fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (51)

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

mup];Njhl;lypd; rpy Nfhl;ghLfis kWf;f 2000 Mz;Lfs; vLj;jJ!

mwptpay;gw;wp mup];Njhl;lypd; mZFKiw gpshl;Nlhtpd; mZFKiwf;F khWgl;bUe;jJ. kdpj nray;ghl;bd; mbg;gil mwpT> mjd; njhopy; rpe;jid vd;w gpshl;Nlhtpd; fUj;NjhL mtH xj;Jg;NghdhH. Mdhy;> gpshl;Nlh fw;gpj;j Ez;nghUs; Nfhl;ghL kw;Wk; fzf;fpaiy cs;slf;fpa  "Kjy; jj;Jtj;ij" gbg;gNjhL epy;yhky; cyfj;jpy; fhzg;gLk; ,aw;gpay;> Ntj;jpay;> capHg;gpay; ,tw;iw cs;slf;fpa  ",uz;lhtJ jj;Jtj;ij fw;gJk; Kf;fpak; vd;W mup];Njhl;ly;  vz;zpdhH. mtuJ je;ijahH xU itj;jpauhf ,Ue;j fhuzj;jhy; mup];Njhl;ly; capupdq;fs; gw;wp mf;fiw fhl;bdhH NghYk;.

mup];Njhl;lypd; rhjid vd;dntd;why; md;iwa Vjd;]; efupy; mwptpay;gw;wp Ma;Tnra;a Kd;dH vg;NghJk; ,y;yhj xU fiyf;fofj;ij (Academy) Muk;gpj;jNj. Kjypy; mwptpay; vd;why; vd;d> mjid Vd; fw;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w tiutpyf;fzj;ij tiue;jhH. NtW tpjkhfr; nrhd;dhy; ,d;W ehk; mikg;G Kiwahff; fhZk; mwptpaiy mtH jd;de;jdpauhf ,Ue;J fz;L gpbj;jhH. gpshl;Nlh Muk;gpj;j fiyf;fofj;jpy;  ,d;iwa fzf;fpay; Jiw ,Ue;jJ. Mdhy;> mup];Njhl;ly; Muk;gpj;j fiyf;fofj;jpy;  Kjd;Kjyhf mwptpay;JiwAk; ,Ue;jJ. mjpy; mlq;fpa capupay;Jiw kpfr; rpwg;ghf ,Ue;jJ. ,aw;gpay; kl;Lk; mt;tsT Nrhgpf;ftpy;iy.  

mup];Njhl;lYf;Fg; gpd;dH 2>000 Mz;Lfshf mtuhy; fw;gpf;fg;gl;l mwptpaiy kpQ;Rk; tz;zk; NtW mwptpay; jiy vLf;ftpy;iy. mup];Njhl;ly; fw;gpj;j mwptpay; jukhf ,Ue;jjhy; mjid vy;NyhUk; Vw;Wf; nfhz;lhHfs;. fpwpj;jt Njthyak;$l mjid mg;gbNa Vw;Wf; nfhz;lJ. mjdhy;jhd; mup];Njhl;lypd; rhjhuz ,aw;gpay; Nfhl;ghLfisapl;L fypypNah Nfs;tp vOg;gpaNghJ> mtH fpwpj;jt Njthyaj;NjhL Nkhj Ntz;ba fl;lhaj;jpw;Fj; js;sg;gl;lhH.  

mup];Njhl;lypd; Ma;T  xt;nthU ,aYf;F ,ay; vOe;j rpf;fy;fspd; jd;ikiag; nghWj;J khWgl;ljhf ,Ue;jJ. nghJthff; $Wk;NghJ mtuJ Ma;T gpd;tUk; tiutpyf;fzj;Jf;F mika ,Ue;jJ.  

    (1) vLj;Jf; nfhz;l nghUSf;F tiutpyf;fzk; tFj;jy;. 

    (2) nghJthf xg;Gf;nfhs;sg;gl;l fUj;Jf;fis kPsha;jy;. Kd;ida MrpupaHfsJ MNyhridfisf; ftdj;jpy; nfhs;tJ. 

    (3) jdJ thjj;ijAk; jPHTfisAk; Kd;itj;jy;.  

,d;W$l ,e;j Ma;TKiwNa mwptpay; Muha;r;rpf;F vy;NyhuhYk; gpd;gw;wg;gLfpwJ vd;gJ gyUf;F tpag;ghf ,Uf;fyhk;. mtH gad;gLj;jpa thjk; ,uz;L tifahdJ. xd;W thjKiwg;gb cz;ikia Ma;jy; (Dialectical). ,uz;L gl;lwtpd; (empirical) mbg;gilapy; Ma;T nra;jy;.                                                      mup];Njhl;ly;                                                                            

mup];Njhl;ly; vjpHjug;G thjj;ij Kwpabf;f mtHfspd;  KbT nghUsw;wnjd (reductio ad absurdum ) thjpg;ghH. ,tupd; ,Nj thjKiwia 2000 Mz;Lfs; fopj;J mtuJ MjuthsHfSf;F vjpuhff; fypypNah gad;gLj;jpaNghJ MjuthsHfs; rq;flg;gl;lhHfs;.  

gpshl;Nlh fz;Zf;Fg; Gyhdhfhj - fUj;jpayhd (Abstract) mwptpaiyg;gw;wpNa ftdk; nrYj;jpdhH. mjw;F khwhf mup];Njhl;ly; GyDf;Fg; Gyg;gLk; jhtuq;fs;> tpyq;Ffs;gw;wp Muha;e;J mtw;iw tpupthf tifg;gLj;jpdhH. ,aw;if gw;wpa mtuJ Ma;T fhuzq;fs; gw;wpajhf ,Ue;jd. ,e;jf; fhuzq;fs; vit? ,jw;F mtNu vLj;Jf;fhl;Lf;fis Kd;itj;jhH. xU nghUSf;F (object) ehd;F gz;Gfs; (Attributes) cz;L. mitahtd- 

    (1) gUg;nghUs; (Matter)

    (2) cUtk; ( Form)

    (3) mirTf;Ff; fhuzk; (Moving cause)

    (4) ,Wjpf; fhuzk; (Final cause) 

vLj;Jf; fhl;lhf  xU Nkirf;F mjd; gUg;nghUs; kuk;. cUtk; mjd; tbtk;. mirTf;Ff; fhuzk; jr;Rj; njhopyhsp> mjd; ,Wjpf; fhuzk; me;j Nkir vjw;fhf Kjypy; nra;ag;gl;lJ vd;gJ. vLj;Jf;fhl;L xU FLk;gk; mkHe;J rhg;gpl me;j Nkir Njitg;gl;lJ. kdpjDf;F ,e;jg;  gz;Gfs; vt;thW nghUe;jp tUk;? 

kdpjd; mtdJ jhapdhy; cw;gj;jp nra;ag;gl;ltd; vd mup];Njhl;ly; epidj;jhH. vdNt gUg;nghUs; jha;. cUtk; ,uz;L fhYk; gFj;jwpTk; gilj;j tpyq;F. mirTf;Ff; fhuzk; je;ij. ,Wjpf; fhuzk; xU tsHe;j kdpjdhtJ.  filrpg;  gz;G rpy rkak; epfohJ Nghfyhk;. Mdhy;> mJ tpjp tpyf;F. ,aw;if vg;NghJk; xOq;fhfTk; xNukhjpupahfTk; ,aq;FfpwJ.  

,g;gbj; jHf;f uPjpahf vq;fs; jkpo; %jhijaHfs; rpe;jpj;jjhfj;  njupatpy;iy. mJ$lg; gUthapy;iy. mtHfis kd;dpf;fyhk;. ,d;W $l  Nkw;Fyf mwptpaiyf; fy;YhupfspYk;> gy;fiyf; fofj;jpYk; gbj;j gpd;dUk; xU rpyuJ Muha;r;rp tpehaf rJHj;jpf;F mtpf;Fk; Nkhjfj;ijg; gw;wpNa Rw;wptUfpwJ.

Nkhjfj;ij %bAs;s kh  khiaiaf; Fwpf;fpwJ. cs;Sf;Fs; ,Uf;Fk; rHf;fiu Mde;jj;ijf; Fwpf;fpwJ. Njq;fha;j; JUty; ghrj;ijf; Fwpf;fpwJ. mNl mg;gh vd;d mw;Gjkhd fz;L gpbg;G! vd;d mwptpay; tpahf;fpahdk;! ,g;gbj; jkpoHfs; mup];Njhl;ly; fhyj;Jf;F Ke;jpa 2>000 Mz;Lfspy; tho;e;jhy; mtHfs; vg;gb cUg;glg; NghfpwhHfs;? vijf; fz;L gpbf;fg; NghfpwhHfs;? ,jpy; Ntjid vd;dntd;why; mwptpaypd; kpf mw;Gjkhd rhjidfspy; xd;whd thndhypapy; ,e;j mgj;jq;fis xyp gug;GfpwhHfs; vd;gJjhd;!    

,aw;if mwptpaYf;F (Natural Science) mup];Njhl;lypd; capHg;gpay; gw;wpa Ma;T capuw;w nghUl;fistpl capupdq;fspd; cUtj;Jf;Fk; ,Wjpf; fhuzj;Jf;Fk; ey;y vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf cs;sd. mup];Njhl;ly; RkhH 500 tpyq;Ffs;> 120 tifahd kPd;fs;> 60 tifahd G+r;rpfs; ,itgw;wp tpupthf Muha;e;Js;shH. mtHjhd; mWit Kiwia (dissection)  jhuhskhff; ifahz;ltH. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf mtH xU eha;kPd; gw;wp tpupthd juTfs; je;Js;shH. Mdhy;> me;j kPid 19 Mk; Ehw;whz;by;jhd; fz;L gpbj;jhHfs;. mJ kl;Lk; ngUk;ghNyhH mtH vOjpaij fw;gid vd epidj;J ek;g kWj;jhHfs;.

mup];Njhl;lypd; ,aw;ifgw;wpa Ma;T capUs;s tpyq;Fs;> nrb nfhbfs; gw;wp rupahf ,Ue;jhYk; capuw;w nghUl;fsJ gz;Gfs; gpioahd KbTfisj; jUtjha; ,Ue;jd. mup];Njhl;lypd; mZFKiw nghUs;fs; ma;k;GyDf;Fk; vg;gbg; Gyg;gLfpwNjh mg;gb mike;jpUe;jJ. ntl;gk;> FspH vd;wTld; mit vg;gb ,Uf;Fk; mjd; gz;Gfs; vj;jifaJ vd;gJ cldbahfj; njupe;J tpLfpwJ. mjw;F khwhf  ma;k;GyDf;Fg; Gyg;glhJ mwpTf;F kl;Lk; Gyg;gLk; nghUs;fs;gw;wp Muha;tJ rupahf  ,Uf;fhJ vd mtH ek;gpdhH. Mdhy;> gy Ehw;whz;Lfs; fopj;J mZ kw;Wk; fzf;fpay; mZFKiwjhd; rupahd ghij vd;gJ ep&gzk; MfpAs;sJ.

mup];Njhl;ly; jdJ md;whl tho;f;ifapy; fz;l cyFf;Fk; ehq;fs; ,d;W ghHf;Fk; cyFf;Fk; epiwa NtWghL ,Uf;fpwJ. ,d;W gpwf;Fk;  Foe;ijfs; rpWtajpNyNa rhiyapy; XLk; Ng&e;J kw;Wk; tpkhdq;fisg; ghHf;fpwJ. mit mire;jhYk; mit tpyq;Ffs; NghyNth gwitfs; NghyNth capUs;sit my;y vd;gJ  Foe;ijfSf;F tpiutpy; njupe;J tpLfpwJ. Mdhy;> fpK ehd;fhk; Ehw;whz;by; tho;e;j fpNuf;fHfs; ghHj;j capUs;s kdpjHfs;> tpyq;Ffs;> gwitfs; kl;LNk mire;jd.  

mup];Njhl;ly; vy;yhg; nghUl;fSk; ehd;F %yg; nghUl;fshy; Mdit vdr; nrhd;dhH. mitahtd Gtp> ePH> neUg;G> fhw;W vd;gdthFk;. mtH mirTgw;wp (Motion) ,uz;L tpjpfis tFj;jhH.  

    (1) gUikahd nghUs;fs; Ntfkhff; fPNo tpOfpd;wd. mjd; Ntfk; me;jg; nghUspd; epiwif;F ruprkkhf ,Uf;Fk;.  

    (2) xU nghUspd; tPOk; Ntfk; mJ tPOk; Clfj;jpd; jpz;ikiag; (density) nghWj;J jiyfPohf (inverse) ,Uf;Fk;.  

vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf xU nghUs; miuthrp jpz;ikAila Clfj;jpd; topahf tpOk;NghJ ,Uklq;F Ntfj;jpy; mJ tpOk;. NknyOe;jthupahfg; ghHf;Fk; NghJ mup];Njhl;lypd; mirTgw;wpa tpjpfs; kpfTk; rupnad epidf;fj; Njhd;Wk;. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf xU fljhrpj; Jz;Lk;> xU fy;Yk; tpOk;NghJ fljhrpj; Jz;iltplf; fy; Ntfkhf tpOfpwJ. mNj fy; jz;zPUf;F Clhf tpOk;NghJ mjd; Ntfk;  jz;zPupd; jpz;ik fhuzkhfj; jilg;gLfpwJ. mup];Njhl;lypd; tpjpapd;gb #dpaj;jpd; Clhf tpOk; nghUs; thANtfk; kNdhNtfj;jpy; tpoNtz;Lk;.  

Jujpl;ltrkhf mup];Njhl;ly; jdJ tpjpfis ngUkstpy; gupNrhjid nra;J ghHf;ftpy;iy. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf miur; nrq;fl;b xd;W KOr; nrq;fl;bapd; miuthrp Ntfj;NjhL fPNo tpOk; vd;w mtuJ tpjpia mtH gupNrhjid nra;J ghHj;jpUf;fyhk;. Mdhy;> ghHf;ftpy;iy.  

mup];Njhl;ly; neUg;G NkNy Vd; NghfpwJ? fy;iy vwpe;jhy; mJ Vd; fPNo te;J tpOfpwJ vd;gij tpsf;f vz;zpdhH. vy;yhg; nghUs;fSf;Fk; jq;Fk; ,lk; cz;L. neUg;gpd; jq;Fkplk;  NjtNyhfk;> vdNt neUg;G Nky; Nehf;fpr; nry;fpwJ. fy;ypd; jq;Fkplk; Gtp> vdNt fy;iy vwp;e;jhy; mJ Gtpia Nehf;fp tpOfpwJ. xU nghUs; fPNo tpOtij mjd; gUkd; epUzapf;fpwJ> me;jg; nghUs; ngupnjd;why; mJ rpd;dg; nghUistpl Ntfkhf jq;Fkplj;ij milfpwJ.  

,uz;lhapuk; Mz;Lfs; fopj;J fypypNah mup];Njhl;lypd; tpjp rupah vd;gij gupNrhjpj;Jg; ghHf;f tpUk;gpdhH. mjw;fhfr; rha;e;j igrh NfhGuj;jpy; Vwp ,uz;L rpd;dJk; ngupaJkhd fw;fisf; fPNo Nghl;lhH.  mit ,uz;Lk; xNu rPuhd Ntfj;jpy; nrd;W xNu Neuj;jpy; epyj;jpy; tpOe;jij mtjhdpj;jhH. mij itj;J mup];Njhl;lypd; tpjp jtW vd;gij ep&gpj;Jf; fhl;bdhH.


      

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (52)

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

Mjpkdpjid mr;rj;jpy; Mo;j;jpa #upa-re;jpu fpufzq;fs;!

mup];Njhl;ly; ,aw;ifia Kiwg;gb gFj;jhuha;e;J mjd; nray;ghLfSf;F cupa Kbthd fhuz fhupaq;fisf; fz;lwptjpy; Kidg;ghf nray;gl;lhH. msit Kiwahd mtuJ thjq;fs; mwpit xUq;fpizj;J mjpypUe;J KbTfisg; ngw toprikj;jJ.  

mwptpayhsHfs;  cz;ikfisf; fz;lwpa  ,uz;L topfisf; ifahs;fpwhHfs;. xd;W cyf mDgtj;jpy; ,Ue;J rpy ,aw;fhl;rpfis tpsf;Fjy;. kw;wJ cw;W Nehf;fpg; ngwg;gLk; juTfspy; ,Ue;Jk;> fzpg;gpy;  ,Ue;Jk;> tpsf;fj;jpy; ,Ue;Jk; nghJKiwfis tifg;gLj;jp epiyepWj;jYk; Kd; $WjYkhFk;.

KjyhtJ nraywpT rhHe;j juTfis (data) mbg;gilahff; nfhz;L njhFj;Jiug;gJ. cupa nka;ikfisr; Nrfupj;j gpwF mwptpayhsH mtw;iwg; gFj;jhuha;e;J nka;ikfspd; mbg;gilapy; jw;fhypf KbTf;F (hypothesis) tUfpwhHfs;. me;j KbT njhlf;fj;jpy; nfhz;l jw;fhypf KbTf;F (vLNfhs;) Vw;wjhfTk; ,Uf;fyhk;> NtWgl;ljhfTk; ,Uf;fyhk;. mjd; gpd;G> Gjpa  Nrhjidapd; %yk;  mJ Vw;fj;jf;fJjhdh? vd;W Nrhjp;j;J mwpjy; Ntz;Lk;. mjd; gpd;Ng vLNfhspy; ,Ue;J fz;Lgpbg;G KbTf;F tUfpwhHfs;. ,jw;F ,uz;L topfs; cz;L.  

xd;W nraywpT rhHe;j juT mbg;gilapyhd KbT. ,uz;L msit (jUf;f) KbT. nraywpT rhHe;j juT mbg;gilapyhd Kbtpy; ,Ue;J xU gUe;jpd; epoypy; Vuz (logical)  Kiwf;F cl;gl;l nfhs;ifia tFf;fyhk;. xU KOikahd nfhs;if vd;gJ gUg;nghUSf;F (matter)  rup NeH gFjpahf itj;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. mjhtJ> mjpy; xd;W ,jpy; xd;W vd mz;lj;Jf;Fk; (Universe) mjd; jj;Jtj;jpw;Fk; ,izg;G ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.  

jpul;lg;gl;l nka;ikfspy; ,Ue;J nghJf; nfhs;ifiaf; fz;lwptNj njhFg;gha;T KiwahFk;. nghJf; Nfhl;ghLfis xU Fwpg;gpl;l epfo;tpd; Nky; nghUj;jp mjpypUe;J KbTfis tUtpg;gJ tpjpjUk; (deduction)  KiwahFk;. mjw;F khwhf Fwpg;gpl;l epfo;Tfspy; ,Ue;J nghJf; Nfhl;ghLfis tUtpj;J nghJik epiy fz;lwptJ (induction) MFk;. vdNt mwptpay; vd;gJ vLNfhs;  tpjpKiw nfhz;l xd;whFk;.

mup];Njhl;ly; ,d;iwa xU etPd gy;fiyf; fofj;jpd; KO mstpyhd mwptpay; Jiw vg;gb ,aq;FfpwNjh mjw;F <lhd xU njhopy;rhH (Professional)  mwptpay; Jiwia mtH fhyj;jpy; epWtpdhH. mtuJ rpy Ma;Tfs;> Fwpg;ghf ,aw;gpay;gw;wpa Ma;Tfs;> Jujpl;l trkhf mtuJ Vida Ma;Tfspd; juk;Nghy; mikatpy;iy vd;gJ cz;ikjhd;. tPOfpw fw;fistpl thOfpw capupdq;fs; mtuJ ftdj;ij Nkyhf <Hj;jJ. ,Ue;Jk; mtuJ Giyikapd; gug;Gk;> MoKk;> tPr;Rk;> mjpfhuKk; gy ehw;whz;Lfshf NtW ahuhYk; nty;y KbahjthW ,Ue;jJ.  

