhW vd;idf; Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lhHfs;. nghnjhy;yh vd;idr; rq;fpypapy; gpizf;FkhW nra;jhH. vdNt ,e;jr; rq;fpypia murUk; murpahUk; fol;LkhW cj;juT ,Lk;tiu mJ vd;NdhL ,Uf;fl;Lk;. mJ kl;Lky;y.vdJ mur gzpf;Ff; fpilj;j gupRg; nghUs;fshfTk; epidTr; rpd;dkhfTk; mij ehd; itj;jpUf;fg; NghfpNwd;." 

NgNuhLk; GfNohLk; ,Ue;j xUtH  ngupa ,f;fl;Lf;Fs; khl;Lg; gLtijg; ghHf;Fk; NghJ ftiy tuj;jhd; nra;fpwJ. ngupa nry;te;jH xUtH jhd; Njba nry;tj;ijj;  njhiyj;Jtpl;L Vioahf khWk;NghJ kdJf;Fj;  Jd;gkhfj;jhd; ,Uf;fpwJ. "Nr ,g;gbnay;yhk; ele;J tpl;lNj" vd;W tha;tpl;Lr; nrhy;yj; Njhd;Wk;.  

nfhyk;gRf;F ,Rg;ghdpahtpy; vjpupfs; gyH ,Ue;jdH. muz;kidapy; cyh te;j gpuGf;fs;> ,e;jpag; gazq;fspy; gzj;ijj; njhiyj;jtHfs;> gazg;gl;Lr; nrd;W ehL jpUk;ghjtHfspd; ngw;NwhHfs;> cld;gpwg;Gf;fs;> gps;isfs; Nghd;wtHfs; nfhyk;grpd; vjpupfspy; rpyuhtH. mg;gbg;gl;ltHfs; ",e;j ehrkhg;Nghw ,j;jhypad; fl;ilapy; Nghf" vd;W nfhyk;girj; jpl;bdhHfs;.  

Mdhy;> nfhyk;g]; me;j neUf;fbapYk; ngUk;ghd;ik kf;fs; kj;jpapy; xU Gfo;ngw;w flNyhbahfNt jpfo;e;jhH. nfhyk;g]; muriuAk; murpahiuAk; el;Gg; gpbj;J> Nkw;F Nehf;fp ",Uz;l flypy;" gazk; nra;J> mg;gbg; gazk; nra;gtHfs; G+kpapd; tpopk;Gtiu nrd;why; jiyFg;Gw tpOe;J tpLthHfs; vd;w ek;gpf;ifiag; ngha;ahf;fp> fhNjiaAk; ,e;jpahitAk; ,Rg;ghdpahtpw;Fr; nrhe;jkhf;fp ,j;jid rhjidfisAk; Gupe;j nfhyk;g]; ,Rg;ghdpa Fbkf;fSf;F "khkdpjH" MfNt fhl;rp mspj;jhH.  

vdNt 1500 Mk; Mz;L xf;NjhgH khjk; xU ehs; nfhyk;g]; gazk; nra;j fg;gy; fhb]; JiwKfj;ij mile;jNghJ me;jr; nra;jp kf;fspilNa gutj; njhlq;fpaJ. mJ kl;Lky;y nfhyk;g]; iftpyq;F fhy;tpyq;F G+l;lg;gl;l epiyapy; xU ifjpahf te;J NrHe;j nra;jp kf;fs; kj;jpapy; ,de;njupahj kdf; nfhjpg;ig Vw;gLj;jpaJ.  

"nfhyk;gRf;F tpyq;F khl;ba fhjfHfs; ahH? xU kdpjid ,g;gbah Nftykhf elj;JtJ? fhNjia ,Rg;ghdpahtpw;F fz;Lgpbj;jtH> mq;fpUe;J  gwitfs;> tpyq;Fs;> ,e;jpaHfs; vdg; gytw;iwf; nfhz;Lte;jtH> vl;L Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH ghNyh]; JiwKfj;jpy; te;jpwq;fpaNghJ xU ,sturUf;F cupa kupahijNahL tuNtw;fg;gl;ltH> ,g;NghJ xU ifjpahf> mJTk; rq;fpypahy; gpizf;fg;gl;Lf; nfhz;L tug;gl;bUf;fpwhH> ,J mepahak;. mf;fpukk;. ntl;ff;NfL" vd kf;fs; xNu Fuypy; fz;ldk; nra;;jhHfs;. 

nfhyk;gRf;F vjpuhf ,Ue;jtHfs; kf;fspd; kdg;Nghf;ifg;  ghHj;Jtpl;Lj; jq;fs; "RUjp ia khw;wp thrpf;fj; njhlq;fpdhHfs;.  

fhb]; JiwKfj;jpy; nfhyk;g]; te;J ,wq;fpaJk; fpwdlhtpy; ,Ue;j jdJ ez;gH xUtUf;F xU fbjk; vOjpdhH. me;jf; fbjk; murpahUf;Ff; fhl;lg;gl;lJ.  mjpy; nfhyk;g]; jdf;F NeHe;j mtkhdj;ijg; gw;wp tpupthf vOjpapUe;jhH. ele;j rk;gtq;fSf;F nfhyk;g]; tUj;jk; njuptpj;jhH. Mdhy;> jdJ rhjidgw;wpg; ngUikg; gLtjhff; $wpf; nfhz;lhH. nfhyk;g]; elj;jg;gl;l tpjk; ,rngy;yh murpahUf;Ff; Nfhgj;ij cz;lhf;fpaJ. nfhyk;g]; vd;djhd; nra;jpUe;jhYk; mtH Nky; murpahUf;F vg;NghJNk xU jdp kupahijAk; md;Gk; ,Ue;jJ.  

murpahH nfhyk;grpd; fbjj;ij murH ngHbdhe;jplk; fhl;bdhH. ,UtUk; nfhyk;gRf;F xU JhJtid mDg;gp itf;f KbT nra;jdH. mtd; %yk; nfhyk;gRf;Fg; nghghjpy;yh ,ioj;j mtkhdj;Jf;Fk; nfhLikf;Fk; kdk; tUe;Jtjhfr; nrhy;yp mDg;gpdhHfs;. mJ kl;Lky;yhky; nfhyk;gRf;Fg; G+l;lg;gl;l tpyq;Ffis clNd mfw;WkhW cj;juT gpwg;gpj;jhHfs;. NkYk; ma;ahapuk; nlhyHfis nfhyk;gRf;F md;gspg;ghf mDg;gp clNd muz;kidf;F tUkhW Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lhHfs;.

1500 Mk; Mz;L bnrk;gH khjk; 17 Mk; ehs; nfhyk;g]; fpwdlhtpy; cs;s mofhd my;`k;guh (Alhambra) muz;kidf;F te;J NrHe;jhH. mtiu xU NfhNtW fOij xd;W Rke;J te;jJ. me;jf; fhyj;jpy; ,Rg;ghdpa Fbkf;fs; NfhNtW fOijapy; gazk; nra;tJ jil nra;ag;gl;bUe;jJ. fhuzk; kf;fs; NfhNtW fOijapy; gazk;  nra;jhy; Fjpiufis thq;fNth tpw;fNth Ml;fs; ,Uf;f khl;lhHfs; vd;gNj. NkYk; NfhNtW fOijapy; gazk; nra;tJ Fjpiufspy; gazk; nra;tijtplr; nryT Fiwthf ,Ue;jJ.  

nfhyk;g]; cly; eyf; Fiwthy; mtjpg;gl;lhH. Fjpiuapy; gazk; nra;jhy; mtuJ cliy mJ  NkYk; tUj;Jk; vd;gjhy; Mb mkHe;J nky;yr; nry;Yk; NfhNtW fOijiaj; jdJ gazj;Jf;Fg; gad;gLj;jpdhH. mjw;fhd rpwg;G cj;juit murUk; murpahUk; toq;fp ,Ue;jhHfs;. 

 


 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (66)

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

nfhyk;grpd; filrpg; gazk;

nfhyk;g]; ,rngy;yh murpahH Kd; Njhd;wpaNghJ>  mtuJ Neha;tha;g;gl;l clk;Gk;> ftiy Fbnfhz;l KfKk; murpahuJ kdij kpfTk; nefpor; nra;;jJ. ,Rg;ghdpa ehl;bd; eyDf;fhf nfhyk;g]; Nkw;nfhz;l Kaw;rpAk;> mjw;fhf mtH gl;l ghLk; murpahupd; kdj;jpiuapy;  XbaJ. nfhyk;g]; muz;kidg; gbfspy; jsHr;rpNahL VwptUtUtijg; ghHj;jJk; murpahH tha;tpl;L mOJ tpl;lhH.  murpahupd; mOif nfhyk;girAk; moitj;jJ. murpahH jd; kPJ itj;Js;s md;igAk; kjpg;igAk; fz;l nfhyk;g]; murpahupd; fhypy; gagf;jpNahL  tPo;e;J  tzq;fpdhH. murpahH kPJ jhd; itj;jpUf;Fk; gf;jpia ntspg;gLj;jpa nfhyk;g]; mtUf;fhf jhd; vjidAk; nra;aj; jahuhf ,Ug;gjhf eh jOjOj;j Fuypy; $wpdhH. 

murpahUk; murUk; jq;fs; tUj;jj;ij nfhyk;gRf;Fj; njuptpj;jdH. jsgjp nfhyk;gir ,e;jkhjpupahd mtkhdj;Jf;F cl;gLj;JtJ jq;fs; vz;zk; ,y;iy vd;Wk;> mtUf;F vy;yhtpj cjtpiaAk; jhq;fs; nra;Jju ,Ug;gjhfTk; nrhd;dhHfs;. ,Rg;ghdpa ehl;bd; rhHgpy; ,e;jpahitf; fz;L gpbf;fg; gazg;gl;lNghJ mtH kPJ itj;jpUe;j mNj el;G ,g;NghJk; ,Ug;gjhfTk; mJ njhlUk; vdTk; njuptpj;jhHfs;.  

,e;j vjpHghuhj jpUg;gk; nfhyk;gRf;F kd MWjiyf; nfhLj;jJ. nfhyk;g]; n`apl;bia tpl;L if fhy;fs; rq;fpypahy; gpizf;fg;gl;l epiyapy; gaj;NjhLk; eLf;fj;NjhLk;  Gwg;gl;lNghJ jdf;Ff; fLikahd jz;lid fhj;jpUf;fpwJ  vd;W ek;gpdhH. mJ Fiwe;j gl;rk; ePz;lfhyr; rpiwj; jz;lid my;yJ $ba gl;rk; kuz jz;lid Mf ,Ue;jhy;$l mtH Mr;rupag;gl;bUf;f khl;lhH.  

me;jf; fhyj;jpy; murH> murpaH> gpuGf;fs; jq;fSf;Fg; gpbf;fhjtHfisr; rHtrhjhuzkhfj; Jhf;fpy; Nghl;LtpLthHfs;. nghghjpy;yh jd;idf; fLikahf elj;jpaijg; ghHj;j nfhyk;gRf;F murpahUk; murUk; jd;id Jhf;fpy; Nghlg; nghghjpy;yhTf;F fl;lis ,l;bUf;ff; $Lnkd vz;zpdhH. xUNtis mg;gbj;jhd; mtHfs; nghghjpy;yhTf;Ff; fl;lis ,l;bUe;jhYk; rq;fpypahy; gpizf;fg; gl;l epiyapy; fiuapwq;fpa nfhyk;girf; fz;l kf;fs; ntFz;L vOe;jJ ,rngy;yh murpahupd; Kbtpy; khw;wj;ij Vw;gLj;jp ,Uf;fyhk;.  

muriug; nghWj;jstpy; njhlf;fk; KjNy mtH nfhyk;gR gw;wp mjpfk; mf;fiwg; gltpy;iy. nfhyk;g]; rpiwf; $lj;jpy; milf;fg;gLtij mtH kfpo;r;rpNahL tuNtw;wpUg;ghH. Mdhy;> ehl;L elg;Gf;fisg; nghWj;jstpy; muriutpl murpahUf;Nf nry;thf;fpUe;jJ. mjd; fhuzkhfNt murUk; murpahHNghy; jhDk; ftiyg; gLtJNghy;  nfhyk;gRf;Ff; fhl;bf; nfhz;lhH. 

