fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (41)

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;!

cyfpd; jiytpjpia khw;wpa gazk;

nfhyk;grpd; ez;gHfs; rd;khdj;ij Fiwf;FkhW mtuplk; Ntz;LNfhs; tpLj;jhHfs;. Nguhir ngUk; el;lk;. rd;khdj;ij Fiwf;fhtpl;lhy; nfhyk;g]; vy;yhtw;iwAk; ,oe;J xl;lhz;bahfg; Nghf  Neuplyhk; vd;W vr;rupj;jhHfs;. Mdhy; nfhyk;g]; fPopwq;fp tuj; jahuhf ,y;iy. "vd;dhy; vijr; nra;a KbAk;> vjidr; rhjpf;f KbAk;  vd;gJ vdf;Fj; njupAk;. mJkl;Lk; my;yhJ ,Rg;ghdpa ehl;L murUf;Fk; murpf;Fk; vd;dhy; vijnaijg; ngw;Wf; nfhLf;f KbAk; vd;gJk; vdf;Fj; njupAk;. ,Rg;ghdpa murUk; murpAk; cjtp nra;a kWj;jhy; my;yJ Kbahnjd;why; ehd; NtW ehl;LmurHfsJ cjtpia ehLNtd;" vd;whH. 

"rup mg;gbNa Ngha;j; njhiy" vd;W murpahUk; mtuJ MNyhrfHfSk; nrhd;dhHfs;. nfhyk;g]; jdJ CH  jpUk;g KbT nra;J NfhNtW fOijapy; Vwpg; gazg;gl;lhH. ,Rg;ghdpa ehL jd;idf;iftpl;l epiyapy; gpuhd;R ehl;L muriu kPz;Lk; mZfp mtuJ Mjuit Nfl;Lg; ngWtnjd nfhyk;g]; jdf;Fs; KbT nra;jhH. 

ey;yfhyk; muz;kidf; fUT+yg; nghWg;ghsuhfuhff; flikahw;wpa  Luis de Santángel vd;gtUk;> NtnwhU mjpfhupahd Quintanilla vd;gtUk; nfhyk;grpd; jpl;lj;jpdhy;  ,Rg;ghdpa ehl;Lf;Ff; fpilf;ff;$ba Gfo;> nry;tk;> nry;thf;F ,tw;iwf; fzf;Fg; Nghl;Lg; ghHj;jhHfs;. mtHfs; ,UtUk; mtw;iw ,of;f tpUk;gtpy;iy. ,Rg;ghdpa ehL nfhyk;girg; gad;gLj;jh tpl;lhy;  ,d;ndhU ehL mtiug; gad;gLj;jp ,Rg;ghdpa ehl;Lf;F tuNtz;ba GfioAk; nry;tj;ijAk; nry;thf;ifAk; jl;bf; nfhz;L Ngha;tpLk; vd;W me;j ,uz;L mjpfhupfSk;  gae;jhHfs;. mg;gb elf;ftplf; $lhJ vd;W mtHfs; KbT nra;jhHfs;.   

clNd mtHfs; Xl;lKk; eilAkhf ,Rg;ngy;yh murpahupd; me;jg; Guk; Nehf;fp tpiue;jhHfs;. murpahuplk; nfhyk;grpw;F rhHghf   thjhbdhHfs;. "ePq;fs; fpwpj;Jt ehLfsJ  ngupa Nguurpahf tpsq;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W Mirg;gl;lhy; nfhyk;grpd; Nfhupf;iffSf;F ePq;fs; ,zq;f Ntz;Lk;. nfhyk;g]; ,e;jg; gazj; jpl;lj;ij cUthf;f jdJ tho;ehspd; ngUk;gFjpia nrytpl;bUf;fpwhH. mjdhy;jhd; mtH rd;khdkhff; $Ljy; gq;F Nfl;fpwhH. ,Rg;ghdpahtpw;Ff; fpilf;ff; $ba Mjhaj;NjhL xg;gpl;Lg; ghHj;jhy; mtH  Nfl;Fk; gq;F kpfTk; nrhw;gkhdJ. fpwdhlhit kPl;gjw;F NrhdfNuhL ehq;fs; njhLj;j Aj;jj;jpw;F ngUe;njhifg; gzj;ij nryT nra;jpUf;fpNwhk;. Aj;jj;jpdhy; fUT+yk; Vw;fdNt fhypahfp tpl;lJ.  nfhyk;g]; xUtuhy;jhd; mjid epug;g KbAk;.   

,e;jpahTk; fhNjAk; (Cathay) jq;fk;> etuj;jpdq;fshy;  epuk;gp topAk; ehLfs;  vd;W nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ. mtw;iwnay;yhk; jpul;b nfhyk;g]; fg;gy; fg;gyhf Vw;wpf; nfhz;L te;J vq;fSf;Fj; jUthH. vy;yhtw;wpw;Fk; Nkyhf nfhyk;g]; fz;L gpbf;Fk; ehLfspy; cs;stHfs; kj ek;gpf;ifaPdHfs; (heathen).  mtHfis nfhyk;g]; fpwpj;Jt kjj;jpw;F khw;w epr;rak; cjTthH. ,Rg;ghdpah Nrhdfiu Aj;jj;jpy; ntd;Wtpl;lJ. mNjNghy; nfhyk;g]; ehq;fs; fhNjia nty;y cjtp nra;thH."

muz;kid mjpfhupfs; kpfTk; gt;tpaj;NjhLk;> gzpNthLk; mNj rkak; Mzpj;jukhfTk;  nfhyk;gRf;fhf murpahNuhL fLikahf thjhbdhHfs;. ghHj;jhH murpahH. jdJ muz;kid mjpfhupfs; vLj;J itj;j thjj;jpy; epiwa tY ,Ug;gJNghy; mtUf;Fj; Njhd;wpaJ. Gjpa ehLfisg; gpbg;gJ> me;j ehLfspd; jpuz;l nry;tj;ij ifg;gw;wp ,Rg;ghdpahtpw;F nfhz;L tUtJ> mjdhy; ,Rg;ghdpahtpw;F Vw;glf;$ba  Gfo;> kupahij> me;j];J murpahuJ kdj;jpiuapy; jpiug;glk;Nghy; Xb mtiu kfpo;tpj;jJ.  

"clNd nfhyk;gir jpUk;gp tUkhW nra;jp mDg;Gq;fs;. murpahH mtuJ Nfhupf;iffis Vw;Wf; nfhz;bUg;gjhfr; mtuplk; nrhy;Yq;fs;. murH ngHbdd;l; ,jw;Fr; rk;kjpf;fhtpl;lhy; gUthapy;iy.  ,g;gbahd xU risk ia mtH vLf;f tpUk;ghtpl;lhYk; ghjfkpy;iy. ehd; rk;kjpg;gjhf nfhyk;gRf;Fr; nrhy;Yq;fs;. nfhyk;g]; gpuhd;R ehl;Lf;Fs; EisA Kd;dH Misg; gpbj;J thUq;fs;. Ck; - rPf;fpuk;..." murpahupd; fl;lisfs;  fhw;wpYk; $ba Ntfj;Jld; gpwg;gpf;fg;gl;ld.   

mur fhty;fhud; rpwpjsTk; jhkjk; nra;aahky; Ntfkhf Xlf;$ba Fjpiu xd;wpy; gha;e;Njwp mjid nfhyk;g]; jpUk;gpf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; jpf;F Nehf;fp jl;btpl;lhd;. Fjpiu ehYfhy; gha;r;rypy; gwe;jJ.  

nfhyk;grpd; kNdhepiy me;j Neuj;jpy; ngupJk; Fok;gpg; NghapUe;jJ. jdJ gazj;jpl;lk; ,Rg;ghdpa murpahuhy; xNuabahf epuhfupf;fg;gl;L tpl;lJ. ,g;NghJ NtW ehLfspd; cjtpia ehl Ntz;bAs;sJ. mg;gbr; nra;tijtpl NtW topNa ,y;iy. ,e;j murH> murpfis ek;gNt $lhJ. 

mg;NghJ nfhyk;gRf;F rpW tajpy; jhd;gbj;j iggps; Gj;jfj;jpy; ,Ue;j  xU nghd;nkhop Qhgfj;jpw;F te;jJ. "murpfs; kPJ ek;gpf;if  itahNj."  ftiy> Vkhw;wk;> jdpik nfhyk;grpd; kdij thl;bnaLj;jd. jdJ NfhNtW fOijapy; nky;y CHe;J  nfhz;bUe;jhH. gpuhd;R ehl;L kd;did mZfyhk;. Mdhy; mtd; vd;d nrhy;thNdh? kPz;Lk; mtdplk; Nghtjpy; VjhtJ gyd; ,Uf;fpwjh" nfhyk;grpd; kdjpy; mtiu mwpahky; tpuf;jp jiyfhl;baJ.  Mdhy; jdf;Fg; gpd;dhy; mjpl;lk; ehYfhy; gha;r;rypy; gwe;J nfhz;L tUtij mtH czutpy;iy.  

mg;NghJ nfhyk;g]; xU rpd;d ghyj;ijf; fle;J nfhz;bUe;jhH. me;jg; ghyk; fpwdlhtpy; ,Ue;J MW iky; njhiytpy; ,Ue;jJ. mjd; ngaH Bridge of Pinos   vd;gjhFk;. Fjpiuapd; Fsk;Gr; rj;jk; ,g;NghJ kpf mz;ikapy; njspthff; Nfl;lJ. me;jg; ghyk; topg;gwpf; nfhs;isaHfSf;F ngaHNghdJ.  nfhyk;grpd;  gazg; igapy;  murpahH nfhLj;j gzj;jpy; nfhQ;rk; kpQ;rp ,Ue;jJ. me;jg;  gzk;  KOtijAk;  jpUluplk; gwpnfhLf;fg; NghfpNwhNkh vd;w gak; nfhyk;gir ft;tpf; nfhz;lJ.  

,g;NghJ Fjpiuapd; Fsk;Gr; rj;jk; kpff; fpl;ba Jhuj;jpy; Nfl;lJ. mjpy; te;j tPud; cuj;j Fuypy; gykhff; fj;jpdhd;   " jpUk;G! clNd jpUk;G! murpahH cd;id cldbahf fpwdlh  jpUk;GkhW fl;lis ,LfpwhH. mtH cdJ Nfhupf;iffs; mj;jidiaAk; Vw;Wf; nfhz;Ls;shH."  

nfhyk;g]; jaq;fpdhH. "murpfs; kPJ ek;gpf;if itahNj."vd;w  iggps; thrfk;  mtuJ kdjpy; gl;Lj; njwpj;jJ. murpahupd; Ngr;ir ek;gp jpUk;gpg; Nghdhy; gioagb Ntjhsk; KUf;f kuj;jpy; Vwpa fijNghy; jhd; kPz;Lk; Vkhw;wj;Jf;F cs;shff; $Lk; vd;w ftiy nfhyk;girg; gPbj;jJ. ,Ue;Jk; jpUk;gpr; nrd;W  ,d;Dk; xUKiw> filrp Kiw> Kaw;rpf;f vz;zpdhH. ahH  fz;lhHfs;. ,g;NghJ murpahH cz;ikapy; kdk; khwp ,Uf;ff; $Lk;!  

me;jg; ghyj;jpy; eLtpy; epd;W nfhz;L fpwdlhTf;F jpUk;gpr;  nry;y KbT  nra;jhH. fpwdlhit Nehf;fp NfhNtW fOijiaj; jpUg;gpdhH. te;j topapy; NfhNtW fOij elf;f Muk;gpj;jJ. 

murpahiuj;  jpUk;gTk; nfhyk;g]; re;jpj;jNghJ mtuJ Nfhupf;iffs; vy;yhtw;iwAk; murpahH Vw;Wf; nfhz;lhH vd;W ehd; nrhy;y Ntz;bajpy;iy. NkYk; gy thuq;fs; ePbj;j Ngr;R thHj;ijfSf;Fg; gpd;dH 1492Mk; Mz;L Vg;uy; khjk; xg;ge;jk; xd;W cUthdJ. mjpy; murUk;> murpahUk;> nfhyk;gRk; ifnaOj;jpl;lhHfs;.   

,e;jpahitf; fz;L gpbj;jhy; nfhyk;g]; gazk; nra;Ak; fly;fs;> rKj;jpuq;fs; vy;yhtw;wpw;Fk; flw;gilj; jsgjpahf mtuJ MAs; G+uhTk; ,Ug;ghH. fz;L gpbf;fg;gLk;  ehLfs;> jPTfis MSk; MSeuhftk; nfhyk;g]; epakpf;fg;gLthH. mq;fpUe;J nfhz;Ltug;gLk; jq;fk;> Kj;J> ituk;> it^upak; kw;Wk; jputpaq;fs; midj;jpYk; nfhyk;gRf;F gj;jpy; xU gq;F nfhLf;fg;gLk;. fg;gy; gazr; nrytpy; vl;by; xU gq;if nfhyk;g]; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;. mNjNghy; me;jg; gazj;jhy; tUk; ,yhgj;jpy; nfhyk;gRf;F vl;by; xU gq;F nfhLf;fg;gLk;.    

gjpNdO Mz;Lfhykhf njhlHrpahf vLj;j tplhKaw;rpapd;  gaid nfhyk;g]; mWtil nra;Ak; fhyk; neUq;fpf; nfhz;bUe;jJ. ,e;jpahitf; fz;Lgpbf;f Nkw;F Nehf;fpg; gazk; nra;Ak; nfhyk;grpd; gazj; jpl;lj;ij xU gapj;jpaf;fhudpd; Vl;Lr; Ruf;fha; vd;W vs;sp eifahbatHfspd; thia milf;f xU tha;g;G mtiu Nehf;fp te;J nfhz;bUe;jJ.    

muz;kid mjpfhupfs; nfhyk;gir " nlhd; fpwp];NjhgH nfhyk;g];" vd;W miof;f Muk;gpj;jhHfs;. "khz;GkpF NkjifaPH" (Your Excellency)  "flw;gilj; jsgjp" (Admiral) vd mtH tpspf;fg;gl;lhH.     

nfhyk;g]; clNd Palos de la Front vd;w JiwKfg; gl;bdj;Jf;F gazg;gl;lhH. me;jg; gazk; tuyhNwhL mtH nra;Jnfhz;l re;jpg;ghfTk; cyfpd; jiytpjpia khw;Wk; gazkhfTk; ,Ue;jJ.  

NghFk; topapy; ugPlh klj;jpd; kjj; jiytH Friar Juan Perez mtHfisr; re;jpj;J  mtH jdf;Fr; nra;j NgUjtpf;F   jdJ ed;wpiaj; nfhyk;g]; njuptpj;Jf; nfhz;lhH.  jdJ gazj;jpl;lk;  ntw;wpailaf;  $ba rhj;jpak;  gpufhrkhf  ,Uf;fpwJ vd;W mtuplk; nfhyk;g]; vLj;Jiuj;jhH.  

ghNyh]; vd;w JiwKfg; gl;bdk; upd;Nuh (Tinto)  vd;w Mw;wpd; Kfj;Jthuj;jpy; ,Ue;jJ. ,Rg;ghdpa ehl;L tiuglj;ijg; ghHj;jhy; ghNyh]; me;j ehl;bd; njd;Nkw;fpy; NghHj;Jf;fy; ehl;bd; vy;iyf;F mz;ikahf ,Ug;gijf; fhzyhk;. ,g;NghJ ,e;j JiwKfj;jpd; ngUk;gFjpia fly; tpOq;fp tpl;lJ. Mdhy; 400 Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH mJ ngupa JiwKfkhf tpsq;fpaJ. mg;Nghnjy;yhk; ,Rg;ghdpa ehL mjpfsT ngupa vz;zpf;ifAs;s JiwKfq;fisf; nfhz;l ehlhf ,Uf;ftpy;iy.  

jdJ gazj;ij ghNyh]; JiwKfj;jpy; ,Ue;J Muk;gpf;f nfhyk;g]; tpUk;gpdhH. fhuzk; mq;Fjhd; khYkpfs; gyH ,Ue;jdH. mjdhy; jdf;F Ntz;ba khYkpfis mq;F jpul;LtJ Rygk; vd;WmtH epidj;jhH. Mdhy; mtuJ epidg;G jtwhfg; Ngha;tpl;lJ vd;gij mtH mg;NghJ czHe;J,Uf;ftpy;iy.