mup];Njhl;lYf;Fk; gpshl;Nlhtpw;Fk; ,ilapy; cs;s Ntw;Wikgw;wp kPz;Lk; Fwpg;gpl Ntz;Lk;. ,UtUNk ,e;j cyfk; xU rPuhd xOq;fpy; mikf;fg;gl;lJ> jj;Jtthjpapd; gzp vd;dntd;why; mjd; cUtj;ijAk; KOikiaAk; (Universal) fz;lwptJ MFk;. cz;ik mwpntd;gJ ahuhYk; kWf;f  Kbahj mwpthFk;. ,UtUf;Fk; ,ilapy; ,Ue;j Ntw;Wik vd;dntd;why; gpshl;Nlh fzf;fpay; mbg;gilapy; nra;ag;gLk; Ma;tpd; %yk; cz;ikfis mwpayhhk; vd;W thjpj;jhH. khwhf mup];Njhl;ly; ,aw;ifgw;wp Muha;e;J me;j mDgtj;jpd; mbg;gilapy;  ,aw;ifapd; cz;ikfis mwpayhk; vd thjpj;jhH. 

capuw;w rlg;nghUs;fs;  mirtpd; %yk; jq;fsJ ,aw;if ,lj;ijg; gpbj;Jf; nfhs;fpd;wd( NkNy vwpAk; fy; jdJ ,aw;if ,lkhd Gtpapy; jpUk;gp te;J tpOfpwJ) vd;w Nfhl;ghL mz;l ntspapy; tl;lkhfr; Rw;wptUk; Nfhs;fSf;Fg; nghUe;jhJ. vdNt mup];Njhl;ly; ,e;jf; Nfhs;fs; kz;> ePH> fhw;W> jP vd;w %yg; nghUl;fSf;Fg; gjpy; mit vjH (ether) vd;w %yg; nghUshy; MdJ vd ek;gpdhH. fhuzk; mjd; ,aw;if mirT Rw;wp tUtjhFk;. Mdhy;> ,e;j tpsf;fk; gy fhuzq;fSf;fhf Vw;Wf; nfhs;sf; $bajy;y. QhapW #lhf ,y;yhtpl;lhy; Qhapw;wpd; fjpupy; ntg;gk; vg;gb cUthfpwJ? mup];Njhl;ly; Qhapw;wpd; mirtpy; ,Ue;J ntg;gk; gpwg;gjhf epidj;jhH. Mdhy;> mJ rupahd tpsf;fkhf ,Uf;ftpy;iy.  

thdpay; njhlHghf fpNuf;f jj;Jtthjpfs; Mjp njhl;Nl Muha;e;J te;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. Vida Jiwfisg; Nghy; ,jpYk; mtHfNs cyfj;jpd; Kd;Ndhbfs; MtH.  mz;l ntspAk;> mq;F fhl;rp jUk; QhapW cl;gl; tpz;kPd;fSk;> Nfhs;fSk;> mt;tg;NghJ ,lk;ngWk; #upa-re;jpu fpufzq;fSk; Mjp kdpjDf;Fg; Gupahj Gjpuhf ,Ue;jJ. #upa-re;jpu fpufzq;fs; ngupa mr;rj;ijAk; tpistpj;jd. ,tw;wpd; Gjpiu mtpo;f;Fk; Kaw;rp fpNuf;f thdpayhsHfshy; fpK 600 Mk; Mz;lstpy; njhlq;fpaJ. ,tHfs; thdpay; njhlHghd gy fUj;Jf;fis cUthf;fpdhHfs;. mz;lntspapy; tyk; tUk; vz;zpwe;j tpz;kPd;fs; kw;Wk; Nfhs;fSf;F ,ilNa fzf;fpay; mbg;gilapy; njhlHG ,Ug;gijf; fz;lhHfs;. 

fp.K .500 Mk; Mz;lstpy; tho;e;j igj;jhf;fpw]; cyfk; cUz;il vd thjpl;lhH. ,aYyfpd;  (Universe)   fl;Lkhdk;> jd;ik gw;wp mtH tpsf;fk; mspj;jhH. fpK.370 ,y; vf;];Nlhl]; (Euxodus)  vd;gtH Nfhs;fspd; mirit tpsf;Ftjw;F xU nghwpiaf; fz;L gpbj;jhH. ,tH cyfj;ijr; Rw;wpNa QhapW> jpq;fs;> Nfhs;fs;> tpz;kPd;fs; Rw;wp tUfpd;wd vdf; fw;gpj;jhH. ,tuplk; ,Ue;Nj mup];Njhl;ly; Gtpjhd; ,aYyfpd; ikak; vd;w Nfhl;ghl;il cs;thq;fp jdJ jj;Jtj;Jld; NrHj;Jf; nfhz;lhH. nfwfpiyl;]; (Heraclides)  vd;gtH thndhspf; Nfhsq;fs; (Heavenly bodies) Nkw;Fg; gf;fkhf efUtJ Nghd;W Njhd;Wtjw;F Gtp jdJ mr;rpy; fpof;Fg; gf;fkhfr; Roy;tJjhd; fhuzk; vd;w jPHkhdj;ij Kd;itj;jhH. mJkl;Lk; my;yhJ nts;sp (Venus) kw;Wk; Gjd; (Mercury) Nfhs;fs; Gtpia my;y Qhapiwr; Rw;wp tUfpwJ vdg; gbg;gpj;jhH. fpK 200 Mk; Mz;lstpy; mwp];jhR]; (Aristarchus of Samos) vd;gtH Gtp cl;gl vy;yhf; Nfhs;fSk; Qhapiwr; Rw;wp tUfpwnjdr; nrhd;dhH.  

vdNt nfwfpiyl;Rk; mwp];jhRk; mtHfs; fhyj;ijtpl gy fhyk; Kd;Df;F ,Ue;jhHfs;. Mdhy;> mtHfsJ Nfhl;ghLfis ahUk; xg;Gf;nfhs;stpy;iy.fpK 276 Mk; Mz;L gpwe;j ,whnjh];njd]; (Eratosthenes)  Gtpapd; Rw;wsit fzf;fpl;Lr; nrhd;dhH. fpK 140 Mz;lstpy; tho;e;j fpg;ghHR]; (Hipparchus) vd;gtH rpwe;j thdpayhsuhf tpsq;fpdhH. mtH jhd; thd;kz;lyj;jpy; fz;l tpz;kPd;fis mjd; xsptPr;ir (Brightness)  itj;J tifg;gLj;jpdhH. mj;NjhL re;jpudpd; Jhuk; mjd; msit mDkhdpj;jhH. re;jpu-#upa fpufzq;fzq;fs; Vw;gLk; fhyj;ij Kd;$l;bNa fzpj;Jr; nrhd;dhH. xU Mz;bd; ePsj;ij Mwiu tpdhb tpj;jpahrj;jpy; fzf;fpl;Lr; nrhd;dhH!  

fpgp 100 Mk; Mz;lstpy; mup];Njhl;ly; kw;Wk; Kjyhk; fpg;ghHR]; ,UtuJ Nfhl;ghLfisAk; njhykp (Ptolemy) vd;gtH tpupthf;fpdhH. ,tH vfpg;jpy; tho;e;j fpNuf;f thdpayhsH. ,tH my;khn[];l; (Almagest)  vd;w Ehiy vOjp ntspapl;lhH. ,jpy; jdJ fUj;Jf;fisAk; jdf;F Kd;dpUe;j fpNuf;f jj;JthjpfsJ fUj;Jf;fspd; RUf;fj;ijAk; ntspapl;lhH. fpNuf;f thdpay;gw;wp ehk; mwpe;J nfhs;s ,e;j EhNy gad;gLfpwJ.  

fpNuf;f thdpayhsHfNs ,d;iwa thdpaYf;F mj;jpthuk; ,l;lhHfs;. fpg;ghHR]; tpz;kPd;fspd; xsptPr;ir  itj;J tifg;gLj;jpa KiwNa ,d;Wk;> rpW khw;wj;Jld;> gpd;gw;wg;gl;L tUfpwJ. ,tuJ thdpay;gw;wpa fUj;Jf;fs;> Nfhs;fspd; mirTfs; 1>500 Mz;Lfshf Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;L te;jpUf;fpwJ. fpNuf;f thdpayhsHfs; rpyupd; Nfhl;ghL ( theory)  nry;thf;NfhL ,Ue;J te;jpUg;gJ kl;Lky;y ,d;Wk; mit rupnad;W Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;Ls;sJ.

ePz;lfhykhf #upa-re;jpu fpufzq;fs; nfl;l rFdq;fshff; fUjg;gl;ld. mNjNghy; thy;nts;spfs; murHfSf;Fr; rhitAk; ehLfSf;F  mopitAk; Vw;gLj;Jk; vd Kd;ida fhyj;J kf;fs; ek;gpdhHfs;.  

fpNuf;f tuyhw;whrpupaH nfwNjhl;lrpd; $w;Wg;gb md;iwa rpd;d Mrpahtpd; (Minor Asia) Fl;b ty;yuRfshd kPb]; (Medes) kw;Wk; ypbad;]; (Lydians)  ,uz;Lf;Fk; ,ilapy; ele;j ma;e;jhz;Lfhyg; NghH re;jpud; #upaid kiwj;J fpufzk; Vw;gl;lNghJ ,Ujug;G NghHtPuHfSk; rz;ilia epWj;jpf; nfhz;lhHfs;. ,uhZt jsgjpfs; #upa fpufzj;ij nja;t vr;rupf;ifahff; fUjp jq;fSf;Fs; rkhjhdk; nra;J nfhz;lhHfs;. ,J ele;j fhyk; fpK 585 Mk; Mz;L Nk khjk; 28; ehshFk;.  

mnkupf;f khad; (Mayan) thdpayhsHfs; fp.gp. 1100 Mk; Mz;lstpy;  thd kz;lyj;ij Muha;e;J #upa-re;jpu fpufzq;fs; Vw;gLk; ehs;fisf; fzpf;fj; njupe;J nfhz;lhHfs;. Mdhy;> ,d;ndhU ,dj;jtuhd m];nlf;]; (Aztecs) kf;fNshL jhq;fs; mwpe;J itj;jpUe;j juTfis gfpHe;J nfhs;s kWj;J tpl;lhHfs;. ,jdhy; fpufzq;fs; Vw;gLk;NghJ #upaDf;F cjtp Njitg;gLtjhf epidj;J xU $did my;yJ Fs;sid ntl;bg; gypapl;lhHfs;.  

rPd Guhz kuGg;gb> rf;futHj;jp xUtH fpufzq;fisf; fzf;fpl;Lr; nrhy;tjw;F ,uz;L cld;gpwg;Gf;fisj; jdJ muz;kidapy; Ntiyf;F mkHj;jpapUe;jhH. xU Kiw mtHfs; FbAk; Fbj;jdKkhf ,Ue;J tpl;ljhy; #upa fpufzk; Vw;gLtij Kd;$l;bNa nrhy;yj; jtwptpl;lhHfs;. Nfhgk;nfhz;l rf;futHj;jp mtHfisr; rpiwapy; milj;jhH.  

fpufzq;fis nfhQ;rk; fhjy; fz;NzhL ghHj;jtHfSk; ,Ue;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. re;jpuDk; #upaDk; fhjyHfs;. mtHfs; xUtiu xUtH mizj;Jj; jOTk;NghJ fpufzk; Vw;gLtjhf jhfprpad;]; (Tahitians)   vd;w ,dj;jtH ek;gpdhHfs;.  

 


 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (53)

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

#upa fpufzk; KOepyhtd;W Vw;gLkh?

Mapuj;J vz;Zhw;W ma;k;gj;njhuhk; Mz;L (1851) kQ;R Nguurupd; Ml;rp jPtputhjpfsJ jhf;FjYf;F cs;shfp tPOk; jWthapy; ,Ue;jJ. NguurUf;F Mjuthfr; nray;gl;l  gpupj;jhdpah mnkupf;fh Nghd;w Nkw;Fyf ehLfs; mtUf;F etPd MAjq;fisf; nfhLj;J cjtpd. mtuJ ,uhZt jsgjpapd; ngaH rhHy;]; NfhHld; (Charles Gordon) vd;gjhFk;. ,tH rpwe;j NghHj; je;jpupahthH. ,Ue;Jk; mtH Kjd; Kiwahf 1851 ,y; ele;j Nghupy; Njhy;tpiar; re;jpj;jhH. xU KOepyhtd;W (xsp nghUe;jpa KOg; gf;fKk; njupAk; kjpia ctTkjp vdg; GwehDhw;Wg; ghly; (3) ,aw;wpa ,Uk;gplj;jiyahH Fwpg;gpLfpwhH. ghz;bad; fUq;ifnahs;thl; ngUk;ngaH tOjpapd; caHe;j ntz;nfhw;wf; Fil cthehspy;  kjpapdJ tbT NghYk; tbtpid cilaJ vd;fpwhH. "ctTkjp AUtpd; xq;fy; ntz;Fil" vd;gJ ghly; tup. tpupitg; GwehDhw;Wg; ghliyg; gbj;J mwpe;J nfhs;f) epyhit vjpupfspd; gpujhd Kfhikj; jhf;fj; jpl;lkplg;gl;lJ.  

Mdhy;> vjpHghuhj tpjj;jpy; jhf;Fjy; Muk;gpg;gjw;Fr; rw;W Kd;dH re;jpu fpufzk; Vw;gl;lJ. ,jidf; fz;Zw;w rPdg; giltPuHfs; ,J ngupa mgrFdk; vd;W epidj;jhHfs;. me;j %lek;gpf;if mtHfsJ NghupLk; jd;ikiaAk;; kd cWjpiaAk; ghjpj;jJ. ,jdhy; jhf;Fjy; Njhy;tpapy; Kbe;jJ. Vuhskhd gilapdH NghHf;fsj;jpy; ,we;J gl;lhHfs;.          

gy Mz;Lfs; fopj;J ,Nj ,uhZt jsgjp (rhHy;]; NfhHld;) #upa fpufzk; Vw;gl;l ehsd;W NghHf;fsj;jpy; tpOg;Gz;gl;L ,we;jhH. mg;NghJ (1855 - 56) Rlhd; ehl;bd; jiyefuhd fhl;Njhk;ik (Khartoum) vjpupgil jhf;fpaJ. mg;NghJ #upa fpufzk; Vw;gl;lJ. mjidg; ghHj;j Rlhdpa NghHtPuHfs; mykye;J NghdhHfs;. cjtpf;fhf Nkyjpf gpupl;b\; gil te;J NrUKd; vjpupgil mtHfisj; Njhw;fbj;jJ.  

,JNghd;w ,d;ndhU tuyhw;Wr; rk;gtk; 1504 Mk; Mz;L fpwp];NjhgH nfhyk;grpd; Nkw;nfhz;l ehd;fhtJ mnkupf;ff; fly; gazj;jpd; NghJ ,lk; ngw;wJ. mtuJ fg;gy;fs; flw;GOf;fshy; mupf;fg;gl;Lg; gazk; nry;yKbahj epiyapy; ,Ue;jd. jpUj;j Ntiyf;fhf [Nka;f;fh flw;fiuia mile;jd. Nghjhjw;Ff; fg;gypy; ,Ue;j czTg; nghUs;fs; fsT Ngha;tpl;lJ. khYkpfspy; rup ghjpg;NgH nfhyk;gRf;F vjpuhff; fyfk; nra;a Muk;gpj;J tpl;lhHfs;. flw;fiuapy; fple;j fg;gy;fs; G+HtPf FbfsJ jhf;FjYf;F ,yf;fhFk; mghaKk; ,Ue;jJ. vy;yhtw;wpw;Fk; Nkyhf me;j kf;fs; nfhyk;gRf;Fk; Vida khYkpfSf;Fk; czT nfhLf;f kWj;Jtpl;lhHfs;. ,e;j ,f;fl;lhd #o;epiyapy; nfhyk;gRf;F xU ey;y Nahrid Njhd;wpaJ.  

Nkw;Fyf ma;Nuhg;gpa thdpayhsHfs; 1504 Mk; Mz;L nrg;njk;gH khjk; 14-15 Mk; ehs; es;sputpy; re;jpu fpufzk; ,lk;ngWk; vd;W fzpj;Jr; nrhy;ypapUe;jhHfs;. ,ijj; jdf;Fr; rhjfkhfg; gad;gLj;j epidj;j nfhyk;g]; me;jg; G+HtPf kf;fSf;F xU mwptpj;jiy tpLj;jhH. jdf;Fk; jdJ rfhf;fSf;Fk;  czTju kWj;jjhy; mtHfs; kPJ flTs; kpFe;j Nfhgj;NjhL ,Ug;gjhfTk; mjdhy; md;wpuT re;jpuid kiwar; nra;a cs;sshH vd;Wk; nfhyk;g]; njuptpj;jhH. nrhy;ypitj;jJ Nghy re;jpu fpufzk; es;spuT Vw;gl;lJ. gae;JNghd G+HtPf Fbkf;fs; nfhyk;gRf;F czT nfhLf;fr; rk;kjpj;jhHfs;!  

tptpypa Ntjj;jpy; kj;jpA+Tk; (tp.Nt. 27>45) kw;Wk; Yhf;fh]; (23>44) NaRehjH rpYitapy; miwag;gl;l NghJ thdk; ,Uz;ljhff; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;shHfs;. Ma;thsHfs; mJ #upa fpufzk; my;yJ kz;khup my;yJ nja;tPf epfo;rp fhuzkhf Vw;gl;bUf;fyhk; vd tpsf;fk; nfhLj;Js;shHfs;. Mdhy;> cz;ikapy; thdk; ,Uz;ljw;F #upa fpufzk; fhuzkhf ,Ue;jpUf;Fkh?  

,e;jf; Nfs;tpf;F mwptpay; mbg;gilapyhd tpil ",y;iy"  vd;gjhFk;. tptpypa Ntjj;jpd;gb NaRehjH rpYitapy; miwgl;lJ ngupants;sp md;W MFk;. jw;fhy Ma;tpd;gb vfpg;jpauplk; ,Ue;J A+jHfs;  jg;gpr;nrd;wij nfhz;lhLk; epidTehs; jpUtpoh (Passover/Easter) tre;jfhyj;jpy; #upad; epyeLf;Nfhl;ilf; (Equator)   fle;J nry;Yk; ehis (March 21) mLj;J tUk; KOepyhtpd; (gTHzkp)  NghJ tUfpwJ. khHr;rp 21 Mk; ehsd;W ,uTk; gfYk; xNu mstpy; (12 kzpj;jpahyk; ) ,Uf;Fk;. ,jid Mq;fpyj;jpy; Equinox vd thdpayhsHfs; miog;ghHfs;. Mdhy;> #upa fpufzk; xUNghJk; KOepyh md;W Vw;gLtjpy;iy. mjw;fhd rhj;jpak; ,y;iy.   

re;jpu fpufzk; vd;why; vd;d? re;jpu fpufzk;  vjdhy; Vw;gLfpwJ? re;jpu fpufzk; vt;ntg;NghJ ,lk; ngWfpwJ?   

re;jpudpd; Nkw;gug;G fw;ghiwfspdhy; MdJ. mjd;  tpl;lk; 2>160 iky;fs; (3>476 fpkP) MFk;.  mjw;Fr; Ranthsp fpilahJ. Qhapwpd; xspf;fjpHfs; mjd; Nky;gug;gpy; gl;Lj; njwpg;gjhNyNa xsp cz;lhfpwJ. re;jpud; Gtpia 27.5 ehs;fSf;F xUKiw Rw;wp tUfpwJ. mg;gbr; Rw;wp tUk;NghJ re;jpuDf;Fk; QhapWf;Fk;; ,ilapyhd ,Ug;gpd;; epiy khWjy; milfpwJ. ,jd; fhuzkhfNt re;jpud; tsHtJ NghyTk; Nja;tJ NghyTk; Njhw;wk; mspf;fpwJ. NkYk; re;jpud; jdJ mr;rpy; Gtp jd;idj;jhNd Rw;Wk; Ntfj;jpy; Rw;Wtjhy; ehq;fs; vg;NghJk; re;jpudpd; xU gf;fj;ijNa ghHj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;fpNwhk;.               