nfhyk;gir Kd;dH ftiy vt;tsT Ntfkhff; ft;tpf; nfhz;lNjh mNj Ntfj;jpy; ,g;NghJ kfpo;r;rp gpbj;Jf; nfhz;lJ. murpahUf;Fk; murUf;Fk; jd;kPJ itj;jpUe;j msg;gupa md;G khwhky; ,Ue;jijg; ghHj;j nfhyk;gRf;F vjpHfhyj;ijg;gw;wpa ek;gpf;if gpwe;jJ. kPz;Lk; ,e;jpahtpd; murg; gpujpepjpahfTk; (Viceroy of   Indies)  fly;gilj; jsgjpahfTk; (Admiral of the Ocean Seas)   gazk; nra;ag; NghtijAk;> me;jg; gazj;jpd;NghJ vq;nfy;yhk; NghtJ> vd;ndd;d nra;tJ Nghd;wtw;iwapl;Lf; nfhyk;g]; Ngrj; njhlq;fpdhH. fg;gy;fs; kw;Wk; khYkpfisf; nfhLj;Jj; jd;id mDg;gp itf;FkhW murpahiu nfhyk;g]; Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lhH. jhd; fz;L gpbf;Fk; jPTfspy; jhd; epidj;jijr; nra;Ak; mjpfhuk; Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; Nfl;lhH.  

murpahH nfhyk;g]; Nfl;ltw;iw nra;J jUtjhf cWjpnkhop mspj;jhH. Mdhy;> nfhyk;g]; gy Mz;LfSf;F Kd; Bridge of Pinos vd;w ghyj;ijf; flf;Fk;NghJ cWjpnkhopfisg; gw;wpg; iggpspy; gbj;j vr;rupf;ifapd; cz;ikia epidT gLj;jpf; nfhz;lijg;Nghy; kPz;Lk; epidTgLj;jpf; nfhs;s Ntz;ba tha;g;G  tUk; vd;W mtH mg;NghJ epidf;ftpy;iy. me;j vr;rupf;if "murpfs; kPJ ek;gpf;if itahNj!" vd;gjhFk;. 

murpahUk; murUk; md;ghfg; Ngrpg; gy cWjpnkhopfis toq;fpdhHfs;. Mdhy;> murH xU tplaj;ijapl;L kdJf;Fs; Vw;fdNt xU KbTf;F te;jpUe;jhH. nfhyk;g]; kPz;Lk;  ,e;jpahtpw;F murg;gpujpepjpahfg; Nghfg; Nghtjpy;iy. nfhyk;g]; vg;gb xU tplhKaw;rpf;fhuNuh mNjNghy murH ngHbdhd;l; xU gpbthjf;fhuH.  

,e;jpahtpy; ,Ue;J jq;fg; ghsq;fs; ngUksT ,d;Dk; nfhz;Ltug;gltpy;iy. Mdhy;> mq;fpUe;J fpilf;Fk; mwpf;iffs;  jq;fk; kw;Wk; Gijay; fz;nlLf;fg;gLk; rhj;jpaf; $Wfs; ,Ug;gijr; Rl;bf; fhl;bd. Mdhy;> nfhyk;gRf;Fj; jhq;fs; nfhLj;j thf;FWjpfisf; fhg;ghw;wpdhy; kpFtUthapy; (,yhgj;jpy;) ngUk;gq;F mtUf;Fg; Ngha;tpLk; vd;w ftiy murpahUf;Fk; murUf;Fk; ,Ue;jJ.  khwhf NtW jsgjpfis ,e;jpahtpw;F mDg;gpdhy; fpilf;fpw ,yhgj;jpy; $ba gq;ifj; jq;fSf;Fs; itj;Jf; nfhs;Sk; tha;g;gpUe;jJ.  

vdNt murpahUk; murUk; NtW fly; gazq;fis mDg;gpf; nfhz;bUe;jhHfs;. nghghjpy;yhtpd; Ml;rp vjpHghHj;jJNghy ey;yjhfNth my;yJ fl;Lg;ghlhf ,y;yhjjhy; mtUf;Fg; gjpy; NtnwhU murg; gpujpepjp mDg;gp itf;fg;gl;lhH.               nfhyk;g];

,g;gb  ,uz;L Mz;L fhyk; nfhyk;gir ,Rg;ghdpa ehl;bNyNa xUtpj jpuprq;F nrhHf;f epiyapy; itj;jpUe;jhHfs;. filrpahf murpahUk; murUk; mtuJ gazj;Jf;Fg; gr;irf; nfhb fhl;bdhHfs;.  Mdhy;> xU epge;jid. n`apl;bg; gf;fk; nfhyk;g]; Nghff;$lhJ. mjw;fg; gjpyhf jq;fk; epiwe;j NtW jPTfis mtH fz;L gpbf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gNj me;j epge;jidahFk;.   

nfhyk;gRf;Fj; jhd; vq;F Nghfyhk;> vq;F Nghff;$lhJ vd;W murpahUk; murUk; Nghl;l epge;jid gpbf;ftpy;iy. Mdhy;> mjid mtuhy; ntspapy; fhl;bf;nfhs;s Kbatpy;iy.  

1502 Mk; Mz;L Nk khjk; 9 ehs; nfhyk;g]; ehd;F rpd;df; fg;gy;fspy; 150 khYkpfSld; gazg;gl;lhH. ,JNt fpwp];NjhgH nfhyk;g]; Nkw;FyFf;F Nkw;nfhz;l ehd;fhtJk; filrpahdJk; Md gazkhFk;.

mg;NghJ nfhyk;gRf;F mfit 56 ele;J nfhz;bUe;jJ. ,e;j taij vl;ba xUtiuf; fpotd; vd;W ahUk; miof;f KbahJ. ,Ue;Jk; cz;ikahd taijtpl nfhyk;g]; taJNghdtHNghy; fhl;rp mspj;jhH. ftiy> fiur;ry;> Mgj;jhd #o;epiy> gugug;ghd tho;f;ifKiw> fLikahd cly; ciog;G Mfpad mtuJ jiykapiu Kw;whf  eiuf;f itj;jNjhL  mtuJ Kfj;jpYk; RUf;fq;fis Vw;gLj;jp tpl;lJ.  

nfhyk;g]; ,g;NghJ cz;ikapy; xU Nehahspahfp tpl;lhH. fz;fs; ,uz;Lk; fpl;lj;jl;lf; FUlhfp tpl;ld. cly; jsHe;J tpl;lJ. ,Ue;Jk; mtuJ cWjp kl;Lk; Fiyatpy;iy. mJ vg;NghJk; Nghy; nfl;bahf ,Ue;jJ. mtuJ Mir$l eiuf;ftpy;iy. fhNjia ,k;Kiw vg;ghL gl;Lk; fz;Lgpbj;J tpLtJ vd;W #Siuj;Jf; nfhz;lhH.  

mtUf;F ,d;Dk; xU vz;zk; ,Ue;jJ. n`apl;bapy; mtuJ vjpupfs; ,Ue;jhHfs;. mtHfs; nfhyk;gir ifJ nra;J fhy; tpyq;F if tpyq;F khl;b ,Oj;Jr; nrd;w NghJ nff;fsk; fl;br; rpupj;jtHfs;> Nfypg; Ngr;Rf;fs; Ngrp $r;ry; Nghl;ltHfs;> mtHfisf;  nfhyk;g]; kd;dpf;fj; jahuhapy;iy. khwhf mtHfisg; gopf;Fg; gopthq;f epidj;jhH.  

mtuJ fg;gy;fs; n`apl;bf; fiuia mile;jd. murpahUk; murUk; nfhyk;g]; n`apl;bg; gf;fk; Nghff; $lhJ vd;W jil tpjpj;jpUe;jhYk; jdJ vjpupfSf;F jhd; ahH vd;gijf; fhl;bf; nfhs;Sk; jPa Miria mtuhy; fl;Lg;gLj;j Kbatpy;iy.  

vdNt mg;NghjpUe;j MSeH xtd;lh (Ovanda)  mtHfSf;F  xU  nra;jpia mDg;gp itj;jhH. me;jr; nra;jpapy; jhd; ,e;jpahtpy; Gjpa ehLfisf; fz;L gpbf;ff; fg;gy;fspy; te;jpUg;gjhfTk;> jdJ fg;gy;fspy; xd;W gOjhfp tpl;ljhy; mjidg; gOJghHf;f re;Njh nlhkpd;Nfh JiwKfj;jpw;Fs; (Santo Domino Harbour) EisaTk; mNj rkak; murg; gpujpepjpiag; ghHj;Jg; NgrTk; mDkjp Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; Nfl;bUe;jhH.   

me;jr; rkaj;jpy;jhd; MSeH xtd;lh  ,Rg;ghdpahtpw;Fg; ngupa  fg;gy;gilia mDg;gp itf;f Maj;jk; nra;J nfhz;bUe;jhH. mjpy; nfhyk;gir kpfTk; Nftykhf elj;jpa Kd;dhs; MSeH nghghjpy;yh> vjpHf; fpsr;rpf;fhud; njhy;lhd; kw;Wk; nfhyk;girg; gpbf;fhjtHfs; my;yJ ntWj;jtHfs; epiwag;NgH ,Ue;jhHfs;. mJ kl;Lky;yhJ me;jg; fg;gy; gilapy; Kd;dH vg;NghJk; ,Rg;ghdpahtpw;F mDg;gp itf;fhj mstpw;Fj; jq;fKk; ,Ue;jJ. vy;yhkhf 26 fg;gy;fs; ,Ue;jd. ,tw;why; re;Njh nlhkpd;Nfh efH ngUk; gug;gug;ghfTk; my;Nyhy fy;NyhykhfTk; fhzg;gl;lJ.  

MSeH xtd;lh nfhyk;grpd; ez;guh my;yJ vjpupah vd;gijr; nrhy;y Kbahky; ,Ue;jJ. Mdhy;> me;j efupy;  nfhyk;grpd; vjpupfs; gyH ,Ug;gjhy; mtH jiuapwq;FtJ  ghJfhg;ghfNth Gj;jprhypj;jdkhfNth ,Uf;fhJ vd vz;zpa xtd;lh nfhyk;g]; jiuapwq;f mDkjpf;f Kbahnjdr; nra;jp mDg;gpdhH. me;jr; nra;jp nfhyk;gRf;F Vkhw;wkhf ,Ue;jJ vd;W nrhy;y Ntz;bajpy;iy. jhd;  ,Rr;ghdpahtpw;fhff;  fz;L gpbj;j xU jPtpy; fhy; itf;fj; jdf;F mDkjp kWf;fg;gl;lJ nfhyk;gRf;F Ntbf;ifahfTk; NtjidahfTk; ,Ue;jJ.  

nfhyk;g]; xU jpwikahd flNyhb vd;gJ vy;NyhUk; mwpe;j tplak;. NkNy thdj;ijg; ghHj;j mtuJ fz;fSf;F xU Gay; ikak; nfhs;tjw;fhd mwpFwpfs; njd;gl;ld. vdNt mij MSeUf;F mwptpj;J kPz;Lk; jiuapwq;f mDkjp Nfl;lhH. Mdhy;> xtd;lhtpw;Fg; Gay; tUk; mwpFwp vJTk; njd;gltpy;iy. nfhyk;g]; jiuapwq;fTk; jd;idr; re;jpf;fTk; mg;gbnahU GYlhf; fijia mTl;L tpLtjhf mtH epidj;jhH. 

vdNt ,uz;lhtJ KiwAk; nfhyk;gRf;F mDkjp  juKbahnjd xtd;lh nra;jp mDg;gpdhH.  "ePH xU nfl;bf;fhu khYkp vd;gJ vdf;Fj; njupAk;. Mdhy;> Gay; tUk; vd;w ckJ vjpHT$wy; (M&lk;) gpionad;W ehd; epidf;fpNwd;. mg;gb tUtjhf ,Ue;jhYk; mjw;fpilapy; ,d;ndhU jPTf;Fg; Nghtjw;F ckf;F mtfhrk; ,Uf;fpwJ. mg;gbr; nra;jhy; ehd; ckf;F kpfTk; flikg;gl;ltd; Mtd;"" vd me;jr; nra;jpapy; Fwpg;gplg; gl;bUe;jJ.