 


fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (42)

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;!

nfhyk;grpd; fdT gypj;jJ

ghNyh]; ( Palos) JiwKfg; gl;bdf; Fbkf;fSf;Fk; ,Rg;ghdpa murH kw;Wk; murpaH ,ilapy; ey;YwT ,Uf;ftpy;iy. me;jg; gl;bdj;J Fbkf;fis murUk; murpahUk; jz;bf;f tpUk;gpdhHfs;.  jz;lidahf xU Mz;L fhyj;Jf;F ,uz;L rpwpa fg;gy;fis $yp VJk; ngw;Wf; nfhs;shky; muruJk; murpahuJk; rhHgpy; nfhyk;g]; gazk; nra;af; nfhLj;J cjtNtz;Lk; vdf; fl;lis gpwg;gpf; gl;lJ.  

nfhyk;g]; ghNyh]; gl;bdj;jpy; tho;e;j jiyahupfs; midtUf;Fk; mur  fl;lisfis Nfl;lwpa Gdpj NahHr; Njthyaj;jpy; ( Church of St.George)   re;jpf;FkhW miog;G tpLj;jhH. mtHfs; te;jhHfs;. Mdhy; jhq;fs; vjw;fhf miof;fg;gl;lhHfs;>  vd;d nra;aNtz;Lk; vd;gJ  mtHfSf;F  Kjypy; njupahky; ,Ue;jJ. jhq;fs; mur fl;lisg;gb ,uz;L fg;gy;fisAk;  gy khYkpfisAk; nfhLj;J cjt Ntz;Lk; vd;gij mwpe;jNghJ mtHfis gak; ft;tpf; nfhz;lJ.  jpf;Fj; jpir njupahj> Kd;gpd; gof;fk; ,y;yhj> ,Uz;l flypy; gazg;gLtjw;F khYkpfisj; nfhLj;J cjt Ntz;Lk; vd;w cj;juT  mtHfSf;F ngUk; mr;rj;ij tpistpj;jJ.   

muruJk;  murpahuJk; fl;lisg;gb nfhyk;gRf;F ,uz;L fg;gy;fisf;  nfhLj;Jjt mtHfs; Kd;te;jhHfs;.  Mdhy; fg;gy;fisr; nrYj;Jk;  khYkpfisf; nfhLj;Jjt jhq;fs; jahupy;iy vd;Wnrhd;dhHfs;. Muk;gNk nfhyk;gRf;F mgrFdkhf ,Ue;jJ. fg;giyr; nrYj;Jtjw;F Ntz;ba khYkpfisj; jpul;Ltjpy; mtUf;F ngupa Kl;Lf;fl;ilifs; vOe;jd.    

mur epHthfpfs; vd;d nra;tnjd;W njupahJ Kopj;jhHfs;. gykhf Nahrpj;Jk; xU topAk; Njhd;wtpy;iy. Kbtpy; mur nrayhsH khYkpfisj; jpul;Ltjw;F xU top fz;L gpbj;jhH. rpiwapy; thLk; ifjpfspy;  ahuhtJ fg;gypy; khYkpfshfg; Nghf tpUk;Gk; gl;rj;jpy; mtHfSf;F tpLjiy toq;fg;gLk;  vd mwptpj;jhH. khYkpfsJ $yp gazj;Jf;Fg; gpd;dH my;y> gazj;Jf;F Kd;dH Kw;gzkhff; nfhLf;fg;gLk; vd;W mwptpj;jhH. vd;d nra;Jk; ,uz;L fg;gy;fisr; nrYj;jg; NghJkhd khYkpfisj; jpul;LtJ tpy;yq;fkhf ,Ue;jJ.  

,e;jf; fl;lj;jpy; nfhyk;grpd; Kaw;rpf;Ff; ifnfhLf;f yh wgplh (  La Rábida ) klj;ij NrHe;j RthkpfSk;>  khl;bd; myd;Nrh gpd;nrhd; ( Captain Martín Alonso Pinzón) vd;w  jz;laYk; Kd;te;jhHfs;. ,jpy; gpd;nrhd; ,e;jg; gazj;jpy; NrHe;J nfhs;sTk;  Kd;te;jhH. gpd;nrhd; kpfTk; mDgtk; tha;e;j flNyhb. nrhy;yg;Nghdhy; nfhyk;gir tpl mtUf;Ff; flNyhLk; mDgtk; $Ljyhf ,Ue;jJ. gpd;rNdhL mtuJ  ,uz;L cld;gpwg;Gf;fSk; NrHe;J nfhz;lhHfs;.   

jz;lay; gpd;nrhd; (Captain Pinzon) gazj;Jf;F Ntz;ba khYkpfisj; jpul;Ltjw;fhf fsj;jpy; ,wq;fpdhH. ,uz;L fg;gNyhL %d;whtJ fg;gy; xd;iwAk; "fg;gy;gilapy;" NrHj;jhH. khYkpfSf;F thf;FWjpfisAk; Mir thHj;ijfisAk; ms;sp tPrpdhH. ,g;gb fpoikf; fzf;fhf cioj;jjd; gadhf  %d;W fg;gy;fSf;Fk; Njitahd 90 khYkpfis jpul;Ltjpy;> mur epHthfpfshy; Kbahj fhupaj;jpy;> gpd;nrhd; ntw;wp fz;lhH.   

Kjy; fg;gy;  Cristóbal Quintero  vd;gtUf;Fr; nrhe;jkhdJ. mjd; ngaH gpd;uh ( Pinta)   ,uz;lhtJ fg;gy; ePNdh. Juan Niño vd;gtUf;F nrhe;jkhdJ. %d;whtJ fg;gypd; ngaH Capitana.  ,J Juan de la Costa vd;gtUf;Fr; nrhe;jkhdJ. gazk; Gwg;gLtjw;F Kd;dH fg;gpl;bdh vd;w  fg;gy;  rhe;jh khupah ( Santa María )  vdg; ngaH  khw;wk; nra;ag;gl;lJ. NkYk; mJ cs;sjpy; ngupa fg;gyhf ,Ue;jgbahy; mJNt  nfhbf; fg;gy; (flag ship) Mff; fUjg;gl;lJ.   

,e;jf; fg;gy;fs; vg;gbf; fl;lg;gl;ld> fl;ba Nkj;jpupfs; ahH ahH  vd;w juTfs;gw;wp mjpfk; njupatpy;iy. cs;s rhl;rpaq;fspd; mbg;gilapy;  ePNdh kw;Wk; gpd;uh fg;gy;fs; 54 kPl;wpf; njhd; epiAk; 21-24 kPl;lH ePsKk; cilajhf ,Ue;jd. ngupa fg;gyhd rhe;jh Nkupahtpd; epiw 80-90 kPl;wpf; njhd; ,Uf;Fk;. mjd; ePsk; Vida ,uz;L fg;gy;fistpl nfhQ;rk; mjpfk;. ,e;j %d;W fg;gy;fspYk; gpd;uhjhd; mjpNtfkhfr; nry;yf; $ba fg;gy;. 

,d;iwa kpf etPd njhopy;El;g trjpfs; nfhz;l  fg;gy;fNshL xg;gpLk;NghJ ,tw;iw "fg;gy;fs;" vd;W nrhy;tNj jtW. Mdhy; 15Mk; Ehw;whz;bd; njhlf;fj;jpy; ,g;gbahd fg;gy;fNs ghtidapy; ,Ue;jd. me;jf; fhyj;Jf;F ,it "kpf etPd" fg;gy;fshff; fUjg;gl;ld.

1942 Mk; Mz;L Mf];l; jpq;fs; 3Mk; ehs; tpbfhiy %d;W fg;gy;fSk;  Palos de la Frontera JiwKfj;jpy; ,Ue;J fz;fhzhj ,lj;Jf;Fg; gazk; Gwg;gl;ld.   

ehw;gj;njhU taJ epuk;gpa "flw;gilj; jsgjp '  nlhd; fpwp];Njhg;gH  nfhyk;g]; cl;gl 39 NgH  rhe;jh  Nkupapy; gazk; nra;jhHfs;. ,Ugj;jhW NgH gpd;Nuhtpy; ,Ue;jhHfs;. ePNdhtpy;  22 NgH gazk; nra;jhHfs;.  ngUk;ghyhd khWkpfs; ,Rg;ghdpa ehl;ilr; NrHe;jtHfs;. mjpYk; ghNyh]; gl;bdj;ijr; NrHe;jtHfs;. mjpf vz;zpf;ifahdtHfs; ey;y mDgtk; epiwe;j khYkpfs;. xU rpy mur CopaHfSk; ,Ue;jhHfs;.  Mdhy; kjFUkhHfNsh> rpg;gha;fNsh my;yJ FbNaw;wthrpfNsh me;jf; fg;gy;fspy; ,Uf;ftpy;iy.  

nfhyk;g]; rhe;jh Nkupah fg;gypd; mzpaj;jpy; epd;W nfhz;L ,Rg;ghdpa  flw;fiu mbthdj;Jf; fPo; kiwe;J Nghtijf; fz;lhH. Gjpa ehl;il Nkw;F Nehf;fpg; gazg;gl;L fz;L gpbf;f Ntz;Lk;vd;w mtuJ fhy;Ehw;whz;L ciog;G ntw;wpapy; KbAkh  my;yJ Njhy;tpiaj; jOTkh vd;gJ mtUf;Fj; njupahky; ,Ue;jJ. Mdhy; gj;jhz;L fhykhf ,uT gfy; fdT fz;Lte;j ,e;jpahtpw;fhd gazk; gypj;jJ nfhyk;gRf;F ngUk; kfpo;r;rpahf ,Ue;jJ.   

fg;gypy; tho;f;if trjpfs; vg;gb ,Ue;jJ vd;gJgw;wp mjpfk;  njupatpy;iy. mJ ,d;WNghy; trjpahf ,Ue;jpUf;fhJ vd;gJ kl;Lk; epr;rak;.  

khYkpfSf;Fj; jdpahd miwfs; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. czT gupkhWk; $lq;fSk; ( mess halls) ,Uf;ftpy;iy. fg;gy; jz;lay;fSf;Fk; ( captains) Rf;fhdpfSf;Fk; ( pilots)  kl;Lk; rpwpa miwfs; ,Ue;jd. khYkpfs;  ,utpy;  epj;jpiu  nfhs;tjw;F xU  Fwpg;gpl;l ,lk; vd;wpy;yhky; vq;Nf ,lk; ,Uf;fpwNjh  mq;F g:Lj;Jf; nfhz;lhHfs;. epj;jpiuapy; ,Uf;Fk;NghJ miyfshy; flypy; tPrg;glhky; ,Uf;Fk;nghUl;L fapw;wpy; jq;fs; fhy;fisf; fl;bdhHfs;.  

gaz  ehl;fs; gpuhHj;jid>  njhOif> ghly;fs;> fijfs;> Ntiyfs;> rhg;gpLjy;> ntWkNd Fe;jpapUj;jy; Nghd;wtw;wpy; fope;jd. Kd;gpd; ghHj;jpuhj Mfhaj;ijAk; tpz;kPd;fisAk; cw;Wg; ghHg;gjpy; ,uTg; nghOJfs; fiue;jd.   

fg;gypy; xU Mz;Lf;Fg; NghJkhd czT tiffs; ifapUg;gpy; ,Ue;jd. me;jf; fhyj;jpy; njhlHe;J ,uz;L fpoikfs; fg;gypy; gazpg;gJ ePz;l gazkhf vz;zg;gl;lJ.  

muprp> jz;zPH> fUthL> cg;Gg; Nghl;l ,iwr;rp>  capHg; gd;wpfs;> Nfhopfs;> ntz;nza;> fly;topr;nryTf;F ( gazj;Jf;F) Ntz;ba tiuglq;fs;> fly;tpgu tpsf;fg;glq;fs; ( charts), jpirfhl;bfs; ( compasses)  fhe;jf;fw;fs; ( magnets) fUtpfs;> ehopif tl;by;fs; (hourglasses) mbkl;lq;fs; ( rulers) Nghd;wit ifapUg;gpy; ,Ue;j nghUl;fspd; gl;baypy; mlq;Fk;.  

NkYk; fz;zhb kzpfs; ( glass beads) gpj;jis Nkhjpuq;fs; (brass rings)  ijj;j njhg;gpfs;> jq;fk;> nts;sp> Kj;Jf;fs;> eWkzr; ruf;Ffs; (spices) Nghd;w thzpfg; nghUl;fSk; ifapUg;gpy; ,Ue;jd.

 

gjpide;jhk; Ehw;whz;bd; njhlf;fj;jpy;  flw;nryTf;F (Navigation)  Ntz;ba jpirfhl;bfs; ( compasses)  fhe;jf;fw;fs; ( magnets) ehopif tl;by;fs;  mbkl;lq;fs; ( rulers) Nghd;w  fUtpfs; gy ,Ue;Jk; mJ xU Jy;ypakhd mwptpayhf  ( exact science) ,Uf;ftpy;iy. tpz;kPd;fis (hour glasses) mz;;zhe;J ghHj;Jf; fg;gypd; epiyia epUzapg;gJjhd; ngU tof;fhf ,Ue;jJ. ,Ue;Jk; tpz;kPd;fhl;bj; (astrolabe ) jl;ilg; gad;gLj;jpf; fg;gypd; ,lj;ijf; fzpg;gJ eilKiwapy; ,Ue;jJ.

 

,e;j tpz;kPd; fhl;b vd;gJ Kf;fpa tpz;kPd;fs; tiuag;gl;l xU  positioning cNyhfj; jl;lhFk;. Kd;gpd; njupahj flypy; gazk; nra;Ak; NghJ xU flNyhb ( mariner)  tpz;iz mz;zhe;J ghHj;J NkNy fhZk; tpd;kPd;fspd; epiyf;F mikaj; mjid itj;Jg; ghHg;gjd; %yk; ( positioning )  fg;gypd; epiyiaf; fz;L gpbf;f KbAk;. Mdhy;> ,e;j ,uz;L topfspypYk;  xU ngUk; FiwghL ,Ue;jJ. thdk; kq;fyhfTk;>  kg;Gk; ke;jhukhfTk;  ,Uf;Fk;NghJ rupahd  epiyiaf; fz;Lgpbg;gJ Kbahj fhupakhf ,Ue;jJ.

 

fg;gypd; epiyiaf; fz;L gpbg;gjw;F ,d;ndhU topKiwAk; eilKiwapy; ,Ue;jJ. ,jpy; fg;gypd; epiyia mJ filrpahf ,Ue;j epiyapy; ,Ue;J ve;jj; jpirapy; fg;gy; nrd;wJ> mjd; Ntfk; vd;d> vj;jid ehopif gazpj;jJ vd;gtw;iw itj;Jf;nfhz;L Gjpa epiyiaf; fz;L nfhs;tJjhd; me;j topKiw.

 

nfhyk;g]; filrpahfr; nrhd;d topKiwiaj;jhd; ngUk;ghYk; gpd;gw;wpdhH. thdj;J tpz;kPd;fspd; epiyiag; ghHj;Jf; fg;gypd; epiyiaf; fzpg;gJ  mtUf;F tpUg;gk;  ,y;yhky; ,Ue;jJ. khwhf ,aw;ifapd; khw;wj;ijf; ftdpj;jy;> gwitfspd; elkhl;lj;ijf; ftdpj;jy;> fhw;wpd; kzk;> thdj;jpd; epwk;> flypd; jd;ik> flypy; kpjf;Fk; Fg;ig $oq;fs; Nghd;wtw;iw itj;Jf; fg;gypd; epiyia epUzapg;gjpy; nfhyk;gRf;F mrhj;jpa jpwik ,Ue;jJ. 

 

nrg;njk;gH khjk; 25 Mk; ehs; ,e;jpa epyg;gug;igf; fz;Ltpl;ljhff; nfhyk;gRk; kw;wtHfSk; epidj;jhHfs;. Mdhy;> mtHfs; fz;lJ epyk; my;y. mtHfsJ fz;fs;  mtHfis Vkhw;wptpl;ld.  mtHfs; vijf; fz;L Vkhe;jhHfs;? 


fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (43)

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;!

NghFkplk; ntF Jhukpy;iy eP thuha;!

nfhyk;g]; ,aw;ifapd;  khw;wj;ijf; ftdpj;jy;> gwitfspd; elkhl;lj;ijf; ftdpj;jy;> fhw;wpd; kzk;> thdj;jpd; epwk;> flypd; jd;ik> flypy; kpjf;Fk; Fg;ig$oq;fs; Nghd;wtw;iw itj;Jf;  fg;gypd; epiyia epUzapg;gjpy; nfhyk;gRf;F mrhj;jpa jpwik ,Ue;jJ vd;W fz;Nlhk;. ,Ue;Jk; mtuJ kdjpd; xU %iyapy; mbf;fb mtek;gpf;if vz;zq;fSk; te;J te;J miyNkhjpg; Nghfj; jtwtpy;iy.

 

nfhyk;g]; ghNyh]; JiwKfj;ij tpl;Lg; Gwg;gl;L rpy fpoikfs;jhd; MfpapUe;jd. Mdhy;> mit rpy Mz;Lfs; Nghy; njupe;jd.

 

nfhyk;grpd; rpe;jidfs; gpd;Nehf;fpg; gwe;jd. n[Ndhth efupy; Ml;L kapupy; ,Ue;J fk;gsp nerT nra;J gpioj;j xU Vio nerthspf;Fg; gpwe;j gps;isf;F ,d;W  ,Rg;ghdpa ehl;L murpahH GutyH.  gjpdhY tajpy; fg;gy; xd;wpy; vLgpbahf Vwpa igaDf;F  ,d;W  "flw;gilj; jsgjp" vd;w  caupa gl;lk;! xU Neur; rhg;ghL thq;fp cz;zg; gzk; ,y;yhJ my;yhba rpWtdJ ngaUf;F Kd;dhy; 'nlhd;' (Don)  vd;w milnkhop! ehLfs; fz;L gpbf;fg;gl;lhy; me;jf; FbNaw;w ehLfspd;  'MSeH" gjtp!  Gjpa cyfj;jpy; jq;fKk; nts;spAk; ituKk; it^upaKk; fpilf;Fk; gl;rj;jpy; mjpy; gj;jpy; xU gq;F!