                                                      Gtpapy; ,Ue;J ghHf;Fk; epyhtpd; Njhw;wk;

cz;ikapy; mkhthirapd; NghJ  re;jpuidg; ghHf;f KbahJ. fhuzk; mg;NghJ Qhapw;wpd; xsp re;jpudpd; kWgf;fj;jpy; gLfpwJ. %d;whk; ehs;jhd; gpiw tbtpy; re;jpud; thdj;jpy; njuptijg; ghHf;fyhk;.   

gTHzkp ,uitf; fhjNyhL njhlHG gLj;jpg; NgRtJ vy;yh ehfupfq;fSf;Fk; nghJthd xU mk;rk;. gTHzkp ,utd;W QhapW Nkw;Fj; jpirapy; kiwe;jTld; re;jpud; cjakhfpwJ. ,uT KOJk; KO epyhitg; ghHf;fyhk;. fhiyapy; QhapW cjakhFk; NghJ re;jpud; kiwe;JtpLfpwJ. ,J KOepyhTf;F kl;Lk; cs;s rpwg;G. epyhtpd;  Vida fiyfspd; NghJ (phases) ,jidg; ghHf;f KbahJ. fhuzk; Mfhaj;jpy; KOepyh md;Wjhd; re;jpud; Qhapw;Wf;F NeH vjpNu epw;fpwJ.  

re;jpu fpufzk; xU NeHf;Nfhl;by; Gtp re;jpuDf;Fk; Qhapw;Wf;Fk; ,ilapy; tUk;NghJ Vw;gLfpwJ. mJ KOepyh md;Wjhd; ,lk;ngw KbAk;. mJTk; Gtpapd; epoiy my;yJ mjd; gFjpiaf; fle;J NghFk; NghJjhd; re;jpu fpufzk; Vw;gl KbAk;. Gtpapd; epoy; Kw;whfr; re;jpuid kiwf;Fk; nghOJ KOf; fpufzKk;> mg;gbapy;yhjNghJ Fiwf; fpufzKk; Vw;gLfpwJ. 

re;jpud; Gtpiar; Rw;wp 29.5 ehs;fSf;F xUKiw tyk; tUfpwJ vd;why; xt;nthU khjKk; re;jpu fpufzk; Vw;gl Ntz;Lk; my;yth? mg;gb Vw;gLtjpy;iy. fhuzk; Gtp Qhapw;iwr; Rw;wptUk; ghijf;F 5 ghif Nky; my;yJ fPohfr; re;jpudpd; Rw;Wg; ghij ,Uf;fpwJ. ,jdhy; re;jpud; Gtpapd; epoYf;F Nky; my;yJ fPohfr; nrd;W tpLtjhy; re;jpu fpufzk; Vw;gLtjpy;iy. Mdhy;> Mz;by; ,uz;L njhlf;fk; ehd;FKiw re;jpud; Gtpapd; epoiyf; fle;J NghfpwJ. mg;NghJ KO my;yJ Fiwf; fpufzk; Vw;gLfpwJ. KOf; fpufzk; 35 tpOf;fhL ,lk;ngWfpwJ. ghjpf; fpufzk; 30 tpOf;fhL ,lk;ngWfpwJ. kpFjp 35 tpOf;fhLf; fpufzk; fz;Zf;Fg; Gyg;gLtjpy;iy. re;jpu fpufzk; Vw;gLk;NghJ Gtpapd; ,uTg; gFjpapy; ,Ug;gtHfs; mjidg; ghHf;f KbAk;.  

KOf; fpufzj;jpd;NghJ Qhapwpd; xspiag; Gtp jLf;fpwJ. mg;NghJ tpz;ntsp tPuH xUtH re;jpudpy; ,Ue;jhy; mtH Gtp #upaid kiwg;gjhy; #upa fpufzk; ,lk;ngWtijg; ghHf;fyhk;! mjhtJ Gtpapy; ,Ug;gtHfSf;F re;jpu fpufzKk;> re;jpudpy; ,Ug;gtHfSf;F #upa fpufzKk; ,lk;ngWk;.

#upa fpufzk; GJepyhtpd; NghJ re;jpud; Gtpf;Fk; #upaDf;Fk; ,ilapy; xU NeHf;Nfhl;by; tUk;NghJ Vw;gLfpwJ. Mz;by; Fiwe;jJ ,UKiw #upa fpufzk; Vw;gLfpwJ.  ruhrup 18 khjq;fSf;F xUKiw Gtpapd; VjhtJ xU gFjpapy; ,Ue;J  KOr; #upa fpufzj;ijg; ghHf;fyhk;. Mdhy;> Gtpapd; xU Fwpg;gpl;l ,lj;jpy; ,Ue;J KOr; #upa fpufzj;ijg; gy Ehw;whz;LfSf;F xUKiwjhd; ghHf;f KbAk;.  

fpNuf;f thdpayhsH njhykpf;F Gtp cUz;il tbtkhdJ vd;gJ njupe;jpUe;jJ. Mdhy;> #upad; jd;idj;jhNd Rw;WfpwJ vd;gJ njupe;jpUf;ftpy;iy. #upad; cjpg;gij fpof;Fg; gf;fk; ,Ug;gtHfs; Nkw;fpy; ,Ug;gtHfSf;F Kd;djhff; fhz;fpwhHfs; vd;gJk; mJ vt;tsT Kd;dH vd;gJ fpof;Ff;Fk; Nkw;Ff;Fk; ,ilapy; cs;s Jhuj;ijg; nghWj;jpUf;fpwJ vd;gJk; mtUf;Fj; njupe;jpUe;jJ.

vy;NyhUk; re;jpu fpufzj;ij xNu Neuj;jpy; fhzyhk; vd;whYk; fpof;fpy; ,Ug;gtHfs; Nkw;fpy; ,Ug;gtHfistplg; gpe;jpNa fhz;ghHfs;. vLj;Jf; fhl;lhf cs;SH Neuk; es;spuT gd;dpuz;L kzp vd;why; fpof;fpy; ,Ug;gtHfs; fhiy 1 kzpf;Fj;jhd; re;jpu fpufzj;ijg; ghHg;ghHfs;. NkYk; tlf;F Nehf;fpr; nrd;why; JUt el;rj;jpuk; thdj;jpy; cjpg;gijg; ghHf;fyhk;. ,J Gtp tlf;Fg; gf;fKk; tise;J fhzg;gLfpwJ vd;gjw;Fr; rhd;W vd;gijj; njhykp fz;L gpbj;jhH. ,Wjpahf mikjpahd flypy; xU kiyj; jPit Nehf;fpg; gazk; nra;jhy;> me;jj; jPT flypy; ,Ue;J fpsk;GtJ Nghyf; fz;Zf;Fj; njupAk; vd;gij mtH ftdpj;jhH.  Gtp tl;lkhf ,Ug;gjhNyNa jPT flypy; ,Ue;J fpsk;GtJ Nghd;w Njhw;wj;ijj; jUfpwJ vdr; nrhd;dhH.  

flypy; Njhzpfs; fiuia Nehf;fp tUk;NghJ Kjypy; mjdJ gha;jhd; (kuk;) njupAk;. kpf mz;ikapy; Njhzp tUk;NghJjhd; Njhzpapd; mzpaKk; kw;wg; ghfq;fSk; njupAk;. ,Nj Nghy; flypy; Njhzp fiuia tpl;Lg; gazk; nra;Ak;NghJ Kjypy; Njhzpapd; mbg;ghfk; kiwAk;. mg;Gwk; gha; nfhQ;rk; nfhQ;rkhf mbthdj;jpy; kiwAk;. ,JTk; Gtp cUz;il tbthdJ vd;gjw;Fupa rhd;whFk;. Mdhy;> kdpjDf;F ,e;j mbg;gil cz;ikiaf; fz;lwpa Mapuf;fzf;fhd Mz;Lfs; gpbj;jd. 

nkj;jr; rup. gz;ila jkpoHfsJ thdpay; mwpT vt;thW ,Ue;jJ? vj;jd;ikaJ? fpNuf;f thdpayhsHfs; Nghy; mtHfSk; thdpay; Muha;r;rpapy; neLq;fhyk; <Lgl;bUe;jhHfsh? mjw;fhd mfr;rhd;W Gwr;rhd;W VjhtJ cz;lh?

,e;jf; Nfs;tpfSf;F tpil nrhy;tJ nfhQ;rk; fbdk;. vkJ %jhijauJ gz;ghL> ehfupfk;> gof;f tof;fq;fs;> ek;gpf;iffs;> tpOkpaq;fs;> mwptpay; Nghd;wtw;iwg; gw;wp ehk; ,d;W njupe;J nfhs;tnjy;yhk; ,yf;fz Ehyhd njhy;fhg;gpak;> rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fshd vl;Lj;njhif> gj;Jg; ghl;L> gjpndz; fPo;f;fzf;F Ehy;fs; kw;Wk; rq;fk; kUtpa Ehy;fshd ma;k;ngUq;fhg;gpaq;fSk;> IQ;rpW fhg;gpaq;fSNkahk;.  thdpay; gw;wpj; jdp Ehy; my;yJ Ehy;fis ahUk; ,aw;wpajhfj; njupatpy;iy. xUNtis ,aw;wpapUe;jhy; mJ gpw;fhyj;jpy; Vida gy Ehy;fs; fhynts;sj;jpy; rpf;Fz;L mope;jJNghy mJTk; mope;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;.  

fpilf;Fk; mfr; rhd;Wfis itj;Jg; ghHf;Fk;NghJ thdpay; mwptpayhsHfs; rq;f fhyj;jpy; ,Ue;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. GwehDhw;Wg; ghlnyhd;W (30) me;jr; nra;jpiaj; njuptpf;fpwJ. 

"nrQ;Qhapw;wpd; tPjpAk; mQ;Qhapw;wpd; ,af;fKk;> mt;tpafj;jhw; #og;gl;l ghH tl;lKk;> fhw;wpaq;Fk; jpf;Fk;> ve;j MjhuKk; ,d;wpj; jhNd epw;fpd;w MfhaKk; vd;W nrhy;yg;gLfpw ,tw;iw Neupy; nrd;W mse;jwpe;jtHfs; Nghy; ehSk; ,j;Jizasit cilanjd;W nrhy;Yk; fy;tpiaAilNahUKsH" vd ciwA+H KJfz;zd; rhj;jdhH ,g;ghlypy; njuptpf;fpwhH.   


fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (54)

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

gz;ila jkpoupd; thdpay; mwpT

ehd; Kd;dH Fwpg;gpl;l GwehDhw;Wg; ghly; gpd; tUkhW. 

nrQ;Qh apw;Wr; nryTkQ; Qhapw;Wg;
gupg;Gk; gupg;Gr; #o;e;j kz; byKk;
tspjpupjU jpirAk;
twpJ epiy,a fhaKk; vd;wpit
nrd;wseJ mwpe;NjhH Nghy; vd;Wk;
,idj;J vd; NghUk; csNu! midj;Jk;
mwpTmwp thfhr; nrwptpid ahfpf;
fspWfTs; mLj;j vwpfy; Nghy
xspj;j Jg;gpid Mjypd; ntspg;gl
ahq;fdk; ghLtH GytH $k;nghL
kPg;gha; fisahJ ................ 
                (GwehDhW 30)

Nrhod; eyq;fps;sp vd;w kd;dd;ghw; fhzg;gLk;  mlf;fkhfpa gz;G fz;L tpae;j KJfz;zd; rhj;jdhH "Nte;Nj! nrQ;Qhapw;wpd; nryTk;> mjd; gupg;Gk;. kz;byKk;> jpf;Fk;>  MfhaKk; vd ,tw;wpd; msit Neupw; nrd;W fz;ltiug; Nghyj; jk; mwpthy; Muha;e;J ciug;NghUk; csH! mtHfshYk; Muha;e;jwpaf; $lhj mj;Jiz mlf;fKilatdha;f; fy;iyf;fTspy; mlf;fpAs;s ahidNghy typ KOJk; Njhd;whjthW mlf;fpf; nfhz;L tpsq;Ffpwha;. cdJ typikia ahq;fdk; ghLtH GytH"  vd;W ghuhl;baijNa Nkw;gb ghly; njuptpf;fpwJ. gz;ila ehspy; thd;EhNyhH ,Ue;jjw;F ,e;jg; ghly; rhd;W gfUfpd;wJ.   

gz;ila jkpoHfs; 27 ehs; kPd;fisAk; (el;rj;jpuq;fs;)> xd;gJ Nfhs; kPd;fisAk; (fpufq;fs;) Fwpg;gpl;Lr; nrhy;ypapUf;fpwhHfs;. thdj;jpy; Vw;gLk; Nfhs; khWghLfis mwpe;jpUe;jdH. Mdhy;> GtpAk; xU Nfhs; vd;gij mtHfs; mwpe;jpUf;ftpy;iy. 

fhHj;jpif tpohf; nfhz;lhLk; tof;fk; ,Ue;jpUf;fpwJ. re;jpuDk; fhHj;jpif el;rj;jpuKk; neUq;fp ,Uf;Fk; ehisf; fhHj;jpif ehs; vd;W nfhz;lhbdH. 

mk;k thop Njhop ! ifk;kpff;
 .....................................................................
FWKay; kWepwk; fpsu kjpepiwe;J
mWkPd; NrUk; mfy; ,Us; eLehs;
kWF tpsf;F cWj;J> khiy Jhf;fpg;
gotpwy; %JhHg; gyUld; Jtd;wpa
tpoT .............................................................
... 
        (mfehDhW 141)

"Njhop tho;thahf! ehd; $wtijf; Nfl;ghahf! Mfhaj;jpd; fz;Nz rpW Kayhfpa kW khHgpNy tpsq;f> KO kjpahfpa fhHj;jpif kPd; re;jpuDld; NrHe;jpUf;Fk; ehs; fhHj;jpif ehshFk;. ,e;ehspd; es;sputpy; tPjpapNy tpsf;Nfw;wp itj;J> kid thapy; NjhWk; kyHkhiyfs; njhq;f tpl;L myq;fupj;J kpfg; gioikahfpa KjpHe;j CupYs;s gyUk; xUNruf; $b tpohf; nfhz;lhLtHfs;...." 

nts;sp vd;Dk; Nfhisf; nfhz;L kio nga;Ak;> nga;ahJ vd;w epiyiag; gz;ilj; jkpoH mwpe;jpUe;jdH. nts;sp tlf;Fj; jpirapy; epd;why; kio nga;Ak; vd;Wk;> njw;Fj; jpir Nehf;fpg; Nghfpd; kio nga;ahJ vd;gJk; ey;y Nfhs;fSld; NrUk; NghJ kio nga;Ak; vd;gJ  mtHfsJ ek;gpf;if.  

neKtap ndspW kpd; Dg;gue; jhq;fg;
..............................................................................
twpJ tlf;F ,iwQ;rpa rPHrhy; nts;sp
gak;nfO nghONjhL Mepak; epw;g
fypOq; fUtpnahL ifAiw tzq;fp
 ........................................................................         
(gjpw;Wg;gj;J 24)

gjpw;Wg;gj;J 69 Mk; ghlYk; ,Nj juT jug;gl;Ls;sJ. 

epyk;gak; nghopar; RlHrpde; jzpag;
gaq;nfO nts;sp ahepa epw;g
tpRk;Gnka; afyg; ngay;GuT vjpu
 .........................................................................  
  (gjpw;Wg;gj;J 69) 

epyk; gaidg; nghope;jhw;Nghy kpf tpisa> fhyj;Nj jtwhky; kio nga;jyhy; #upad; ntg;ge; jzpe;jhw;Nghd;W> cyfj;jpw;Fg; gad;nghUe;jpa nts;sp vd;Dk; Nfhs; kiof;Ff; fhuzkhf kw;w ehs; Nfhs;fSf;Fr; nry;fpd;w ey;y ehs;fspy; epw;f........ 

GwehDhw;Wg; ghly; 229 ,y; Nkyjpf thdpay; Fwpg;Gf;fs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. ,e;jg; ghliyg; ghbatd; ahidfl; Nra; khe;juQ; NruypUk;nghiw vd;w kd;dd; Mthd;.   

MLk; ,ay; moy;Fl;lj;J
MH ,Us; miu ,utpd;
Klg; gidaj;J NtH Kjyhf;
filf; Fsj;Jf; fak;fhaf;
gq;Fdp caH mOtj;Jj;
jiy ehz; kPd; epiyjpupa
epiy ehz;kPd; mjd; vjpH VHjuj;
njhy; ehz; kPd; Jiw gbag;
ghrpr; nry;yhJ Crpj; Jd;dhJ
msHf;fj; jpiz tpsf;fhff;
fidvup gug;g fhy; vjpHg;G nghq;fp
xU kPd; tpOe;jd;why; tpRk;gpdhNd
mJfz;L ahKk; gpwUk;.......
............................
    (GwehDhW 229)                             kpUfrPuplk; cLkz;lyk;

Nkl ,uhrp nghUe;jpa fhHj;jpif ehspy; Kjw;fhypd;fz;>

epiwe;j ,UspidAila ghjpaputpd;fz;>

Klg;gid NghYk; tbitAila mDl ehspy; mbapd; nts;sp Kjyhf>

fakhfpa Fs tbT NghYk; tbTila GdHG+rj;Jf; filapy; nts;sp vy;iyahf tpsq;f>

gq;Fdp khjj;jpdJ Kjw;gjpide;jpd; fz;>

cr;rkhfpa cj;juk; mt;Tr;rpapdpd;Wk; rha>

mjw;F vl;lhk; kPdhfpa %yk; mjw;F vjpNu vohepw;f>

me;j cj;juj;Jf;F Kd; nry;yg;gl;l vl;lhk; kPdhfpa kpUfrPuplkhfpa
ehz; kPd; Jiwaplj;Nj jho>

fPo;j;jpirapy; nry;yhJ tljpirapw; NghfhJ>

flyhw; #og;gl;l Gtpf;F tpsf;fhf>

fis vupgug;g fhw;whw; gpjpHe;J fpsHe;J>

xU el;rj;jpuk; tpOe;jJ thdj;jpy; ,Ue;J>

mjidg; ghHj;J ahKk; gpwUk;............................... 

moy; NrH Fl;lk; vd;gJ fhHj;jpif ehs;. Ml;bid tlEhNyhH Nkluhrp vd;gH. ML Kjy; kPd; <whfTs;s ,uhrp gd;dpuz;bw;Fk; mRtpdp Kjy; ,Nutjp <whfTs;s kPd; ,Ugj;NjopidAk; tFj;jspf;fpd;> Kjy; ,uz;Nlfhy; ehs; Mlhfpa Nklj;Jf;Fupathjypd;> fhHj;jpifapd; Kjw;fhiy "Mbay; mow; Fl;lk;" vd;whH.  

guzp vd;gJ %d;W el;rj;jpuq;fisf; nfhz;lJ. ,k; %d;Wk; mLg;Gg; Nghd;wpUg;gjhy; guzp (mLg;G) vdg; ngaH ngw;wJ.  

mRtpdp vd;gJ Fjpiuapd; jiyNghy cs;s MW el;rj;jpuq;fs;. mRtk; - Fjpiu.  

kfk; vd;Dk; cLf;fs; $l;lj;jpd; tbtikg;G Fsj;jpd; fiu Nghd;W ,Ue;jnjdg; nghUe;j ciuj;Js;sdH. 

mDlk; vd;gJ MW kPd;fspd; njhFjp. mJ tise;j gidkuk;Nghy; mikjypd; "Klg; gidak;" vdg;gl;lJ.  

NtHKjyh - mbapd; nts;sp m/jhtJ Kjy; ehz;kPd;. cauOtk; - Kjw; gjpide;J ehs;. jiy ehz;kPd; - cj;juehs;. epiy ehz;kPd; -  vl;lhk; kPd;. 