 

 


fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (67)

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

mnkupf;fhtpd; jiyepyg; gug;igf; fz;l nfhyk;g];

,Rg;ghdpahtpw;Fg; gazk; nra;a ,Ue;j 26 fg;gy;fspy; jq;fk; nfhz;L nry;yg;gLk;  fg;gYk; xd;whFk;. ,Rg;ghdpa ehl;L murpahH murH ,UtNuhLk; nfhyk;g]; nra;J nfhz;l xg;ge;je;jpd; mbg;gilapy; me;jj; jq;fj;jpy; nfhyk;gRf;Fk; gq;Fz;L.  

Gay; mbj;jhy; me;jf; fg;gy;fs; Nrjg;gLtjw;fhd mghak; ,Ue;jJ. vdNt %d;whtJ Kiwahff; nfhyk;g]; MSeUf;Fg; Gay; mbf;fg; NghtJ cWjp vdr; nra;jp mDg;gpdhH. jd;id rhe;Njh nlhkpq;Nfh JiwKfj;Jf;Fs; Eioa mDkjp kWj;jhYk; Gay; mbj;J mJ XAk; tiu vy;yhf; fg;gy;fisAk; JiwKfj;Jf;Fs; nfhz;L nrd;W ghJfhf;FkhW nfhyk;g]; MSeuplk; kd;whl;lkhff; Nfl;lhH. mg;gbr; nra;ahtpl;lhy; mjdhy; Vw;gLk; tpisTfs; midj;Jf;Fk; MSeNu nghWg;Ngw;f  Ntz;b ,Uf;Fk; vd;Wk; nfhyk;g]; njuptpj;jhH. mjd; gpd;dH nfhyk;g]; jdJ fg;gy;fs; ghJfhg;ghf eq;$ukpl;L epw;gjw;fhd JiwKfj;ijj; Njbg; Gwg;gl;lhH.  

rhe;jh nlhkpd;Nfhtpy; tho;e;j kf;fs; rup> fg;gy; jz;lay;fs; kw;Wk; khYkpfs; rup nfhyk;g]; "Gay; tu ,Uf;fpwJ" vd;W tpLj;j vr;rupf;ifia  ek;gtpy;iy. "Gay; tUk; vd;w Ngr;Rf;Nf ,lkpy;iy" vd mtHfs; vy;NyhUk; xNu Fuypy; nrhd;dhHfs;. "mg;gbj;jhd; Gay; mbj;jhYk; vq;fs; fg;gy;fSf;F  mjidj; jhq;fpf; nfhs;Sk; rf;jp ,Uf;fpwJ" vd;Wk; mtHfs; mwptpj;jhHfs;. 

"nfhyk;gRf;F tajhfpf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ mjdhy; mtH gae;jhq;nfhs;spahf khwp tUfpwhH;" vd;W mtHfs; epidj;jhHfs;. vdNt nfhyk;grpd; vr;rupf;ifiag; nghUl;gLj;jhky; fg;gy;fs; midj;Jk; rhe;Njh nlhkpd;Nfh JiwKfj;ij tpl;L ,Rg;ghdpahtpw;Fg; gazk; Gwg;gl;ld. Mdhy;> n`apl;bj; jPtpd; fpof;Ff; fiuia milA Kd;dNu nfhyk;g]; vjpH$wy; nrhd;d Gay; te;J NkhjpaJ.  

me;jg; Gay; kpfTk; rPw;wj;NjhL jhf;fpaJ. me;jj; jhf;FjYf;F <LnfhLf;f Kbahky;  26 fg;gy;fspy; 20 fg;gy;fs; ngUq;flypd; kbapy; mkpo;e;jd. jq;fk; Vw;wpapUe;j fg;gy; ngUk; Nrjj;Jf;F cs;shfpaJ.  nfhyk;grpd; giftHfshd nghghjpy;yh> njhy;lhd; Nghd;wtHfSk; flypy; %o;fp khz;lhHfs;. xU rpy fg;gy;fNs Gaypy; jg;gp xUthW rhe;Njh nlhkpd;Nfh JiwKfj;ij te;J  mile;jd. Nrjj;Jf;F cs;shd jq;fg; fg;gy; kl;LNk jg;gpg; gpioj;J ,Rg;ghdpah Ngha;r; NRHe;jJ.  

nfhyk;grpd; ez;gHfs; cuf;ff; fj;jpdhHfs; "vd;d Mr;rupak;! vy;yhk; ty;y flTSk; nfhyk;g]; gf;fNk ,Uf;fpwhH!" 

Mdhy;> nfhyk;grpd; vjpupfs; ",e;j ,j;jhypf;fhud; xU khahtp (Wizard) my;yJ ke;jputhjp (Magician) MSeH JiwKfj;Jf;Fs; Eioa mDkjp kWj;jJ mtid Mj;jpug;gl itj;Jtpl;lJ. mjdhy; ,e;jg; Gaiy cUthf;fp nfhyk;g]; gopjPHj;Jf; nfhz;lhd;" vd;W nrhd;dhHfs;. fhuz fhupaq;fis tpsq;fpf; nfhs;Sk; Mw;wy; ,y;yhjjhy; Ngh$o; M$o; ,tw;Wf;Ff; flTspd; fUiz my;yJ Nfhgk;> nja;tj;jpd; rhgk; my;yJ mDf;fpufk; fhuzk; vd kf;fs; ek;gpdhHfs;.    

me;jf; fhyj;jpy; kf;fs;  Njtijfs;> Nga;> gprhR> gpy;yp #dpak; Nghd;wtw;iw ek;gpdhHfs;. jq;fSf;Fk; Nkyhd rf;jp ,Ue;J vy;yhtw;iwAk; Ml;bg;gilg;gjhf epidj;jhHfs;. ,b> kpd;dy;> vupkiy> epyeLf;fk;> nts;sk;> fpufzk;> nfhs;is Neha; ,tw;iwf; fz;L kf;fs; mQ;rpdhHfs;. me;j epfo;TfSf;fhd fhuzq;fis mtHfs; mwpe;J itj;jpUf;ftpy;iy. ,jw;Fg; goe;jkpoHfSk; tpjp tpyf;fy;y.  

jkpoHfs;> gy Gwr; rf;jpfSf;F eLNt gpwe;J mtw;wpdhy; jhq;fs; ,aq;fpr; nry;tjhf epidj;jhHfs;. NkYk; tho;f;ifapd;  xt;nthU epfo;r;rpf;Fk; xt;nthU rf;jp fhuzk; vdf; fUjpdhHfs;. 

mr; rf;jpia ,Utifahfg; gpupj;jdH. xd;W ed;ik jUk; rf;jp. mjid flTs;> nja;tk; vdg; ngaH #l;b mioj;jdH.  kw;wJ jpd;ik jUk; rf;jp. mjw;F mzq;F> #H> Nga; vdg; ngaH nrhy;yp mioj;jdH.  

,e;j ,uz;L rf;jpfSk; gpwg;G> ,wg;G> G+g;nga;jy;> jpUkzk;> kio> Ntl;il> tsk;> tpijg;G> mWtil> NghH> Neha; nehb Nghd;w epfo;Tfs; kPJ nry;thf;Fr; nrYj;Jfpd;wd vd;W ek;gpdH.   

flTs;> nja;tk; Nghd;w ed;ik nra;Ak; rf;jpiaj;  jpUg;jpg;gLj;jTk;> jkf;F Ntz;batw;iwf; Nfl;Lg; ngwTk; ghy;> gok;> gyfhuk;> G+ itj;Jf; Fk;gpl;ldH. Nghw;wp nrhy;yp tzq;fpdH. tpohf; nfhz;lhb kfpo;e;jdH.   

mzq;F> #H> Nga;> gprhR Nghd;w jPa rf;jpf;F nghq;fy; nghq;fpAk; ML> Nfhop Nghd;wtw;iwg; gyp nfhLj;Jk; jpUg;jpg;gLj;j my;yJ tpUk;gpa fhupaj;ij rhjpj;Jf; nfhs;s Kad;wdH.   

,aw;ifia ,j;jifa ke;jpur; rlq;Ffs; %yk; fl;Lg;gLj;j KbAk; vd;gJ mf;fhy kf;fspd;  ek;gpf;ifahFk;.  

tzq;Fjy;> Ntz;Ljy;> gypapLjy;> Nehd;Gjy; Mfpatw;why; xUtH jhk; tpUk;gpa fhupaj;ijr; rhjpj;Jf; nfhs;s KbAk; vd;w ke;jpufhy ek;gpf;ifAk; rlq;FfSk;  gpd;dH Guhjd rkak; Mapw;W.

ke;jpu Afj;jpy; ke;jputhjp tfpj;j ,lj;ij> Guhjd rkafhyj;jpy; ke;jputhjpg; G+rhup ifg;gw;wpdhd;. mjd;gpd; cUthd rka fhyj;jpy; GNuhfpjd; te;jhd;. xNu r%fj;jpy; ,e;j %tUk; Vf fhyj;jpYk; ,Ue;jJk; cz;L.  

ke;jpur; rlq;Ffis Kw;wpYk; ntWk; mwpahik vd;W $wptpl KbahJ. Neha; cstpay; rk;ge;jkhdJ vd;why; ,k;khjpupahd rlq;Ffs; mjw;Fupa  kUe;jhf mika tha;g;G ,Ue;jJ. ,df;FO kf;fsplk; mtek;gpf;ifiag; Nghf;fp ek;gpf;ifia cz;lhf;fpaJ. NrhHitg; Nghf;fp MHtj;ij tpistpj;jJ.  

,d;iwa rkaq;fs;> flTs;fs; ahTk; fUj;J Kjw; Nfhl;ghl;bd; (idealism) mbg;gilapy; kf;fspd; kdjpy; vOe;jitNa. NtW tpjkhfr; nrhd;dhy; flTs;> nja;tk;> Nga;> gprhR vy;yhk; ,aw;ifapd; ,af;fj;ijg; Gupe;J  nfhs;shky; mr;rk; fhuzkhf kdpj kdk; gilj;j gilg;Gf;fNs! "nja;tnkd;wNjhH rpj;jKz;lhfp"" vd;w $w;W mjid vz;gpf;fpwJ.  nghUs; Kjy; Nfhl;ghl;bw;F (materialism)  fUj;J Kjy; Nfhl;ghL vjpHkhwhdJ. nghUis Kjyhff; nfhz;Nl cyfk;> capupdq;fs;> kuk;> Gy;> G+L tsHe;jd vd;gJ nghUs; Kjy;; Nfhl;ghlhFk;.  

gukhj;kh> [Pthj;kh> gjp> gR> ghrk;>  Mztk;> fd;kk;> khia> eufk;> RtHf;fk; Nghd;witAk; kdpjdpd; fw;gidNa. mjdhy;jhd; ,tw;iwapl;L kjthjpfs; MSf;nfhU jj;Jtk; nrhy;ypf; nfhz;L jpupfpwhHfs;. mjdhy;jhd; kdpjHfs; kj mbg;gilapy; gpsTgl;L "vd;Dila kjKk; ehd; tzq;Fk; flTSNk cz;ikahdit> kw;wtHfsJ kjq;fSk; flTs;fSk; ngha;ahdit" vd ahid ghHj;j FUlHfs; fijahfr; rz;il gpbj;Jf; nfhs;fpwhHfs;!  ngUkhs; Nfhapy; ahidf;F ehkk; Nghl;Lf; nfhs;tjpy;$l khWgl;L tlfiy njd;fiy vdg; gpupe;J epd;W rz;il gpbf;fpwhHfs;.  

fy;tp> nry;tk;> fhjy;> tPuk;> nghwhik> typik> nts;shz;ik vd xt;nthd;Wf;Fk; xt;nthU flTs; gilf;fg;gl;lhH.  

flTisg; gilj;j kdpjd; jdf;F ,Ug;gJ NghyNt mtHfSf;Fk; kidtp> Foe;ijfisg; gilj;jhd;. ,e;jf; flTsUk; kdpjHfs; NghyNt jq;fSf;Fs; rz;il ,l;Lf; nfhz;lhHfs;. mtw;iwf; Guhzk;> ,jpfhrk; Nghd;w fl;Lf; fijfshf kdpjd; vOjp itj;jhd;.  

kdpjd; gilj;j flTsH gyH Njhd;wpa Ntfj;jpy; gpd;dH kiwe;J NghdhHfs;. fpNuf;fUk;> cNuhkUk; xU fhyj;jpy; vz;zpwe;j vy;yhk; ty;y flTsiu topgl;ldH. me;jf; flTsUf;F kidtp kf;fs; ,Ue;jdH. mitfSf;F ,ilapy; nghwhik Nghl;b rz;il ,Ue;jd. ,g;NghJ me;jf; flTsH vy;NyhUk; me;j ehLfspd; mUq;fhl;rpf; $lq;fspy; fhl;rpg; nghUshf epWj;jp itf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. 