 

,g;gbahd gl;lq;fSk;> tpUJfSk;  Nkl;Lf; Fbapy; gpwe;j rPkhd;fSf;Fk;  Nfhkhd;fSf;Fk; kl;LNk fpilf;ff; $baJ. mit ,g;NghJ rhjhuz nfhyk;gRf;F fpilj;jpUf;fpd;wd.

 

ghNyh]; JiwKfg; gl;bdj;jpy; ,Ue;J fg;gy;fs; Gwg;gl;lNghJ Athd; Ngu]; (Juan Perez) vd;w ghjpupahH iffis thdj;ijg; ghHj;J caHj;jp "gukz;lyj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk; vq;fs; gpjhNt! ,e;jg; gazk; ntw;wpaila nfhyk;girAk; mtuJ rfhf;fisAk; MrPHtjpg;gPuhf! mtHfis vy;yhtpj Mgj;jpy; ,Ue;Jk; fhg;ghw;wp mUs;tPuhf" vdg; gpuhHj;jid nra;jJ nfhyk;grpd; kdf;fz;zpy; kPsj; njupe;jJ.

 

fz;fhzhj ,lj;Jf;F jq;fs; gps;isfisAk; cld;gpwg;Gf;fisAk; cw;whHfisAk; ,j;jhypehl;by; ,Ue;J ,Rg;ghdpa ehl;Lf;Ff; FbNawpa xU gapj;jpaf;fhud; ,Oj;Jg;  Nghfpwhd; vd;W ghNyh]; JiwKfg; gl;bdj;Jf; Fbkf;fs; jpl;baJ nfhyk;g]; fhjpy; vjpnuhypj;jJ.

 

"me;j %d;W rpd;df; fg;gy;fSk; cyfj;jpd; tpopk;gpw;Fr; nrd;W fPNo tpOe;jgpd; ghjhs Nyhfj;jpy; thOk; gaq;fug; G+jq;fSk; Ntjhsq;fSk; me;j mg;ghtp khYkpfs; midtiuAk; tpOq;ff; fhj;jpUf;fpd;wd" vd;W kf;fs; gaKWj;jpaJ nfhyk;grpd; epidtpw;F te;jJ.

 

Gjpa cyfj;ij epr;rak; fz;L gpbf;fg; NghfpNwhk;> mq;F tpjk;tpjkhd  kf;fisr; re;jpf;fg; NghfpNwhk; vd;w vjpHghHg;Gj; njhlf;fk; Kjy; nfhyk;grplk; ,Ue;jJ. mjdhy; jd;NdhL ahH ahiu vy;yhk; fg;gy;fspy; mioj;Jg; NghfNtz;Lk; vd;gij Kd;$l;bNa epr;rapj;Jf; nfhz;lhH.

 

Kjypy; xU rl;lj;juzp. nfhyk;g]; re;jpf;fg; NghFk; murH> murpaHfNshL vOjg;gl;L gpufldg;gLj;jg;gl ,Uf;Fk; xg;ge;jq;fisj; jahupg;gJ mtuJ gzpahFk;. ,uz;lhtJ xU nrayH rf tuyhw;whrpupaH. nfhyk;grpd;  gpuahzj;jpy;  ,lk;ngWk;  rk;gtq;fisAk;> fz;L gpbf;Fk; ehLfisAk; kf;fisAk; gw;wp vOJtJ ,tuJ gzpahFk;. %d;whtJ xU gd;nkhopg; GytH>  ngaH Yhap (Louis)  A+j ,dj;jtuhd mtUf;F 12 Fk; Nkw;gl;l nkhopfs; njupe;jpUe;jd. ,e;jpah> fhNj (fhNj vd;gJ ag;ghDf;F mUfpYs;s jPTfs;) Nghd;w ehLfspy; re;jpf;f ,Uf;Fk; kf;fs; ve;j  nkhopapy; NgrpdhYk; mijg; Gupe;J nfhs;sf; nfhyk;g]; Kd;ndr;rupf;ifNahL Nkw;nfhz;l Vw;ghL ,itahFk;. .

 

nfhyk;grpd; gaz Maj;jq;fs; ,;j;NjhL epd;W tpltpy;iy. fg;gypy;  etuj;jpdq;fs; gw;wpAk; jq;fj;ijg; gw;wpAk; nts;sp gw;wpAk; rfyJk; njupe;j xU nghw;nfhy;yUk; etuj;jpdtpahghupak; mioj;Jr; nry;yg;gl;ldH. nfhyk;g];  fg;gy; fg;gyhf Vw;wp ,wf;fg;NghFk; jq;fk;> nts;sp> etuj;jpdq;fs; Nghd;wtw;wpd; juj;ij Ma;T nra;aj;jhd; ,e;j Kd;Ndw;ghL.

 

,tHfis tpl xU kUj;JtH> mWitkUj;JtH (surgeon)  kilj;njhopyhsHfs;; (cooks)  nfhyk;grpd; fg;gYf;F kl;Lk; xU fgpd; igad; (cabin boy) fg;gy;fspy; nryT nra;jhHfs;.

 

,e;jg; gazj;Jf;fhd nryT vt;tsT vd;W njupa  Ntz;lhkh? ,];ngy;yh  murpahUf;F 67>000 nlhyHfs; nryT vd;W nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ. Mdhy;> NtW rpyH md;iwa ,Rg;ghdpa ehzaj;ij nlhyUf;F khw;wpdhy; mJ 3>000 my;yJ 4>000 f;F Nky;  NghfhJ vd;W nrhy;fpwhHfs;. ,e;jg; gzj;jpy; ngUk;gFjpiag; ngHbdd;l; murH fldhff; nfhLj;J cjtpdhH. fhuzk; mtUf;F ,yhgj;jpy; gq;F,y;iy. ,yhgj;ij murpahUk; nfhyk;gRk; gq;fpLtJ vd;gJjhd; xg;ge;jk;.    

 

gfypy; Kd;gpd; njupahj rhiyapy; gazk; nra;tJ tpy;yq;fk;.  mNj rhiyapy; ,utpy; gazk;nra;tJ mijtpl tpy;yq;fk;. mg;gb ,Uf;Fk; NghJ Kd;gpd; njupahj rKj;jpuj;jpy; ,uT gfy; gazk; nra;tJ vd;gJ ,Nyrhd mYtyh vd;d?

 

nfhyk;gRf;Nf NghFkplk; epr;rakhfj; njupatpy;iy. NghFk; ghij ,Ul;lhfNt ,Ue;jJ. %d;W fg;gy;fspy; ,Ue;j kw;w khYkpfspd; kd epiygw;wpr;  nrhy;y Ntz;baNj ,y;iy. mtHfs; rpd;df; Foe;ijfistpl  Nkhrkhd kdepiyapy;  ,Ue;jhHfs;. nfhyk;grpy; mtHfSf;F ek;gpf;if ,Uf;ftpy;iy. FUlHfSf;Ff;  FUld; topfhl;Lfpwhd; vd;W mtHfs; epidj;jhHfs;.

 

fdwpP]; jPTfs; vd;gJ VO jPTfs; nfhz;l epyg;gug;ghFk;. Mgpupf;fhtpd; tl  %iyapy;> nkhwf;Nfh ehl;bw;F Nkw;Nf 60 iky; njhiytpy; ,Ue;jJ. ,e;jj; jPTfSf;Fg; ngaH itj;jtHfs; cNuhkH. eha;f;F ,yj;jPd; nkhopapy; fdp]; (canis) vd;W ngaH. me;j NtHr; nrhy;ypy; ,Ue;Jjhd; fdwp]; vd;w ngaH gpwe;jJ. me;jj; jPTfspy; Vuhskhd eha;fs; me;jf; fhyj;jpy; fhzg;gl;ldthk;. fdwp]; vd;w ngaUila gwitfSk; me;jj; jPtpy; fhzg;gl;ld. ,e;jj; jPTfs; gw;wpa nra;jp ,Rg;ghdpaHfSf;Fk; Vida INuhg;gpa khYkpfSf;Fk;  nfhyk;gRf;F xU Ehwhz;Lf;F Kd;dNu njupe;jpUe;jd.

 

fdwp]; jPtpy;jhd;  nfhyk;gRf;F njhy;iy Muk;gpj;jij Kd;dH fz;Nlhk;. gpd;uh fg;gypd; Rf;fhd; Kjypy; jsHe;J> gpd;dH cile;J> filrpahf fod;W tpOe;jij mLj;J  mjd; jpUj;j Ntiyfs; ele;jJ. me;jr; Rf;fhid me;jf; fg;gypy; gazk; nra;j mjd; nrhe;jf;fhuHfNs gag;gPjp fhuzkhf cilj;jhHfs; vd;W nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ. fg;giy nray; ,of;fr; nra;jhy; mjidAk; khYkpfisAk;  iftpl;L nfhyk;g]; jdJ gazj;ij njhlHthH vd;W mtHfs; fzf;Fg; Nghl;lhHfs;.

 

Mdhy;> nfhyk;g]; nfhNkuh (Gomera) vd;w jPTf;Fr; nrd;W mq;F jdf;F Kd;Ng njupe;jpUe;j khYkpfspd; JizAld; cile;j Rf;fhid kPz;Lk; rupg;gLj;jpdhH.

 

fdwp]; jPtpy; fg;gy;fs; eq;$uk;  ,l;Lf;nfhz;bUe;j  Ntis xU mjprak; epfo;e;jJ. VO jPTfspy; xd;whd Teneriff jPtpy; cs;s 12>000 mb cau kiy jpBnud jP ff;fpaJ.  mjpy; ,Ue;J fpsk;gpa Gif Nkf kz;lyj;ij  kiwj;jJ. me;j mg;ghtp  khYkpfSf;F mJ vupkiy vd;gJ njupe;jpUf;ftpy;iy. ahNuh kiyf;Fj; jP itj;J tpl;lhHfs; vd;W mtHfs; epidj;jhHfs;. gae;J eLq;fpa khYkpfs; jq;fisj; jpUk;gTk; Gwg;gl;l ghNyh]; gl;bdj;Jf;Nf nfhz;L NghFkhW nfhyk;gir nfQ;rp kd;whlj; njhlq;fpdhHfs;. nfhyk;g]; mire;J nfhLf;ftpy;iy.

 

,jw;fpilapy; NghHj;Jf;Nfa kd;dupd; Nfhgk;  nfhyk;g]; kPJ jpUk;gpaJ.  kd;dUf;F nfhyk;g]; ,Rg;ghdpa ehl;bd; murH> murpauplk; ,Ue;J fg;gy;fisg; ngw;Wf; nfhz;lJ gpbf;ftpy;iy. NghHj;Jf;Nfa kd;dH nfhyk;girAk;>  nfhyk;grpd; fg;gy;fisf; ifg;gw;WkhW jdJ ehl;Lf; fg;gw;gilf;F cj;juT gpwg;gpj;jhH. nfhyk;g]; ,e;j Mgj;jpy; ,Ue;J vg;gbNah jg;gpg; gpioj;jhH. khYkpfNsh jq;fis NghHj;Jf;NfauJ fg;gw;gil ifJnra;ag; Nghfpwnjd gae;J nrj;jhHfs;.

 

1942 Mk; Mz;L nrg;lk;gH khjk; 9 Mk; ehs; (Qhapw;Wf; fpoik) fdwp]; jPTfis tpl;L %d;w fg;gy;fSk; Nkw;F Nehf;fp jkJ gazj;ij njhlHe;jd. fdwp]; jPTfspy; filrpj; jPthd Ferro fz;Zf;Fj; njupahJ kiwe;jNghJ fg;gy; khYkpfs; ngU%r;R  tpl;lhHfs;. fz;zPH$l te;jJ. ,dpNky; jhq;fs; gpwe;j ehl;Lf;F xUNghJk; jpUk;gg;  Nghtjpy;iy vd;w Vf;fk; mtHfis thl;b vLj;jJ.

 

ghNyh]; JiwKfg; gl;bdj;jpy; ,Ue;J Gwg;gl;L xU khjj;Jf;F Nky; gwe;Njhb tpl;lJ. mJtiu gazk; nra;j Jhuk; xU EhW iky;fs;jhd; ,Uf;Fk;. vq;Nf ghHj;jhYk; gpukhz;lkhd rKj;jpuk;. Ngupr;rNyhL tPRk; Nga;f; fhw;W. ,utpy;  NkNy jhkiuj; jlhfk; xd;wpy; jhkiu kyHfs; G+j;jpUg;gJ Nghy;  tpz;kPd;fs;. tsHe;Jk; NjAk; ntz;epyh. Mdhy;> mtHfs; fz;zpy; jiu kl;Lk; Gyg;glNt ,y;iy.

 

ek;gpf;if ,oe;J kdk;jsHe;JNghd jdJ khYkpfSf;F NghFkplk; ntF Jhukpy;iy vd;gijf; fhl;l nfhyk;g]; xU 'rjp' nra;jhH.

 


 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (44)

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;!

cd; fz; cd;id Vkhw;wpdhy; 

nfhyk;g]; jdJ fg;gy; gazj;ijapl;L ,uz;L ntt;NtW gjpTfis itj;jpUe;jhH. xd;W rupahd gjpT. mjid mtH ahUf;Fk; fhl;lhky; jd;DlNdNa ,ufrpakhf itj;jpUe;jhH. ,uz;lhtJ ngha;ahd gjpT. ,ijj;jhd; jdJ khYkpfSf;Ff; nfhyk;g]; fhl;bdhH. mijg; ghHj;j khYkpfs; fg;gy; kpfTk; nkJthf XLfpwnjd;Wk; jhq;fs; gazpj;j Jhuk; mjpfk; ,y;iynad;Wk; mj;jpyhe;jpf; ngUq;fly; mg;gbnahd;Wk; ngupa ngUq;fly; my;yntd;Wk; ek;gpdhHfs;. mNjrkak; nfhyk;g]; jhd; itj;jpUe;j gjpTfs; %yk; fg;gy; Gwg;gl;l ,lj;jpy; ,Ue;J mfz;l ngUq;flypy; gy EhW iky;fs; fle;J Nkw;F Nehf;fp tpiue;J Ngha;f; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ vd;gijj; njupe;J nfhz;lhH.

 

khYkpfis ftiyapy; %o;fbf;FkhW ,d;ndhU rk;gtk; ,lk; ngw;wJ. me;jf; fhyj;jpy; Rf;fhdpfs; jhq;fs; itj;jpUe;j jpirawpfUtpapd; (Magnetic Compass) cjtpAlNdNa fg;giyr;  nrYj;jpdhHfs; vd;gij ehd; nrhy;y Ntz;bajpy;iy. ,e;jj; jpirawp fUtpapd; Crp vg;NghJk; tlf;Fj;  jpiriaNa  fhl;Lk;. mjw;Ff;  fhuzk; tlJUtj;jpy; fhzg;gLk; fhe;j tayhFk; (Magnetic field). ,e;jj; jpirawp fUtpiaf; fz;L gpbj;jtHfs; rPdHfshtH.  INuhg;ghtpy; nfhyk;gRf;F Kd;dNu fp.gp 1183 Mk; Mz;lstpy;  ePHtopr; nrytpy; (Navigation) ,e;jj;  jpirawpfUtpiag; gad;gLj;Jk; cj;jp eilKiwf;F te;Jtpl;lJ. ,Ue;Jk; xU rpyUf;Nf me;jf; fUtpiar; ruptug; gad;gLj;jj; njupe;jpUe;jJ.

 

1492 Mk; Mz;L nrg;lk;gH khjk; 13 Mk; ehs; nfhyk;g]; gazk; nra;j fg;gy; ngUq;flypd;  ikag; gFjpia mile;Jtpl;lJ. mjdhy; tl jpirf; NfhL khwpaJ. mijj; njhlHe;J jpirawpfUtpapd; Crp fhl;Lk; jpirAk; khwpaJ. ,e;j khYkpfs; jpiwawpfUtpapd; Crp vg;NghJNk tlf;Fj; jpiriaNa fhl;Lk; mJ  xUNghJk;  khwkhl;lhJ vd ghlk; nrhy;ypf; nfhLf;fg;gl;ltHfs;.  ,g;NghJ Crpapd; jpir khwpaijg; ghHj;Jf; fyf;fk;; mile;jhHfs;. jpirawpfUtp jq;fis Vkhw;WfpwJ> mjdhy; jhq;fs; eLg; ngUq;flypy; xU nghwpf;Fs; rpf;Fg; gl;Ltpl;ljhf ek;gpdhHfs;.

 

me;jg; ngUq;flypy; kiwe;jpUf;Fk; G+jq;fs; jq;fis tpOq;fp Vg;gkpLtjw;fhf jpirawpfUtpapd; Crpia Ntz;Lnkd;Nw gpioahd jpiriaf; fhl;LkhW nra;J tpl;ld vd vz;zpdhHfs;. "CUf;Fj; jpUk;gpg; NghfNtz;Lk;>  vq;fis ,Rg;ghdpahtpw;Ff; nfhz;L Nghq;fs;"; vd;W Nfl;L me;j  khYkpfs; Xntd;W xg;ghupitj;J moj; njhlq;fptpl;lhHfs;!