"cr;rp kPDf;F Kd; vl;lhtJ kPd; mj;jkpj;jYk; gpd; vl;lhtJ kPd; cjpj;jYk; ,ay;G. "cr;rp kPDf;F vl;lhk; kPd; cja kPd;" vd;g. njhd;dhz; kPd; - vl;lhk; kPdhfpa kpUfrPuplk;.

ghrp - fpof;Fj; jpir. Crp - tlf;Fj; jpir.

gq;Fdpj; jpq;fspy; el;rj;jpuk; tPopd; ,uhr gPil vd;gH.

faf;Fsk; GdHG+rk;. ,J Fsk; NghYk; tbTilaJ. ,jdhy; GdHG+rj;ij fak;> Fsk;> Vup vdTk;  ngaupl;L miof;fg;gl;lJ.  

ey;yehs; nfl;lehs; ghHf;Fk; tof;fk; gz;ilj; jkpoHfsplk; ,Ue;jJ. thdj;J el;rj;jpuq;fisAk;> Nfhs;fisAk; nfhz;Nl ey;y ehs; nfl;l ehs;fisf; fz;lwpe;jdH. ey;y ehspy; jpUkzk; nra;Ak; tof;fKk; ,Ue;jJ.    


fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (55)

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

gUtq;fs; vjdhy; Vw;gLfpd;wJ?

ikg;Gwg; GOf;fp nda;f;fdp ntz;NrhW
tiuah tz;iknahL GiuNahHg; Ngzpg
Gs;Sg; GzHe; jpdpa thfj; njs;nshsp
mq;fz; ,UtpRk;G tpsq;fj; jpq;fs;
rflk; kz;ba JfBH $l;lj;Jf;;
fbefH Gide;J flTs; Ngzpg;
gLkz KonthL g&cg;giz apkpo
tJit kz;zpa kfspH tpJg;Gw;Wg;

......................................................................    (mfehDhW 86)

"nrk;kwpahl;bd; gpd; re;jpid Mf;fpa fwpnahL nea;ahsha ntspa Nrhw;wpid ,t;tstpdnjd;W $wg;glhj tz;ikAlNd Md;Nwhiu tpUk;gpaspj;J tz;Lfs; te;J $b ,dpa ,irnaOg;g mofpa ,lkfd;w Mfhak; tpsf;fkilaj; jpq;fs; cNuhfpzpapw; NrHjyhy; njspe;j xspAila Fw;we;jPUq; $LjYila ehspNy fhtiyAila khspifia myq;fupj;J topgL flTis tzq;fp khHr;ridaike;j FlKoTk;> kj;jsKk; gUj;j gythr;rpaKk; xypg;g tJit epkpj;jkhf myq;fupf;fg; ngw;w jhjHfs; tpUg;Gw;Wg; ....................................................." 

khjk; vd;gJ tlnkhopr; nrhy;. jpq;fs; vd;gNj jdpj;jkpo;r; nrhy;.  ,/J re;jpuid itj;Nj khjj;ijj; jkpoHfs; fzf;fpl;lij vLj;Jf; fhl;LfpwJ. rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fspy; vy;yhj; jpq;fspd; ngaHfSk; ,lk;ngwtpy;iy.  GwehDhw;Wg; ghly; 229,y; gq;Fdpj; jpq;fs; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;sij Kd;dH ghHj;Njhk;. ijj; jpq;fs;> khrpj; jpq;fs; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sd. fhHj;jpifj; jpq;fs; fstop ehw;gJ(17) fhH ehw;gJ (26) ghly;fspy; Fwpg;gplg; gl;Ls;sJ.  

njhy;fhg;gpaH ,futPw;Wg; GzHr;rp> IfhutPw;Wg; GzHr;rp Mfpatw;wpy; kl;LNk "jpq;fSk; ehSk; Ke;J fpse;jd;d" vdf; Fwpg;gpLfpwhH. ,g;NghJs;s jpq;fs;fspd; ngaHfSk; ,fuk;> my;yJ ma;fhuk; vd;w vOj;jpy; Kbtjhy; mtH fhye;njhl;Nl ,g;NghJs;s jpq;fs; ngaHfs; tof;fpy; ,Ue;J te;jpUf;fpd;wd vdj; njupfpwJ. Mdhy;> ,it tlnkhop khjq;fsJ ngaHfNshL xj;jjhf ,Ug;gJk; ftdpf;fj;jf;fJ. njhy;fhg;gpaH nghUsjpfhuk; mfj;jpiz ,aypy; ngUk;nghOij tFj;Jf; $wpatH ehs;fspd; ngaHfisNah jpq;fspd; ngaHfisNah Fwpg;gpltpy;iy.  

Qhapw;iwf; nfhz;L Mz;ilf; fzf;fpLk; Kiw fpgp 7 Mk; Ehw;whz;by; tho;e;j tuhfkpfpuuhy; nfhz;L tug;gl;lJ.  

njhy;fhg;gpag; nghUsjpfhuk; nghOij ngUk;nghOJ rpWnghOJ vdg; gFj;;Jg; NgRfpwJ. ngUk;nghOJ MW gUtq;fisf; nfhz;lJ. fhH> $jpH> Kd;gdp> gpd;gdp> ,sNtdpy;> KJNtdpy; vd;gitNa me;j MW gUtq;fshFk;. rpWnghOJ itfiw> tpbay;> ez;gfy;> Vw;ghL> khiy> es;spuT vd;gd. xU ehs; mWgJ ehopifiaf; nfhz;lJ. xU ehopif 24 kzpj;Jspfs; nfhz;ljhFk;.  

KOepyh ehspy; Gtpapd; xUGwk; QhapWk;> 180 ghifapy; kWGwk; jpq;fSk; vjpnujpNu epw;Fk; vd;gJ gz;ila jkpoHfSf;Fj; njupe;jpUe;jJ. jpq;fs; Njhd;Wk;NghJ QhapW kiwAk; vd;gjid>  

ctTj;jiy te;j ngUehs; mikaj;J
,URlH jk;Ks; Nehf;fp nahURlH
Gd;fz; khiy kiykiwe; jhq;F
 
    (Gwk; 65) 

"KOkjp te;J $ba ngupa ehshhfpa nghOjpd; fz; QhapWk; jpq;fSkhfpa ,U RlUk; jk;Ks; vjpHepd;W ghHj;J> mtw;Ws; xU RlH Gy;ypa khiyg; nghOjpd;fz; kiyf;Fs; kiwe;jhw;Nghy" vd;gJ ,jd; nghUshFk;. vl;lhk; ehs; gpiwepyit "vz;zhs; jpq;fs;" vd;Wk;> KOkjpia "ctTkjp" vd;Wk; miof;fg;gl;ld.   

jhNk xsptpLk; kPd;fs; ehz;kPd;fs; vd;Wk;> Qhapw;wplkpUe;J gpwf;Fk; xspapdhy; xspUk; Nfhs;fs; Nfhs; kPd;fs; vdTk; miof;fg;gl;lJ.  Nfhs;; kPd;fspd; epwk; jkpoHf;F njupe;J ,Ue;jd. nre;epwKila Nfhis nrt;tha; vd;Wk;> ntz;zpwKila Nfhis nts;sp vd;Wk;> fupa epwKila Nfhis rdp vd;Wk; (rdp fupaepwk; vd;gJ gpioahd fzpg;G) ngaupl;ldH.  

ciuahrpupaH er;rpdhHf;fpdpaH md;iwa Mz;L Mtzpapy; njhlq;fp Mbapy; Kbe;jjhff; Fwpg;gpLfpwhH. ,g;gbf; fzf;fpLk; Kiw fpK 500 Mz;Lf;F Kd; ,Ue;jjhff; $wg;gLfpwJ. rpj;jpiuia Kjy; jpq;fshff; nfhz;L fzf;fpLk; Kiw ,uz;lhapuk; Mz;Lfhykhf ,Ue;J tUtjhfr; nrhy;fpwhHfs;. 

,g;NghJs;s 60 Mz;Lfs; tpahod; ,uhrp tl;lj;ij Ma;e;J Kiw Rw;wp tUjyhfpa fhyj;ijf; Fwpg;gpLtjhfr; nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ. mJ jkpoHf;Nf cupj;jhdJ vd;Wk;> MupaUf;Fk; mjw;Fk; njhlHgpy;iy vd;Wk; $wg;gLfpwJ. ,J cz;ikahdhy; gpugt njhlq;fp ml;ra tiu cs;s Mz;Lfspd; ngaHfs; ahTk; tlnkhopapy; ,Ug;gJ Vd; vd;w Nfs;tp vOfpwJ. kiwkiy (iu) f;fhL Ntjhuzpak; vd;Wk;> kapyhLJiw khA+uk; vd;Wk; ngaH khw;wk; nra;ag;gl;lJNghy jkpo; Mz;Lfspd; ngaHfSk; nkhopkhw;wk; nra;ag;gl;ldth?

fpoikapd; ngaHfs; jpUehTf;furH (fpK 7 Mk; Ehw;whz;L) ghba NfhsW gjpfj;jpy;jhd; Kjy;Kiwahf nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ. "QhapW jpq;fs; nrt;tha; Gjd; tpahod; nts;sp rdp ghk;G ,uz;LKlNd" vd;gJ Njthuj;jpy; tUfpw mbfs;. ,it Mq;fpy ehs;fNshL nghUspy; xj;jpUg;gJ ftdpf;fj;jf;fJ.  

jkpo;ehl;by; thdpay; mwpT gilj;jtHfs; ,Ue;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. thdpaypYk; mJ njhlHghd Nrhjplj;jpYk; ty;y mwpQHfs; ,Ue;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. mtHfs; fzp> fzpad; vd;W miof;fg;gl;lhHfs;. fzpad; G+q;Fd;wd;> gy;FLf;if ed;fpzpahH> fzp NkjhtpahH vd;NghH GytHfshf ,Ue;jpUf;fpwhHfs;.  

murDila mitapy; ngUq;fzpfd; ,Ue;jijr; rpyg;gjpfhu MrpupaH ,sq;Nfh mbfs; Fwpg;gpLfpwhH. fhyj;ijf; fzpf;f ehopif tl;by; gad;gLj;jg; gl;lij rpyg;gjpfhuk; vLj;Jr; nrhy;fpwJ. fhyj;ijf; fzpg;gtH ehopiff;fzf;fH vd miof;fg;gl;lhH. ,e;j ehopif tl;by; atduplk; (fpNuf;fH) ,Ue;J ,wf;Fkjp nra;ag;gl;ljhFk;. thdpay;gw;wp rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fspy; Fwpg;gplg;gLk; nra;jpfs; NghJkhdjhf ,y;iy. ,Jgw;wp mwpQHfs; NkYk; Muha Ntz;Lk;.  

gUtq;fs; vg;gb Vw;gLfpd;wd? vd;w Nfs;tpf;F ePz;l fhykhf tpil njupahky; ,Ue;jJ. gUtq;fs; Vw;gLtjw;F %d;W fhuzq;fs; cz;L. 

(m) Gtp; cUz;il tbtkhf ,Ug;gJ>

(M) Gtp tykpUe;J  ,lJ gf;fkhfj; jdJ mr;rpy; 23 1/2 ghif rupe;jpUg;gJ>

(,)  Gtp jd;idj;jhNd Rw;wpf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; mNjrkak; Qhapw;iwAk; Rw;wptUtJ. 

Gtp cUz;ilahf ,Ug;gjhy; mjd; kPJ tpOk; QhapWf; fjpupd; rf;jp ,lj;Jf;F ,lk; khWgLfpwJ.  fjpUf;Fk; Gtpf;Fk; cs;s Nfhzj;ijg; nghWj;Jj;jhd; me;j khWghL Vw;gLfpwJ.  Gtp rhahky; ,Ue;jpUe;jhy; fjpupd; jhf;fk; epyeLf; (G+kj;jpa) Nfhl;by;jhd; (90 ghif) cr;rkhf ,Ue;jpUf;Fk;.  tlf;F my;yJ njw;Fg; gf;fk; efUk;NghJ me;jf; Nfhzk; Fiwe;J nfhz;L NghfpwJ. Gtpapd; jiuf;Fk; mjpy; tpOk; fjpUf;Fk; ,ilapyhd Nfhzk; ,uz;L fhuzq;fSf;fhf Kf;fpakhdJ. 

Nfhzk; 90 ghifahf ,Uf;Fk; nghOJ fjpupd; rf;jp  Fiwe;j ,lj;jpy; gug;gg;gLfpwJ. Nfhzk; FiwAk; nghOJ (30 ghif) mJ $Ljyhd ,lj;jpy; gug;gg;gLfpwJ. Nfhzk; ngupjhf ,Ue;jhy; gfy; Neuk; ePz;ljhfTk; ,uT Neuk; Fiwe;jjhfTk; ,Uf;Fk;. gfy; Neuj;jpd; msT fjpupd; rf;jpia epUzapf;fpwJ.  

Gtp 23 1/2 ghif mjd; mr;rpy; rupe;jpUg;gjhy; mjd; tlghfKk;  njd;ghfKk; ntt;NtW mstpy; ntg;gk; milfpwJ. ,e;jr; rupT 90 ghif Qhapw;Wf; Nfhzj;ij tlg; gf;fkhf 23 1/2 ghif  js;SfpwJ. ,jdhy;  tlghfk; njd; gFjpiatpl ntg;gkhf ,Uf;Fk;. xU fijf;Fg; Gtpapd; rupT tyJ gf;fj;ij Nehf;fp my;yhky; ,lJ Nehf;fp ,Uf;fpwJ vd;W itj;Jf; nfhz;lhy; njd;ghfk; ntg;gkhfTk; tlghfk; ntg;gk; Fiwe;jjhfTk; fhzg;gLk;.

Gtp Qhapw;iwr; Rw;wptUk; NghJ bnrk;gH khjk; 22 Mk; ehs; Gtpapd; njd;ghfk; Qhapw;iw Nehf;fpr; rha;e;jpUf;fpwJ.  njhz;ZhW ghif Nfhz Qhapw;Wf;fjpH ,g;NghJ kfuf; Nfhl;by; (Tropic of Cancer)  Ftpe;Js;sJ. ,jw;F NeH vjpHkhwhf tl ghfj;jpy; flff; Nfhl;by; (Tropic of Capricorn)  Qhapw;Wf;fjpH FWfpa Nfhzj;jpNyNa gLfpwJ.  

Mw jpq;fs; fopj;J A+d; 21 Mk; ehs;>  90 ghif  fjpH flff; Nfhl;by; gLfpwJ. ,Wjpahf nrg;njk;gH 23 Mk; ehs; 90ghiff; fjpH Gtpapd; Nky;ghfj;jpNyh my;yJ fPo;g;ghfj;jpNyh ,y;yhky; eLf;Nfhl;by; gLfpwJ. me;j ehs; gfy; ,uT fhyk; rup rkkhf (Equinox) ,Uf;Fk;.

Gtp ,g;gb 23 1/2 ghif jdJ mr;rpy; tyg;Gwkhfr; rha;e;jpUg;gjhy; ,d;ndhU tpisT Vw;gLfpwJ. Gtpapd;  tlghfk; Qhapw;Wg; gf;fkhf rha;e;jpUf;Fk;NghJ tlJUtj;Jf;Fk; tlJUt tl;lj;jpw;Fk; (Arctic Circle) ,ilapy; cs;s gpuNjrk; 24 kzpj;jpahyKk; Qhapw;wpd; ntspr;rj;ijg; ngWfpwJ. mNj rkak; njd;JUtj;Jf;Fk; njd;JUt tl;lj;jpw;Fk; (Antarctic Circle) ,ilapy; cs;s gpuNjrk; 24 kzpj;jpahyKk; ,Ul;by; %o;fp ,Uf;Fk;.  

mLj;j fpoik ,aYyfj;jpd; (gpugQ;rk;) ikak; Gtp my;y> mJ QhapW vd;w cz;ikiaAk;> Gtpiaf;  Nfhs;fs;  Rw;Wtjw;Fg; gjpy; Qhapw;iwg; Gtp cl;gl Vida Nfhs;fs; ePs;tl;lj;jpy; Rw;wp tUfpd;wd vd;w cz;ikia Kjy; Kiwahfr; rhd;WfNshL mwptpay; mbg;gilapy; jPHj;Jitj;j Kk;%Hj;jpfisr; re;jpg;Nghk;. 

 


fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (56)

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

rpe;jidg; Gul;rpf;F tpj;jpl;l NfhngHdpf;f];

Gtpjhd; ,aYyfj;jpd; ikak; mjidr; Rw;wpNa QhapWk; Vida Nfhs;fSk; Rw;wp tUfpd;wd vd;w mup];Njhl;ly;> njhykp ,UtuJ Nfhl;ghLk; 2>000 Mz;L fhyk; Nkw;Fyfehl;Lr; rpe;jidahsHfsJ Ntjkhf ,Ue;J te;jJ. ehd; Kd;dH Fwpg;gpl;lJ Nghy mup];Njhl;ly; ,e;jg; Gtp cUz;il tbthdJ vd;W ek;gpdhH. Mdhy;> Gtp ntq;fhaj;ij %bapUf;Fk; Njhy;Nghy; Gtp gy cUz;ilfis cs;slf;fpaJ vd;W ek;gpdhH. NkYk; Gtp ehw;ngUk; G+jq;fspdhy; MdJ>  Mdhy;> Kfpy; kz;lyj;jpw;F mg;ghy; cs;s Jha thdntsp vjH (ether) vd;Dk; G+jj;jpdhy; epug;gl;Ls;sJ vdTk; ek;gpdhH. mup];Njhl;liyg; gpd;gw;wp fpgp 2 Mk; Ehw;whz;by; tho;e;j njhykp vd;gtUk; ,aYyfj;jpd; ikak; Gtp vd;Wk;> QhapW> rdp> tpaho fpufq;fs; Gtpiar; Rw;wp tUfpd;wd vd;Wk; nrhd;dhH. 

,e;j Cfq;fSf;F vy;yhk; Kw;Wg; Gs;sp itj;J> ,aYyfj;jpd; ikaj;jpy; QhapW ,Uf;fpwnjd;Wk;> mjidr; Rw;wpg; Gjd;> nts;sp> Gtp> nrt;tha;> tpahod;> rdp Mfpa MW Nfhs;fSk; Rw;wp tUfpd;wd vd;gijr; rhd;WfNshL tpsf;fp thndhspf; Nfhsq;fspd; Row;rpfs; (The Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies)    vd;w Ehiy epf;fNyh]; NfhngHdpf;f]; (Nicholas Copernicus)  vd;w thdpayhsH Kjd; Kiwahf vOjpdhH. ,tH Nghye;jpy; 1473 Mk; Mz;L ngg;utup khjk; 19 Mk; ehs; gpwe;jtH.  

Kd;dH $wpaJ Nghy ,aYyfpd; ikak; QhapW vd;Wk;  mjidr; Rw;wpNa Vida Nfhs;fs; tl;lg; ghijapy; Rw;wp tUfpd;wd vd;w Nfhl;ghl;ilf; fpNuf;f jj;Jtthjp mwp];jhR]; (Aristarchus) fpK 200 Mk; Mz;lstpy; Kd;itj;jhH. ,tH vOjpa QhapW kw;Wk; jpq;fspd; gug;gsTfSk; Jhuq;fSk; (On the Sizes and Distances of the Sun and Moon)  vd;w Ma;Tf; fl;Liu thdpay; gw;wpa Muha;r;rpapy; xU tuyhw;Wj; jpUg;G KidahFk;. ,tuJ nra;Kiwfis mtUf;Fg; gpd; tho;e;j fpg;;gwhr;R]; (Hipparchus) kw;Wk; njhykp (Ptolemy)  Nghd;w thdpayhsHfs; fzf;fpayhsHfs; gpd;gw;wpdhHfs;. 

mwp];jhR]; fPo;f;fz;l MW vL (GidT) Nfhs;fis (Hypothesis) Kd;itj;jhH. 

(1) jpq;fs; Qhapwplk; ,Ue;J xspiag; ngWfpwJ.                               NfhngHdpf;fd; QhapWika mz;lk;  

(2) jpq;fspd; Roy; ghijapd; ikaj;jpy; Gtp  epiyAw;Ws;sJ. 

(3) jpq;fs; ghjpahfj; njupAk;NghJ> jpq;fis xsp-,Us;; gFjpahfg; gpupf;Fk; ghfq;fs; vq;fs; fz; ghHf;Fk; jpirapy; cs;sJ.  

(4) jpq;fs; ghjpahfj; njupAk; nghOJ> Qhapwpy; ,Ue;J mjd; Nfhzj; Jhuk; (angular distance)  90 ghiapy; Kg;gjpy; xU gq;fhFk;. mjhtJ 3 ghifahFk;. 