Ntjfhyj;jpy; nfhbfl;bg; gwe;j flTsHfshd tHzd;> ,e;jpud;> Nrhkd;> mf;fpdp gpw;fhyj;jpy; gjtp ,wf;fk; nra;ag;gl;lhHfs;. mjw;F vjpHkhwhf cUj;jpud;> tp\;Z gjtp caHj;jg; gl;lhHfs;.   

rpyg;gjpfhu fhyj;jpy; fhkd;> ,e;jpud;> re;jpud;> fiykfs;> jpUkfs;> $w;wk;> #upad;> gyNjtd;> rhj;jd;> ma;ia> kJuhgjp> mf;fpdp Nghd;w flTsHf;Fk; nja;tq;fSf;Fk;  CHfs; NjhWk; Nfhl;lq;fs; (Nfhapy;fs;) ,Ue;jd. gpw;fhyj;jpy; ,tHfSf;Ff; Nfhl;lq;fs; ,y;yhky; Ngha;tpl;ld. rpyg;gjpfhu fhyj;jpy; ,e;jpuDf;F kl;Lky;y mtdJ gilahd tr;rpuhAjk;> mtd; thfdkhfpa ma;uhtjk;> fw;gfjU ,tw;Wf;Fj; jdpj;jdpf; Nfhl;lq;fs; ,Ue;jd. gpd;dhy; mitAk; kiwe;J Nghapd.  

,d;Dk; Nga;> gprhR> ehy;tif tUz G+jq;FSf;fhd rpW nja;t topghL ,Ue;jpUf;fpwJ. Nkhfpdpg; gprhR vd;w nja;t topghLk; ,Ue;jJ. ,J mofhd ngz; cUtpy; te;J Mz;fis kaf;Fk; vd;gJ fij. rpyg;gjpfhuk; Nkhfpdpg; gprhir "MH mQHj; nja;tk;" "fhd; ciw nja;tk;" vd;w ngaHfshy; Rl;LfpwJ.

rq;f fhyj;jpy; nea;jy; nja;tk; tUzd; gujtHfshy; topglg;gl;lhd;. Mdhy;> mLj;J te;j rq;fk; kUtpa rpyg;gjpfhu fhyj;jpy; tUz topghL kiwe;J tpl;lJ. tpehafH tzf;fk; rpyg;gjpfhu fhyj;jpy; fhzg;gltpy;iy. gy;yt kd;dd; eNue;jputHkdpd; thjhgp gilnaLg;Gf;Fg; gpd;dNu tpehafH tzf;fk; jkpo;ehl;by; Nt&d;wpaJ.  rhSf;fpa kd;dd; GypNfrpia mtdJ jiyefuuhd thjhgpapy; ( ,d;iwa fd;dlk; gP[hG+H khtl;lj;jpy; cs;s glhkp)  Njhw;fbj;J (fpgp 630) mq;fpUe;J jpUk;Gk;NghJ gps;isahiuAk; nfhz;L te;J NrHj;jhd;. mjdhy;jhd; gps;isahiuf; Fwpf;Fk; NghJ "thjhgp fzgNj" vdg; ghlfHfs; ghLfpwhHfs;.

mz;ikapy; (2001) mnkupf;fHfs; rhj;jhd;fs; (Devils) ek;gpf;ifaPdHfs; (Infidels) my;yhjhd; khngUq; flTs; ( Allah is Great) vd;W nrhy;ypf; nfhz;L ,];yhkpa jPtputhjpfs; epA+NahHf; efu cyf thzpf NfhGuq;fis (World Trade Centre) gazpfs; tpkhdq;fis VTfizfshf;fp Nkhjpj; jfHj;jhHfs;.

mjw;Fg; gjpybahf "mnkupf;fhitf; flTs; fhg;ghw;w Ntz;Lk;" (God Save America)  vd;W nrhy;ypf; nfhz;L rdhjpgjp G\; Mg;fdp];jhd;  kPJ gj;jhapuk;> gjpdhapuk; fpNyh epiwAila Fz;Lfis rfl;L Nkdpf;Fg; Nghl;Lj; jPtputhjpfNshL NrHj;J mg;ghtpg; nghJkf;fisAk; Mapuf;fzf;fpy;  nfhd;W Ftpj;jhH.  

,uz;L rhuhUNk jq;fs; jq;fs; flTspd; ngaiur; nrhy;ypf; nfhz;L rz;il Nghl;lhHfs;. cyfj;ij xNu flTs; my;yJ Nguhw;wy; gilj;jJ vd;W xUkdjhf vy;NyhUk; vz;zp ele;jpUe;jhy; ,e;jr; rz;il eilngw topapUe;jpUf;fhJ!  

,Rg;ghdpa fg;gw;giliag; Gay; gjk;ghHj;J mit flYf;Fs; rq;fkpj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;j mNjNtis nfhyk;g];  n`apl;bapd; flNyhukhf ,Ue;j xU rpd;df; Flhnthd;wpy; jdJ fg;gy;fNshL Gfyplk; Njb ,Ue;jhH. ,jdhy; Gaypd; KOr; rPw;wj;jpy; ,Ue;J mtUk; mtuJ fg;gy;fSk; jg;g Kbe;jJ. ,Ue;Jk; mtuJ fg;gy;fs; fLikahd jhf;FjYf;F cs;shfpf; flypy; %o;Fk; mghak; Vw;gl;lJ. ,uz;nlhU fg;gy;fs; top jLkhwpg; gpupe;J gpd; Gay; Xa;e;jgpd; xd;W NrHe;jd.

,g;NghJ nfhyk;g]; [Nka;f;fh (Jamaica) Nehf;fpg; gazkhdH. gy ehs;fs; Nkw;fpe;jpa jPTfs; Clhfg;  gazk; nra;j gpd;dH Nkw;Fg; gf;fkhfj; jpUk;gpdhH. A+iy 14 Mk; ehs; (1502) caHe;j kiyj; njhlH xd;W nfhyk;grpd; fz;zpy; gl;;ld. me;j kiyj; njhlH njd; mnkupf;fhtpd; nfhe;Jwh]; (Coast Range Mountains of Honduras) ehl;by; cs;sjhFk;. mg;NghJjhd; mnkupf;fhtpd; jiyepyg; gug;ig nfhyk;g]; Kjd; Kjyhff; fz;lhH.  

 

  


 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (68)

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

nfhe;Jwhirf; ifg;gw;wpa nfhyk;g];

fiuia Nehf;fpf; nfhyk;g]; nrd;wNghJ  xU ngupa  Njhzp xd;W mtuJ fg;gYf;F mUfpy; te;jijg; ghHj;jhH. me;jj; Njhzp fpl;lj;jl;l nfhyk;grpd; fg;gy; msT ngupajhf ,Ue;jJ. mjd; ePsk; 40 mbf;F NkyhfTk;> mfyk; vl;L mbf;Ff; FiwahkYk; ,Ue;jJ. me;jj; Njhzpia 25 ,e;jpaHfs; typj;jhHfs;. Njhzpapd; eLNt gid Xiyahy; (palm leaves) Nta;e;j $lhuj;jpd; fPNo mtHfsJ Fbj;jiytH mkHe;jpUe;jhH. fhw;iwf; nfhz;L Njhzpia Xl;Ltjw;F trjpahf xUtpj Ehypy; nra;j gha; ,Of;fg; gl;bUe;jJ. NkYk; me;jj; Njhzp epiwag; goq;fSk; ,e;jpa tpw;gidg; nghUl;fSk; fhzg;gl;ld.  

NjhzpiaAk; mjpy; te;jtHfisAk; ghHj;j nfhyk;gRf;F  tpag;ghf ,Ue;jJ. ,jw;F Kd;dH mtH ghHj;j jPTfspy; ,g;gbahd ,e;jpaHfis mtH re;jpf;fNt ,y;iy. ,tHfs; ed;whf cLj;jpUe;jhHfs;. iffspy; $uhd thl;fs;> <l;bfs; itj;jpUe;jhHfs;. me;jr; #oy; nfhyk;gRf;Fr; rpWtajpy; ntdp]; kw;Wk; n[Ndhthtpy; ghHj;j Njhzpfis epidT+l;baJ. mJ kl;Lky;yhJ fhNjiag;gw;wpj; jhd; Nfs;tpg;gl;l vz;zpwe;j fijfSk; mtuJ epidTj; jpiuapy; Xbd.  

filrpahfr; rupahd ,lj;Jf;F te;J NrHe;jij epidj;J nfhyk;g]; kfpo;r;rp mile;jhH. ,e;jf; flw;fiujhd; jhd; ,Jtiu fhyKk; fz;L gpbf;jtw;wpy; kpfTk; tpy;yq;fg;gl;;l fhNjapd;  flw;fiuahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,e;j ,e;jpaHfs;> jhd; Kd;dH re;jpj;j miu epHthz ,e;jpaHfs; Nghyy;yhJ mJtiu fhyKk; re;jpg;gjw;Ff; fhj;jpUe;j kf;fNshL xg;gplf; $ba msTf;F ehfupfk; gilj;jtHfshf ,Ue;jhHfs;.  

nfhyk;grpd; ,e;jf; fzpg;G xU tpjj;jpy; rupahfNt ,Ue;jJ. ,e;jg; ngupa Njhzpapy; ,Ue;jtHfs; ,d;iwa nkf;rpf;Nfh ehl;ilr; NrHe;j  goq;Fb kf;fs;. ,d;W vkf;Fj; njupe;j m];njf;]; (Aztecs)  kf;fs;jhd; ,tHfs;. miu ehfupfk; mile;jtHfs;. ngupa efuq;fs; Nfhapy;fs;> fy;yhyhd tPLfs; fl;b tho;e;jtHfs;. Qhapwpd; Xl;lj;ij itj;J  365 ehs;fs; nfhz;lJ xU Mz;L vdf; fzpf;fj; njupe;jpUe;jtHfs;. ,UmJ kl;Lk; my;yhky; Njtijfspd; ehlhd fhNjapy; fpilf;fyhk; vd nfhyk;g]; vjpHghHj;j jq;fk; fpilf;Fk; ehL. Mdhy;> nkf;rpf;Nfhitf; fz;L gpbf;f nfhyk;g]; nfhLj;J itj;jpUf;ftpy;iy.  

nkf;rpf;Nfhit fz;L gpbj;jtH  jz;lay; Nfhnj]; (Cortez) vd;w ngaH nfhz;l ,d;ndhU ,Rg;ghdpaH. kpfTk; Jzpr;ryhd mNj rkak; kpfTk; nfhLikahsuhd ,tH nkf;rpf;Nfh ehl;bd; jq;fj;ijAk; jputpaq;fisAk;  thup vLj;Jf; fg;gy;fspy; ,Rg;ghdpahtpw;F mDg;gpdhH. mJkl;Lky;yhJ mq;F tho;e;j tPuk;epiwe;j kf;fisf; nfhd;Wk; mbikg;gLj;jpAk; gy ml;^opaq;fisr; nra;jhH.

nfhyk;g]; ,e;jj; Njhzpiar; re;jpj;j gpd;dH fg;gy; jupj;J epw;gjw;F Njitahd ey;y JiwKfk; xd;iwf; fz;Lgpbg;gjw;F fiuNahukhf NkYk; fPOk; gazk; nra;J NjbdhH. filrpahf 1502 Mk; Mz;L Mf];l; 17 Mk; ehs; ,d;W Truxillo  vd;W miof;fgLk; nfhe;Juh]; ehl;bd; efuj;jpy;  jiuapwq;fpdhH. clNd tof;fk; Nghy ,Rg;ghdpa ehl;bd; nfhbia ehl;b me;j ehl;bd; murH> murpaH Ngupy; me;j ehl;ilf; ifg;gLj;jpdhH. 