 

nfhyk;g]; mjw;F tpsf;fk; mspj;jhH. jpirawp fUtpapy; gOjpy;iy vd;W nrhd;dhH. jdJ tpsf;fk; gpio vd;gJ mtUf;Fj; njupAk;. njupe;Jk; me;j Neuj;jpy; mg;gbg; ngha; nrhy;y Ntz;bapUe;jJ. JUt tpz;kPd; ,Uf;Fk; jpiriaNa  vg;NghJk; fhl;Lk; jpirawpfUtpapd; Crp me;j tpz;kPd; ,lk; khwptpl;ljhy; Crp fhl;Lk; jpirAk; khwptpl;lJ" vd;W nfhyk;g]; tpsf;fpdhH. me;j tpsf;fj;ij ek;gp khYkpfs; nfhQ;rk; mikjp mile;jhHfs;.

 

NghNyh]; JiwKfg; gl;bdj;ij tpl;Lg; Gwg;gl;L RkhH  40 ehs;fs; fope;J tpl;ld. ,g;NghJ fg;gy; rhHf];Nrh flypy; (Sargasso Sea) gazk; nra;J nfhz;bUe;jJ. rhHf];Nrh fly; tl me;jpyhe;jpf; ngUq;flYf;Fk; Nkw;fpe;jpa jPTfSf;Fk; kw;Wk; mNrhH]; (Azores) jPTf;Fk; ,ilapy; ,Uf;fpwJ (tlf;Nf FWf;Ff; NfhL  20 ghiff;Fk; 35f;Fk; ,ilapy;). ngHKlh jPTfs; ,e;jf; flypd; tlNkw;Fg; gFjpapy;  ,Uf;fpd;wd. ,e;j Nkl;Lf; flypy; RopNahl;lk; ,y;yhjjhy; (tlf;Fk; njw;Fkhf XLk; Ropfs; ,jd; Clhfr; nry;yhJ ,UkUq;fpYk; Xukhf tpyfpr; nry;fpd;wd) ,e;jf; flypy;  ngUkstpyhd rhjhis (seaweed) fiuia Nehf;fpj; js;sg;glhky; ,Ue;j ,lj;jpNyNa vg;NghJk; kpje;J  nfhz;L  ,Uf;Fk;. tpisT?  nfhyk;g]; gazk; nra;j fg;gypd; Ntfk; jilgl;lJ.

 

fg;gypd; Ntfk; Fiwa Muk;gpj;jjhy; fg;gy; XLtjw;Fg; gjpy; Cu Muk;gpj;jJ. ,e;j Ntff; FiwTk; flypd; khaj; Njhw;wKk; fg;gypy; ,Ue;j khYkpfspd; mbtapw;iwf; fyf;fpaJ.  re;Njfk; ,y;yhky; cyfj;jpd; tpopk;gpw;Fj; jhq;fs; te;Jtpl;ljhf mtHfs;  gae;jhHfs;.  jhq;fs; Nfs;tpg;gl;l G+jq;fs; fg;giyj; jLj;J ,e;jr; rhjhisahy; vy;NyhiuAk; %bf; fl;bf; nfhz;L flypd; mbf;F ,Oj;Jr;nry;yg; Nghfpd;wd vd vz;zp eLq;fpdhHfs;. 

 

fpl;lj;jl;l xU thu fhykhf fg;gy; nky;y nky;y ,e;j Nkiyf; flypy; gazk; nra;jJ. mjidf; fle;jNghJ mtHfSf;F mjpl;lk; fhj;jpUe;jJ. mj;jpyhe;jpf; -grpgpf;  ngUq;fly; gFjpfspy; FWf;Ff; NfhL  ( latitude) 30 ghif tlf;F-njw;Ff;F cl;gl;l  ntg;g kz;lyj;jpDs; epy eLf;Nfhl;bid (equator)  Nehf;;fp epyTyfr; Row;rp fhuzkhf Nkw;fhf tpyfp ,iltplhky; fhw;W tPRfpwJ. ,jid Mq;fpyj;jpy;  trade winds vd;W miog;ghHfs;. ,g;NghJ me;jf; fhw;W nfhyk;grpd; fg;giy Nkw;F Nehf;fp ,Oj;Jr; nrd;wJ.  Mdhy;>  khYkpfNsh ,jid mjpl;lkhff; fUjtpy;iy. xNuabahf fg;gy; Nkw;Fj; jpirapy; ms;Sg;gl;Lg; Nghtjhy; ,dpj; jhq;fs; kWgf;fkhfj;  jpUk;gp ,Rg;ghdpahtpw;Fg; NghFk; tha;g;Ng ,y;iy vd;w KbTf;F te;jhHfs;. me;jf; ftiy mtHfis thl;baJ.

 

,g;gb  khYkpfs; gaj;jpdhy; nrj;Jg; gpiog;gijg; ghHf;Fk;NghJ  vq;fSf;F  xUNtis rpupg;ghf ,Uf;fyhk;. Mdhy;> Ie;EhW Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH Kd;gpd; njupahj ngUq;flypy;  gazk; nra;j me;jf; fg;gypy; ehq;fs; ,Ue;jpUe;jhy; ehq;fSk; me;j khYkpfspd;  kdepiypapy;jhd;  ,Ue;jpUg;Nghk;. nrhy;yg;Nghdhy; ,d;Dk; Nkhrkhd kdepiyapy; ,Ue;jpUg;Nghk;. 

 

,g;gb 50 ehs;fSf;Fk; Nkyhf ngUq;flypy; gazk; nra;j  gpd;dH nrg;njk;gH khjk; 2Mk; ehs; xU khYkp  jpBnud "jiu" "jiu" vdf; cuj;j Fuypy; $f;Fuy; ,l;lhd;.

 

vy;NyhUk; vq;Nf? vq;Nf? vd;W mbj;J tpOe;J nfhz;L mtd; epd;w gf;fk; XbdhHfs;. Mfh! vd;d Mr;rupak;? mtHfs; fz;Zf;F NeH vjpNu gr;ir epwj; jPTfs;! caHe;j kiyj;njhlHfs;. mofhdefuk;. mq;Nf ghujpahH "Jhzpy; mofpajha; - ed;khlq;fs; Ja;a epwj;jpdtha; - me;j fhzp epyj;jpilNa xU khspif  fl;bj; juNtz;Lk;" vd;W Nfl;lhNu?mJ Nghd;w xd;wy;y gy  khspiffs;! muz;kidfs;! Njthyaq;fs;!  ,itnay;yhk; #upaxspapy; Fspj;J jfjf vd kpd;dpf; nfhz;bUe;jd!

 

me;jf; fhl;rpiaf; fz;l gazpfs; xUtiu xUtH fl;bg; gpbj;J Mypq;fdk; nra;J nfhz;lhHfs;. ,iwtidg; Nghw;wpj; Njhj;jpug; ghly;fisg; ghbdhHfs;. "Mfh fhNj te;J  tpl;lJ! ehk; Neupy; ghHf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W fdT fz;l fhNj ,Njh vq;fs; fz;Kd;Nd! ,dp vq;fs; ftiyfs; xope;jd! vk;ikg; gpbj;j gPilfs; njhiye;jd! ey;y fhyk; gpwe;jJ!" vd;W kfpo;r;rpahy; Mbg; ghbdhHfs;. mLj;j fzk; fg;gy; me;j xsp ckpOk; efiu Nehf;fp tpiue;jJ!

 

vd;d Mr;rupak;? jpBnud me;j efuk; kiwe;jJ! mj;NjhL mtHfs; ghHj;j khspiffs;> muz;kidfs;> Njthyaq;fs; vy;yhNk xU nehbapy;  kiwe;jd! ke;jputhjp Nltpl; nfhg;gHgPy;l; (David Copperfield) rPdhtpd; neLQ;Rtiuj; jdJ je;jpuj;jhy; kiwar; nra;thNu! mNjNghy; ,e;j efuKk; kiwe;J tpl;lJ.

 

mtHfsJ fz;fSf;F ,g;NghJ mfz;L tpupe;J fple;j ngUq;fly;jhd; njd;gl;lJ. mtHfs; fz;lJ fhdy; ePH. nfhSj;Jk; QhapW> gue;J  fplf;Fk; ngUq;fly;> jiyf;F NkNy XLk; Nkff;  $l;lq;fs; vd ,e;j %d;Wk; NrHe;J mtHfsJ fz;fis Vkhw;wp tpl;ld. mtHfs; vijf; fhz cskhu tpUk;gpdhHfNsh mJ mtHfs; fz;fSf;Fg; gl;lJ. Mq;fpyj;jpy; ,jid mirage my;yJ hallucination  vd;W miog;ghHfs;.

 

,e;jr; rk;gtj;jpw;Fg; gpd;dH nfhyk;g];ghL ngUk; ghlhfpg; Ngha;tpl;lJ. jq;fisf; nfhiyf; fsj;jpw;F mioj;Jg; Nghfpwhd; vd;W Kd;diutpl ,g;NghJ gykhf khYkpfs; ek;g Muk;gpj;jhHfs;.

 

khYkpfsJ nghWik Nrhjidf;F  cs;shfpaJ>  gjl;lk; mjpfupj;jJ>  Gyk;gy;  ngupjhf xypf;fj; njhlq;fpaJ. nfhyk;gRf;F vjpuhfg;  gaKWj;jy;fs;  vOe;jd. ",e;j ,j;jhypf;fhud; vq;fisAk; ,e;jf; fg;gy;fisAk; ve;j Iaj;Jf;Fk; ,lk; ,y;yhky; mopT Nehf;fpf; nfhz;L Nghfpwhd;" vd mtHfs; nfhyk;girj; jpl;bdhHfs;.

 

nfhyk;g]; kdk; jsutpy;iy. jd;ek;gpf;ifNahLk; nghWikNahLk; gazj;ijj; njhlHe;jhH. jiyf;F NkNy gwitfs;  gwf;f Muk;gpj;jd. mJ jiu mz;ikapy;  ,Uf;fyhk; vd;w ek;gpf;ifia mtUf;Ff; nfhLj;jJ. NkYk; ngUq;flypy; Kd;dH ghHj;jpuhj nghUl;fs; kpjg;gijAk; fz;lhH. 

 

1492 Mk; Mz;L xf;NjhgH  jpq;fs; 7 Mk; ehs; nfhyk;g]; ehs;NjhWk; gjpT nra;jpUe;j Fwpg;Gf;fs; fduP];jPTfis tpl;Lg; Gwg;gl;l Neuk; njhlq;fp ,Jtiu 27>000 iky;fs;  gazk; nra;jijf; fhl;baJ. nfhyk;g]; itj;jpUe;j ngha;g; gjpTfs; (khYkpfs; ghHj;j gjptfs;) 2>200 iky;fs; kl;LNk gazk; nra;jjhff; fhl;baJ!

 

,e;j ,lj;jpy; nfhyk;g]; xU jtW nra;jhH. mtH Nghd jpirapy; NeNu gazk; nra;jpUe;jhy; xd;wpy; Gswplh (Florida) my;yJ njd;fNwhypdh (South Carolina) gFjpapy; jiuapwq;fp ,Ug;ghH. mg;gbj; jiu ,wq;fp ,Ue;jhy; tl mnkupf;fhtpd; jPT Kjyhd Gwg; gFjpfs; ePq;fyhd jiyepyg;gug;ig (Mainland) nfhyk;g]; fz;L gpbj;jpUe;jpUg;ghH. mtuJ nghy;yhj fhyk; jz;lay; myd;Nrh gpd;nrhd; (Captain Alonso Pinzon) njw;F Nehf;fpf; fpspfspd; rhaypy; gwe;j xU $l;lk; gwitfisf; fz;lhH. fz;lJk; jiu Nkw;Fj;jpirapy; ,y;iy> njd;Nkw;Fj; jpirapy;jhd;  ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w  KbTf;F te;jhH. 

 

clNd Nkw;Fj; jpirg; gf;fkhfg; Ngha;f; nfhz;bUe;j fg;gypd; jpiria njd;Nkw;fhfj; jpUg;GkhW flw;jsgjp nfhyk;grplk; gpd;nrhd; nfQ;rp kd;whbdhH.  nfhyk;g]; Kjypy; rk;kjpf;ftpy;iy. ,Ue;Jk; jdJ tpUg;gj;Jf;F  khwhf njd;Nkw;Fj; jpirapy;  fg;giyj; jpUg;gpdhH.  fg;gy; ,g;NghJ fpA+gh ,Uf;Fk; jpir Nehf;fp tpiue;jJ.

 


 

 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (45)

 

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

    

NeuKk; JhuKk;

 

nfhyk;g]; ehs; NjhWk; gjpT nra;jpUe;j Fwpg;Gf;fs; fduP]; jPTfis tpl;L 1492 Mk; Mz;L xf;NlhgH  jpq;fs; 7 Mk; ehs;  Gwg;gl;l Neuk; njhlq;fp mJtiu 27>000 iky;fs; gazk; nra;jijf; fhl;bajhfg; ghHj;Njhk;. mNj rkak;  nfhyk;g]; itj;jpUe;j ngha;g; gjpTfs; (khYkpfs; ghHj;j gjpTfs;) 2>200 iky;fs; kl;LNk gazk; nra;jjhff; fhl;baJ! nfhyk;g]; vg;gb? vjd; mbg;gilapy; ,e;jj; Jhuj;ijf; fzpj;jhH?

 

gjpide;jhk; Ehw;whz;bd; Muk;gj;jpy;  flw;nryTf;F Ntz;ba (Navigation) jpirfhl;bfs; (compasses)  fhe;jf;fw;fs;    (magnets) ehopif tl;by;fs; (hour-glasses) mbkl;lq;fs; (rulers) fUtpfs; gy ,Ue;Jk; mJ xU Jy;ypakhd mwptpayhf ( exact science) ,Uf;ftpy;iy vd Kd;dH Fwpg;gpl;Ls;Nsd;.

 

NkYk; tpz;kPd;fis mz;zhe;J ghHj;Jf; fg;gypd; ,lj;ij epUzapg;gJjhd;   ngU tof;fhf ,Ue;jJ. ,Ue;Jk; tpz;kPd;fhl;b (astrolabe) jl;ilg; gad;gLj;jp fg;gypd; ,lj;ijf; fzpg;gJk; eilKiwapy; ,Ue;jJ. ,e;j tpz;kPd; fhl;b vd;gJ Kf;fpa tpz;kPd;fs; tiuag;gl;l xU positioning cNyhfj; jl;lhFk;. Kd;gpd; njupahj flypy; gazk; nra;Ak;NghJ xU flNyhb (mariner)  tpz;iz mz;zhe;J ghHj;J NkNy fhZk; tpd;kPd;fspd; epiyf;F mika ( positioning ) itj;Jg; ghHg;gjd; %yk; ,lj;ijf; fz;L gpbf;fyhk; vd;W vOjpapUe;Njd;.

 

fly; gazj;jpy; fg;gy; nry;Yk; Ntfk;> mJ xU ,lj;jpypUe;J ,d;ndhU ,lj;Jf;Fr; nry;y vLf;Fk; Neuk; ,e;j ,uz;Lk; njupe;jhy; xd;iw kw;wjhy; ngUf;Ftjd; %yk; fg;gy; fle;j Jhuj;ijj; jpUj;jkhff; fzf;fpl;L tplyhk;.

 

,g;Nghnjy;yhk; Neuj;ij xU nehb (second) gprfhky; mZf;fbfhuj;jpd; cjtpahy; fzpj;J mjid rupnra;J nfhs;fpwhHfs;. mZf;fs; Nfhbf;fzf;fhd Mz;L  fhykhf ve;jtpj khw;wj;Jf;Fk; cs;shfhky; ,Ue;jkhjpupNa ,Ug;gjhy; mZf;fbfhuk; ve;jg; gprFk; ,y;yhky; Neuj;ijf; fhl;Lfpd;wd.

 

cyfk; jd;idj;jhNd Rw;wpf; nfhz;L mNj rkak;  Qhapw;iwr; Rw;wp tUk;NghJ rpy rkaq;fspy; Row;rpapy; Vw;gLfpw gpwo;r;rp ( wobble) fhuzkhf Neu  NtWghL  Vw;gLfpwJ. me;j Neu tpj;jpahrj;ijj; jpUj;j mZf;fbfhuj;ijr; rupnra;fpwhHfs;. nrd;w Mz;L (2001) mZf;fbfhuj;ij xU nehbapdhy; Fiwj;jhHfs;.

 

xU gho;ntWikapy; itf;fg;gl;bUf;Fk; 133 mZf;fs; nfhz;l xspf;Nfhl;bd; (beam of cesium atoms )  kPJ  ikf;fpNwh miyiag; gha;r;rp ,yf;Nwhd;fisg; Gtpapd; Row;rpf;F Vw;wthW khw;wp itj;J tpLfpwhHfs;. mg;gb xU nehbia  9>192>631>770  mjpHTfshfg;  gpupj;J  mZNeuj;ijf; fzpf;fpwhHfs;. mnkupf;fhtpy;jhd; ,e;j mZf;fbfhuk; ,Uf;fpwJ. mjNdhL thdiyfs; %yk; njhlHG nfhz;L ngwg;gLk; rkpf;iQfis itj;J mZf; iff;fbfhuj;jpd; Neuj;ij rupnra;J nfhs;syhk;. mZf;iff; fbfhuq;fs; tpw;gidf;F te;Jtpl;ld. tpiy mjpfk; ,y;iy. 2>500 mnkupf;f nlhyHfs;jhd;!