(5) Gtpapd; epoypd; mfyk; ,uz;L jpq;fSf;Fr; rkkhdit. 

(6) jpq;fs; ,uhrp tl;lj;jpd; gjpide;jpy; xU ghfkhFk;.  ,uhrp tl;lk; 360 ghif nfhz;lJ.  vdNt xU ,uhrp 30 ghif nfhz;lJ. mjpy; gjpide;jpy; xU ghfk; 2 ghifahFk;.   

,g;gb mtH gy Kd;nkhopTfis (rupahd vz;zpf;if 18)  vz;gpj;jhYk; fPo;f;fz;l %d;Wk; Kf;fpakhdit. 

(1) Qhapwpy; ,Ue;J Gtpapd; njhiyT> jpq;fspy; ,Ue;J Gtpapd; njhiyit tpl 18 klq;F $l Mdhy; 20 klq;Ff;Ff; FiwT.  

(2) jpq;fspd; tpl;lKk; (tl;lj;jpd; FWf;fsT) Qhapw;wpd; tpl;lKk; xNu tpOf;fhl;Lj; njhlHG (ratio)  (18 klq;Ff; $l Mdhy; 20 klq;Ff;Ff; FiwT) cilaJ.

(3) Qhapwpd; tpl;lKk; Gtpapd; tpl;lKk; 19/3 ia tplf; $LjyhdJ. Mdhy;> 43/6 ia tplf; FiwthdJ.  

,e;j Kd;nkhopTfspd; mbg;gilapy;jhd; 17 Mk; Ehw;whz;Ltiu tpz;Zyf (celestial)  njhiyTfs; fzpf;fg;gl;ld. 

jpq;fspd; xspAk; ,USk; rupghjpahfj; Njhd;Wk;;NghJ Gtp> jpq;fs;> QhapW ,tw;wpd; Nfhzk; rupahf 90 ghifahf ,Uf;Fk;. mNj rkak; jpq;fs;> Gtp> QhapW ,tw;wpd; Nfhzk; 87 ghifahf ,Uf;Fk; vdTk; fz;L gpbj;Jr; nrhd;dhH.

mwp];jhR]; ,d;Dk; ,uz;L Kd;nkhopTfis vLj;Jr; nrhd;dhH. QhapW fpufzj;jpd; NghJ re;jpudpd; jl;L Qhapiw kiwg;gjw;F rup msthf  ,Uf;fpwJ.  re;jpu fpufzj;jpd; NghJ Gtpapd; epoy; re;jpudJ epoiytpl ,Uklq;F ngupjhf ,Uf;fpw. ,e;jj; juit itj;Jf; nfhz;L Gtp re;jpupidtpl 3 klq;F ngupJ vd;Wk;> Qhapw;wpd; tpl;lk; Gtpapd; tpl;lj;ijtpl 6 klq;F ngupJ vd;Wk; mwp];jhR]; nrhd;dhH. 

fpNuf;fHfSf;Fg; gjpd;Kiw (decimals) gw;wp xd;Wk; njupahjjhy; klq;Ffis gpd;dj;jpNyNa Fwpg;gpl;lhHfs;.

mwp];jhR]; nrhd;dit KOJk; rupahf  ,Uf;ftpy;iy. jpq;fs;> Gtp> QhapW ,tw;wpd; Nfhzk; 87 ghiff;Fg; gjpy; 89 ghif 50 tpehbfs; vd;W gpd;dH fz;L gpbf;fg;gl;lJ. mNjNghy; Gtpapd; epoypd;  mfyk;  ,uz;ly;y %d;W klq;F vd;Wk; gpd;dH fzf;fplg; gl;lJ.

mNj Nghy; Gtpapy; ,Ue;J Qhapwpd; njhiyT Gtpapy; ,Ue;J epyhtpd; njhiyit tpl 400 klq;F mjpfkhdJ. mNj Nghy; Qhapwpd; tpl;lk; Gtpapd; tpl;lj;ijtpl 400 klq;F ePskhdJ.

nkhj;jj;jpy; mwp];jhR]; ,ay;TyifAk; kw;Wk; thd;Nfhs;fisAk; fzpjapay; Kiwg;gb mZfpajd; gadhff; fzpjapaYf;Fk;> thdpaYf;Fk; msg;gupa nfhil nra;jhH. ,jdhy; mtH "gz;ila NfhngHdpf;f];" vd;W miof;fg; gl;lhH. 

NfhngHdpf;f]; mtHfNs jhd; vOjpa  thndhspf; Nfhsq;fspd; Row;rpfs; vd;w Ehypy; mwp];jhRitg; ghuhl;b vOjpapUf;fpwhH. "gpNyhNyh]; Gtpapd; mirtjhf ek;gpdhH> rpyH nrhy;fpwhHfs; rhNkhirr; NrHe;j mwp];jhRk; mNj fUj;ijf; nfhz;bUe;jhH vdf; Fwpg;gpl;lhH. Mdhy;> mtuJ Ehy; ntsptUKd; ,e;jg; gFjp FWf;Ff; NfhL ,l;L ntl;lg;gl;L tpl;lJ. NfhngHdpf;f]; jdJ Ma;T kw;wtHfsJ jatpd;wp epd;W gpbf;Fk; vd epidj;jpUf;;f Ntz;Lk;.   

NfhngHdpf;f]; kj;jpaju tFg;Gf; FLk;gj;ijr; NrHe;jtH. Kjypy;  Nghye;jpd; md;iwa jiyefH fpwNfhtpy; (Krakow)  ,Ue;j gy;fiyf; fofj;jpy; fy;tp fw;whH.  gpd;dH ,j;jhyp ehl;Lf;Fr; nrd;W nghyq;fh (Bolanga) kw;Wk; gLth (Padua) gy;fiyf; fofq;fspy; fy;tp fw;whH. ,e;j %d;W gy;fiyf; fofq;fspYk; mtH fzpjtpay; ghlq;fisg; gbj;jhH. ngNuuh (Ferrara)  gy;fiyf; fofj;jpy; fpwpj;jt rkarl;lk; (Canon Law)  gbj;J mjpy; gl;lk; ngw;whH. kUj;jtg; gl;lg; gbg;Gf;Ff; fzpjtpay; kw;Wk; mwptpay; ghlq;fs; fl;lhakhf (itj;jpak; ghHg;gjw;F kUj;JtHfs; Nrhjplj;ijg; gad;gLj;jpa fhuzj;jhy;) ,Ue;jd. gLth gy;fiyf; fof kUj;Jtf; fy;Yhup md;W ngUk; ngaH ngw;wpUe;jJ.  mq;F gbj;jNghJ kUj;Jtk; kw;Wk; fpNuf;fnkhop ,uz;ilAk; fw;whH. jdJ nrhe;j  ehl;bw;Fj; jpUk;gpaNghJ kUj;Jtj; njhopypy; <Lgl;lhH. mNj rkak; Njthyaj;jpy; kjFUthfTk; Copak; nra;jhH.  

kWgbAk; ,j;jhypf;Fg; Ngha; cNuhkhGupapy; cs;s ez;gHfisr; re;jpj;jhH. mjd;gpd; 1513-Mk; Mz;L NfhngHdpf;fd; Nfhl;ghL vd;w FWfpa Ma;it fl;Liu tbtpy; vOjpdhH. ,e;j Ma;tpy;jhd; ,aYyfpd; ikak; QhapW>  Gtp my;y vd;w Nfhl;ghl;il mtH Kjypy; epWtpdhH. ,e;jf; fUj;jpay; thndhspf; Nfhsq;fspd; Row;rpfs; vd;w Ehyhf  KOik ngw ePz;l fhyk; vLj;jJ. mtuJ kuzg; gLf;ifapy;jhd; (1543) ,e;j Ehypd; Kjy; gb mtuplk; nfhLf;fg; gl;lJ.  

NfhngHdpf;fd; Nfhl;ghl;il Mjupj;J mjid  Kd;dpWj;jpatHfspy; Nahfhd;]; nfg;yH (Johannes Kepler - 1571-1630) kw;Wk; fypypNah fypyp (Galileo Galilei- 1564-1642)  ,UtUk; Kf;fpakhdtHfs;.   

NfhngHdpf;fd; QhapWika Kiwapy; (Heliocentric System) GtpAk; xU NfhshFk;. re;jpud; Qhapiwr; Rw;wptUtjw;Fg; gjpy; Gtpiar; Rw;wp te;jJ.  tpz;kPd;fs; xsp $bAk; Fiwe;Jk; fhzg;gLtjw;F mtw;wpd; Jhue;jhd; fhuzk; vd;gij NfhngHdpf;fd; QhapWika Kiw vspjhfj; jPHj;Jitj;jJ. Mdhy;> Nfhs;fs; tl;ltbtkhd tl;lj;jpy; Rw;wptUfpwJ vd;w gioa Nfhl;ghl;il NfhngHdpf;Rk; Vw;Wf; nfhz;lhH. mJ jtnwd;W gpd;dH vz;gpf;fg;gl;lJ. tl;lj;jpw;Fg; gjpy; mit ePs;tl;lj;jpy; (elliptic)  Rw;wp tUfpwJ vd;gNj rupahdjhFk;. 

,d;iwa etPd thdpay; Nkk;ghl;bw;F %d;W gpioahd vz;zq;fs; jilahf ,Ue;jij Kd;dH ghHj;Njhk;. mjhtJ> 

(1) Gtpjhd; ,aYyfpd; ikak;. 

(2) Nfhs;fs; tl;ltbtpy; Rw;wp tUfpd;wd. 

(3) thntspapy; fhzg;gLk; Nfhs;fs; Gtpapy; fhzg;glhj ,d;ndhU khw;wKbahj nghUshy; MdJ. 

Kjy; mDkhdj;ijf; NfhngHdpf;f]; jtW vd;W vz;gpj;jhH. ,uz;lhtJ mDkhdj;ij mtH Vw;Wf; nfhz;lhH. GtpAk; xU Nfhs; vd;gjhy; Vida Nfhs;fSk; ePH> epyk;> neUg;G> fhw;wpdhy; MdJ vd mDkhdpj;jhH. 

NfhngHdpf;f]; xU Gul;rpthjpay;y. jdJ Nfhl;ghL jdJ Mrhd;fs; kw;Wk; jpUr;rigahy; vs;sp eifahlg;gLk; vd;w gak; fhuzkhfNt jdJ Ehiyg; gpuRuk; nra;tijf; filrpf; fhyk;tiu js;spg;Nghl;lhH vdg; gyH epidf;fpwhHfs;. fhuzk; mtH fhyj;jpy; ,aYyFgw;wp mup];Njhl;ly; vOjp itj;jit  cWjpahd rkaf; nfhs;if (religious dogma) vd;w epiyf;Fj; jpUr;rigahy; caHj;jp itf;fg; gl;bUe;jJ.  

Mdhy;> Gul;rpia tpUk;ghj ,e;jg; Gul;rpthjp  rq;fpypj; njhlHghd epfo;Tfisj; njhlf;fp itj;J Nkw;Fyf ehfupfk; Kd; vg;nghOJk; fz;buhj ngupa rpe;jidg; Gul;rpf;F tpj;jpl;lhH. mtH kiwe;j gpd;dH xU Ehw;whz;L fhyk; mtuJ vz;zq;fs; kiwf;fg;gl;L ,Ue;jd. Mdhy;> 17 Mk; Ehw;whz;by; nfg;yH> fypypNah> epA+l;ud; NfhngHdpf;fd; QhapWikaf; Nfhl;ghLfis NkYk; tpupthf;fpg; Gul;rp nra;jjd; tpisthf mup];Njhl;lypd; vz;zq;fisAk; Nfhl;ghLfisAk; Kw;whf xJf;fpj; js;spdhHfs;.


 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (57)

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

fypypNahtpd; njhiyNehf;fp; etPd thdpaiyg; gpwg;gpj;jJ!

NfhngHdpf;f]; jhd; vOjpa thndhspf; Nfhsq;fspd; Row;rpfs; vd;w Ehiy %d;whtJ Nghg;ghz;ltH Nghy; (Pope Paul 111) mtHfSf;Fj; jpUg;gilay;   nra;jhH. mg;NghJ me;j Ehy; ngupastpy; vt;tpj thjg;gpujp thjq;fisAk; fpsg;gtpy;iy. ngaH Fwpg;gpl tpUk;ghj xUtH (cz;ikapy; mij vOjpatH Ehuk;gd;ngHf; Gul;l];jhdkj rPHjpUj;jthjpahd me;jpupah]; xrpahd;lH (Andrea Osiander) me;j EhYf;F KfTiu vOjpdhH. mjpy; me;j Ehypy; vOjg;gl;bUf;Fk; Nfhl;ghL ntWkNd fzpjtpay; GidTNfhs; (Mathematical hypothesis) vd;W nrhy;yg;gl;lJ.  fzpjtpay; fl;Lkhdq;fs; (Mathematical constructions)  ntWkNd GidTNfhs;fs; vd;W  nrhy;Yk; kuG thdpayhsH kj;jpapy; ePz;lfhykhf ,Ue;J te;jJ.  

Mdhy;> ,aYyfj;jpd; ikak; QhapW vd;Wk;> Gtp mijr; Rw;wptUfpwnjd;Wk;> Gtpf;F %d;Wtpjkhd ,af;fq;fs; (motions) cz;nld;Wk;> Vida Nfhs;fSk; Gtpiag; NghyNt xU xOq;F Kiwapy;  Qhapw;iwr; Rw;wp tUfpd;wd vd;Wk; NfhngHdpf;f]; tiuglq;fNshL vOjpapUe;jJ gyuJ GUtj;ij caHj;jr; nra;jJ. vdNt Nfhg;ngdpf;rpd; EhYf;F xU fyg;ghd tuNtw;Gf; fpilj;jJ. 

QhapWjhd; ,aYyfpd; ikak; vd;w Nfhl;ghL fpl;lj;jl;l vy;NyhuhYk; cldbahf epuhfupf;fg; gl;lJ. ,Ue;Jk; njhykp vOjpa my;kn[];l; vd;w Ehiytpl NfhngHdpf;rpd; Ehy; Gtp kw;Wk; Nfhs;fspd; ,af;fj;ij kpfj; njspthfTk; El;gkhfTk; tpsf;fpapUe;jJ. NfhngHdpf;rpd; Nfhl;ghl;il Vida thdpayhsHfs; cs; thq;fpf;nfhs;s xU jiyKiw nrd;wJ. ,jpy; njhkh]; bf;[p]; (Thomas Digges) vd;w thdpayhsH Fwpg;gplj;jf;ftH. ,tH thndhspf; Nfhsq;fspd; Row;rpfs; vd;w Ehiy gioa Mq;fpyj;jpy; A Perfit Description of the Coelestiall Orbes” (1576) vd Kjd; Kiwahf nkhopngaHj;J ntspapl;lhH.  

NfhngHdpf;rpd; Ehy; xg;Gjy; ngWtjw;Ff;  fhyjhkjk; Mdjw;Ff; fhuzk; QhapWika ,aYyff; Nfhl;ghL gFj;jwpTf;Fk; fz; fhl;rpf;Fk; nghUsw;wjhf my;yJ eifg;Gf;fplkhfj; njupe;jNj.  mup];Njhl;lypd; ,aYf fUj;jpaiy nrupj;Jf; nfhz;ltHfSf;Ff; NfhngHdpf;rpd; Nfhl;ghl;ilr; nrupj;Jf; nfhs;tJ tpy;yq;fkhf ,Ue;jJ. NfhngHdpf;ir Vw;Wf; nfhz;lhy; mup];;Njhl;liyf; iffOt Ntz;Lk; vd;w ,f;fl;lhd epiyik ,Ue;jJ.   

NfhngHdpf;rpd; Nfhl;ghL Vw;Wf; nfhz;lhy; gwitfs; vt;thW jhq;fs; jq;fpapUe;j $l;il kWgbAk; fz;Lgpbf;f KbAk;? Gtp fpof;Fg; gf;fkhf Ntfkhfr; Rw;WfpwJ vd;why; NkNy vwpfpw fy;Y vg;gb NeNu te;J fPNo tpOfpwJ? nghUs;fSf;F xU ,af;fk; ,Uf;Fk;NghJ Gtpf;f kl;Lk; vg;gb %d;W ,af;fq;fs; ,Uf;f KbAk;? Gtp xU Nfhs; vd;why; mjw;F kl;Lk;  xU epyh ,Ug;gJ Vd;? ,e;jf; Nfs;tpfSf;fhd tpilfs; Njitg;gl;ld.  

,d;Dk; xU rpf;fy; vOe;jJ. mirtw;w QhapWk; mirAk; GtpAk; fpwpj;jt Ntjhfkq;fspy; (fj;Njhypf;fHfs;-Gul;l];jPdHfs;) nrhy;yg;gl;l fijfSf;F vjpuhdjhf ,Ue;jJ. NfhngHdpf;rpd; Nfhl;ghl;ilf; fj;Njhypf;fH vjpHj;jjpy; tpag;gpy;iy. Mdhy;> rPHjpUj;jthjpfs; vd;W jq;fisr; nrhy;ypf;nfhz;l Gul;l];jPdHfSk; NfhngHdpf;fd; Nfhl;ghl;il vjpHj;jJ tpag;ig mspj;jJ.

,J njhlHghf khl;bd; YhjH (Martin Luther) vd;gtH gpd;tUkhW vOjpdhH.  

"kf;fs;  QhapW> re;jpud;> Gtp Mfpad Roy;fpwJ vd;W nrhy;Yfpd;w xU GJr; Nrhjplupd; Ngr;Rf;Ff; fhJ nfhLf;fpwhHfs;. ahH jq;fisg; Gj;jprhypfs;  vd;W fhl;l  tpUk;GfpwhHfNsh mtHfs; VjhtJ xU Gjpa Nfhl;ghl;ilf; fz;Lgpbf;f Ntz;Lk;>  mJ Kd;ida Nfhl;ghl;iltplj; jpwkhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd Mirg;gLfpwhHfs;.   

,e;j kilad; thdpaypd; KOf; fw;iffisAk; jiyfPohf khw;wg; ghHf;fpwhd;. Mdhy;> Gdpj Ntjfhkq;fs; NahRth  (Joshua) ,];Nuypd; Kfjhtpy; Mz;ltiug; ghHj;J X QhapNw> fpgpNahd; NkNy mg;gbNa epy;>  X GtpNa ma;[Nyhd; gs;sj;jhf;fpw;F NkNy mg;gbNa epy;"  vd;W fl;lis ,l;lTld; mg;gbNa QhapWk; jpq;fSk; epd;wd" (On the day the Lord gave the Amorites over to Israel, Joshua said to the Lord in the presence of Israel: "O sun, stand still over Gibeon, O moon, over the Valley of Aijalon." So the sun stood still, and the moon stopped, till the nation ...)  

khl;bd; YhjH xUtHjhd; mg;gb vOjpdhH vd;gjy;y. ,d;Dk; gyH Nfhg;ngHdpf;ir ieahz;b nra;J vOjpdhHfs;. nkyd;nrhnjhd; (Melanchothon) vd;gtH "thd;ntspapy; xspf;Nfhs;fs; 24 kzpj;jpahyq;fs; Roy;fpd;wd.....Mdhy;> rpy kdpjHfs; GJik Nkhfj;jpy; my;yJ jq;fs; Gyikiaf; fhl;l Gtp mirfpwJ vd;fpwhHfs;. mJ kl;Lky;y QhapW Roy;tjpy;iy vd;fpwhHfs; ...........,g;gb ntspntspahfr; nrhy;tjw;F ,tHfsplk; cz;ik kw;Wk; xg;GuT ,y;yhjNj fhuzkhFk;. mtHfs; nrhy;Yk; vLj;Jf;fhl;Lg;  ngUq;NfL gaf;fty;yJ. ey;ytHfSf;F moF flTs; ntspg;gLj;jpa cz;ikia Vw;Wf; nfhz;L mjw;F ,irthf elf;f Ntz;Lk;."  