Mdhy;> me;j ehL nfhe;Jwh]; ehL vd;gij mtH mwpe;jpUf;ftpy;iy. toikNghy mjid Mrpahtpd; xU gFjp  vd;Nw vz;zpf;  nfhz;lhH.  mq;F tho;e;j ,e;jpaHfsplk; ,Ue;J njw;Nf NkYk; gazk; nra;jhy; xU "FWfpa ,lk;' tUk; vd;Wk; mjw;fg;ghy; "ngUq; fly;" ,Uf;fpwnjd;Wk; njupe;J nfhz;lhH. ,e;jf; "FWfpa ,lk;" jhd; gdhkh ,ilfiu (Isthmus of Panama) MFk;. mjw;fg;ghy; cs;s "ngUq; fly;"jhd;  grptpf;  ngUq; flyhFk;. Mdhy;> nfhyk;g]; "FWfpa ,lk;" vd;gij ePuiz (Strait)  vd;W jtWjyhfg; Gupe;J nfhz;lhH.  

me;j ePuizia kl;Lk; fz;L gpbj;jhy; mjd; Clhfg; gazk; nra;J NeNu ,e;jpahtpd; fiufisj; jOTk; tq;fhs tpupFlhit mile;J tplyhk; vd nfhyk;g]; ek;gpdhH.

vdNt ,e;j ePuiziaf; fz;L gpbf;f nfhyk;g]; nfhd;Jwh]; kw;Wk; epf;fuFth (Nicaragua)  ehLfspd; fiuNahuhkhfg; gazk; nra;jhH. ePq;fs; njd; mnkupf;fhtpd; tiu glj;ijg; ghHg;gPHfshdhy; mj;yhe;jpf; ngUq;fliyAk; grptpf; ngUq;fliyAk; gpupf;Fk; gdhkh fhy;tha;f;F kpf mUfpy; nfhyk;g]; epd;wJ njupAk;.  

me;jf; fhy;thia kl;Lk; fz;L gpbj;jpUe;jhy; fhNj kw;Wk; ,e;jpahitf; fz;L gpbf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w ntwpapy; jdJ tho;ehspd;  ngUk; gFjpiaf; fopj;j nfhyk;g]; jdJ ,yl;;rpaj;ij mile;jpUg;ghH! Mdhy;> mtuJ rpwpa fg;gy; grptpf; ngUq;fliyf; fle;jpUf;Fkh vd;gJ ngupa Nfs;tpf;Fwp MFk;. ngUk;ghYk; me;jg; gazk; ngupa Njhy;tpapy; Kbe;jpUf;fyhk;. 

nfhyk;g]; jhd; Kd;dH fz;Lgpbj;j fpA+gh kw;Wk; nfapl;b Nghd;w jPTfistpl ,g;NghJ fz;L gpbj;jpUf;Fk; nfhe;Jwh]; flNyhuk; tskhd G+kp vd;gijg; Gupe;J nfhz;lhH. nfhe;Jwhrpy; jq;fk; kw;Wk; Kj;Jf;fs; epiwe;J fplg;gijg; ghHj;jhH. fhNj kw;Wk; ,e;jpahitf; fz;L gpbj;j gpd;dH ,e;j topahf kPz;Lk; te;J ,e;jj; jq;fj;ijAk; Kj;Jf;fisAk; ms;spf; nfhz;L NghfNtz;Lk; vdj;; jdJ kdJf;Fs; fzf;Fg; Nghl;lhH. 

nfhe;Jwhir ,e;jpaHfs; 'ntuFth' (Veragua) vd;w nrhy;NyhL xj;j xypapy; mioj;jhHfs;. nfhyk;g]; me;jg; ngaiuNa mjw;Fr; #l;bdhH. nfhyk;gRf;Fg; gpd;dH ,e;jg; ngaH mtuJ re;jjpapdUf;Ff;  nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. ,Rg;ghdpahtpy; ,d;W thOk; mtuJ re;jjpapdupy; xUtH ntuFthtpd; gpuG (Duke of Veragua) vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwhH.  

nfhyk;g]; njw;Fg; gf;fkhfg; gazk; nra;jNghJ gyj;j fhw;Wk; kioAk; mbf;fj; njhlq;fpaJ. fg;gy;fspy; Jisfs; tpOe;J tpl;ld. czTf; ifapUg;G Fiwaj; njhlq;fpaJ. khYkpfs; tof;fk;Nghy; GWGWf;fj; njhlq;fpdhHfs;. ,g;gbNa Ngha;f; nfhz;bUe;jhy; ,e;jpah Ngha;r; NrUKd; gl;bdpahy; ,wf;f NeupLk; vd;W khYkpfs; gae;jhHfs;.

nfhyk;girAk; ftiy gpbj;Jf; nfhz;lJ. mtuJ gjpd;%d;W taJ kfd; ngHbde;Jit ,e;jg; gazj;jpd;NghJ jd;NdhL mioj;J te;jpUe;jhH. taJ nfhQ;rk; vd;whYk; mg;ghitg; NghyNt kfDk; ey;y kd cuk; gilj;jtH MtH. fg;gy; cile;Njh my;yJ Nghjpa czT ,y;yhkNyh vy;NyhUk; rhf Neupl;lhy; jdJ kfDk; mepahakhf ,we;Jtplf; $Lk; vd;W  nfhyk;g]; gae;jhH. me;jg; gopf;F mtH kpfTk; mQ;rpdhH.  

vdNt ,e;jpahitf; fz;L gpbf;f Ntz;Lk; nfhe;Jwhrpy; fpilf;Fk; jq;fk; Kj;Jf;fis ms;s Ntz;Lk; vd;w jdJ jpl;lq;fis vy;yhk; iftpl;Lf; nfapl;b jpUk;g KbT nra;jhH. nfapl;b Nghdhy; MSeH xtd;Nlhtplk; ey;y epiyapy; ,Uf;Fk; fg;gy;fis cjtpahfg; ngw;W ,d;ndhU Kiw ,e;jpah Nghf Kaw;rpf;fyhk;.  

nfhyk;grpd; fg;gy;fs;  ,g;NghJ nfapl;b Nehf;fpg; gazg;gl;ld. Mdhy;> me;j ehs;fspy; nfapl;b Ngha;r; NrUtnjd;gJ ,Nyrhd nray; my;y. 1503 Mk; Mz;L A+d; 3 Mk; ehs; nfhyk;g]; [Nka;f;fh Ngha;r; NrHe;jhH.  

mjw;FNky; mtuJ fg;gy; gazj;ij  Nkw;nfhs;StJ jw;nfhiyf;F xg;ghdJ vd;W nfhyk;g]; jPHkhdpj;jhH.  fg;gy;fs;  neLq;fhyk; flypy; fple;jjhy; mjd; mbg;ghfj;jpy; xUtif Cupfs; xl;bf;nfhs;Sk;. mit nfhQ;rk; nfhQ;rkhf kuj;;ij mupf;fj; njhlq;Fk;.  ,jdhy; fg;gypy; Xl;ilfs; tpOe;J mjd; Clhfj; jz;zPH cs;Ns frpaj; njhlq;fptpl;lJ. vdNt nfhyk;g]; [Nka;f;fh jPtpy; vq;fhtJ ey;y JiwKfj;ijf; fz;L gpbj;J mq;F jupj;J epd;W fg;gYf;Fg; fyg;gj;Jg; ghHf;f epidj;jhH.  

Mdhy;> mtUf;Fj; Njhjhd ey;y JiwKfk; fpilf;ftpy;iy. xt;nthU ehs;fSk; efu efu  epyik  Nkhrkhfpf; nfhz;L te;jJ.  NkYk; jhkjpj;jhy; fg;gy; flypy; %o;fp vy;NyhUk; kbtijj; jtpu NtW topapUf;fhJ.  vdNt xU Flhitj; njupe;njLj;J mjw;Fs; fg;giyr; nrYj;jpdhH. me;j ,lk; ,g;NghJk; Sir Christopher’s Cove vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ. fg;gy; jiujl;baJk; mJ rpije;J mopghl;Lf;F cs;shdJ.   

me;jf; fg;gy;fspd; ePz;l kug; gyifisg; ngaHj;njLj;J XusT trjpahfj; jq;Ftjw;F Vw;wthJ flw;fiuNahukhfr;  rpW rpW tPLfisf;  fl;bdhHfs;. me;j mofhd jPtpy; fl;lg;gl;l me;j  tPLfspy; nfhyk;gRk; mtuJ Ml;fSk; mLj;j xU Mz;L KOJk; tho;f;ifiag; Nghf;fpdhHfs;. jPT mofhf ,Ue;jNj xopa mtHfsJ tho;f;if mofhf ,Uf;ftpy;iy.  

,d;gkhf ,Uf;Fk;NghJ xU nghUisg; ghHg;gjw;Fk; Jd;gkhf ,Uf;Fk;NghJ mNj nghUisg; ghHg;gjw;Fk; epiwa Ntw;Wik cz;L.  

,sikapy; xUtd; xUj;jpiag; ghHg;gjw;Fk;  KJikapy; xUj;jpiag; ghHg;gjw;Fk; Ntw;Wik cz;L.  

,sikapy; nfhbapy; nta;apYf;Ff; fha;fpw tz;zr; Nriyiag; ghHg;gtd; fz;Zf;F mJ mofpa ngz;zhfj; Njhd;Wk;.  

tapW grpf;fpwJ> rhg;gpl xd;Wkpy;iy vd;fpw epiyapy; NkNy cs;s thdk; ePyhkhfNth> fPNo cs;s kuq;fs; gr;irahfNth fz;Zf;Fj;;;  njupahJ! mNj Neuk; xU Rw;Wyhtpd; NghJ rhg;gpLtjw;F gj;Jf; fwpNahL NrhW ,Uf;Fk; NghJ mNj thdKk; kuq;fSk; fz;fSf;F ey;y ePyepwkhfTk; gr;irg; gNry; vdTk; fhl;rp mspf;Fk;.  

rpyupd; tho;T ,d;gkhfTk;> gyupd; tho;T Jd;gkhfTk; ,Uf;fpwJ. ,Ue;Jk; vtUila tho;f;ifAk; KOJk; ,d;gkhfNth KOJk; Jd;gkhfNth ,Uf;fhJ. ,uz;Lk; fye;Nj ,Uf;Fk;.  

Jd;gj;jpw;Ff; fhuzk; njupahjNghJ kWgpwg;Gf; nfhs;if gpwe;jJ. mtutH tho;T mtutH Kw;gpwg;gpy; nra;j ght Gz;zpaj;ijg; nghWj;J mikfpwJ vd;W rkathjpfs; tpsf;fk; mspj;jhHfs;. 