 

Gtpapd; Row;rpNtfk; Fiwe;J nfhz;L tUtJ  cq;fSf;Fj; njupAk;. RkhH njhz;ZhW Nfhb Mz;LfSf;F Kd; Gtp Qhapw;iw Rw;wptu 217 ehs;fs; kl;LNk vLj;jJ. Gtpapd; Row;rp Ntfk; Fiwaf; Fiwa mJ Qhapw;iwr; Rw;wptUk; ehs;fs; mjpfupf;Fk;. gag;gl Ntz;lhk;. xU ehs; mjpfupf;f xU Nfhb tUlk; vLf;fyhk;. vdNt ,e;j mjpfupg;igg;gw;wp mg;NghJ ghHj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;.

     

mJ rup. ,e;jf; Neuk; gw;wp mwptpayhHfs; vd;d nrhy;fpwhHfs;? rpyH ,J flTis kdpjd; gilj;jJNghy kdpjyhy; mtdJ fw;gidapy; gilf;fg;gl;l nghUs; vd;fpwhHfs;. ,d;ndhU rhuhH Neuj;ij gpupj;Jg; ngUf;fpg; ghHf;fpNwhk;. mjd; jhf;fj;ij  xt;nthUehSk;  ghHf;fpNwhk;. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf vk;ik Rw;wpapUg;gig> ehq;fs; cl;gl> KJik mile;J mope;J NghfpNwhk;. vdNt Neuk; vd;w xU nghUs; ,Uf;fpwJ vd;fpwhHfs;. 

 

tuyhw;Wf; fhyk; njhlf;fk; kdpjHfs; Neuj;ijg;gw;wp  mwpe;J nfhs;sg; glhjghL gl;bUf;fpwhHfs;.  ehq;fs; thOk; Gtp ghy; top kz;lyj;jpy; (Milky Way Galaxy) xU ruhrup msTila tpz;kPid (QhapW) tyk; tUfpwJ. ,jidg; Gjpa fw;fhy kdpjHfs; (Neolithic)  ftdpj;J ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. mjd; mbg;gilapy; thdpay; Ie;njhFjpfisf; (Astronomical Calendars)  fz;L gpbj;J Neuj;ijf; fzpj;jhHfs;.  ,q;fpyhe;jpy; ryp];gup rkntspapy; (Salisbury Plains)  cs;s ,uhl;rj tl;lf;fy; mjw;F ey;y vLj;Jf; fhl;lhFk;. Iahapuk; Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH epWtg;gl;l ,e;jj; Jhz; vjw;fhf> ahuhy; epWtg;gl;lJ vd;w tpguk; ,d;W   fpilf;ftpy;iy. Mdhy;> mjd; mikg;igg; ghHj;jhy; fhyq;fisAk;> gUtq;fisAk;>  #upa-re;jpu  fpufzq;fisAk;  fzpg;gjw;F mJ epWtg;gl;bUf;fyhk; vdj; njupfpwJ. 

 

Iahapuk; Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH iufpwp]; - A+gpul;b]; ejpg; gs;sj;jhf;fpy; (,d;iwa ,uhf; ) tho;e;j RNkupaHfs; cUthf;fpa Ie;njhFjp xU Mz;il xt;nthd;Wk; Kg;gJ ehs;fs; nfhz;l 12 khjq;fshfg; gpupj;jhHfs;. xU ehis 12 fhyq;fshfTk; ( xU fhyk; ,d;iwa 2 kzpj;jpahyj;jpw;F xj;jjhf) xU fhyj;ij kPz;Lk; 30 ghfq;fshfTk; ( xU ghfk; ,d;iwa 4 tpehbfis xj;jjhf) RNkupaHfs; gFj;jhHfs;. ,Nj ,uhf;fpy; 2000 Mk; Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH thoe;j ghgpNyhdpaHfs; xU Mz;il 29-30 ehs;fs; mlq;fpa 12 re;jpu khjq;fshf tFj;J xU Mz;by; 354 ehs;fs; ,Ug;gjhff; fzf;fpl;lhHfs;.

 

ghgpNyhdpaHfs; NghyNy Kjypy; vfpj;jpaHfs; fhyj;ij epyhit itj;Nj fzf;fpl;lhHfs;.  gpd;dH ,g;NghJ iru]; vd;W miof;fg;gLk; eha; el;rj;jpuk; (Canis Major which now called Sirius)  #upaDf;Fg; gpd;dhy; xt;nthU 365 ehs;fSf;F xUKiw cjpg;gijg; ghHj;J xU Mz;by; 365 ehs;fs; nfhz;l Ie;njhFjpia fpK 423 Mk; Mz;L cUthf;fpdhHfs;. ,JNt tuyhw;wpy; gjpT nra;ag;gl;l kpfg; gioa Ie;njhFjpahFk;.

 

kj;jpa mnkupf;fhtpy; tho;e;j khad; ,dj;jtH 365 ehs;fisf;  nfhz;l  Ie;njhFjpiaf; fzpf;f re;jpu-#upaHfis kl;Lky;y nts;spf; NfhisAk; NrHj;Jf;  nfhz;lhHfs;. khad; ehfupfk; fpK 2000 - fp.gp. 1500 Mz;Ltiu epiyj;J ,Ue;jJ. ,tHfs;  tpl;Lg;Nghd Mtzq;fspy; ,Ue;J ,e;jcyfk; fpK 311 Mk; Mz;L  gilf;fg;gl;ljhf  mtHfs; ek;gpaJ njupfpwJ. mtHfsJ Ie;njhFjpapd; mbg;gilapNyNa gpd;dH  te;j m];nuf; ,dj;jtHfs; (Aztec) jq;fsJ Ie;njhFjpia cUthf;fpdhHfs;.  

 

gz;ila fpNuf;fHfs; QhapW tl;by;fs; ( sundials) fzpjk;> jj;Jtk; ,tw;wpd; mbg;gilapy; Neuj;ijf; fzf;fpl;lhHfs;.    

 

gj;njhd;gjhk; Ehw;whz;Ltiu INuhg;ghtpy; ,Ue;j efuq;fs;> mnkupf;fhtpy; ,Ue;j efuq;fs; ,it xt;nthd;Wk; me;je;j efuj;jpy; Qhapwpd; cjak;> Qhapw;wpd; kiwT ,tw;wpd; mbg;gilapy;  Neuj;ij itj;Jf; nfhz;lhHfs;. Mdhy;> njhlHtz;bfs; fz;L gpbf;fg;gl;L  ePz;l  ngUQ;rhiyfs; Nghlg;gl;l gpd;dH ,g;gb xt;nthU efuKk; ntt;NtW  Neuq;fisf; fhl;baJ ngupa Fog;gj;ij cz;lhf;fpaJ. vLj;Jf; fhl;lhf xU njhlHtz;b xU efuj;jpy; ,Ue;J Gwg;gl;lhy; mLj;j efuj;Jf;F vd;d Neuj;jpy; NghFk; vd;gij fzpf;f Kbahky; ,Ue;jJ. mnkupf;f njhlHtz;b - neLQ;rhiy fk;gdpfs; ehL KOJk; fhzg;gl;l 80 Fk; mjpfkhd Neuq;fisf; fzf;fpl Ntz;bapUe;jJ.

 

,g;gb ehl;Lf;F> efuj;Jf;F xU Neuk; vd;w Fog;gj;ij KbTf;Ff; nfhz;Ltu cyfshtpa mwptpayhsHfs; 1884 Mk; Mz;L th\pq;ld; jiyefupypy; $b tpthjpj;J  xU jpl;lj;ij cUthf;fpdhHfs;. mtHfs; rPuhd Neuj;ijf; (standard time) fz;L gpbj;jhHfs;. mjw;Fj; Njhjhfg; Gtpia 24 Neu kz;lyq;fshfg; gpupj;jhHfs;. mg;NghJ ,q;fpyhe;J ehLjhd; cyfpy; nfhbfl;bg; gwe;j ehL. vdNt ,q;fpyhe;jpy; cs;s fpwPd;tpr; (Greenwich) vd;w efuk; Ropak; (zero) ghif (,J tlf;Fj; njw;fhf tlJUtj;ijAk; - njd;JUtj;ijAk; ,izf;Fk; xU fw;gidf; NfhL) njhiytpy; cs;s vdj; NjHe;njLj;jhHfs;.

 

,e;j efuk; Njk;];  ejpapypUe;J ,yz;ld; gf;fkhf 4 iky; njhiytpy; ,Uf;fpwJ. ,e;j efiuj; NjHe;njLj;jw;F gpuQ;Rf;fhuHfs; vjpHg;Gj; njuptpj;jhHfs;. Mdhy;> mtHfshy; gpupj;jhdpaHfis vjpHj;Jg; Nghl;b NghlNth mtHfsJ nry;thf;Ff;F <L nfhLf;fNth Kbatpy;iy.  mg;gbg; Nghl;b Nghl Kbe;jpUe;jhy; ,e;j Ropak; NfhL fpwPd;tpr; efuj;Jf;Fg;gjpy; ghup]; efuj;ij ClWj;J tiuag;gl;bUf;Fk;.  fpwPd;tpr; Ropaf; Nfhl;by; Neuk; ez;gfy; 12 kzpnad;why; mjw;F fpof;Nf xt;nthU ghiff;Fk; 4 kzpj;Jsp $bf;nfhz;L NghFk;. Nkw;Nf mNjasT Fiwe;J nfhz;L NghFk;.

 

fpof;Nf 180 ghifapy; (12 kzpj;jpahy tpj;jpahrk;) midj;Jyf Neuk; njhlq;FfpwJ. mjhtJ nghOJ tpbe;J gfy; njhlq;FfpwJ. 

 

,e;j fpwPd;tpr; G+r;rpaf; Nfhl;il Neupy; ghHj;jpUf;fpNwd;. tljpiriag; ghHj;Jf; nfhz;L Nfhl;bd; ,UkUq;fpYk; fhy;fis itj;jhy; ,lJ fhy; Nkw;Fj; jpirapYk; tyJ fhy; fpof;Fj; jpirapYk; xNu Neuj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk;!  

 


 

 

 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (46)

 

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

 

fpNuf;f mwptpahyHfs;

 

nfhyk;g]; mnkupf;f fz;lj;ijf; fz;Lgpbj;J> rupahfr; nrhd;dhy; kPs; fz;Lgpbj;J 500 Mz;LfSf;F Nkyhfptpl;ld. ,e;j mRu rhjidapd; 500 Mz;L epiwit tl- njd; mnkupf;fHfs; jlGlyhff; nfhz;lhbdhHfs;. nfhyk;grpd; mnkupf;ff; fz;Lgpbg;ghy; G+Htpff; Fbkf;fs; NghupdhYk;> NehapdhYk; ngUksT mope;Jnjhope;jhHfs; vd;gJ cz;ikjhd;. mJ nfhyk;grpd; mnkupf;ff; fz;Lgpbg;Gg; gw;wpa tuyhw;wpd; ,Uz;l gFjpahFk;. ,Ue;Jk; nfhyk;grpd; rhjidiaf; Fiwj;J kjpg;gpl KbahJ.

 

kfhftp ghujpahH>

 

rpq;fsk; Gl;gfk; rhtf - khjpa

    jPT gytpDQ; nrd;Nwwp-mq;F

jq;fs; Gypf;nfhb kPd;nfhbAk;- epd;W

   rhy;Gwf; fz;ltH jha;ehL

tpz;iz apbf;Fk; jiyapkak;-vDk;

   ntw;igabf;Fk; jpwDilahH - rkH

gz;zpf; fypq;fj; jpUs;nfLj;jhH - jkpo;g;

   ghHj;jptH epd;w jkpo;ehL

 

vd;W ghbaij itj;Jf; nfhz;L Nkil vy;yhk; jkpoH tPuj;ij Koq;Ffpd;Nwhk;.

 

Kjyhk; ,uhruhr NrhoDk; (,aw;ngaH mUz;nkhopj;Njtd;)> mtd; kfd; Kjyhk; ,uhNre;jpu NrhoDk; (,aw;ngaH kJuhe;jfd;)  11 Mk; Ehw;whz;by; Nrhog; Nguuir  epWtpdhHfs;. ,e;jpa tuyhw;wpy; ngupa flw;gilia itj;jpUe;j ngUikAk; ,tHfisNa NrUk;. fly;fle;J gilnaLj;J <ok;> flhuk;> rhtfk;> Gl;gfk;> Ke;ePHg; goe;jPT gd;dPuhapuk; (khiyjPT)> fypq;fk;  Nghd;w ehLfis ntd;W mq;F jq;fs; Gypf;nfhbiag; gwf;f tpl;lhHfs;. <oj;ij Mz;l Ie;jhk; kfpe;jidr; rpwg;gpbj;jNjhL epy;yhky; <o kd;ddplk; ghz;baH milf;fyk; itj;j Re;jukzpKbAk; ,e;jpud; Muj;ijAk; ifg;gw;wp ,uhNre;jpud; jkpofk; kPz;lhd;. <oj;ij NrhoHfs; 70  Mz;LfSf;F Nkyhf Nrhog; Nguurpd; kz;lyq;fspy; xd;whfTk; (9 tJ kz;lyk;) n[fehjkq;fsGuj;ij (nghydWit) mjd; jiyefuhfTk; nfhz;L Ml;rp nra;jhHfs;.

 

nghUfl yPoj; jurHjk; KbAk;

Mq;ftH NjtpaH Xq;nfopy; KbAk;

Kd;dtH gf;fy; njd;dtH itj;j

Re;ju KbAk;> ,e;jpud; MuKk;

njz;liu <o kz;ly KOJk; ...

 

vd;w fy;ntl;L <okz;lyk; KOJk; NrhoHtrk; Mfpaij cWjpg; gLj;JfpwJ. NkYk; Nrud; nrq;Fl;Ltd; fdftpraH vd;w tlGy Nte;jH mUe;jkpopd; NeHikAk;> rPHikAk;> mUikAk;> ngUikAk; njupahJ> %Nte;jHfspd; Njhs;typAk; ths;typAk; GupahJ nrUf;NfhL ,opj;Jg; gopj;jhHfs; vdf; Nfl;L ntFz;nlOe;J tlehL kPJ gil elj;jpr; nrd;W fdfidAk; tpraidAk; Nghupy; Njhw;fbj;J> rpiwg; gpbj;J  mtHfs; jiyapy; ,kaj;jpy; ,Ue;J ngaHj;njLj;j fy;iyr; Rkj;jpf; nfhz;Lte;J fz;zfpf;Ff; Nfhapy; vOg;gpdhd;. mjid ,sq;Nfh mbfs; jhd; gilj;j rpyg;gjpfhu fhtpaj;jpy; fhy;Nfhl; fhijapy; ngUkpjj;NjhL ,dpikahd jkpopy; tbj;jpUf;fpwhH.

 

,tw;iwNa ghujpahH Gfo;e;J ghbapUf;fpwhH. Mdhy;> ,uhruhrDk;> ,uhNre;jpuDk; ths;Kidapy; gpbj;j ehLfs; xd;NwDk; jkpoHfSf;Fr; nrhe;jkhftpy;iy. flhuk;> rhtfk;> Gl;gfk;> khiyjPT Nghd;w ehLfspy;  kUe;Jf;Fk; jkpod; ,y;iy. mUfpYs;s <oj;jpd; ngUk;gFjp iftpl;Lg;NghdJ kl;Lky;y> mUfpYs;s khiyjPTk; Nfhl;il NghdJ. 

 

vq;fs; fhyj;jpy; fr;rjPit rpq;fsj;Jf;F jhiuthHj;j fhuzj;jhy; jkpofj; jkpod; fr;iriaAk; ,oe;J jtpf;fpwhd;!

 

xUNtis md;iwa %Nte;jHfs; ,j;jifa gilnaLg;Gf;fisj; jq;fs; jpdntLj;j Njhs;fSf;F Ntiy nfhLf;fTk;> jkpo; kwj;ij jpirnal;Lk; giwaiwaTk;  Nkw;nfhz;lhHfNsh  vd  epidf;fj; Njhd;WfpwJ. mtHfSf;F md;W ehL nfhs;Sk; Mir ,Uf;ftpy;iy NghYk;. 

 

,jw;F NeHkhwhf nfhyk;g]; xU fz;lj;ijNa fz;Lgpbj;jhH. my;yJ fz;Lgpbf;ff; fhy;Nfhs; ehl;bdhH. mjdhy; ,d;W mnkupf;fhf; fz;lk;  Mq;fpNyaH> ,Rg;ghdpaH> NghHj;Jf;NfaH> xy;yhe;jH> gpuQ;Rf;fhuH Nghd;NwhuJ ehLfshf> Rje;jpu ehLfshf> mtHfsJ nkhop Ngrg;gLk; ehLfshf jiy epkpHe;J epw;fpd;;wd.

 

vdNtjhd; vd; ghHitapy; nfhyk;grpd; rhjid mRu rhjid vdg; Nghw;wj; Njhd;WfpwJ. mtuJ Cf;fTlik> Jzpr;ry;> tpid nray;> tpidj; jpl;gk; tpag;ig mspf;fpwJ. mtuJ ntw;wpf;F md;iwa mwptpaNy mr;rhzpahf ,Ue;jpUf;fpwJ.