,jd;gpd; nkyd;nrhnjhd; jdJ fUj;Jf;F tYNrHf;f  Ntjhfkq;fspy; ,Ue;J Gtp mirtw;W epw;fpwJ QhapW mjidr; Rw;wp tUfpwJ vd;w Nkw;Nfhs;fis vLj;Jf; fhl;LfpwhH. mtuJ KbT: ,aYyfpd; ikaj;ijtpl NtW ve;j ,lj;jpYk; Gtp ,Uf;f KbahJ!  

kyd;nrhnjhidg; NghyNt fy;tpd; (Calvin) gioa Vw;ghl;bYs;s 93 tJ Njhj;jpug;ghlypd; Kjy; ghliy Nkw;Nfhs; fhl;b "gupRj;j Mtpf;F Nkyhf NfhngHdpf;rpd; Kbit ahH Vw;Wf; nfhs;thHfs;?" vdf; flhtpdhH.  

nfg;yH> epA+l;ld; Nghd;w thdpayhsHfs; Nfhg;ngdpf;rpd; fUj;jpaiy Iae;jpupgw vz;gpj;j gpd;dUk; kjthjpfs; NfhngHdpf;rpd; kPJ njhLj;j fz;lidf; fizfs; Xatpy;iy. gjpndl;lhk; Ehw;whz;Ltiu gy;fiyf; fofg; NguhrpupaHfs; NfhngHdpf;rpd; mz;lj;ijg; gw;wpa Nfhl;ghl;ilg; Nghjpg;gjpy;iy vdr; rj;jpak; nra;af; fl;lhag; gLj;jg;gl;lhHfs;!  

njhiyNehf;fp %yk; fz;l cz;ikfis  khztHfSf;Fg;  gbg;gpf;ff; $lhJ vdTk;> flTs; kWg;Gf; nfhs;iffis khztHfsplk; ,Ue;J kiwj;J itf;FkhWk; jpUr;rigfs; rpwg;Gf; fl;lis gpwg;gpj;jd. gy NguhrpupaHfs; NfhngHdpf;rpd; fUj;jpaiy Vw;Wf; nfhz;lhYk; gioa mup];Njhl;ly - njhykp ,UtuJk; Nfhl;ghl;ilg; gbg;gpf;FkhW mtHfs; tpUg;gj;jpw;F khwhff; fl;lhag; gLj;jg; gl;lhHfs;.  

jpUr;rigapd; Mizf;Ff; fl;Lg;gl kWj;J  NfhngHdpf;fd; Nfhl;ghl;il Mjupj;j [pxHlhNdh G&Ndh (Giordano Bruno, 1548-1600) vd;gtH Mgj;jpy; khl;bf; nfhz;lhH. jz;l caHkd;wj;Jf;Fg; (Inquisition) gae;J 1576 Mk; Mz;L cNuhkhGupf;F XbdhH. Mdhy;> mq;Fk; mNj fijjhd;.  vdNt gpuhQ;Rf;F Xbj; jg;gpdhH. 1583-1585 fhyj;jpy; ,yz;ldpy; gpuQ;Rj; JhJtuJ ,y;yj;jpy; trpj;J te;jhH. 1584 Mk; Mz;L ,uz;L Ehy;fis vOjp ntspapl;lhH. ePw;Wg; Gjd;fpoik ,uTzT (The Ash Wednesday Supper) kw;Wk; vy;iyaw;w mz;lKk; cyfq;fSk; ( On the Infinite Universe and Worlds)  vd;gNj me;j Ehy;fshFk;.  

1591 Mk; Mz;L ntdp]; efupy; te;J thOkhW tpLf;fg;gl;l Ntz;LNfhis Vw;W mq;F nrd;whH. mq;F ifJ nra;ag;gl;L jz;l caHkd;wj;jpy; epWj;jg;gl;lhH. mtH jdJ fUj;ij kWj;Jiuj;jhYk; 1592 ,y; cNuhkhGupf;F kW tprhuizf;F mDg;gp itf;fg;gl;lhH. mq;F vl;L Mz;Lfs; rpiwapy; itf;fg;gl;L mt;tg;NghJ fLikahf tprhuiz nra;ag;gl;lhH. mtH jdJ fUj;ij kWj;Jiuf;f kWj;jNghJ mtH xU ek;gpf;if<dH vdf; Fw;wk; rhl;b fk;gj;jpy; fl;b capNuhL nfhSj;jg; gl;lhH. mtuJ rhk;gy; fhw;wpy; Jhtg;gl;lJ!

G&Ndhit capNuhL nfhSj;jpr; rhfbj;jhYk; mtuJ fUj;Jf;fis kjthjpfshy; vupf;f Kbatpy;;iy. cz;ik tho;e;J nfhz;bUe;jJ.

G&Ndhtpd; capHj; jpahfj;jpd; gpd; gj;J Mz;Lfs; fopj;J NfhngHdpf;fd; rpj;jhe;jk; Kw;wpYk; rupnad;gij fypypNah jhk; fz;Lgpbj;j njhiyNehf;fp %yk; vz;gpj;Jf; fhl;bdhH!  

NfhngHdpf;rpd; vjpHg;ghsHfs; mtUf;Fr; rthy; tpLtJz;L. "cd;Dila rpj;jhe;jk; rupnad;why; nts;spf; fpufKk; re;jpuidg; Nghd;Nw tsHtJk; gpd;dH Nja;tJ NghYk; Njhd;w Ntz;LNk?" ,jw;Ff; NfhngHdpf;fd; ,Wj;j gjpy; "ePq;fs; nrhy;tJ rup> vdf;F vd;d nrhy;tJ vd;W njupatpy;iy. Mdhy;> flTs; ey;ytH> mtH cq;fsJ vjpHf; Nfs;tpf;F rkak; tUk;NghJ gjpy; nrhy;thH." 

flTshy; nfhLf;fg;gl;l tpil 1611 Mk; Mz;L fpilj;jJ. fypypNahtpd; miuFiwj; njhiyNehf;fp nts;spf; Nfhspd; Njhw;w khw;wj;ij njspthff; fhl;baJ! 

fypypNah gprh efuj;jpy; 1564 Mk; Mz;L xU gzf;fhuf; FLk;gj;jpy; gpwe;jtH. mtuJ je;ijahH tpd;nrd;Nrh fypyp xU Gul;rpfu ,irf; fiyQH. Njthyaq;fspy; ,irf;fg;gLk; ,ir ftHr;rpaw;wJ vd vz;zpdhH. fpNuf;f ghly;fs; kw;Wk; Guhzq;fis mbg;gilahf itj;J etPd ,ir tbtq;fis mikj;jhH. ,tuJ Kaw;rpNa gpd;dH ,j;jhypehl;bd; Gfo;ngw;;w XNguh (Opera) vd;w ,ir ehlfkhf cUg;ngw;wJ.                                                          fypypNah fypyp

jdJ 17 MtJ tajpy; fypypNah gprh gy;fiyf; fofj;Jf;Fg; NghdhH. mtuJ je;ijapd; MNyhridg;gb mq;F kUj;Jtk; gbf;f Muk;gpj;jhH. gpd;dH mjidf; iftpl;L fzf;fpay; gbf;f Muk;gpj;jhH. mg;NghJ kpfTk; GfOld; tpsq;fpa jpf;rp (Ricci) vd;gtuplk; fypypNah fzpjj;jpy; ghlk; Nfl;f mtuJ je;ijahH xOq;F nra;jhH.  

fzpj ghlj;jpy; fypypNah kpfTk; nfl;bf;fhuuhf tpsq;fpdhH. ,Ugjpd; Kw;gFjpapy; MHf;fpkpB]; fz;Lgpbj;j KbTfSf;F Nkyhf rpytw;iw fz;L gpbj;jhH. mtuJ 25 MtJ mfitapy; mNj gy;fiyf; fofj;jpy; fzf;fpay; gPlj;Jf;Fj; jiytuhf epakdk; nra;ag; gl;lhH. 

mq;fpUe;J ntdp]; FbauRf;Fr; nrd;whH.  jiyefukhd ntdprpd; md;iwa kf;fs; njhif 150>000 Mf ,Ue;jJ. Mdhy;> me;j efu kf;fs; Mz;by; 44 kpy;ypad; (4.4 Nfhb) Nghj;jy; itidf; fhyp gz;zpdhHfs;.  

1599 Mk; Mz;L fypypNah kupdh fk;gh (Maria Gamba) vd;w 21 taJ epuk;gpa ngz;izj; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhz;lhH. mtHfSf;F %d;W Foe;ijfs; gpwe;jd.  

ntdprpy; gy ngUq;Fb kf;fspd; (Nobles) el;G fypypNahtpw;Ff; fpilj;jJ. mjpy; xUtH                                                                      

ntdp]; Fbaurpd; cj;jpNahfG+Ht rkathjpahd gpuh ghXNyh rHg;gp (Fra Paola Sarpi).                  

1604 Mk; Mz;L ma;Nuhg;gh fz;lj;J mwpthspfs;; kj;jpapy;; thdj;jpy; Njhd;wpa thy;nts;sp xd;W ngupa jpifg;igAk; MHtj;ijAk; cz;lhf;fpaJ. Nfhs;fs; ePq;fyhf thd;ntsp khw;wj;Jf;F Mshfhj epue;juf; fhl;rp vd;W ek;gg;gl;lJ. ,g;NghJ thdj;jpy; xU thy;nts;sp fhzg;gl;lJ thd;ntspgw;wpa MHtj;ij Cf;fptpj;jJ. 1609 Mk; Mz;L fypypNahtpw;F xU nra;jp vl;baJ. mJ mtupd; tho;f;ifia Kw;wpYk; khw;Wtjhf ,Ue;jJ.

xy;yhe;J ehl;by; nyapld; (Leyden) vd;gtH Kjd; Kjyhff; fz; ghHit Fiwe;NjhuJ ghtidf;F %f;Ff; fz;zhb xd;wpidf; fz;L gpbj;jjhff; fypypNah Nfs;tpg;gl;lhH. mJgw;wpa tpguq;fis mwpe;J nfhs;tjw;F xy;yhe;J ehl;Lf;Fg; gazg; gl;lhH. mq;F nrd;w mtH mjd; nra;Kiwiaf; fw;Wf; nfhz;lhH. Muk;gg; gpd;dilTf;Fg; gpd;dH gbg;gbahf 60 x rf;jp tha;e;j njhiyNehf;fpia cUthf;fpdhH. mjd;  cjtpNahL  thd;ntspiag; mtH mz;zhe;J ghHj;jNghJ  (1610) ,d;iwa etPd thdpay; gpwe;jJ!   


 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (58)

xU gUe;jpd; fPo;

etPd mwptpaypd; je;ij nfg;yH

fypypNah njhiyNehf;fp %yk; epyhitg;  ghHj;jNghJ  mjd; Nky;ghfj;jpy; Fd;WfSk;  FopfSk;  ,Ug;gijf; fz;lhH. mjd;gpd;dH tpaho Nfhspd; re;jpud;fisAk;> nts;spf; Nfhspd; tsHgpiw-Nja;gpiwiaAk; fz;L gpbj;jhH. ,e;j fz;L gpbg;Gf;fspd; gadhf mtuJ nrhe;j Cuhd j];Nfdpapy; (Tuscany) fzf;fpay; kw;Wk; jj;Jttpay; (,aw;gpay;) Mrpupauhf epakdk; ngw;whH. 

Mdhy;> ,e;jf; fz;L gpbg;Gf;fs; NfhngHdpf;;rpd; mz;lntsp gw;wpa Nfhl;ghLfis cWjpg; gLj;j cjtpdhYk;> mNj fz;L gpbg;Gf;fs; mtiuf; fj;Njhypf;fj; jpUr;rigNahL Nkhjiy cUthf;Fk; fl;lhaj;ijAk; Vw;gLj;jpaJ. mtuJ ntdprpa efu ez;gHfs; ntdprpa murpd; ghJfhg;ig cjwpj; js;sptpl;L cNuhk; efuj;Jf;Fg; Nghf  Ntz;lhk; vd vr;rupj;jhHfs;. fypypNah mijf; fhjpy; thq;fpf; nfhs;shJ 1611 Mk; Mz;L cNuhkhGup Ngha;r; NrHe;jhH. mq;F NaRrig  (Jesuit) ghjpupkhHfsJ mwpKfk; fpilj;jJ. jdf;Fj; jpUr;rigNahL VjhtJ rpf;fy; Vw;gl;lhy; mtHfs; jd;idf; fhg;ghw;WthHfs; vd;W vz;zpdhH.

mg;NghJ fpNstpa]; mbfshH (Father Clavius)  vd;gtH cNuhkpy; kpfTk; nry;thf;NfhL ,Ue;jhH. mtUf;F thdpay;gw;wpa mwpT epiwa ,Ue;jJ. mtHjhd; fpwNfhupad; ehs;fhl;bia (Gregorian Calendar) cUthf;fpatH. mg;gb ,Ue;Jk;  re;jpudpy; Fd;WfSk; FopfSk; ,Uf;fpwJ vd;Wk;> tpahoidr; Rw;wpg; gy re;jpud;fs; tyk; tUfpwnjd;Wk; fypypNah nrhy;ypaij fpNstpa]; mbfshH ek;g kWj;jhH.

fypypNah mbfshuhJ mtek;gpf;ifiaj; jPHj;J itg;gjw;Fj; jd;dplk; ,Ue;j njhiy Nehf;fpia mtuplk; nfhLj;J thd kz;lyj;ij mz;zhe;J ghHf;FkhW Nfl;lhH. thdntspiaf; fypypNahtpd; njhiyNehf;fp %yk; mbfshH ghHj;jNghJ mtH fz;l fhl;rp mtiu mjpHr;rpf;Fs;shf;fpaJ! re;jpudpy; Fd;WfSk; Fopfs; ,Ug;gijAk;> tpaho Nfhsj;ijr; Rw;wp gy re;jpud;fs; tyk; tUtijAk; mbfshH fz;zhuf; fz;lhH. me;jf; fhl;rpf;Fg; gpd;dH NfhngHdpf;rpd; QhapWika rpj;jhe;ij Vw;Wf; nfhs;tijtpl mtUf;F NtW topNa ,Uf;ftpy;iy.  

mg;NghJ NaR jpUr;rigapd; Kf;fpa rkaNghjfuhf ngyhHkpd; (Bellarmine) vd;gtH ,Ue;jhH.  mtH fypypNah gw;wp NaR rigapduJ fUj;ij mwpe;J nfhs;s  ngh];fupdp (A.Foscarani) vd;gtUf;F 1615 Mk; Mz;L Vg;gpupy; khjk; 12k; ehs; xU fbjk; vOjpdhH. mjd; xU gFjp gpd;tUkhW.  

"%d;whtjhf> QhapW ,aYyfj;jpd; ikaj;jpy; ,Uf;fpwnjd;Wk;> Gtp thDyfj;jpy; %d;whtJ ,lj;jpy; ,Uf;fpwnjd;Wk;> QhapW Gtpiar; Rw;Wtjw;Fg; gjpy; Gtp Qhapw;iwr; Rw;Wfpwnjd;Wk; itj;Jf; nfhz;lhy;> mJ Ntjhfkq;fSf;F khwhf ,Ug;gjhy; QhapWikaf; Nfhl;ghl;il kw;wtHfSf;F tpsq;fg;gLj;Jk;NghJ me;jf; Nfhl;ghL jtW vd;W nrhy;tijtpl> mJ vq;fSf;F tpsq;ftpy;iy vd;W nrhy;tNj crpjkhf ,Uf;Fk;. Mdhy;> vd;idg; nghWj;jtiuapy; mjid vd; fz;zhy; ghHf;Fkl;Lk; mJ cz;ik vd;gij ehd; Vw;Wf; nfhs;skhl;Nld;."

fypypNah 1613 Mk; Mz;L bnrk;gH khjk; f];nuyp (Castelli) vd;w jdJ gioa khzhf;fd; xUtUf;F xU fbjk; vOjpdhH. mjpy; Ntjhfkq;fs; ehq;fs; ,aw;ifapy; fhz;gtw;iw kWf;f KbahJ. vdNt kdpjHfsJ Md;k <Nlw;wj;Jf;F vOjg;gl;l Ntjhfkq;fspy; ,aw;ifgw;wp xUNtis NeH nrhw;nghUs; my;yhJ cUtfkhf (metaphorically)  vOjpapUf;fyhk; vdf; Fwpg;gpl;bUe;jhH.  

ngyhHkpDk; fypypNahTk; ,aw;ifgw;wp  xU nghJ cld;ghl;Lf;F tuyhk; vd vz;zpaij Nkw;gb fbjk; vLj;Jf; fhl;Ltjhf cs;sJ. fypypNahtpw;Fk; NaR rigapdUf;Fk; ,d;ndhU tplaj;jpy; Nkhjy; vOe;jJ. Qhapwpy; fWj;j nghl;Lf;fs; ,Ug;gijf; fypypNah njhiyNehf;fp %yk; fz;lwpe;jhH. me;jf; fz;L gpbg;G QhapW khRkWtw;w tpz;Nfhs; vd;w kjek;gpf;ifiaj; jfHj;jJ.  

,e;jf; fhyfl;lj;jpy; fpwpj;jt Njthyaj;jpd; ,d;ndhU gpuptpduhd nlhkpdpf;fd;]; (Dominicans)  NfhngHdpf;fd; mz;lNfhsf; Nfhl;ghLgw;wpj; njupe;J nfhz;L  mjw;F vjpuhfg; gug;Giu nra;aj; njhlq;fpdhHfs;. 5 MtJ Nghg;ghz;ltH Nghy; NfhngHdpf;fd; Nfhl;ghl;ilj; jhd; epuhfupj;j nra;jpia fypypNahtpw;Fj; njuptpf;fkhW ngyhkpidf; Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lhH. Nkw;nfhz;L fypypNah Gtp Qhapw;iwr; Rw;WfpwJ vd;w Nfhl;ghl;il itj;Jf; nfhs;sNth mjid Mjupj;Jg; NgrNth my;yJ kw;wtHfSf;Fg; gbg;gpf;fNth $lhJ vdTk; fl;lis gpwg;gpj;jhH. fypypNah Gtp tyk;tUfpwJ vd;W  vOjpa Ehy; jilnra;ag;gl;l Ehy;fspd; gl;baypy; NrHf;fg;gl;lJ.  

1618 Mk; Mz;L ,iyAjpH fhyj;jpy; thdj;jpy; 3 thy;nts;spfs; Njhd;wpd. me;j thy;nts;spfs; Nfhs;fspd; ghijfSf;F mz;ikahf tyk;tUtjhf NaR rigiar; NrHe;j xU Kf;fpa kjNghjfH vOjpdhH. Mdhy;> fypypNah me;j thy;nts;spfs; ngUksT NeHf; Nfhl;by; Rw;wptUtjhfr; nrhd;dhH. ,jdhy; mtUf;Fk; NaRrigapdUf;Fk; ,ilapy; cs;s gfik NkYk; tYj;jJ.

1623 Mk; Mz;L 8 MtJ Nghg; mHgd; (Pope Urban  V111) gjtpf;F te;jhH. Gjpa Nghg;ghz;ltH jd;id xU ngupa fy;tpkhdhff; fUjpdhH. fypypNahtpd; Nfhl;ghl;ilg; Nghw;wpdhH. Gjpa Nghg;ghz;ltupd;  tUiff;Fg; gpd;dH Nfhg;ngdpf;rpd; Nfhl;ghL vq;Fk; gutpaJ. 1632 Mk; Mz;L fly; nts;sk;gw;wpa ciuahly;  (Dialogue on Tides)  vd;w Ehiyf; fypypNah ntspapl epidj;jhH. Mdhy;> mjd; jiyg;G Gtp Qhapiwr; Rw;wptUfpwJ vd;w fUj;ijj; Njhw;Wtpg;gjhf ,Ue;jjhy; mjid khw;WkhW mtH vr;rupf;fg;gl;lhH. vdNt mtH mjd; ngaiu ""njhykp-NfhngHdpf;]; ,UtuJ cyFgw;wpa ,U Kf;fpa Kiwfs;gw;wpa ciuahly;" (Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief systems of the World-Ptolemaic and Copernican) vd khw;wpdhH.  

fypypNahtpd; Ehy; gpuRukhdJk; mjid clNd epWj;JkhW cNuhk; efu jz;l caHkd;wk; cj;juT gpwg;gpj;jJ. mNjhL epd;Wtplhky; fypypNahitf; ifJ nra;J  ePjpkd;wj;jpy; epWj;jpdhHfs;.  ePjpkd;wj;jpy; NfhngHdpf;fd; Nfhl;ghl;il ntspapy; nrhy;yf;$lhJ vd;W ahUk; gzpj;jjhfj; jdf;F Qhgfk; ,y;iy vd;W mtH thjhbdhH. ePjpkd;w tprhuiz Ehypy; nrhy;yg;gl;l mwptpay;gw;wp ,Uf;ftpy;iy. fypypNah cj;jpNahff; fl;lisia kPwpdhuh ,y;iyah vd;gJ gw;wpNa tprhuiz ,Ue;jJ. 