  


 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (69)

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

",iwth! cd; iffspy; vd; Mtpia xg;gilf;fpNwd;!"  

gpwg;G> ,wg;G- kPz;Lk; gpwg;G ,wg;G ,e;jr; rq;fpypj; njhlupy; ,Ue;J tpLjiy ngw;why; kl;LNk Jd;gj;jpy; ,Ue;J tpLglyhk; vd;W vz;zpaNghJ Kf;jp my;yJ tPLNgW Nfhl;ghL gpwe;jJ.   

cyfpy; ,d;gKk; Jd;gKk; fye;J ,Ue;jhYk; ,d;gj;ijtpl Jd;ge;jhd; mjpfstpy; ,Uf;fpwJ. ,d;W ,Ug;ghiu ehis ghHf;f Kbatpy;iy. je;ij rjkpy;iy> ngw;w jha; rjkpy;iy> jhyp fl;ba kidtp rjkpy;iy>  kf;fSk; rjkpy;iy.  ,e;j cyfpy; vJTk; rjkpy;iy> vJTk; epiyj;J epw;gjpy;iy> ePbg;gJk; ,y;iy. vy;yhNk khwptpLfpwJ> vy;yhNk mope;J tpLfpwJ. fhyk; vijAk; tpl;L itg;gjpy;iy. ,tw;wpd; gpd;dzpapy;jhd; epiyahikf; Nfhl;;ghL Njhd;wpaJ.  

fdtpy; vj;jidNah fhl;rpfisf; fhz;fpNwhk;. vt;tsNth nray;fisr; nra;fpNwhk;. jq;ff; fl;bfs; Ftpe;J fplf;fpd;wd. Kbe;j kl;Lk; mtw;iw MirNahL vLj;J kbapy; fl;bf; nfhs;fpNwhk;. mtw;iwf; nfhz;L khlkhspif fl;lyhk; vdj; jpl;lk; NghLk;NghJ fdT fiyfpwJ. fdT cz;iknad;whYk; fdtpy; fz;lJ vy;yhNk ngha; vd;fpw cz;ik  Gyg;gLfpwJ.  

epj;jpiuapy; vg;gbf; fdTyfpy; tho;fpNwhNkh mNjNghy; tpopg;;;gpy; kha cyfpy; tho;fpNwhk;. fdT nrhw;g Neuj;jpy; Kbe;J tpLfpwJ. Mdhy;> tho;f;if rpy Mz;Lfs; ePbf;fpwJ. Ntw;Wik mt;tsTjhd;.  

,t;thwhd epiyahik gw;wpa rpe;jidNa ,e;j cyfk; khia (world is an illusion) vd;w rq;fuupd; khahthjf;  nfhs;iff;Ff; fhy;Nfhs; ,l;lJ. khahthjpfs; "tho;thtJ khak; kz;zhtJ jpz;zk;" vd;W ntl;b Ntjhe;jk; NgrpdhHfs;.   

mjhtJ ,e;j  cyfj;jpYs;s ftw;rpg; nghUs; vjpYk; Mir itf;fhNj> mtw;wpy; kaq;fp tplhNj> mtw;wpy;  <LghL nfhs;shNj. jhkiu ,iyj; jz;zPHNghy; thog; gofpf; nfhs; vd;whHfs;. 

cz;ikapy; ,y;yhj xd;iw  ,Uf;fpwJ vd;W epidg;gJ khia my;y. khwhf ,Uf;fpw  xd;iw Ntnwhd;whf epidg;gJjhd; khia. mwpahik mg;gb epidf;f itf;fpwJ. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf mwpahik fhuzkhf xUtH gOijiag; ghk;ngd;W epidf;fpwhH. mwpahik ePq;Fk;NghJ gOij ghk;G my;y vd;w cz;ik czug;gLfpwJ. mg;NghJ ghk;G kiwe;J tpLfpwJ. mJNghyj;jhd; ,e;j cyfKk;.

nfhyk;gRf;Fk; mtuJ Ml;fSf;Fk; [Nka;f;fh epr;rakhf Rw;Wyhg; gazk;Nghy; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. me;j Mz;L [Nka;f;fhtpy; Jd;gk;> mr;rk;> mopT> Neha;> gl;bdp epiwe;jjhf ,Ue;jJ. jq;fs; jiytpjpiag; gw;wp mtHfs; nehe;J nfhz;lhHfs;. Jf;fk;> Jd;gk; jhf;Fk;NghJjhd; kdpjHfs; msTf;F mjpfkhf ,iwtid epidf;fpwhHfs;.   

nfhyk;girAk; mtuJ khYkpfisAk;  flTs; gw;wpa epidTjhd; Ml;nfhz;lJ. Kd;gpd; njupahj jPtpy; jdpikapy; mehjuthf tplg;gl;bUe;j mtHfs; fhiy> ez;gfy;> khiy vd vg;NghJk;  topghL> gpuhHj;jid Nghd;wtw;wpy;  fhyj;ijf; fopj;jhHfs;.  

BNfh nkd;b]; (Diego Mendez ) vd;w  Jzpr;ry;fhu khYkp xU rpd;dj; Njhzpapy; jd;de;jdpNa  ,uz;L thl;b nfapl;b nrd;W epthuzg; nghUl;fs; nfhz;Ltu Kaw;rpj;jhH.  Kjy;Kiw mtuJ Njhzp fpl;lj;jl;l mopghl;;Lf;F cs;shdJ. Mdhy;> ,uz;lhtJ Kiw mtH ntw;wpfukhfg; Gwg;gl;Lr; nrd;Wtpl;lhH.

nrd;wtH nrd;wJjhd;. khjf; fzf;fpy; mtiug;gw;wp xU nra;jpAk; njupatpy;iy. mtH flypy; %o;fp ,we;jpUf;fyhk; vdr; rpyH mDkhdpj;jhHfs;.  

cz;ik vd;dntd;why; MSeH xtd;Nlh ,Rg;ghdpa murpahUk; murUk; nfhyk;g]; kPJ itj;jpUe;j md;igiaAk; el;igAk; ,oe;J tpl;lhHfs;. mtiuj; jpUk;gTk; fhz Kbahky; Nghdhy; mtHfs; mjw;fhff; ftiyg; glg; Nghtjpy;iy vd;W epidj;jhH. cjtp mDg;Gtjhf thf;fspj;jhH. mNj rkak; cjtp nra;ag;Ngha; rpf;fypy; khl;bf; nfhs;s mtH tpUk;gtpy;iy. vdNt [Nka;f;fhtpy; fg;gy; cile;J mehjuthf tplg;gl;ltHfSf;F ve;j cjtpAk; te;J Nrutpy;iy.   

nfhyk;gNrhL ,Ue;j rpyH mtNuhL rz;il gpbj;Jf;nfhz;L Xbtpl;lhHfs;. nfhyk;grpd; kfd; ngHbdhd;l; ngupa Mshf te;jgpd; Sir Christopher’s Cove  ,y; Jzpr;rNyhLk; nghWikNahLk;  jhDk; jdJ je;ijAk; kw;wtHfSk; tho;e;j fijia tpupthf vOjp itj;jpUf;fpwhH.

filrpahf MSeH xtd;Nlh mDg;gp itj;j epthuzg; nghUs;fs; xU fg;gypy; te;J NrHe;jd. mtw;iwf; nfhz;L te;jtH NtWahUky;y. jd;de;jdpNa Jzpe;J Njhzpappy; Nghd BNfh  nkd;b];jhd; fg;gypy;  te;J NrHe;jhH.   

jd;NdhL rz;il gpbj;Jf; nfhz;L XbatHfis kd;dpj;J mtHfisAk; mioj;Jf; nfhz;L nfhyk;g]; 1504 Mk; Mz;L A+d; 28 Mk; ehs; rpiwiatpl Nkhrkhd me;jj;; jPtpy; ,Ue;J tpLjiy ngw;Wg; Gwg;gl;lhH.  

fhg;ghw;wg;gl;l  khYkpfs; midtUk; Mf];l; 15 Mk; ehs; rhe;Njh nlhkpq;Nfh JiwKfj;ij mile;jhHfs;. nfhyk;girf; fhg;ghw;wpa MSeH  xtd;Nlh ,g;NghJ nfhyk;gir vt;tsT $ba tpiutpy; mq;fpUe;J mg;Gwg;gLj;j KbANkh mt;tsT tpiutpy; mg;Gwg;gLj;j epidj;jhH.  

me;j epidTf;Fg; gpd;dhy; nfhyk;g];gw;wpa gak; my;yJ mtiu elhj;jpa Kiwgw;wpa ntl;fk; my;yJ ,Rg;ghdpahtpy; mtiu ahUk; ,g;NghJ kjpg;gjpy;iy vd;w vz;zk; ,jpy; vJ fhuzkhf ,Ue;jpUf;Fk; vd;gij epr;rakhfr; nrhy;y KbahJ.

fhuzk;  vJthf  ,Ue;jhYk; MSeH nfhyk;gir 1504 Mk; Mz;L nrg;njk;gH 12 Mk; ehs; ,Rg;ghdpahtpw;F mDg;gp itj;jhH. ,uz;L fg;gy;fspy; Gwg;gl;l nfhyk;g]; jhd; fz;L gpbj;j Gjpa  cyFf;Fj; jdJ GwKJiff; fhl;bf; nfhz;L ,uz;L fg;gy;fspy; gazkhdhH.  

ngUq;flypy; ,uz;nlhU ehs;jhd; gazk; nra;jpUg;ghHfs;. nfhyk;g]; nrd;w fg;gy; jpBnud;W tPrpa Gaypy; rpf;fpaNghJ mjd; gha;kuk; Kwpe;J NghdJ. vdNt me;jf; fg;gy; re;Njh nlhkpd;Nfhtpw;F jpUg;gp mDg;gg; gl;lJ. nfhyk;gRk; mtuJ kfDk; ,d;Dk; rpyUk; nfhyk;grpd; cld;gpwg;G gj;NjhyNk gazk; nra;j fg;gYf;F khw;wg; gl;lhHfs;.  gj;NjhyNk jdJ cld;gpwg;G nfhyk;g]; Nkw;nfhz;l Mgj;jhd fg;gy; gazq;fs; midj;jpYk; cld; nrd;W nfhz;bUg;gtH vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;;fJ.  

filrpahf ,Rg;ghdpa ehl;bd; flw;fiu mtHfs; fz;Zf;Fj; njupe;jJ. 1504k; Mz;L nehntk;gH 07 Mk;  ehs; fhb]; JiwKfj;Jf;Fr; rw;Wj; js;sp ,Uf;Fk; rhd; Yf;fhH (San Lucar) vd;w JiwKfj;ij mile;jhHfs;.  

nfhyk;g]; ,Rg;ghdpahit tpl;Lg;  Gwg;gl;L ,uz;liu Mz;Lfs; fle;J tpl;ld. rhjpf;f epidj;j vJTk; mtUf;Ff; if$ltpy;iy. mtH kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; re;jpj;jnjy;yhk; Vkhw;wk;> tpgj;Jf;fs; kl;LNk. mtUf;Ff; nfhLf;fg;gl;l ehY fg;gy;fSk; [Nka;f;fh  flw;fiuapy; mopghl;Lf;F cs;shfpd. ,g;NghJ ntWq;ifNahL Njhy;tpfspdhy; Vw;gl;l kd cisr;ryhy; cly; eyk; nfl;l epiyapy; ehL jpUk;gp ,Ue;jhH.

fly;jsgjp nfhyk;grpd; ehd;fhtJk; filrpahdJk; Md gazk; ,t;thW Njhy;tpapy; KbTw;wJ. ePz;l fhy RfaPdk; mtuJ Gj;jpiaf;$lg; Ngjypf;f itj;Jtpl;lJ. xU tplaj;jpy; kl;Lk; mtH cWjpahf ,Ue;jhH. ,Rg;ghdpa murUk; murpahUk; jdf;F mspj;j thf;FWjpfisf; fhg;ghw;wj; jtwptpl;lhHfs;. capNuhL ePbj;J ,Ue;jhy; mtHfsplk; thjpl;L ePjp ngw Ntz;Lk;.  

Gjpa cyfj;jpw;Ff; nfhyk;g]; my;yJ cwtpdHfis kl;Lk; fly; jsgjpfshfTk; NjrhjpgjpahfTk; mDg;g Kd;dH murUk; murpahUk; thf;FWjp mspj;jpUe;jhHfs;. Mdhy;> kw;wtHfisAk;  mq;F mDg;gpajd; %yk; me;j thf;FWjp kPwg;gl;L tpl;;lJ. jq;fk; kw;Wk; thzpfj;jpy; fpilf;Fk; ,yhgj;jpy; nfhyk;gRf;F xU gq;F vd;w thf;FWjpak; fhw;wpy; gwf;f tplg;gl;L tpl;lJ. xU nry;te;jdhf ,Uf;f Ntz;ba  Ntisapy; jhd; xU Vioahf ,Ug;gijf; nfhyk;grpdhy; vspjpy; rPuzpf;f Kbatpy;iy.

vdNt fiu NrHe;jJk; muriuAk; murpahiuAk; Ngha;g; ghHf;f tpUk;gpdhH. Mdhy;> mtuJ  cly; epiy mjw;F ,lk; nfhLf;ftpy;iy.  