 

cyf ehfupfj;jpw;Fk; mwptpaYf;Fk; fpNuf;fj;jpd; gq;Fgw;wp Kd;dH Nfhbl;Lf; fhl;bAs;Nsd;. xU Jiwapy; kl;Lky;y gy;JiwfspYk; mtHfs; nfhbfl;bg; gwe;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. fzf;fpay;> epytpay;> thdpay;> jhtutpay;> ,aw;gpay;> tuyhW ,g;gb ve;jj; JiwiaAk; mtHfs; tpl;L itf;ftpy;iy.

 

INuhg;gh  fz;lk; ,Uz;l fhyj;jpy;  ,Ue;J ntspr;rj;jpw;F tuTk;> ehfupfk; milaTk;   Nrhf;fpwl;B];>  gpsl;Nlh> mup];Njhl;ly;> igj;jhf;fpu];> ,f;Fypl; (Euclid ) MHf;fpkpB];  (Archimedes)  njhykp (Ptolemy) Nghd;w  vz;zpwe;j   fpNuf;f mwptpayhsHfspd;  rpe;jidapy; G+j;j G+f;fNs gad;gl;ld.

 

xUGwk; fw;gidf; flTs;fs; gw;wpr; rpyH Guhzq;fs;> ,jpfhrq;fs;> Gidfijfs; vOjpf; nfhz;bUe;jNghJ kWGwk; fpNuf;f jj;JthrpupaHfs; ,aw;ifgw;wp Muha;r;rp nra;J mjpy; Gije;J fple;j kHkq;fSf;F tpil fhz;gjpy; <Lgl;lhHfs;. Nrhf;fpwl;b];                                     

 

mup];Njhl;ly; (Aristotle) mwptpaypd; je;ij vdg; Nghw;wg;gLfpwhH. nfwNlhw;u]; (Herodotus B.C.485-425)  tuyhw;wpd; je;ij vdg; Gfog;gLfpwhH. fpg;NghfpNwjp]; (Hippocrates)  kUj;Jtj;jpd; je;ij vdg; nganuLj;Js;shH. mtH jdJ khzhf;fHfSf;Fr;  nra;J itj;j cWjpnkhopNa ,d;wsTk;  cyfj;jpy; cs;s mj;jid kUj;Jt khztHfSk; gy;fiyf; fofq;fspy; gbj;Jg; gl;lk; ngw;W ntspNaWk; NghJ vLj;Jf; nfhs;fpwhHfs;.

 

,tHfspy; Fwpg;gpl;Lf; $wg;gl Ntz;ba ,d;ndhU jj;JthrpupaH ,Uf;fpwhH. mtuJ ngaH Njy;]; (  Thales of Miletus 624 - 546 BC).  gz;ila fpNuf;fj;jpd; VO mwpQH ngUkf;fspy;; ,tH xUtH. ,tHjhd; fpNuf;fj;jpd; ,aw;if jj;JthrpupaHfs; (fpNuf;fj;jpy; vy;yh mwptpayhsHfisAk;  jj;JthrpupaHfs; vd;w xNu nrhy;ypy; mioj;jhHfs;)  tupirpapy; Kjy; mwptpayhsH. gz;ila fpNuf;f ehl;bd; rpe;jidahsHfsJ INahdpad; vd;w gpuptpitj; Njhw;Wtpj;jtUk; (Founder of the  Ionian school of ancient Greek thinkers) ,tNu.

 

,tH vfpg;jpd;  Gfo;ngw;w gpukpl; NfhGuq;fis mse;jtH vdr; nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ. fzf;fpaiyg; gad;gLj;jp  flw;fiuapy; ,Ue;J ntFnjhiytpy; gazk; nra;Ak; fg;gy;fspd; Jhuj;ij ,tH fzpj;Jr; nrhy;yptpLthuhk;. fp.gp. 585 ,y; Vw;gl;l QhapW fpufzj;ijAk; ,tH Kd;$l;bNa fzpj;Jr;   nrhd;dhuhk;. fzf;fpaypy; Ie;J Njw;wq;fisf; fz;Lgpbj;j ngUikAk; ,tiur; rhHe;jjhk;. mjpy; xd;W xU miutl;lj;jpDs; fPwg;gl;l Kf;Nfhzj;jpy; xd;W nrq;Nfhzkhf ,Uf;Fk; vd;gjhFk;. ,aw;ifapy; fhzg;gLk; nghUl;fspd; %yg;nghUs; vJthf ,Uf;Fk; vd;W Muha;e;J mJ ePuhf ,Uf;fyhk; vd;w fUj;ij ,tH ntspapl;lhH. 

 

fpNuf;fj;ijg; Guhz fhyj;jpy; ,Ue;J Vd;? vjw;fhf? vg;gb? vd;w mwptpay; Muha;r;rp cyFf;F ,Oj;J te;j ngUik Njy;]; cilajhFk;. ,j;jpahjp fhuzq;fSf;fhfj;  Njy;ir  nka;apaypd; epWtdH vd;W mup];Njhl;ly; ghuhl;b ,Uf;fpwhH.

 

fpgp 450 Mk; Mz;lstpy; Vjd;]; efupy; Njhd;wpa jj;Jtk;>  mwptpay; gw;wp RUf;fkhfg; ghHg;Nghk;. fp.gp. 470 Mk; Mz;L gpwe;j Nrhf;fpwl;bRlNdNa mwptpay;  njhlq;FfpwJ. ahiug;gw;wpj; njupahtpl;lhYk; Nrhf;fpwl;b];gw;wp XusthtJ ehk;  mwpe;J itj;jpUf;fpNwhk;. "cd;idNa eP mwptha;" ("Know thyself”) vd;w mtuJ thf;fpak; kpfTk; gpugy;akhdJ. ,tH Ez;khz; EioGyk;gilj;j kpfg; ngupa rpe;jidahsH. xd;Wk; njupahj mwptpypNghy; ebj;J>  Nfs;tp Nfl;gtHfsplk; NkYk; Nfs;tpfisf; Nfl;L> mtiug; Gj;jprhypNghy; Kjypy; ek;gitj;Jg; gpd;dH nfhQ;rk; nfhQ;rkhff; Nfs;tp Nfl;gtupd; mwpahikia  Nehfhky;  vLj;Jr; nrhy;yp cz;ikia epiyehl;LtJ ,tuJ ghzp.   

     


 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (47)

 

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

 

"vdf;Fj; njupe;jnjy;yhk; vdf;F xd;WNk njupahnjd;gJjhd;"

 

 

nka;apaiy (nka;awptpd; kPjhd tpUg;G) kjj;jpy; ,Ue;J gpupg;gJ fbdk;. mjid mwptpay; kw;Wk; fzf;fpay; ,tw;wpy; ,Ue;J gpupg;gJk; fbdkhFk;.  nka;apaypd; Fwpf;Nfhs; ,aw;ifapy; epfOk; ,af;fq;fspy; xU xOq;iff; fz;L mJ GyTzHTf;Fg; nghUe;jp tUfpwjh vd;gij fz;lwptjhFk;.

 

KjyhtJ gpuptpdH mwnthOf;fk; gw;wp (Ethics) tprhuiz nra;jtHfs;. ,tHfs; kdpjHfs;  vg;gb ele;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;? rup gpio vd;W VjhtJ ,Uf;fpwjh? ,Ue;jhy; mjid vg;gb ,dq;fz;L nfhs;tJ? rupAk; gpioAk; vy;yh kf;fSf;Fk; xNu khjpupah? my;yJ rpyiug; nghWj;jstpy; mJgw;wpa tpjpfs; Ntwh? ahH ,e;j tpjpfisr; nra;jhHfs;? ,d;gk;jhd; kdpjDf;F kw;w vy;yhtw;iwAk;tpl Kf;fpakhdjh?

 

,uz;lhtJ gpuptpdH vy;yhk; tpjptop (Fate or Predestination) vd;gtHfs;. ,tHfs; ,e;j cyfj;jpd;  ,af;fj;ijg;gw;wp  mf;fiw nrYj;jpatHfs;.  tpjp vd;nwhd;W cz;lh? kf;fs; jq;fs; tpjpiaj; jhq;fNs epUzapj;Jf; nfhs;fpwhHfsh? my;yJ  thdj;jpy; ,Ug;gjhfr; nrhy;yg;gLk; nja;tq;fs; jPHkhdpf;fpd;wdth? tpjpia khw;wp vOj KbAkh? vjpHfhyj;ij  njupe;J nfhs;s kdpjDf;F top cz;lh? kdpjdhy; mJ  KbAkh?

 

%d;whtJ tifapdH kf;fistpl ,e;j ,aw;if cyfj;ijg; gw;wpa (Natural World)  jj;Jt tprhuizapy; ,wq;fpatHfs;. ,e;j cyfk; vq;fpUe;J te;jJ? mjidg; gilj;jtd; my;yJ mjd; fhuzfHj;jh ahH? cyfk; Vd; gilf;fg;gl;lJ? mJ ahUf;fhfg; gilf;fg;gl;lJ? mz;l Nfhsq;fs;vy;yhk; xU xOq;fpy; fhzg;gLtjw;F VjhtJ nghUs; cz;lh my;yJ mJ jw;nrayhd epfo;th?

 

,g;gbahd jj;Jt tprhuizfspy; gz;ila ggpNyhdpaHfs;> vfpg;jpaHfs;> A+jHfs;> cNuhkHfs;> fpNuf;fHfs; <Lgl;lhHfs;. ,Ue;Jk; fpNuf;fHfNs> Fwpg;ghf mup];Njhl;ly;> ,aw;if cyfk; gw;wpa tprhuizapy; rpwe;J tpsq;fpdhHfs;.   

 

Vjd;]; efuj;jpd; nka;apay;thjpfs; %tupy; Nrhf;fpwl;b]; Kjd;ikahdtH. vQ;rpa ,UtUk; gpshl;NlhTk; mup];Njhl;lYk; MtH. ,e;j Kk;%Hj;jpfNs  fpNufj;jpd; mwptpaYf;Ff; fhy;Nfhs; ,l;l rpe;jidahsHfs;.

 

Nrhf;fpwl;b]; xU rhjhuz FLk;gj;jpy; gpwe;jtH. mtuJ je;ijahH xU rpw;gpahthH. mtuJ jhahH xU kUj;Jtpr;rp. jdJ je;ij NghyNt Nrhf;fpwl;b]; nfhQ;rf;fhyk;  rpw;gpahfj; njhopy; nra;jhH vdj; njupfpwJ. ngnyhg;dPrpad; Aj;jk; (Pelpponnesian War) njhlq;fpaNghJ Vjd;]; efuk; rhHghf Nrhf;fpwl;b]; Aj;jKidapy; Nghupl;lhH. 

 

jdJ 40 MtJ mfitapy; jd;idr; Rw;wpa ,e;j cyfj;ij mwpa Kaw;rpj;jhH. fbdkhd gy Nfs;tpfSf;F tpilfhz Kad;whH. Nfs;tpfSf;F tpil fhz;gJ mtH epidj;jJNghy mt;tsT Rygkhd tplaky;y vd;gijf; fz;lhH.

 

mwpT vd;why; vd;d? mofpd; tiutpyf;fzk; vd;d? rupnad;W  nra;ag;gLtit vit? ,e;jf; Nfs;tpfSf;F jdpj;J tpil fhz;gJ mupnjd;gjhy;  gyiuAk;  NrHj;J> rpe;jpf;f itj;J> mtHfsJ Nahridapd; mbg;gilapy; tpilfhz Kad;whH.  mjw;fhf  Vnjd;]; efuj;ijr; Rw;wp te;J jhd; fhZk; kf;fsplk; gy Nfs;tpfisf; Nfl;lhH. mwpT vd;why; vd;d? flTs;gw;W vd;why; vd;d? ,itNghd;w Nfs;tpfis mtH Nfl;lhH.

 

gyH jhq;fs; Nrhypahf ,Ug;gjhfTk; jq;fSf;F Neuk; ,y;iynad;W rhl;Lr; nrhy;ypj; jl;bf; fopj;jhHfs;. rpyH mtuJ Nfs;tpfSf;F tpil nrhy;y Kaw;rpj;jhHfs;. mg;gbr; nrhy;Yk; NghJ NkYk; FWf;Ff; Nfs;tpfisf; Nfl;L jHf;fuPjpahf mtHfisr; rpe;jpf;fr; nrhy;thH. ,jdhy; tpil  nrhd;dtHfspd; Nfhgj;ijAk; Nrhf;fpwl;b]; rk;ghjpf;f Ntz;b Neupl;lJ.

 

kpf tpiutpy; Nrhf;fpwl;birr; Rw;wp xU ,isQH $l;lk; jpuz;lJ.  Nrhf;fpwl;b];  nrhy;tijf; ftdkhfr; nrtpkLj;Jj; njspthfr; rpe;jpg;gJ vg;gb vd;gijf; nfhQ;rk; njupe;J nfhz;lhHfs;. ,g;gbg;  gbg;gpg;gjw;Fj; jdJ khzhf;fHfsplk; ,Ue;J Nrhf;fpwl;b]; gzk; thq;Ftjpy;iy. Cjpak; thq;fhkNyNa gbg;gpj;jhH.

 

Nrhf;fpwl;b]; kdpjHfsJ mgpg;gpuhaq;fis cz;ik vd;w Nfhiy itj;J msf;Fk; NghJ jhd; cl;gl vy;NyhUNk mwptpypfs; (fools) vd thjpj;jhH. Nrhf;fpwl;b]; jdf;F midj;Jf; Nfs;tpfSf;Fk; tpil njupahnjd;whH. rhjhuz NgHtopfs; mg;gb epidf;ftpy;iy. mtUf;F  midj;Jk; njupAnkd;W epidj;jhHfs;. mjdhy; kdpjHfSf;Fs; Nrhf;fpwl;b]; kpfTk; Gj;jprhyp vd kw;wtHfs; vz;zpdhHfs;.  

 

Nrhf;fpwl;brpd; gzpTf;F vLj;Jf; fhl;lhf xU fij nrhy;tJz;L. xUKiw  mtiug; ghHj;j cly;kUj;JtH (physiognomist) mtH ngha; Ngrf; $batH> tapWGilf;fr; rhg;gpLgtH> Fbfhud; vd;nwy;yhk; nrhd;dhH. ,ijf; Nfl;l Nrhf;fpwl;brpd; khzhf;fHfSf;F kfh Nfhgk; te;jJ. jq;fsJ Mrpupaiu mt;thW Nftykhfg; Ngrpatiu mbf;fg; NghdhHfs;. Mdhy;> Nrhf;fpwl;b]; mg;gbr; nra;af;$lhJ vd mtHfisj;; jLj;jhH. "mikjpahf ,Uq;fs;. mtH cz;ikiaj;jhd; nrhd;dhH. jd;dlf;fj;jpw;F ehd; Ms;glhtpl;bUe;jhy; mtH tHzpj;j khjpupNa ehd; ,Ue;jpUg;Ngd;" vd;whH.

 

fpK 399 Mk; Mz;lstpy; ,isQHfis Nrhf;fpwl;b]; jtwhd ghijapy; mioj;Jr; nrd;W mtHfisf; nfLf;fpwhH vd;w Fw;wr;rhl;Lg; gykhf vOe;jJ. vdNt mtH flTsHfis kjpf;f kWf;fpwhH vd;w Fw;wr; rhl;by; ifJ nra;ag;gl;L ePjpkd;wj;jpy; epWj;jg;gl;lhH. ,e;j ePjpkd;wk; Nrhf;fpwl;b]; Fw;wthsp  vdf; fz;L  mtUf;F eQ;R nfhLj;Jf; nfhy;YkhW jPHg;G toq;fpaJ. ,e;jg;  Gfo;ngw;w ePjpkd;w tprhuiz cq;fs; vy;NyhUf;Fk; njupe;j tuyhW.

 

ey;y Nfs;tpfNs mwpT gw;wpa Njlypd; Muk;gkhFk;. xU tplak; gw;wp ehq;fs; ,d;ndhUtNuhL tpthjpf;Fk;NghJ gy Nfs;tpfisf; Nfl;fpNwhk;. me;jf; Nfs;tpfs; nghUs; epiwe;jjhf ,Ue;jhy; tpthjpf;fg;gl;l tplak; rk;ge;jkhd cz;ikia  XusthtJ njupe;J nfhs;s tha;g;Gz;L.  ,e;j topiaNa Nrhf;fpwl;b]; cz;ikiaj; Njb mwptjw;F Nkw;nfhz;lhH. ,jdhy; rpyH Nfhgk; mile;jhHfs> rpyH ghuhl;bdhHfs;. ,Jjhd; Nrhf;fpwl;b]; Nkw;nfhz;l tprhuizahy; mtUf;Ff; fpilj;j ed;ikAk; jpd;ikAkhFk;.

 

jhd; re;jpf;Fk; ez;gHfs; my;yJ njupe;jtHfsplk; Nfs;tpfisf; Nfl;gjpd; %yk; xU tplak;gw;wpa cz;ikia my;yJ ngha;ikia Nrhf;fpwl;b]; epWt Kad;whH.                                                                         gpshl;Nlh

 

jiy rpwe;j jj;Jthrpupauhd Nrhf;fpul;b]; capNuhL ,Ue;jNghJ jdJ khzhf;fHfSf;Fg; gbg;gpj;j jj;Jtq;fs; vjidAk; Ehy; tbtpy; vOjp itf;ftpy;iy. Mdhy;> mtH ,we;jgpd; mtuJ jiy khzhf;fHfspy; xUtuhd gpshl;Nlh (fpK 427-347) Nrhf;fpwl;b]; fw;gpj;jtw;iw tpupthf vOj;jpy; tbj;jhH. mg;gb vOjpa Ehy;fspy; The Apology xd;whFk;.   Apology vd;w fpNuf;fr; nrhy;ypd; nghUs; jd;dpiy tpsf;fkhFk; (Defence Speech).  