Ehypy; $wg;gl;l fUj;Jf;fs; gpio vd;W fypypNah xj;Jf; nfhz;lhy; Fiwe;j jz;lid nfhLf;fg;gLk; vd;W mtUf;F vLj;Jr; nrhy;yg;gl;lJ. mjid xj;Jf; nfhz;l fypypNah jhNd jdJ thjj;jpdhy; ms;Sg;gl;LNghdjhff; $wpdhH. mtUf;F Kjypy; fhytiuaw;w rpiwj; jz;lid toq;fg;gl;lJ. Ngr;R thHj;ijf;Fg; gpd;dH mtuJ rpiwj; jz;lid tPl;Lf; fhtyhf khw;wg;gl;lJ. 1642 Mk; Mz;L fypypNah ,aw;if va;jpdhH. jdJ %g;Gf; fhyj;jpy; fypypNah jhd; vOjpa Ehypy; jdJ ifg;glg; gpd;tUkhW vOjpdhH. 

"kjthjpfNs! ePq;fs; QhapW-Gtp gw;wpf; nfhz;Ls;s ek;gpf;if xU fhyj;jpy; Gtp epiyahf ,Uf;fpwJ QhapW mijr; Rw;wp tUfpwJ vd;gtHfis ek;gpf;if <dHfs; vdg; ngaH #l;l itj;JtpLk;. mg;NghJ Gtp Qhapiwr; Rw;WfpwJ vd;w cz;ikr; rlg;nghUs; kw;Wk; jHf;f mbg;gilapy; vz;gpf;fg;gLk; vd ehd; epidf;fpNwd;.""

NfhngHdpf;fd; QhapW ikaf; Nfhl;ghl;Lf;F capH nfhLj;j %d;whtJ %Hj;jp Nahfdh]; nfg;yH (Johannes Kepler)  MthH. ,d;iwa n[Hkd; ehl;bd; (md;iwa Gdpj cNuhk rhk;uhr;rpak;) Tl;njk;NgHf; (Wurttemburg) efupy; 1571 Mk; Mz;L bnrk;gH khjk; 27 Mk; ehs; gpwe;jhH. kpfTk; NehQ;ryhd ,tH gpwe;j FLk;gk; tWikahdJ. Mdhy;> gbg;gpy; Rl;;bahf ,Ue;jjhy; Jgpd;n[d; (Tubingen) gy;fiyf; fofj;jpy; gbf;fg; Gyikg; gupR ngw;whH. mq;F mtH NfhngHdpf;fd; Nfhl;ghl;ilg; gbf;f tha;g;G Vw;gl;lJ. mjd; gydhf me;jf; Nfhl;ghl;il Mjupj;Jg; NgrTk; vOjTk; njhlq;fpdhH. gpuhf; efuj;jpy; tho;e;j Gfo;ngw;w mur fzpj tpw;gduhd upNrh gpuhNf (Tycho Brahe)  ,lk; nrd;W mtNuhL gzpnra;jhH. gpuhnf 1601Mk; Mz;L ,we;jNghJ mtuJ gjtpf;F epakdk; nra;ag;gl;lhH. gpuhNf Nrfupj;J itj;jpUe;j juTfspd; mbg;gilapy; nrt;tha;f; Nfhspd; Rw;W tl;lk; ePs; tl;l tbtkhdJ vd;gijf; fz;L gpbj;jhH. 1609Mk; Mz;L  Astronomia Nova vd;w Ehiy vOjpg; gpuRupj;jhH. ,e;j Ehy; ,tUf;F "etPd mwptpaypd; je;ij" vd;w gl;lj;ijg; ngw;Wf; nfhLj;jJ. Kjy; Kiwahf ,e;j mwptpayhsH Ngnuz;zpf;ifapy;  Fiwghlhd juTfis xOq;F gLj;jp ,aw;ifapd; %y tpjpiaf; (the first time a scientist dealt with a multitude of imperfect data to arrive at a fundamental law of nature ) fz;L gpbj;jhH.

,g;gb mtH %d;W tpjpfisf; fz;L gpbj;jhH. 1621 Mk; Mz;L VO njhFjpfisf; nfhz;l thdpaypd; RUf;fk; (Epitome Astronoiae ) vd;w Ehiy ntspapl;lhH. ,tHjhd; Kjd; Kjypy; fzpg;GfSf;F klf;ifiag; (Logarithm) gad;gLj;jp Nfhs;fspd; nrd;w fhy my;yJ tUq;fhy epiyfisj; jpUj;jkhff; fz;Lnfhs;s toptFj;jhH. Gjd; kw;Wk; nts;spf; Nfhs;fs; xNu NeHf; Nfhl;by; tUtij ,tH Kd;$l;bNa fzf;fpl;Lr; nrhd;dhH. Mdhy;> me;j epfo;T ,lk;ngWk; Kd; 1630 Mk; Mz;L nfg;yH ,aw;if va;jpdhH.

nfg;yH vj;jidNah Kjy;fspd; %ytH. mtw;;wpy; rpy>

    (1) njhiyNehf;fp vg;gbr; nray;gLfpd;wJ vd;gij tpsf;fpaJ.

    (2) ,tH vOjpa  Stereometrica Doliorum Ehy; xUKidg;gLj;jg; gl;l fy;fpA+yRf;F mbg;gilahf mike;jJ.

    (3) fly; nghq;Ftjw;F re;jpuNd fhuzk; vd tpsf;fpaJ. 

    (4) tpz;kPd;fspd; Jhuj;ijf; fzf;fpl Gtpapd; Row;rpahy; Vw;gLfpw  stellar parallax iag; gad; gLj;jpaJ.

    (5) QhapW jdJ mr;rpy; Roy;tjhfr; nrhd;dJ.

    (6) NaRehjH gpwe;j Mz;ilr; rupahff; fzf;fpl;Lr; nrhd;dJ.   

mLj;j fpoik ePz;l fhy ,ilntspf;Fg; gpd;dH `thdhtpy;  kPz;Lk; re;jpg;Nghk;.  


 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (59)

xU gUe;jpd; fPo;

"jiu" "jiu" vdf; $tpdhH!

njw;F Nehf;fpf; fpspfspd; rhaypy; gwe;j xU $l;lk; gwitiaf; fz;l jz;lay; myd;Nrh gpd;nrhd; (Captain Alonso Pinzon) mJtiu Nkw;Fj;jpir Nehf;fpg; gazpj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;j fg;gypd; jpiria njd;Nkw;fhfj; jpUg;GkhW nfhyk;grplk; nfQ;rp kd;whbaij mLj;J nfhyk;g]; jdJ tpUg;gj;Jf;F khwhf mg;gbNa fg;giyj; jpUg;g> fg;gy; fpA+gh Nehf;fp tpiue;jijg; ghHj;Njhk; my;yth?  

mg;NghJ$l nfhyk;g]; ag;ghdpa jPTfspy; xd;whd fhNj Nehf;fpj;jhd; fg;gy; nry;tjhf ek;gpdhH. mJkl;Lky;y fhNj (Cathay) kw;Wk; ag;ghdpa jPTfs; xU rpy yPf;]; (xU  yPf; Vwj;jhs %d;W iky; Jhuk;) Jhuj;jpy; ,Ug;gjhfTk; nfhyk;g]; ek;gpdhH. Mdhy;> cz;ikapy; ,e;jj; jPTfs; Nkw;Fj; jpirapy; mnkupf;ff; fz;lj;Jf;F mg;ghy; Mapuf;fzf;fhd iky;  njhiytpy; cs;s grpgpf; rKj;jpuj;jpy; ,Ug;gJ njupe;jNj. ,d;Dk; ,uz;nlhU ehspy; ,e;jj; jPTfspy; cs;s efuq;fisAk;> Nfhl;il NfhGuq;fisAk;> muz;kidfisAk; fz;zhuf; fhzg; Nghtjhff; nfhyk;g]; fdT fz;lhH. 

fduP]; efupy; ,Ue;J Gwg;gL Kd;dH ahH Kjypy; epyg;gug;igf; fhz;fpwhHfNsh mtUf;F xU gl;Lr; rl;ilAk;> 500 nlhyH gzk; guprhff; nfhLf;fg;gLk; vd;W nfhyk;g]; mwptpj;jpUe;jhH. vdNt vy;yh khYkpfsJ fz;fSk; jiu vq;NfahtJ njupfpwjh vdj; Jshtpf; nfhz;bUe;jd.  

ghNyh]; efuj;ijtpl;Lg; Gwg;gl;Lg; 10 fpoik fope;J tpl;ld. 1942 Mk; Mz;L xf;NjhgH khjk; 11Mk; ehs; khiy 10 kzpf;F rhe;jh Nkupah vd;w fg;gypd; filahypy; (stern)  epd;W nfhz;bUe;jNghJ fiuNahukhf mire;NjhLk; ntspr;rk; xd;W nfhyk;grpd; fz;fSf;Fj; njupe;jJ. mJ ahNuh xUtH ifapy; jPg;ge;jj;ijg;  gpbj;Jf; nfhz;L XLtJNghd;W ,Ue;jJ. mLj;j ehs; 12 Mk; ehs; fhiy  2.30 kzpf;F fg;gy; khYkp nwhl;upf;Nfh jiudhtpd; (Rodrigo Triana)  $upa fz;fSf;F kpff; fpl;ba njhiytpy; gue;J tpupe;J fple;j  flw;fiu njd;gl;lJ.  clNd mtH "jiu" "jiu" vdf; $tpdhH!  fg;gy;fs; fpl;ba Jhuk;tiu  fiuia mz;b xU Gjpa cyfpy; eq;$uk; gha;r;rpd. 

,J ve;j ,lk;? fhNjah? epr;rakhff; fhNj vd;Wjhd; nfhyk;g];  ek;gpdhH. fhiyapy; fpof;Nf #upad; cjakhFk;NghJ fhNj ehl;L kd;dHfsJ mjprak; epiwe;j nghd;Nta;e;j muz;kidfs;>  gspq;fpdhy; Md NfhGuq;fis fhzyhk; vd;w fdtpy; nfhyk;g]; kpje;jhH!  

gz;ilf; fhyj;jpy; fhyj;ijf; fzpg;gJ ngupa rpf;fyhf ,Ue;J te;jpUf;fpwJ. ehs;fhl;bj; njhFjpapd; tuyhWgw;wp NknyOe;jthupahf Kd;dNu nrhy;ypapUf;fpNwd;. Mz;Lfis QhapW> jpq;fs; ,uz;bdJk; Row;rpia itj;Jf; fzf;fpl;lNghJ ,uz;Lf;Fk; ,ilapy; tpj;jpahrk; Vw;gl;lJ. mJ$lg; gUthapy;iy. Qhapw;wpd; Row;rpia  itj;Jf; fzf;fpl;lNghNj Mz;Lfspd; fzpg;Gg; gpioj;jJ. fhuzk; Gtp Qhapw;iwr;  Rw;wptu  vLf;Fk; rupahd fhyk; 365.2422  ehs;fs; MFk;. mjhtJ MW kzp 11 kzpj;Jsp 14 tpdhb (.2422) mjpfk;. Mdhy;> fpK 45 ,y; A+ypa]; rPrH (Julius Caesar) mtHfshy; mwpKfg; gLj;jg;gl;l A+ypad;  ehs;fhl;b xU Mz;by; 365 1/4 ehs;fs; ,Ug;gjhff; fzpj;J ehd;F fhy; ehis xU ehshf vLj;J 4 Mz;LfSf;F xUKiw (leap year) xU ehis  Nkyjpfkhfr; NrHj;jJ.  

mg;gbapUe;Jk; 1582 Mk; Mz;L  mstpy;  ,e;jj; jtW (11 kzpj;Jsp 14 tpehb ) 12 ehshfj; jpuz;Ltpl;lJ. ,jdhy; QhapW eLf;Nfhl;bidf; fle;J nry;Yk; ,sNtdpw; fhyj;ij (Equinox) itj;Jf; fzpf;fg;gLk; Njthya tpLKiw ehs;fs; rupahd gUt fhyj;jpy; ,lk; ngwtpy;iy. khHr;R khjk; 20 - 21 ,y; tuNtz;ba ,sNtdpw;fhyk; khHr;R khj Muk;gj;jpNyNa tuj; njhlq;fpaJ. ,e;jj; jtwpid 13 MtJ Nghg; fpwnfwp  (1502 - 1585)  jpUj;jp mikf;f cj;jutpl;lhH. me;j cj;jutpd;gb fp.gp. 1582 Mk; Mz;L xf;NjhgH 4 Mk; ehSf;F mLj;j ehs;  xf;NjhgH 15 vd khw;wp 12 ehs;fs; Fiwf;fg;gl;lJ. NkYk; ehyhy; tFf;ff; $ba Ehw;whz;L  (vLj;Jf; fhl;L 1600> 1700> 1800>1900> 2000) jhT Mz;lhf (leap year)  mwptpf;fg;gl;lJ.  

,e;j khw;wj;ij vy;yh ehLfSk; cldbahf Vw;Wf; nfhs;stpy;iy. Fwpg;ghf Gul;l];jhdpa kjj;ijf; filg;gpbj;j ehLfs; fj;Njhypf;f Nghg;ghz;ltH nfhz;Lte;j jpUj;jj;ij Vw;f kWj;jd. Mdhy;> ehsiltpy; ma;Nuhg;gh> mnkupf;fh kw;Wk; Mrpa ehLfs; Gjpa fpwNfupad; ehs;fhl;bia Vw;Wf; nfhz;ld. fp.gp. 1752 Mk; Mz;L mjid Vw;Wf; nfhz;l gpupj;jhdpah nrg;njk;gH 2 Mk; ehis mLj;J nrk;njk;gH 14 vd mwptpj;jJ.  

fpwNfupad; ehs;fhl;bj; njhFjpf;F ,d;ndhU ngaH fpwp];jpad;  ehs;fhl;bj;  njhFjp vd;gjhFk;.  fhuzk; NaRehjupd; gpwe;j Mz;il Ropakhff;  fzf;fpl;lJ MFk;.     

cz;ikapy; gioa ehs;fhl;bj; njhFjpapd;gb nfhyk;g]; mnkupf;fhitf; fz;L gpbj;j ehs; xf;NjhgH 12 Mf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy;> mjd;gpd;  xU  Ehwhz;L fopj;J eilKiwf;F te;j Gjpa Kiwapd;gb mJ xf;NjhgH 21 MFk;. Md fhuzj;jpdhNyNa nfhyk;g]; mnkupf;fhitf; fz;L gpbj;j 500tJ Mz;L  tpohit 1992 Mk; Mz;L xf;NjhgH 21 ,y; nfhz;lhbdhHfs;. 

nfhyk;girg; nghWj;jstpy; jhk;; xU ag;ghdpa jPitf; fz;L gpbj;J tpl;ljhf  kdjhu ek;gpdhH. vdNt me;jj; jPit ,Rg;ghdpa murpapd; ngauhy; ifnaLf;f Maj;jkhdhH.

xU ehl;ilr; NrHe;j xUtH fg;gypy; gazk; nra;J NtnwhU ehl;Lf;F cupj;jhd epyg;gug;ig nrd;wile;J mq;F jdJ murp my;yJ murupd; ngauhy; ",e;j epyg;gug;G vd;Dila murp(r)uJ vd vt;thW $wKbAk;" vd;w Nfs;tpf;F tpil nrhy;tJ fbdk;. Mdhy;> xU gioa  nghd;nkhop xd;Wz;L. "ty;ytd; tFj;jNj tha;f;fhy;" (Might is right)  vd;gJjhd; me;jg; nghd;nkhop. vq;fs; fz;Kd;Nd kpfTk; tWikg;gl;l> ePz;l fhyk; cs;ehl;Lg; Nghupdhy; rpd;dh gpd;dkhfptpl;l Vio Mg;fdp];jhd; ehl;ilg; ngupa ty;yurhd mnkupf;fh mjd; kPJ Ehw;Wf;fzf;fhd VTfizfis Vtp> gj;jhapuj;Jf;Fk; mjpfkhd Fz;Lfis tPrp me;j ehl;ilj; jfHj;J fy; Nklhf;FtJ  ,e;j ty;ytd; tFj;jNj tha;f;fhy; vd;w Nfhl;ghl;bd; mbg;gilapNyjhd;.    

,g;gb ehL gpbf;Fk; ntwpNahL Gwg;gl;l flNyhbfs; (explorers)  Kd; jhk; ghHj;jpuhj xU Gjpa ehl;ilf; fz;lJk; ",J vd;DilaJk; vdJ muruJk; ehL!" vd;W nrhy;ypg; gpbj;j ehLfs;jhd; fdlh> mnkupf;fh> gpNurpy;> rpyp> nkf;rpf;Nfh Nghd;w ehLfs;. mtHfs; fz;Nzhl;lj;jpy; ,e;jg; Gwrka ehLfs; (Pagan lands)  mnkupf;ff; fz;lj;jpy; Kjy; fhyb vLj;J itj;j ma;Nuhg;gpauJ murUf;Fr; nrhe;jkhdJ vd;gJ mtHfsJ ek;gpf;if MFk;.  Mdhy;>  ,g;gb mtHfs; mapNuhg;gpahtpy; ele;J nfhs;stpy;iy.  

nfhyk;g]; rhe;jh Nkupah fg;gypy; ,Ue;J xU  Njhzpiaf;  fPo; ,wf;fp mjpy; jd;NdhL ,uz;L Kf;fpa gzpahsHfs; kw;Wk; rpy khYkpfisAk; Vw;wpf;nfhz;L me;jj; jPit Nehf;fp typj;Jf; nfhz;L NghdhHfs;. rpy ehs;fSf;F Kd;dH ahiuf; nfhy;y Kide;jhHfNsh mtUf;F vy;yh khYkpfSk; NrHe;J  ey;tho;j;Jf;  $wp top mDg;gp itj;jhHfs;. jhq;fs; "tprud;" vd vz;zpa Ms; ,t;tsT mofhd jPTf;Fj; jq;fis thf;Ff; nfhLj;j tz;zk; nfhz;Lte;J NrHj;jij epidf;f mtHfSf;F kfpo;r;rpahfTk; tpag;ghfTk; ,Ue;jJ.  

rup te;jhy; Nghw;WtJk; gpioj;jhy; Jhw;WtJk; cyf tof;fk;. NjHjypy; xU fl;rp ntd;why; me;jf; fl;rpapd; nfhs;if tpsf;fk;> gug;Giu> Ntl;ghsHfs;> jiytupd; kjpEl;gk; vy;yhk; fr;rpjkhf ,Ue;jJ vdg; Nghw;wg;gLk;. khwhfj; Njhw;Wg; Nghdhy; mjw;F NeHkhwhf vy;yhNk gpioj;J tpl;lJ vdf; fz;ldf; fizfs; rPwp vOk;.   