,Rg;ghdpah jpUk;gp ,uz;L fpoikfs;$l Mftpy;iy. nfhyk;gRf;F ,d;DNkhH Vkhw;wr; nra;jp te;J NrHe;jJ. muz;kidapy; mtUf;F vg;NghJk; md;Gk;> MjuTk; fhl;b te;j ,];ngy;yh murpahH ,we;J NghdhH.  

nfhyk;g]; ,g;NghJ gLf;ifapy; tpOe;J tpl;lhH. ngUk;ghyhd Neuk; gLf;ifapNyNa fope;jJ. murpahupd; kiwT mtuJ Nehia NkYk; mjpfupj;jJ. murpahupd; kiwTf;Fg; gpd;dH jdf;F cjtp nra;thH ahUk; ,y;iy vd;w ifaWepiy Vw;gl;lJ.  

ngHbdhe; murH nfhyk;gRf;F ve;j cjtpiaAk; nra;a kWj;J tpl;lhH. jdJ gLf;ifapy; ,Ue;J nfhz;L nfhyk;g]; ePjp Nfl;L fbjq;fSf;F Nky; fbjk; mDg;gpf; nfhz;bUe;jhH. Mdhy;> murH miratpy;iy. khwhf murupd; Gd;dif ,g;NghJ Kfr; Rspg;ghf khwpaJ. kd;dH Kfk; Rspj;jhy; muz;kidapy; ,Ug;gtHfSk; muriug; gpd;gw;WtJ eilKiwahFk;.         

ez;;gHfs; ,y;yhky;> nry;thf;F ,y;yhky;> tha;g;Gf;fs; ,y;yhky; jdpikapy; thba nfhyk;g]; muriu Neupy; re;jpj;Jg; Ngrpdhy; jdf;F ePjp fpilf;Fk; vd;W epidj;jhH. Nehapdhy; gLf;ifapy; tPo;e;J fple;jhYk; mg;gbnahU Kaw;rpia Nkw;nfhs;s KbT nra;jhH.  

Nehapd; cghijahy; js;shbf; nfhz;L tUk; nfhyk;gir muz;kid thrypy; fz;l murUf;F mtHkPJ ,uf;fk; gpwf;Fk; vd;Wjhd; ahUk; vjpHghHg;ghHfs;. Mdhy;> murH fpotd; nfhyk;gNrhL md;ghfg; NgrpdhNu xopa mtuJ Ntz;LNfhSf;Fr; nrtp rha;f;f kWj;J tpl;;lhH. kdk; cile;JNghd nfhyk;g]; NtW topapy;yhky; flTspd; kPJ ghuj;ijg; Nghl;Ltpl;L ntWq;ifNahL tPL jpUk;gpdhH.  Jd;gq;fs; NeUk; Nghnjy;yhk; flTs; jdf;Ff; if nfhLj;jpUf;fpwhH> ,dpNkYk; ifnfhLg;ghH vd;W nfhyk;g]; jdJ kdijj; Njw;wpf; nfhz;lhH.

flTs; mtiu Vkhw;wtpy;iy. 1506 Mk; Mz;L Nk 20 ,y; flTs; nfhyk;grpd; ftiy> Jd;gk;> Jauk;> miyr;ry; vy;yhtw;wpw;Fk; xU Kw;Wg; Gs;sp itj;jhH. tl ,Rg;ghdpahtpd; ty;yNjhypl; (Valladolid in Northern Spain) gl;bdj;jpy; ,y.7 nfhyk;g]; mtepA+tpy; cs;s tPl;by;> rpy ez;gHfs; #o;e;jpUf;fj; jdJ filrp capiy vOjpitj;J tpl;Lf; fly; jsgjp> Nkw;fpe;jpa ehLfspd; Njrhjpgjp> Gjpa cyiff; fz;Lgpbj;j flNyhb fz;iz %bdhH. mtuJ tha; filrpahfr; nrgpj;j thHj;ijfs; xU Njhj;jpukhFk;.  

",iwth! cd;Dila iffspy; vd; Mtpia xg;gilf;fpNwd;!" (Into thy hands, O Lord, I commit my spirit!)  

nfhyk;g]; ,wf;Fk;  NghJ mtUf;F taJ mWgJ kl;LNk. Mdhy;> mtiug; gPbj;j Neha;> ftiy> Vkhw;wk; mtiu kpfTk; taJ Nghd fpotdhfr; rpj;jupj;Jf; fhl;baJ. 

  

 


 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (70)

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

tuyhw;wpd; kW gf;fk;  

nfhyk;g]; ,we;jNghJ mtH gpwe;j ehLk; GFe;j ehLk; cyfKk; mtiu kwe;Jtpl;lJ. mtuJ ,Wjp ahj;jpiuapy; mtuJ neUq;fpa ez;gHfs; rpyNu fye;J nfhz;lhHfs;. ,Rg;ghdpa murH fly;jsgjp nfhyk;grpd; kiwitf; fz;L nfhs;sNt ,y;iy. cty;yNjhypl; efu kf;fs; ehd;F fpoikfs; fopj;J "fly;jsgjp kiwe;J tpl;lhH" vd;W vOjp itj;jhHfs;.

cyfk; ,uz;L Ehw;whz;Lfs; nfhyk;gir kwe;Nj NghdJ. 1697 ,y; gpuhd;]; ,Rg;ghdpahtplk; ,Ue;J fp];gdpNahthtpd; Nkw;Fg; gFjpia Ryswick xg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo; gpuhd;]; ngw;Wf; nfhz;lJ. ,J ,d;iwa nfapl;b MFk;. fpof;Fg; gFjp ,d;W nlhkpdpf;Nfh FbauR vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ.  mg;NghJ ,Rg;ghdpah nfhyk;grpd; G+jTliyf; fhg;ghw;w KbT nra;jJ.  mjidj; Njhz;b vLj;j ,Rg;ghdpah fpA+ghtpw;Ff; nfhz;L nrd;wJ. XU Ehw;whz;L fopj;J fpA+gh Rje;jpuk; mile;jNghJ mjid kPz;Lk; nrtpy; (Seville)  vd;w efuj;J ,Rg;ghdpaH vLj;Jr; nrd;wdH. Mdhy;> fij ,j;NjhL Kbatpy;iy.

1877 ,y;  rhe;Njh nlhkpq;Nfh Njthyaj;ij  kWGidthf;fk; nra;j njhopyhsHfs; gypgPlj;jpd; fPNo ,Ue;j xU ngl;bapy; vYk;Gfs; ,Uf;ff; fz;lhHfs;. mg;NghJjhd; Kd;dH vLj;Jr; nrd;w vYk;Gfs; nfhyk;grpd; kfd; Bf;NfhtpdJ (Diego) vd;Wk; ,g;NghJ vLj;jJ nfhyk;grpd; vYk;Gfs; vd;Wk; njupate;jJ.

me;j vYk;Gfs; ,d;W mtH Njhw;Wtpj;j rhe;Njh nlhkpq;Nfh efupd; Njthyaj;jpy; xU fz;zhbg; Ngioapy; itf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. vdNt nfhyk;gRf;F ,uz;L fy;yiwfs; ,Ug;gjhf itj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;.  

,uz;L Ehw;whz;LfSf;F cyfk; nfhyk;gir kwe;Nj tpl;lJ. mjd; gpd;dHjhd; gioa cyfj;jpy; Fiwe;jJ gj;J ,lq;fspYk; Gjpa cyfpy; fzf;fw;w epidTr; rpd;dq;fs; kw;Wk; rpiyfs; mtH ngauhy; epWtg;gl;ld.   

,d;W tl mnkupf;fhtpy; cs;s Fiwe;jJ 50 efuq;fs; khepyq;fs; nfhyk;grpd; kUTg; ngauhd nfhyk;gpah #l;lg;gl;Ls;sJ. "mnkupf;fhitf; fz;Lgpbj;jtH" (Discoverer of America) vd;W nfhyk;g]; Gfog;gl;lhYk; mnkupf;fh vd;w ngaH nfhyk;grpd; ez;gH mnkupf;f]; nt];Grpa]; (Americus Vespucius)  ngauhy; miof;fg;gLfpd;wJ. mnkupf;fRk; xU ,j;jhypaH. nfhyk;g]; Nghyy;yhJ mnkupf;f fiuNahuj;ij mjpfsT NJbf; fz;L gpbj;jtH. NkYk; nfhyk;girg; Nghy; jq;fk;> mbik  tpahghuk; vd;W miyahky; mnkupf;fhitg; gw;wp epiwaj; juTfs; nfhz;L te;J NrHj;jtH. me;jj; juTfspd; mbg;gilapy; ma;Nuhg;gpa epytpayhsHfs; (Geographers)  me;j ehl;bd; tiuglj;ij tiue;jhHfs;. mJ rPdh> ,e;jpah> ag;ghd; Nghd;w  ehL Nghy; ,Uf;fhjjhy; me;jj; juTfisf; nfhLj;j  mnkupf;f]; mtHfsJ ngaiuNa  ehl;bd; ngauhf itj;J tpl;lhHfs;.  

      nfhyk;g]; epidTr; rpd;dk;     

nfhyk;gRf;F thf;Fg; gz;zpa gl;lq;fs;> gzk;> kw;Wk; tpUJfis mtuJ %j;j kfd; nlhd; bahNfh ,Rg;ghdpa murH ngHbde;jplk; ,Ue;J Nghuhbg; ngw;Wf; nfhz;lhH. bahNfh nfhyk;g]; fz;Lgpbj;j n`apl;bapd; Njrhjpgjpahf epakpf;fg;gl;lhH. 

nfhyk;grpd; tho;f;if kfpo;r;rp epiwe;jjhf ,Uf;ftpy;iy. mtH Kjy; gazj;ij Kbj;Jf; nfhz;L ghNyh]; JiwKfj;jpy; ,wq;fp ghHrpNyhdh efuj;Jf;Fr; nrd;w NghJjhd; kf;fs; tPjpfspy; epd;W kfpo;r;rp Muthuk; nra;J tuNtw;whHfs;. murUk; murpahUk; mupahrdj;jpy; rupahrdk; mspj;J nfhyk;gir mur kupahijNahL tuNtw;whHfs;. vQ;rpa %d;W gazq;fSk; ngupa Njhy;tpapYk; ghupa Vkhw;wj;jpYk; Kbe;jd.  

%d;whtJ gazj;ij Kbj;Jf; nfhz;L ehL jpUk;gpaNghJ rq;fpypahy; fhy; if gpizf;fg;gl;Lj; Njrj;JNuhff; Fw;wk;rhl;lg;gl;l  rpiwf; ifjp;ahf nfhyk;g]; nfhz;L tug;gl;lhH. ehd;fhtJk; ,Wjpg; gazj;ijAk;  Kbj;Jf; nfhz;L jpUk;gpaNghJ CH NgH njupahj xUtuha;> jdpadha;> khiy kupahij vJTkpd;wp> Nehapdhy; thb rhtpd; tpopk;gpy; epd;W nfhz;bUe;jhH.  

njhlf;f Kjy; KbTtiu nfhyk;gir vy;NyhUk; gpioahf tpsq;fpf; nfhz;lhHfs;. mtuJ vz;zq;fs; kw;wtHfSf;Ff; Nfypahfg; gl;ld. mtuJ Kaw;rpfs; mtkjpg;NghL ghHf;fg; gl;lJ. mtuJ rhjidfis kf;fs; ek;g kWj;jhHfs;. ,fo;r;rpNahL Muk;gkhd mtuJ tho;f;if Gwf;fzpg;gpy; KbTw;wJ. ftdpg;ghuw;w epiyapy; mtuJ ,wg;G Vw;gl;lJ. Mz;Lf; fzf;fpy; mtuJ fz;Lgpbg;Gg; Nghw;wg;glhky;> fdk; gz;zg;glhky; tplg;gl;lJ. 