 

,e;j Ehypy; Nrhf;fpwl;brpd; jiyrpwe;j jj;JthHj;j ciuahly;fisAk; Ngr;Rf;fisAk; fw;gpj;jy;fisAk; gpshl;Nlh gjpT nra;Js;shH. cyfNk vjpHj;J epd;;whYk; xUtH jhd; vtw;iwr; rupnad;W epidf;fpwhNuh mjidr;; nra;a Ntz;Lk;. mJ kl;Lky;yhky; vg;gbg;gl;l vjpHg;Gf;F kj;jpapYk; nka;awpitj; Njl Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ Nrhf;fpwl;brpd; jj;JtkhFk;.

 

Nrhf;fpwl;brpd; jj;Jt tprhuizapd; ghzpgw;wp Kd;dNu Fwpg;gpl;Ls;Nsd;. njhlHr;rpahff; Nfs;tpfisf; Nfl;L> Nfs;tp Nfl;ltupd; Nfs;tpfspy; cs;s  Kuz;ghl;ilr; Rl;bf;fhl;b mtuJ Muk;g JzpGiu (original assertion) jtwhdJ vd vz;gpg;gNj mtuJ ghzpahFk;. me;jf; Nfs;tpfisf; FWf;F tprhuiz vd;W nrhy;tJ ,d;Dk; nghUj;jkhf ,Uf;Fk;. 

 

Nrhf;fpwl;b]; jd;idg; nghWj;jstpYk; ve;jj; JzpGiuiaAk;  epiyg;ghlhff; nfhs;tjpy;iy. j mg;nghnyh[p  vd;w Ehypy; Nrhf;fpwl;b]; jdf;F xd;WNk njupahJ vd;w epiyg;ghl;ilj;jhd; vLf;fpwhH.

 

jdf;Fj; njupe;jnjy;yhk; jdf;nfhd;Wk; njjpahnjd;gJjhd;! jhd; fz;L  gpbj;j cz;ik vd;dntd;why; jhd; cz;ik vjidAk; fz;Lgpbf;ftpy;iy vd;gJjhd;!

 

mwk; (virtue) vd;w nrhy;Yf;F kl;Lk; mtH tiutpyf;fzk; $wpAs;shH. "mwk; vd;why; mwpT" (Virtue is knowledge) vd;gNj mtH nrhy;ypa tiutpyf;fzkhFk;. xUtUf;F ey;yJ vJ vd;gJ kl;Lk; njupe;Jtpl;lhy; mtH vg;NghJk; ey;yijNa nra;thH. mjpy; ,Ue;J ngwg;gLk; cz;ik vd;dntd;why; jPik nra;gtH vJ ed;ik vd;W njupahjjhNyNa jPik nra;fpwhH.  xUtUf;F mwk;> xOf;fk;> md;G my;yJ NtW VjhtJ mwk;gw;wpg; gpioahd rpe;jidfs; ,Ue;jhy; mtH rupahdtw;iwr; nra;thH vd;W ek;gKbahJ. 

 

 


 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (48)

 

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy; 

 

,d;iwa kf;fshl;rpKiw fpNuf;fHfsJ ed;nfhil!

 

fpA+gh gazf;  fl;Liuia Kof;fk; thrfHfs; gyH  MHtj;NjhL gbj;J tUfpwhHfs; vd;gijf; Nfl;f kfpo;r;rpahf ,Uf;fpwJ. thuh thuk; Kof;fk; nra;jpj;jhis vLj;jTld; ePq;fs; vOJk; fpA+gh fl;Liuiag; gbj;J tpl;Lj;jhd;  kWNtiy" vd;W vd;idj; njupe;jtHfSk; njupahjtHfSk; Neupy; fhZk; NghJk;  njhiyNgrpapYk; nrhy;fpwhHfs;. mtHfs; cz;ikahfr; nrhy;fpwhHfNsh ntWkNd KfkDf;fhfr;  nrhy;fpwhHfNsh vd;gJ  vdf;Fj; njupahJ. Mdhy;> fPjthzp ,uh[;FkhH Nghd;wtHfs; nrhy;Yk;NghJ mjid ek;g Ntz;bAs;sJ.

 

,sikf; fhyj;jpy; fy;fp fpU\;z%Hj;jp mtHfs; jdJ ,yq;ifg; gazj;ij itj;J vOjpa njhlHfl;Liuiag; gbj;jpUf;fpNwd;. "mf;fiur; rPikapy; MWthuk;" vd;gJ me;jj; njhlH fl;Liuf;F nfhLf;fg;gl;l jiyg;G vd;W Qhgfk;. fy;fpiag; NghyNy "fy;fp" ,jopd; cjtp Mrpupauhf ,Ue;j gfPujDk; jdJ ,yq;ifg; gazj;ij njhlH fl;Liuahf vOjpapUf;fpwhH. mtH ,yq;if tUk;NghJ ehd; ,uj;jpdGupapy; gzpahw;wpf; nfhz;bUe;Njd;. mq;Fk; te;jpUe;jhH. kiyehl;bd; nfhs;is moifg; gUf Ntz;Lk; vd;why; ,uj;jpdGup> gyhq;nfhil Nghd;w efuq;fSf;Fg; Nghf Ntz;Lk;.

 

fhiyapy; kiyapy; ,Ue;J topAk; mUtpapy;jhd; Fspay;. ,y;yhtpl;lhy;  gf;fj;jpy; gha;e;NjhLk;  fSfq;if Mw;wpy; ePr;ry; mbf;fyhk;.  ,uj;jpdGup etuj;jpdq;fSf;Fg; ngaHNghd efuk;. mq;F fpzW Njhz;LtJNghy muRf;Fr;; nrhe;jkhd epyj;ijj; Njhz;b fy;Yk; kz;Zk; NrHe;j Nrw;iw ms;sp  ntspapy; nfhz;L te;J mjidj; jz;zPupy; mupj;Jf; fOtp ,uj;jpdf; fw;fis vLg;ghHfs;. mtw;iwnay;yhk; $l;bf; nfhz;LNgha;f; fhl;bNdhk;. mtw;iwg; gpd;dH jdJ gazf; fl;Liuapy; tpupthf vOjpapUe;jhH.

 

Mde;jtpfldpy; cjtp Mrpupauhf ,Ue;J gpd;dH ,jak; NgRfpwJ vd;w nrhe;jf; fpoik ,jio Muk;gpj;j kzpaDk; mnkupf;fh cl;gl jdJ cyfg; gaz mDgtq;fis vOjpapUf;fpwhH. Nydh jkpo;thzDk; gy gazf; fl;Liuj; njhlHfis vOjpAs;shH.

 

vOj;jhsH Nrhkny 1948 Mk; Mz;L mnkupf;fhitr; Rw;wpg;ghHj;J mnkupf;fhitg; ghH vd;w EhiyvOjpAs;shH. ,e;j Ehy; VO gjpg;Gf;fisf; fz;Ls;sJ!

 

1996 Mk; Mz;L mnkupf;f jkpo;r; rq;fg; NguitAk;  jkpo;ehL mwf;fl;lisAk; ,ize;J elhj;jpa Ie;jhtJ Mz;L khehl;by; fye;J nfhs;s te;j ftpQH <NuhL jkpod;gd; %d;W khjfhyk; mnkupf;fhtpYs;s ,Ugj;J ,uz;L khepyq;fisr; Rw;wpg;  ghHj;Jf; ftpij tbtpy; cd; tPl;bw;f;F ehd; te;jpUe;Njd;.... thy;l; tpl;kd; vd;w EhiyAk;> ciueilapy; mizf;fth  mnkupf;fh" vd;w EhiyAk; vOjpapUf;fpwhH.

 

murhq;f vOJ tpidQH rq;fj;jpd; cj;jpNahfG+Ht vOr;rp jpq;fs; Vl;bd;  Mrpupauhf ,Ue;jNghJ (1959-1966) rq;fj;jpd; Mz;L khehLfis tpj;jpahrkhd Kiwapy; vOjp ntspapLNtd;. ,e;jg; gl;lwpTjhd; fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liuia vOj cjtp cs;sJ vd epidf;fpNwd;.

 

Nuhkf; Fbaurpd; rHthjpfhup A+ypa]; rPrH (fpK 102-44)  fpNuf;fj;ij ntd;wgpd;> fpNufj;ij tpl;Lj; jg;gp Xba nghk;Ngiaj; Njb vfpg;J nrd;whd;. mq;F  nghk;Ngia ntd;W fpspNahg;gw;whit kze;J mtis vfpg;jpa Ml;rpf;  fl;bypy; mkHj;jpdhd;. njhlHe;J  mz;il ehlhd Mrpah ikdH kw;Wk; nghd;u]; efuq;fisf; ifg;gw;wpa gpd;;dH NuhkhGupapy; ,Ue;j Nky;rig cWg;gpdHfSf;F (Senators) xU tuyhw;Wg; Gfo;ngw;w nra;jp xd;iw mDg;gpdhd; "te;Njd;> ghHj;Njd;> ntd;Nwd;" ("Veni, vidi, vici"- "I came, I saw, I conquered") vd;W nrhd;d ghzpapy; ,f;fl;Liuj; njhliu vOjyhk;. Mdhy;> mij ehd; tpUk;gtpy;iy.

 

,e;jj; njhlH fl;Liu %yk; nfhyk;grpd; ntw;wpf;F mwptpay;jhd; fhuzp vd;gij tw;GWj;jp tUfpNwd;. ,jpfhr Guhz fhyj;jpy; %isr;ryit nra;ag;gl;l ,ilf;fhy> gpw;fhyj; jkpoHfis mjpypUe;J tpLtpj;J mwpTyfj;Jf;F ,Oj;J tUtJ vdJ Fwpf;NfhshFk;.  %lek;gpf;iffSf;F KOf;Fg; Nghl;Ltpl;Lj;  jkpoHfs; gFj;jwpNthL rpe;jpf;fTk; thoTk; ,e;jj; njhlH fl;Liu nfhQ;rkhtJ cjTk; vd;gJ vdJ ek;gpf;if.  kjpak; jpUk;gpatHfSf;F my;yhJ ngUk;ghYk; ,isa  jiyKiwapdUf;fhfNt ,jid vOJfpNwd;.

 

fpNuf;f mwptpay; Mrhd;fspy; rpyuJ mwptpay; gq;fspg;ig> Fwpg;ghf thdpay; gw;wpa mwptpay; gq;fspg;ig nrhy;yptpl;L>  nfhyk;g]; fpA+gh cl;gl Nkw;fpe;jpa jPTfspy; jiuapwq;fpaijg;gw;wp vOj ,Uf;fpNwd;. mg;Gwk; `hthdhtpy; ,d;Dk; ghHf;f Ntz;ba ,lq;fisr; Rw;wpf; fhl;btpl;L> fpA+ghtpd; tuyhw;iwAk;> tuyhw;W ehafHfisAk; gw;wp vOjp tpl;L ,e;jf; fl;Liuj; njhliu Kbf;f ,Uf;fpNwd;. ,dp tpl;l ,lj;jpy; ,Ue;J njhlHfpNwd;.

 

Nrhf;fpwl;b]; gw;wp NkYk; mwpa tpUk;GNthH mtH gw;wp  ntspte;Js;s Gj;jfq;fisg; gbf;fyhk;. it. rhkpehj rHkh gpshl;Nlhtpd; murpay; vd;w Ehy; xd;iw vOjpAs;shH. ,J xU nkhopngaHg;G Ehy;. Mq;fpyj;jpy; "Morality and the good life’ vd;w Ehy; md;iwa ,d;iwa nka;apyhsHfs; gw;wp tpupthfr; nrhy;fpwJ. ,tw;iwtpl Nrhf;fpwl;b]; gw;wpg; ngUe;njhifahd jdpj;jdp Ehy;fs; ,Uf;fpd;wd.

 

Nrhf;fpwl;brpd; jiyrpwe;j khzhf;fH gpshl;Nlh MthH. ,tuJ fhyk; fpK 429-347 Mfk;.  Nrhf;fpwl;brplk; ,Ue;J gytw;iwg; gpshl;Nlh gbj;Jj; njupe;J nfhz;lhH. vg;gbr; rpe;jpg;gJ> vg;gbg;gl;l Nfs;tpfs; gw;wpr; rpe;jpg;gJ vd;gtw;iw vy;yhk; gpshl;Nlh Nrhf;fpwl;brplk; ,Ue;Nj fw;Wf; nfhz;lhH.

 

Nrhf;fpwl;b]; Nghyy;yhJ gpshl;Nlh gzk; gilj;j Nkl;Lf; Fbapy; gpwe;jtH. mtuJ cwtpdHfs; Vjd;]; efu murpaypy; Kf;fpa gjtp  tfpj;jtHfs;.  ,d;Wtiu gpshl;Nlh cyfj;jpd; jiyrpwe;j jj;Jtthjpnadg; Nghw;wg;gLfpwhH.

 

fpgp 399  ,y; Nrhf;fpwl;b]; kuz jz;lid tpjpf;fg;gl;L ,we;j NghJ  gpshl;NlhTf;F taJ 30 kl;LNk. Nrhf;fpwl;brpd; ciuahly;fis cldpUe;J nrtpkLj;j gpshl;Nlh mtw;iw Vl;by; vOj Muk;gpj;jhH. gpd;dH mtw;iwg; gy njhFjpfisf; nfhz;l Ehyhf vOjp Kbj;jhH. ,d;W ehk; Nrhf;fpl;b];gw;wpj; njupe;J nfhs;Sk; juTfs; midj;Jk; gpshl;Nlh vOjp itj;jtifahFk;.  jdJ MrpupauJ ghlq;fis Kjypy; nrhy;ypf; nfhLj;J te;j ,tH gpd;dH jdJ nrhe;jf; fofj;ij (Academy) epWtpj; jdJ  jj;Jtrpe;jidfis khzhf;fHfSf;Fg; gbg;gpj;jhH.

 

gpshl;Nlh vOjpa FbauR (Republic) vd;w Ehy; kpfTk; gpugy;ak; tha;e;jJ. Vjd;]; muirtplr; rpwe;j muR vg;gb ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w jdJ fUj;ij ,e;j Ehypy; vOjpAs;shH. FbauR vd;w Ehy; Nkw;Fehl;Lj; jj;Jtf; fUj;Jf;fs; kPJ kpfTk; nry;thf;Fr; nrYj;jpaJ. ,e;j Ehy; cyfpy; kdpjd; tho;thq;F tho;tJ vg;gb? mjd; njhlHghf vOk;  rkhe;juf; Nfs;tpfshd-

 

    (m) mur ePjp vd;gJ vd;d? my;yJ xU ,yl;rpa muR vg;gb ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;?

 

    (M) ePjpahd kdpjd; vd;why; vd;d nghUs;?

 

,e;jf; Nfs;tpfs; ,aw;ifahfNt NkYk; gy Nfs;tpfisf; Nfl;fj; Jhz;LfpwJ.  vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf xU  ehl;bd; FbkfDf;F vt;thW fy;tp Gfl;ly; Ntz;Lk;? vj;jifa fiyfs; Cf;fptpf;fg; glNtz;Lk;? muR vj;jifa tbtj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;? ahH murhl;rp nra;a Ntz;Lk;? mtHfSf;F  vjid Copakhff; nfhLf;fyhk;? Md;kh vg;gbg;gl;lJ? mjd;  Fzhjpraq;fs; vd;d? filrpahf  nja;tPf  jz;lid> kWgpwg;G (,it ,Ue;jhy;) mtw;iw vg;gb vz;gpg;gJ? ,g;gb cyfpay;; rpf;fy;fisg; gw;wp vOk; Iaq;fSf;F gpshl;Nlh ,e;j Ehy; %yk; tpil fhz Kay;fpwhH.

 

ePjp vd;why; vd;d? ,jw;fhf Kd;itf;fg;gl;l tiutpyf;fzk; vJTNk Nghjpajhf ,Uf;ftpy;iy. Nrhf;fpwl;brpd; khzhf;fHfspy; xUtuhd jpwhrpkr;R]; (Thrasymachus)  vd;w ,isQH; kl;Lk; mjw;fhd tiutpyf;fzj;ij $WfpwhH.

 

ty;NyhHfs; vij ePjp vd;W jPHkhdpf;fpwhHfNsh mJjhd; ePjp. ty;NyhHfs;  jq;fs; eyDf;F vJ cte;jNjh mjid ePjp vdj; jPHkhdpf;fpwhHfs;.

 

Nrhf;fpwl;b]; ,e;j thjj;ij js;sp tpLfpwhH. ty;NyhHfs; kpf mUikahfNt jq;fSf;F vJ ey;yJ vd;gij fz;Lnfhs;s KbAk;. mJ ePjpahf ,Uf;fhJ. fhuzk; ePjp ey;y fhupaj;ijg; gw;wpaJ.

 

,ijf; Nfl;l jpwhrpkr;r]; Nfhgpj;Jf; nfhz;L ntspNaWfpwhH. Nrhf;fpwl;b]; kPz;Lk; Muk;gj;jpy; ,Ue;J ty;NyhHfs; vij ePjp vd;W jPHkhdpf;fpwhHfs; vd;w Nfs;tpiaf; Nfl;fpwhH.