Njhzpapy; nfhyk;gNrhL ,Ue;j  ,UtUk; cq;fSf;F  Vw;fdNt mwpKfkhdtHfs;.  xUtH jq;fg; ghsq;fisg; gupNrhjid nra;a mioj;Jtug;gl;l mtuJ gpujhd  gupNrhjfH. kw;wtH xg;ge;jq;fs; vOjf; $l;b tug;gl;l mtuJ rl;lthjp.  

nfhyk;g]; jdJ ftrj;Jf;F Nkyhf  nrt;tz;zj;jpy;  xU Nkyq;fp mzpe;jpUe;jhH. ,tHfSf;Fg; gpd;dhy; jz;ilay; mnyhd;Nrh gpd;rd; gpe;jh vd;Dk; fg;gypy; ,Ue;J ,wf;fg;gl;l Njhzpapy; te;J nfhz;bUe;jhH. ePdh vd;w %d;whtJ fg;gypy; ,Ue;J fPopwf;fpa kw;WnkhU Njhzpapy; mtuJ cld;gpwg;ghd jz;lay; tpd;nrd;l;; gpd;nrhd; tpiue;J te;jhH. %d;W NgUNk MSf;nfhU "gr;irr; rpYit" vd;W vOjg;gl;l gjhijfisf; nfhz;L te;jhHfs;. me;jg; gjhijfspy; ,Rg;ghdpa  ehl;bd; murH murp ,UtuJk; jiy vOj;Jf;fs; (initials) vOjg;gl;bUe;jd.  

mtHfs; jPit neUq;fpaNghJ fiuapy; xU rpy kdpjHfs; epw;gijg; ghHj;jhHfs;. fhNjapy; ,Uf;Fk; kf;fs;  cLj;Jk; Mlk;gukhd cilapy; ,Ug;ghHfs; vd;w ,Rg;ghdpaHfspd; vjpHghHg;Gf;F Vw;g me;j kdpjHfsJ cil ,Uf;ftpy;iy. cz;ikiar; nrhd;dhy; mtHfs; mjpfk; cLj;jpUf;fNt ,y;iy. Nkdp KOJk; nfhOg;Gk; tHzKk; kl;LNk G+rp ,Ue;jhHfs;.   

me;jg; gr;irj; jPT ghjp kuq;fshy; %lg;gl;L mstpy; rpwpjhfTk;>  jho;e;jhfTk;> jl;ilahfTk; fhl;rp mspj;jJ. cz;ikapy; me;jj; jPT GNshuplh Kidapy; ,Ue;J n`apl;btiu (Haiti) tpupe;J gue;J fple;j %thapuj;Jf;Fk; mjpfkhd gfhkh]; flw;ghiwj; jPTfspy; (Coral Islands) xd;whFk;. nfhyk;g]; jiuapwq;fpa me;jj; jPit g+HtPff; Fbkf;fs; Fthdhfhdp  (Guanahani)  vd;w ngaH nfhz;L mioj;jhHfs;. mJ ,d;W xd;wpy; cyfg;glj;jpy;  G+idj; jPT (Cat Island) my;yJ tl;ypq; jPT (Watling’s Island)  vd;W miof;fg;gLk; jPTfspy; xd;whf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. vJ rupahf ,Uf;fyhk; vdg; gy GyikahsHfs; tpthjpj;j gpd;dH mJ tl;;ypq; jPT vd;w KbTf;F te;Js;shHfs;.

#upa xspapy; Fspj;Jf; nfhz;L gsgsf;Fk; khlq;fisAk;> NfhGuq;fisAk;> muz;kidfisAk;> gl;bYk; gUj;jpapYk; nea;j tz;z tz;z  Milfis mzpe;j kdpjHfisAk; fhZk; mwpFwp xd;Wk; me;jg; gr;irj; jPtpy; njd;glhjJ nfhyk;gRf;F kpfg; ngupa Vkhw;wkhf ,Ue;jJ vd;gijr; nrhy;y Ntz;ba mtrpaNk ,y;iy!   


 

fpA+gh gzaf; fl;Liu (60)

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

mbik thzpfj;ij njhlf;fp itj;j Kjy; kdpjd; nfhyk;g];!

xUf;fhy; ,e;jj; jPT fhNjapy; ,Ue;J neLe;Jhuj;jpy; ,Uf;fpw jPthf ,Uf;fyhk;. ,q;F tho;gtHfSk; cz;ikahd fhNjapd; kf;fs; ,y;iy NghYk; vd;W nfhyk;g]; jd;idj;jhNd Njw;wpf; nfhz;lhH.  

jd;idr; Rw;wp khYkpfSk;> jz;lay;fSk;> Kf;fpa mjpfhupfSk; Gil#oj; Njhzpapy; ,Ue;J ,wq;fp jiuapy; fhyb vLj;J itj;jhH. xU  ifapy; gjhijAk; kW ifapy; thisAk; itj;Jf;nfhz;L ",e;jj; jPit vdJ GutyUk; f];ijy; (Castile)  ,uhr;rpaj;jpd; murpahd ,rngy;yhtpd;; ngaupy; ifafg; gLj;JfpNwd;. ,e;jj; jPtpw;F rd; ry;thNlhH (San Salvador) vdg; ngaupLfpNwd;" vd cuj;j Fuypy; nfhyk;g]; gpufldk; nra;jhH. mtH nrhd;d rupahd thHj;ijfs; vit vd;gJ njupatpy;iy. ,g;gbj;jhd;  mtH nrhy;ypapUg;ghH vd;W Cfpg;gjpy; jtwpy;iy. 

rd; ry;tNlhH vd;why; gupRj;j ,ul;rfH (NaRehjH)  my;yJ kPl;gtH vd;gJ nghUshFk;. nfhyk;g]; kl;Lky;y mtiug;  gpd;njhlHe;J ehLfisf; ifg;gw;wpa flNyhbfs; tptpypa Ntjj;jpy; cs;s ngaHfis my;yJ fpwpj;jt rkag; ngaHfis me;j ehLfSf;Fr; #l;bdhHfs; vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.  

nfhyk;g]; nra;j gpufldj;ijf; Nfl;l khYkpfSk; jz;lay;fSk; nfhyk;gRf;F vjpuhfj; jhq;fs; $wpa RLnkhopfisg; nghWj;jUsp kd;dpf;FkhW mtuJ fhypy; gagf;jpNahL tpOe;J kd;whbdhHfs;.  

"fhNjiaf; fz;L gpbj;J tpl;BHfs;. ,dp ePq;fs;jhd; vq;fsJ jiytH. vq;fis ePq;fs; nry;te;jHfshfTk; nry;thf;Fs;stHfshfTk; Mf;fg; NghfpwPHfs;. jsgjpf;F N[!" vd;W vy;NyhUk; fj;jpdhHfs;.  

gpwe;jNkdpauhd me;jj; jPT kf;fs; ,e;jf; fhl;rpiag; ghHj;J tpae;J NghdhHfs;. ,wf;iffs; cila Xlq;fs; (fg;gy;fis mg;gbj;jhd; mioj;jhHfs;)> Mlk;gu cil mzpe;J jhb itj;jpUe;j nts;is Kfq;fs;> nfhbfs;> ths;fs;> nrt;tz;z mq;fp mzpe;J fk;gPukhff; fhl;rpaspj;j fpotid Kse;jhs; ,l;L tzq;fpa gagf;jp....... ,t;thW jq;fSf;Fs; fijj;Jf; nfhz;lhHfs;. clNd mtHfSk; nfhyk;gRk; mtuJ $l;lhspfSk; NjtNyhfj;jpy; ,Ue;J te;jtHfs; vd;W vz;zp jiuapy; tpOe;J tzq;fp vOe;jhHfs;. NjtNyhfj;jpy; ,Ue;J te;jtHfs; jq;fisj; jhf;f Kd;tuhjijf; fz;l mtHfs; ijupakhf neUq;fpdhHfs;. ,e;jr; rk;gtj;ij                         nfhyk;g]; re;jpj;j ,e;jpaH         nfhyk;g]; gpd;tUkhW jdJ Fwpg;Gg; Gj;jfj;jpy; vOjpdhH. 

"mtHfs; vy;NyhUk; te;J xU ,lj;jpy; $bdhHfs;.........,U rhuhUk; el;ig tsHj;Jf; nfhs;syhk; vd;whHfs;. ehd;  mtHfs; fOj;jpy; mzpAkhW fz;zhb cUj;jpuhl;r kzpfs; (glass beads) gUe;J kzpfs; (hawk’s bells) rptg;Gj; njhg;gpfs; kw;Wk; rpWngWkjp tha;e;j nghUs;fisf; nfhLj;Njd;. mit mtHfSf;F kl;lw;w kfpo;r;rpiaf; nfhLj;jJ. ehq;fs; mtHfSf;Fr; rpwe;j ez;gHfshNdhk;." 

",e;jf; fhl;rp fz;nfhshf; fhl;rpahf ,Ue;jJ. mtHfs;  jq;fsplk; ,Ue;j vy;yhg; nghUl;fisANk kfpo;r;rpNahL  vq;fSf;F tpw;gid nra;jhHfs;. fpspfs;> gUj;jp Ehy;fl;ilfs;> <l;bfs>; fz;zhb cUj;jpuhl;r kzpfs;> kzpfs; kw;Wk; mNef nghUs;fs; Mfpadit gz;lkhw;wk; nra;ag;gl;ld. mtHfs; MAjq;fs; itj;jpUf;ftpy;iy. ,Uk;ghy; nra;j ve;j MAjq;fSk; mtHfsplk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. mtHfSf;F  ,Uk;Ggw;wp vJTk; njupe;jpUf;ftpy;iy. jq;fs; <l;bia kuj;jpdhy; nra;J mjd; Edpapy; vYk;igg; nghUj;jp ,Ue;jhHfs;.

ehd; mtHfsplk; xU thisf;  nfhLj;jNghJ  mwpahikahy; mjid cl;gf;fkhfg; gpbj;J ifia ntl;bf; nfhz;lhHfs;. ,tHfs; Ntiyf;fhuHfshf Copak; nra;aj; kpfTk; NjhjhdtHfs;. xU ma;k;gJ NgH NghJk; ,tHfs; vy;NyhiuAk; klf;fpg; gpbj;J vkf;F vJ NjitNah mtw;iw mtHfisf; nfhz;L nra;tpg;gjw;F." 

nfhyk;g]; jdJ ehs;Fwpg;Gg; Gj;jfj;jpy; ( xf;NjhgH 12> 1492) nja;Ndh (Taino) kf;fspd; Njhw;wk; mtHfs; Nkdpapy; G+rpapUe;j ik gw;wpg; gpd;tUkhW vOjpdhH.                                                   nja;Ndh Mzpd; Njhw;wk;        

"jha;khH ngw;wNghJ vg;gbg; gpwe;jNkdpauha;f;; fhzg;gl;lhHfNsh mg;gbf; fhzg;gl;lhHfs;. ngz;fSk; mg;gbNa. xNunahU Fkupg; ngz;iz kl;Lk; fz;Nld;. ehd; fz;ltHfspy; mNefH ,isQHfs;. Kg;gJ mfitiaj; jhz;lhjtHfs;. mtHfs; ey;y jplfhj;jpukhfTk; ghHf;f kpf tbthfTk; ,Ue;jhHfs;.  vy;NyhUf;Fk; ey;y Kfntl;L> jiyKb fl;ilahfTk; KulhfTk; ,Ue;jJ> Kd;gf;fg; GUtq;fs; kl;Lk; ePz;L ,Ue;jd> jiyf;Fg; gpd;dhy; kapH ePz;ljhf ,Ue;jJ> jiyKbia ntl;Lk; tof;fk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. rpyH jq;fs; clypy; nts;is ik G+rp ,Ue;jhHfs;> rpyH rptg;G ik G+rp ,Ue;jhHfs;> kw;wtHfs; ve;j epwk; fpilf;fpwNjh mtw;iwg; G+rpdhHfs;. rpyH jq;fs; Kfq;fSf;F kl;Lk; G+rpdhHfs;. rpyH cly; KOJk; G+rpdhHfs;> rpyH jq;fs; fz;fisr; Rw;wp kl;Lk; G+rpdhHfs;> ,d;Dk; rpyH %f;Ff;F kl;Lk; G+rpdhHfs;." 

"ehd; ",e;jpahtpy;" cs;s Kjy; jPitf; fz;L gpbj;jJk;>  ,e;jg; gFjpiag;gw;wpa nra;jpfis mwpa cs;SHthrpfs; gyiug; gyte;jkhfg; gpbj;J itj;Jf; nfhz;Nld;."" 

,Rg;ghdpa ehl;Lf; fUT+yj;Jf;Ff; nfhz;Lte;J Ftpf;Fk; jq;fk; thridg; nghUl;fspd; ngWkjpapy; nfhyk;gRf;F 10 tpOf;fhL> fz;L gpbj;j ehLfSf;F nfhyk;g]; MSeuhf epakdk; kw;Wk; flw;gilj; jsgjp vd;w gl;lk; Mfpad toq;;fg;gLk; vd;W nfhyk;g]; ,Rg;ghdpa muNrhL xg;ge;jk; vOjpf; nfhz;lJ cq;fSf;F Qhgfk; ,Uf;fyhk;.   

nfhyk;grpd; fly; gazj;jpd; Kf;fpa Fwpf;Nfhs; fhNjiaf; fz;Lgpbj;J mq;Fs;s jq;fk;> khzpf;fk; kw;Wk; thridg; nghUl;fis ms;spr; nry;tJjhd;. vdNt nfhyk;g]; me;jj; jPT kf;fsplk;- ,e;jpahtpd; fiuia mile;Jtpl;ljhf epidj;J mtHfis nfhyk;g]; ,e;jpaH vd;Nw mioj;jhH- fhNj vq;fpUf;ff; $Lk; vd nky;yf; Nfl;lhH. mtuJ Nfs;tp ,e;jpaHfSf;F tpsq;ftpy;iy vd;gij ehd; cq;fSf;Fr; nrhy;yj; Njitapy;iy.  

fpl;lj;jl;l xU lrpd; nkhopfisj; njupe;j Yhap]; vd;w nkhopngaHg;ghsH me;j nkhopfs; vy;yhtw;wpYk; Nfl;Lg; ghHj;Jk; gyd; xd;Wk; fpilf;ftpy;iy. Mdhy;> ,e;jpaHfs; fhl;ba if mirTfs;> mtHfs; Ngrpa xypf;Fwpg;Gf;fs; ,tw;iw itj;J fhNj vq;Nfh njd;Nkw;Nf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W nfhyk;g]; jd;ghl;by; tpsq;fpf; nfhz;lhH. jhd; Njb te;j jq;fKk; mq;Fjhd; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W ek;gpdhH. 

,e;j ek;gpf;iff;F xU rpd;df; fhuzk; ,Ue;jJ. ,e;jpaHfsJ fhJfspYk; %f;fpYk; rpW rpW gTz; eiffs; njhq;fpf; nfhz;bUe;jd. Mdgbahy; mtHfistpl ehfupfkhd kf;fsplk; kQ;rs; epwj; jq;ff; fl;bfs; ngUthupahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W ek;gpdhH.

mtHfsJ ifg; ghiria itj;J njw;Nf xU kd;dd; Ml;rp nra;tjhfTk;; mtdplk; Vuhskhd jq;fk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd nfhyk;g]; epidj;jhH. nfhyk;g]; rpy rq;fjpfisf; Nfl;lwpe;J nfhz;lhH. Fthdhfhdpapy; (Guanahani) thOk; nja;dh kf;fSf;F fdpgh (Caniba) vd;w jPTfspy; tho;gtHfs; vjpupfshf ,Ue;jhHfs; vd;gJ mtw;wpy; xd;whFk;.     

"gyuJ clk;gpy; fhaq;fs; ,Ug;gijf; fz;Nld;. if mirT %yk; mit vd;dntd;W Nfl;Nld;. gf;fj;jpYs;s  jPTfspy; ,Ue;J vq;fisg; gpbf;Fk; Nehf;NfhL tUthHfs;. ehq;fs; vq;fisg; ghJfhj;Jf; nfhs;s rz;il nra;Nthk;. mg;NghJ ngw;w fhaq;fs;jhd; ,it vdr; nrhd;dhHfs;.  ngupa jPTfspy; ,Ue;J ,tHfisr; rpiwg; gpbj;Jg; Nghf tUfpwhHfs; vd;W ehd; epidj;Jf; nfhz;Nld;." 

nfhyk;gRf;F  kfpo;r;rp gpbgltpy;iy. ntw;wp iff;F vl;ba Jhuj;jpy; ,Ug;gjhf vz;zpdhH. ag;ghd;> rPdh> ,e;jpah vy;yhk; fpl;l ,Ug;gjhff; fw;gid nra;jhH. Mdhy;> xd;iw kl;Lk; mtH epidj;Jg; ghHf;ftpy;iy. mJjhd; mnkupf;fh vd;w xU Gjpa cyfj;ijf; jhd; fz;L gpbj;j cz;ik. mtH ,wf;Fkl;Lk; me;j cz;ik mtUf;Fj; njupatpy;iy.  

Mrpahtpd; fpof;Ff; fiuapy; jiu ,wq;fpahr;R. ,dp ,e;jpahit mila fpl;lbg; ghijiaf; fz;L gpbf;f Ntz;Lk;. mJjhd; nfhyk;grpd; rpf;fyhf Mf ,Ue;jJ. 

jq;f tay;fisf; fhNzhk; mLj;J vd;d nra;tJ? nfhyk;gRf;F xU Nahrid Njhd;wpaJ. ,e;j ,e;jpaHfis itj;J mbik thzpfk; nra;J gzk; rk;ghjpf;fyhk; vd epidj;jhH.  clNd nfhyk;g]; nraypy; ,wq;fpdhH. Mz;> ngz;> Foe;ijfs; vd 1>500 mwthf; (Arawak)  kf;fisr; Rw;wp tisj;Jg; gpbj;J kpUfq;fisf; $z;by; milj;J itg;gJ Nghy $z;by; milj;jhH. mtHfs; jg;gp Xbtplhky; ,Uf;f ,Rg;ghdpaHfisAk; eha;fisAk; fhtYf;F epWj;jpdhH.  

mLj;j ehs; mq;fpUe;J Gwg;gLKd; mtHfspy; jplfhj;jpukhd 500 Ngiuj; njupT nra;J fg;gy;fspy; Vw;wpdhHfs;. ,Rg;ghdpahtpw;Ff; fg;gy; jpUk;gpaNghJ 300 NgH kl;Lk; gpioj;jhHfs;. kw;wtHfs; topg; gazj;jpy; ,we;J  gl;lhHfs;. ,Rg;ghdpahit mile;jJk; vQ;rpatHfs; tpw;gidf;F tplg; gl;lhHfs;. 

mLj;j ehs; nfhyk;g]; NtW jPTfisf; fz;L gpbf;Fk; Nehf;NfhL fg;gypy; Gwg;gl;lhH. Kjypy; jiuapwq;fpa jPitg; Nghd;w gy mofhd jPTfisAk; mtw;wpy; tho;e;j kf;fisAk; fz;L gpbj;jhH. mJgw;wpa tpguj;ij ,Rg;ghdpa murUf;Fk; murpahUf;Fk; njuptpg;gjw;F xU kly; tiue;jhH. 

",e;j ehL vg;gbg; gfy; ,uittpl tdg;ghf ,Uf;fpwNjh mg;gb Vida ehLfistpl mofhf ,Uf;fpwJ. ,q;F thOk; G+HtPf Fbkf;fs; jq;fis Nerpf;fpwJ NghyNt jq;fs; maytHfisAk; Nerpf;fpwhHfs;. mtHfsJ ciuahly; kpf ,dpikahf ,Uf;fpwJ. Kfq;fspy; vg;NghJk; Gd;dif. vq;fSld; fdpthfTk; md;ghfTk; goFfpwhHfs;. ehd; kfhuhzpahupd; ngauhy; rj;jpak; nra;fpNwd; ,tHfistpl caHthdtHfs; ,e;j cyfj;jpNyNa fhzKbahJ."   

,g;gb vOjpd nfhyk;g]; jd;kPJ ek;gpf;if itj;J md;Gfhl;ba me;j mg;ghtpkf;fis Vd; rpd;dj;jdkhf elj;jpdhH? nfhyk;g];jhd; mtHfis me;jj; jPTfspy; ,Ue;J gpbj;Jr; nrd;W  nts;isaHfSf;F mbikfshf tpw;Wg; gzk; rk;ghjpf;fyhk; vd;W jpl;lk; Nghl;l Kjy; kdpjd;;!