,d;W mnkupf;fhitf; fz;L gpbj;j nfhyk;g]; vd;W Nghw;wg;gl;lhYk; rhjhuz kf;fSf;F  mtH re;jpj;j jlq;fy;fs;> mdHj;jq;fs;> mDgtpj;j ,lHg;ghLfs;> Kl;Lg;ghLfs;> tpy;yq;fq;fs;> my;yy;fs;> ftiyfs; njuptjpy;iy. 

nfhyk;g]; re;jpj;j NguplH> Vkhw;wk; ,tw;wpd; gpd;dzpapy; kw;wtHfSf;F vLj;Jf; fhl;lhf tpsq;Fk; ,uz;L Kf;fpa Fzhk;rq;fs; gspr;rpLfpd;wd. xd;w mtuJ tplhKaw;rp. kw;wJ mtuJ jd;ek;gpf;if. vd;djhd; mdHj;jq;fs; my;yy;fs; Vw;gl;lhYk; ,e;j ,uz;ilAk; nfhyk;g]; iftplhJ nfl;bahfg; gpbj;Jf; nfhz;lhH. 

nfhyk;grpd; tplhKaw;rpAk; jd;ek;gpf;ifAe;jhd; mtiu mnkupf;fhitf; fz;L gpbf;f itj;J ,d;W Nfhbf; fzf;fhd nts;is ,dj;jtUf;F xU Gjpa jhafj;ij cUthf;fpf; nfhLj;Js;sJ. 

Nfhbf;fzf;fhd kf;fs; ,e;j cyfpy; gpwf;fpwhHfs;> ,wf;fpwhHfs; Mdhy;> xU rpyNu jq;fsJ ngaiu tuyhw;wpy; gjpj;Jtpl;L kiwfpwhHfs;. mjpy; nfhyk;gRk; xUtH. 

,d;W nfhyk;g]; ehs; mnkupf;fhtpy; tpLKiw ehshff; nfhz;lhlg;gLfpwJ. nfhyk;grpd; Kjy; ,uz;L Ehw;whz;L epiwT ehis (1592> 1692) ahUk; fz;L nfhs;stpy;iy. mg;NghJ Nkw;fpe;jpa jPTfspy; ,Rg;ghdpa FbNaw;wf;fhuHfs;> fdlhtpy; gpuQ;Rf;fhuHfs;> epA+ ,q;fpyhe;J> fNwhypdh> Nkupyhd;l;> ntH[pdpah Nghd;w khepyq;fspy; Mq;fpNyaH> epA+NahHf;fpy; xy;yhe;jH> nlyntaupy; RtPb\;fhuHfs; tho;e;jhHfs;.  

,jpy; xU Ntbf;if vd;dntd;why; ,tHfs; ahtUk; ,Rg;ghdpaHfis ntWj;jhHfs;. ,Rg;ghdpaHfSk; Mq;fpNyaUk; Fiwe;jJ xU Ehw;whz;L fhykhfj; jq;fSf;Fs; fLikahfr; rz;il ,l;Lf; nfhz;lhHfs;. 

1792 ,y; nfhyk;g]; epidT ehs; Kjd; Kiwahff; nfhz;lhlg;gl;lJ. mnkupf;fhtpy; my;y> ,q;fpyhe;jpy;. mjidr; nra;jtH vy;fdd; tpd;nr];jH (Elhanan Wichester) vd;w xU fpwpj;jtg; ghjpupahH. mtuJ fhyj;jpy; ,d;iwa mnkupf;f If;fpa ehLfspy; tho;e;jtHfsJ vz;zpf;if 40 ,yl;rk; kf;fs; kl;LNk! 

1892 ,y; mnkupf;fh xU typT ngw;w Rje;jpu ehlhf Kfpo;e;Jtpl;lJ. nfhyk;g]; fz;L gpbj;j mnkupf;fh fpof;fpy; mj;jpyhe;jpf; ngUq;flYk;> Nkw;Nf gRtpf; ngUq;flYk; Kj;jkpLk; ehlhf tpsq;fpw;W. epA+NahHf;> gpynly;gpah kw;Wk; rpfhNfh gl;bdq;fspy; tho;e;jtHfsJ njhif Kd;ida Ehw;whz;;by; KO ehl;bYk; tho;e;j kf;fs; njhifiatplf; $Ljyhf ,Ue;jJ. 1893 ,y; rpfhNfh efupy; nfhyk;grpd; epidthf xU mUq;fhl;rpafk;  nts;isg; gl;bdj;;;jpy; (White City)  kpr;rpf;fd; Vupf;F mUfpy;> rpfhNfhtpy; ,Ue;J 8 iky; js;sp cUthf;fg;gl;lJ.  

nts;isg; gl;bdj;jpd; ePsk; xd;wiu iky;> mfyk; miu iky;> gug;G 500 Vf;fH. ,Uk;ghYk; fz;zhbahYk; fl;lg;gl;l  17 mofhd fl;blq;fs;. mjDs; mJtiu cyfk; fhzhj mofhd> gaDs;s> mw;Gjkhd nghUl;fs; fhl;rpf;F itf;fg;gl;bUe;jd. mjidf; nfhyk;g]; Neupy; te;J ghHj;jpUe;jhy; tpag;ghy; kiyj;Jg; NghapUg;ghH.  

nfhyk;grpd; Kjy; gazj;jpd; NghJ mtuJ jz;lay; mnyhd;Nrh gpd;nrhd; (Captail Alonso Pinzon) njw;F Nehf;fpf; fpspfspd; rhaypy; gwe;j xU $l;lk; gwitfisg; ghHj;Jtpl;Lj; jiu Nkw;Fj; jpirapy; ,y;iy njw;Fj; jpirapy; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W mDkhdpj;J  Nkw;F Nehf;fpg; gazk; nra;J nfhz;bUe;j rhe;jh Nkupah> gpd;jh> ePdh fg;gy;fisj; njd; Nkw;Fj; jpir Nehf;fpj; jpUg;GkhW kd;whl;lkhff; Nfl;lhuy;yth? (mj;jpahak; 44) mg;gbf; nfhyk;g];  jdJ tpUg;gj;jpw;F khwhf njd;Nkw;Fj; jpirapy; Nghf kWj;jpUe;jhy; mtH  xd;wpy; rhthdh JiwKfk; (Savannah Harbour) my;yJ rhHy;];ud;; my;yJ nr];rhgPf; Flhtpy; (Chesapeake Bay ) jiu ,wq;fp ,Ug;ghH. mg;gbj; jiu ,wq;fpapUe;jhy; ,d;iwa If;fpa mkupf;fh mq;fpNyh rf;];rd; (Anglo Saxon) kf;fspd; FbNaw;w ehlhf ,Ug;gjw;Fg; gjpy; ,Rg;ghdpauJ FbNaw;w ehlhf ,Ue;jpUf;Fk;. mjd; tuyhNw Kw;wpYk; khwp ,Uf;Fk;. njd; mnkupf;fhitf; ifg;gw;wpa ,Rg;ghdpah mjid tskhd nry;tk; nfhopj;j G+kpahf khw;wtpy;iy. me;jf; fpspg; gwitf; $l;lj;ijg; ghHj;J gpd;nrhd; nfhyk;girj; jpir jpUg;gpajhy; tl mnkupf;fh nfhQ;rk; fhyk; jho;j;jpj; jq;fg; ghsq;fSf;F Mirg;glhj> XusT ePjp> epahak;> ehfupfk; gilj;j mwpTs;s kf;fshy; FbNawg; gl;lJ.  

tuyhw;Wf;F vg;NghJk; ,uz;L gf;fq;fs; cz;L vd;fpwhHfs;.  rpyH tuyhw;Wf;F %d;W gf;fq;fs; cz;nld;Wk; nrhy;fpwhHfs;. nfhyk;grpd; mnkupf;ff; fz;L gpbg;G mjw;F tpjptpyf;fy;y vdyhk;.  nfhyk;girg; Nghw;WgtHfs; xU gf;fk;> Jhw;WgtHfs; ,uz;lhtJ gf;fk;> cz;ikfs; (facts) %d;whtJ gf;fk;.

Gjpa cyiff; fz;L gpbj;j JzpTkpf;f flNyhb vd;W gyH nfhyk;;girg; ghuhl;b mtUf;F tpoh vLf;fpwhHfs;. NtW rpyH mtiu ,l;yNuhL xg;gpl;Lg; Ngrf; $ba xU "nfhiyahsp" Mfg; ghHf;fpwhHfs;.

tuyhW nghJthf ntw;wp ngw;wtHfshy;jhd; vOjg;gLfpwJ. mtHfs; ngha;ia nka;ahfr; rpj;jupj;J tpLfpwhHfs;.  

nfhyk;grpd; fz;Lgpbg;G  epyTlikia mwpKfk; nra;J> Vida ,dq;fis mopj;J my;yJ mbikg;gLj;jp> mbik thzpfj;ijg; ngUg;gpj;J> Rw;Wr; #oiy ehrg;gLj;jp> mnkupf;fhtpd; goq;Fb kf;fspd; rka ek;gpf;ifiaj; jfHj;J> ehfupfj;ij> gz;ghl;il mopj;J xU ,df; nfhiyia (genocide)  epiwNtw;Wtjw;F topNfhypaJ vd;W Fw;wk; Rkj;jg;gLfpwJ.   

nfhyk;g]; G+HtPf Fbkf;fisf; fj;Njhypf;f kjj;jpw;F kjkhw;wk; nra;jhH. vy;NyhUk; fj;Njhypf;f kjj;jtHfshf khwNtz;Lk; vd;W epidj;jNjhL jdJ ehl;Fwpg;gpy; 1650 Mk; Mz;L cyfk; mope;J tpLk; vd;Wk; vOjp itj;jhH!  

nfhyk;g]; Kjypy; re;jpj;j  G+HtPf kf;fs; ijNdh]; (Tainos) vd;w ,dj;jtH vd;gij Kd;dH fz;Nlhk;. nfhyk;g]; mtHfis ehfupfkw;w fhl;Lr; rhjpapdH vd;W vz;zpaNjhL mt;thW vOjpAk; itj;Js;shH. gpwe;j Nkdpauha; Milapd;wpj; jpupgtHfs;> Ntiyf;fhuHfshf itj;jpUg;gjw;Fk; kjkhw;wj;jpw;Fk; jFjpahdtHfs; vd;gJ mtuJ fzpg;gPL. Mdhy;> ,e;j ijNdh]; kf;fs;  rpwpa Fbirfs; fl;b tho;e;jhHfs;> fkk; nra;jhHfs;> xU ehisf;F %d;W Kiw Fspj;Jj; jq;fs; cliyr; Rj;jkhf itj;jpUe;jhHfs;. ,it md;iwa ma;Nuhg;gpauplk; mjpfk; fhzg;glhjit MFk;.  

gpNu ghj;njhyNk b yh]; fhr]; (Fray Bartholome de Las Casas) vd;w ghjpupahH ,e;jpaj; jPTfspd; #iwahly; (Devastation of the Indies) vd;w Ehypy; nfhyk;girg;gw;wpg; gpd;tUkhW vOJfpwhH>  

"xUtd; thshy;  xU kdpjid xNu tPr;rpy; vt;tsT tpiuthf ,uz;L Jz;lhf ntl;br; rha;f;f KbAk; vd;gJgw;wpg; ge;jak; itj;jhHfs;. jha;khuplk; ,Ue;j Foe;ijfisg;  gwpj;Jr; rpupg;giyfs; kj;jpapy; Mw;wpy; tPrpdhHfs;. ifg;gw;wpa ifjpfis capNuhL nfhSj;jpdhHfs;. ,ilapilNa ,e;jpaHfSk; ,Rg;ghdpaiuf; nfhd;wjhy;> ,Rg;ghdpaHfs; jq;fSf;Fs; xU vOjhj tpjpKiwia itj;Jf; nfhz;lhHfs;. xt;nthU ,Rg;ghdpadpd; nfhiyf;F tpiyahf EhW ,e;jpaHfisf; nfhiy nra;tJ." 

G+Nyhf RtHf;fkhd fp];ghdpNahyhtpd;  (,d;iwa n`apl;b) kf;fs; njhif 1494-96 Mz;LfSf;F ,ilapy; %d;wpy; xd;whff; Fiwe;jJ. mLj;j 20 Mz;Lfspy; ,dg;gL nfhiyapd; tpisthf nkhj;jk; 80 ,yl;;;rk; kf;fspy; 28>000 NgNu vQ;rpdhHfs;.