 

xUtH ePjpahd muR vg;gbg;gl;lJ vd;W jPHkhdpj;jhy;> mjid Kd;khjpupahf itj;Jf; nfhz;L ePjpahd kdpjUf;F tiutpyf;fzk; nrhy;yptplyhk;.

 

gpshl;Nlh ,g;NghJ me;jf; Nfs;tpf;fhd ePz;l tpiliar; nrhy;y Muk;gpf;fpwhH. xU muR ehd;F mwq;fis cs;slf;fpajhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. mitahtd mQ;rhik> mwpTlik. eLTepyik> ePjp. "FbauR" Ehypd; ePskhd kPjpg;gFjp  ePjpahd muRgw;wpa jj;Jt tprhuizahf mike;Js;sJ. gpshl;Nlhtpd; vz;zg;gb ngUk;ghyhd kf;fs; Kl;lhs;fs;. vdNt mtHfs; NjHjypy; thf;fspf;ff; $lhnjd vz;zpdhH. rKjhaj;jpy; cs;s rpwe;j  kdpjHfisj; njupe;njLj;J  mtHfis kw;wtHfsJ ghJfhtyHfshf  itf;f  Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ mtuJ NahridahFk;. gpshl;Nlh nry;tr; nropg;ghd  Nkl;Lf; Fbapy; gpwe;jtH vd;gJ epidT $He;jhy; mtuJ ,e;jf; fUj;Njhl;lq;fisapl;L Mr;rupag;gl Ntz;b ,Uf;fhJ. 

 

Gydstpyhd murpay; jj;Jtk; gw;wp (abstract political theory) xOq;fhfTk; tpupthfTk; vOjg;gl;l Kjy; Ehyhf "FbauR" ,d;Wtiu vz;zg;gLfpwJ.

 

fpNuf;fHfSk;> cNuhkHfSk; fpK Mk; Ehw;whz;lstpy;   Kbahl;rpf;F KbTfl;b Fbahl;rp murpay; Kiwiaf; nfhz;Lte;J tpl;lhHfs;. ,d;iwa  kf;fshl;rpj; jj;Jtk; fpNuf;fHfsJ ed;nfhilahFk;. 

 

jkpoHfs; filrptiu "kd;dd; capHj;Nj kyHjiy cyfk;" vd;W ,Ue;J tpl;lhHfs;. mjpy; jg;gpy;iy. jkpofj;ij Mz;l %Nte;jHfs; nrq;Nfhy; NfhzhJ Fbjop,f; NfhNyhr;rp ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. mjw;fhf ehk; ngUikg;glyhk;.

 

Nfhtyidj; jPu tprhupahJ nfhiy nra;jjd; %yk; jdJ  nrq;Nfhy; tise;jNghJ "jho;e;j Filad;> jsHe;j nrq;Nfhyd;> nghd;nra; nfhy;yd; jd;nrhw; Nfl;l ahNdh murd;? ahNd fs;td;! kd;gijfhf;Fk;  njd;Gyf; fhty;  vd;Kjw; gpioj;jJ> nfLf vd; MAs;!" vd ghz;bad; neLQ;nropad; mupaizapy; ,Ue;J kaq;fpf; fPNo tpOe;J capiu tpLfpwhd;. ,J ePjpgw;wp me;j kd;dd; nfhz;bUe;j caupa vz;zj;Jf;F ey;y vLj;Jf;fhl;L.

 

ghz;bad; neLQ;nropaDf;F Mapuj;J Ie;EhW Mz;LfSf;Fg; gpd;dH ,q;fpyhe;ij Mz;l vl;lhtJ n`d;wp kd;dd; (fpgp 1491-1547) Mz;thupR ,y;yhjijf; fhuzk; fhl;bj; jdJ Kjy; kidtpia kzKwpT nra;jhd;.  kzKwpTf;F mDkjp kWj;j NuhkhGup Nghg;ghz;ltUld; ,Ue;j cwit ntl;bf; nfhz;L Church of England vd;w jdp Njthyaj;ij cUthf;fpdhd;.  gpd;dH mLj;jLj;J Ie;J kidtpaHfis kze;J nfhz;ltd;.  ,jpy; ,uz;L kidtpaHfsJ jiyfis Nrhuk;  NghdhHfs; vd;w Fw;wr; rhl;by; ntl;batd;.  mtdJ mikr;ruhd Fwk;nty;  jiyiaAk; rPtpatd;. ,tdJ kfNs Gfo; ngw;w KjyhtJ vyprngj;; kfhuhzpahthH.

 

jkpoHfs; Mapuj;J vz;ZhW Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH vt;thW ehfupfk; gilj;j ,dkhf ,Ue;jhHfs; vd;gJk;> Mq;fpNyaHfs; xU Ie;EhW Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH vt;tsT fhl;Lkpuhz;bfshf ,Ue;jhHfs; vd;gjw;Fk; Nkw;$wpa ,uz;L epfo;r;rpfSk; rhd;W $Wfpd;wd.

 

 


 

  

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (49)

 

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

 

gpshl;Nlhtpd; ,yf;fpay; FbauR!

 

xU ,yf;fpay; (,yl;rpa) muR my;yJ FbauR (An ideal  state or Republic)  gw;wpf; fw;gid gz;Ztij fpNuf;fj;jpy;  Utopian rpe;jid vd;W tHzpg;ghHfs;.  cj;Njhg;gpad;  vd;w nrhy;Yf;F ",lk; ,y;iy my;yJ ntw;wplk;" vd;gJ nghUshFk;.

 

gpshl;Nlh (Nrhf;fpwl;b]; %yk;) kf;fis mtHfsJ ,aw;ifahd Gj;jprhypj;jdk;> gyk;> tPuk; ,tw;wpd; mbg;gilapy; gFf;fpwhH. mjpfk; Gj;jprhypj;jdk;> gyk;> tPuk;  ,y;yhjtHfs; Ntshz;ik> nfhw;njhopy;> fl;bl epHkhzk; Nghd;wtw;wpw;F  jFjpahdtHfs;. XusT Gj;jprhypj;jdk;> gyk;> kpFe;j tPuk; cilatHfs; ehl;bd; ghJfhg;Gg; gilapy; NrHj;Jf; nfhs;sj; jFjpahdtHfs;. kpfTk; Gj;jprhypj;jdk;> tPuk; gilj;jtHfs;  murhl;rp nra;tjw;Fg; nghUj;jkhdtHfs;.

 

gpshl;Nlhtpd; ,yf;fpay; muR Nkw;Fb my;yJ caHFb Ml;rpahFk; (Aristocracy) mjhtJ "jpwikrhypfs; NfhNyhr;Rfpw Ml;rp."  Mf kf;fs; r%fj;ij gpshl;Nlh %d;W tFg;gpduhfg; gpupf;fpwhH. fPo; kl;lj;jpy; ngUk;ghd;ikg; gyk; nfhz;l njhopyhsHfs;> tptrhapfs; (nghJkf;fs;). ,il kl;lj;jpy;ghJfhg;Gj; njhopypy; ,Uf;Fk; giltPuHfs;. Ml;rp  mjpfhuj;ij epue;jukhff; ifapy; itj;jpUf;Fk;kpfr; rpWghd;ikahd jj;Jtthjpfs;.

 

gpshl;Nlhtpd; ,yf;fpay; murpy; tPuk; gilapdNuhLk;> Gj;jprhypj;jdk; my;yJ nka;awpT jj;JtthjpfNshLk;> clYiog;G nghJkf;fNshLk; njhlHG gLj;jg;gLfpwJ.

 

xU tpjj;jpy; gpshl;Nlhtpd; rpe;jid Mupaupd; ehy;tHz jHkj;NjhL xj;Jg; Nghtijf; fhzf; $bajhf ,Uf;fpwJ.  ciog;NghH (#j;jpuH)>  gilapdH (rj;jpupaH) kw;Wk; jj;Jthjpfs; (gpuhkzHfs;)  ,UrhuhUf;Fk; mlq;fp elf;f Ntz;Lk;> gilapdH jj;JtjhjpfsJ nrhw;gb elg;gJ kl;Lky;y mg;gb ele;J  nfhs;tijapl;L mtHfs; kfpo;r;rp mila Ntz;Lk; vd;gJk;>  #j;jpuH (ciog;ghsHfs;) Vida gpuhkzH> rj;jpupaH (tPuHfs;)> itrpfUf;F  njhz;L nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd;gJk;> itrpfH Vida ,U tHzhj;jhUf;Fk; cjtpahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gJk;> rj;jpupaH gpuhkzuJ nrhw;Nfl;L Ml;rp nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd;gJk; ehy;tHz jHkj;ij (itrpfH ePq;fyhf) xj;jpUf;fpwJ.

 

gpshl;Nlhtpd; ,yf;fpay; FbauR ,d;iwa fhyj;Jf;F xj;J tUkh? ,d;iwa mnkupf;f my;yJ ,e;jpa kf;fshl;rpgw;wp gpshl;Nlh vd;d epidj;jpUg;ghH?

 

gpshl;Nlh kf;fs;  r%fj;ij %d;W gbfshfg; gpupj;jpUg;gJ rupah vd;gJ tpthjj;Jf;FupaJ. ,d;iwa r%fj;jpYk; fPo;kl;l> kj;jpa> Nky;kl;lg; gpupTfs; ,Ug;gJ fz;$L. Ms;NthH ngUk;ghYk; gzk; gilj;j caHkl;lj;jpy; ,Ue;Nj tUfpwhHfs;. xU tpj;jpahrk;. fPo; ,Ug;NghH vg;NghJk; fPo; kl;lj;jpy; ,Uf;f Ntz;bajpy;iy. fLk; ciog;G> nfhQ;rk; mjpl;lk; ,Ue;jhy; mtHfs; kj;jpa> caHkl;lj;Jf;F cau tha;g;Gz;L. Mdhy;> ,e;j tha;g;G vy;NyhUf;Fk; ,Ue;jhYk; eilKiwapy; kpfr;rpWghd;ikapdNu mg;gb tho;f;ifapy; caHtijg; ghHf;fpNwhk;.

 

kUj;Jtkidapy; Ntiy ghHf;Fk; xU njhopyhspapd; gps;is gbj;J lhf;luhf tUk; tha;g;igtpl xU Mrpupauhf tUk; tha;g;Gj;jhd; mjpfk;. Mdhy;> Mrpupaupd; gps;is lhf;luhf tUk; tha;g;G ,Uf;fpwJ.  Kjy; jiyKiw ciog;ghsHfshfTk;> ,uz;lhtJ jiyKiw kj;jpa tFg;ghuhfTk; %d;whtJ jiyKiw KjyhspfshfTk;khw  ,d;iwa r%f xOq;F XusT ,lk;nfhLf;fpwJ. ,Ue;Jk; mjid tpjpahff; nfhs;shJ tpjptpyf;F vdf; nfhs;sg;gLtNj rpwe;jJ. ,g;gbahd r%f mirit (social mobility) ehk; Nkw;Fyf r%f eilKiwapy; fhzf; $bajhf ,Uf;fpwJ.

 

Nkw;F ehLfspy; nghJTlikj; jj;Jtk; jiyJhf;fhky; Nghdjw;Ff; fhuzk; xt;nthU njhopyhspAk; ehis Kjyhspahf te;J tplyhk; vdf; fdT fhz;gJjhd;! 

 

Mdhy;  nghJthfg;  ghHf;Fk;NghJ r%f Vzpapy; fPNohH fPNohuhfTk;> NkNyhH NkNyhuhfTk; ,Ug;gijNa fhz KbfpwJ. Kjyhspj;Jt r%fj;jpy;  gzf;fhud; NkYk; gzf;fhud; MtJk; Vio NkYk; VioahtNj epajpahf cs;sJ. ,e;jpah Nghd;w ehLfspy;  FNguHfSk;  Nfhtzhz;bfSk;> NfhGuq;fSk; FbirfSk; ngUk;ghd;ik -rpWghd;ikahf  mUfUNf ,Ug;gijf; fhzyhk;!

 

vJ vg;gb ,Ug;gpDk; xU ,yf;fpay; FbauRgw;wp kpf MokhfTk;> tpupthfTk;> El;gkhfTk;  2>300 Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH gpshl;Nlh (Nrhf;fpwl;b];) rpe;jpj;J mijapl;L tpthjpj;jpUg;gJ Nghw;wj; jf;fJ.

 

ekJ Kd;NdhHfs; ,g;gb vy;yhk; rpe;jpj;jjhfj; njupatpy;iy. fpK Kjyhk; Ehw;whz;by; tho;e;jtuhf vz;zg;gLk; jpUts;StH xUtNu  Kbahl;rp murpay;gw;wp rpe;jpj;J mJgw;wp XusT  tpupthf vOjpapUf;fpwhH.  nghUl;ghypy;  murpaypd; fPOk;> mq;f ,aypd; fPOk; ,iwkhl;rp> mikr;R> nrhy;td;ik>  tpidj; Jha;ik> tpidj; jpl;gk;> JhJ> kd;diur; rhHe;jpUj;jy;> ehL> muz;> gilkhl;rp> gilr;nrUf;F> gifkhl;rp> gifj;jpwk;> cl;gif gw;wpj; jdpj;jdp mjpfhuk; gilj;Js;shH.

 

gpshl;Nlh ,e;j cyfj;ijg;gw;wpAk; mjd; ,af;fj;ijg;gw;wpAk; Mo;e;J rpe;jpj;jhH. mtuJ rpe;jidapd;gb  vy;yhg;   nghUl;fSf;Fk; xU tbtk; ,Uf;fpwJ vd;gJ mtH JzpG. vLj;Jf; fhl;lhf xU Fjpiuf;F xU tbtk; ,Uf;fpwJ. Fjpiufs; xd;Wf;nfhd;W khWgl;lhYk; mjd; tbtk; khWtjpy;iy ( xU Fjpiu 50tJ khb tPl;;by; ,Ue;J tpOe;jhy; mg;NghJ mJ Fjpiuahf ,Uf;fhJ vd;whYk;  tbtk; khwhJ). Vd;  Fjpiufs; ,e;j  cyfj;jpy; ,Ue;J xope;J NghdhYk; mjd; tbtk; khwhJ.

 

gpshl;Nlh ,e;j cyfj;ij ,uz;L gFjpahfg; gpupj;jhH. xd;W ehk; fhZk; cyfk;. kw;wJ Gyd;fSf;Fj; njd;glhj cyfk;. fhZk; cyfj;ijg;gw;wp ehq;fs; xU mgpg;gpuhaj;ij (opinion) itj;jpUf;fyhk;. fhzh cyfj;ijg;gw;wp ehq;fs; mwptpdhy; mwpe;J nfhs;syhk;.

 

fhZk; cyfk; my;yJ khWk; cyfj;ij NkYk; ,uz;lhfg; gFf;fyhk;. fPo;g;gFjp epoy;> gpujpgpk;gk;> Xtpak;> ftpij Nghd;wtw;iw cs;slf;fpa "khia"  (illusion). Nky;g; gFjp  khWk; nghUl;fs;gw;wpa mwpT (vLj;Jf; fhl;lhff; Fjpiu) "ek;gpf;if" (belief). ek;gpf;if  rpyrkak; my;yJ ngUk;ghYk;  rupahf ,Uf;fyhk;. Mdhy;  xU rpy Ntisfspy; mJ gpioahf (fhZk; cyfj;jpy; nghUl;fs; khWtjhy;) ,Uf;fhyhk;.  ek;gpf;if eilKiwr; rhj;jpakhdJ. mJ tho;;f;iff;F ek;Gk;gbahd topfhl;bahf ,Uf;fyhk;. Mdhy;> eprk; vd;W nrhy;Yk; msTf;F ,Uf;fhJ.

 

Nky;g;gFjp Nfs;tp Nfl;fhky; xj;Jf; nfhs;sg;gLk; mwpT (vLj;Jf; fhl;L fzf;fpay; cz;ikfs;) kw;wJ $Hkjp.

 

gpshl;Nlh Md;khgw;wpAk;  tpupthfr; nrhy;ypapUf;fpwhH. Md;khit %d;whfg; gpupf;fpwhH. mit %d;Wtpjkhd eyd;fNshL>  %d;Wtpj mwq;fNshL> %d;Wtpj MSikNahL rk;ge;jg;gl;Ls;sJ. mtw;iwg; gpd;tUk; ml;ltiz %yk; tpsq;fpf; nfhs;syhk;.

 

 

Md;kh

eyd;fs;

 tFg;G

        Fzk; 

Gj;jp

Qhdk;

jj;Jtthjpfs;

nka;awpT

 ePjp

Mtp

ngUkpjk;

giltPuHfs;

Mz;ik

 

mth

,d;gq;fs;

ciog;NghH

epjhdk;

 

 

Mtp (spirit) vd;W gpshl;Nlh Fwpg;gpLtJ Md;k rf;jpia.  xU Fjpiuia ,af;FtJ mjd; Md;khjhd;.  epjhdk; my;yJ  jd;dlf;fk; (temperance) vd;gJ mthitf; fl;Lg;gLj;jy;. ,g;NghJ ,e;jr;nrhy; kJtpyf;iff; Fwpf;fg; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. Md;khtpd; gpupTfs; clk;gpd; %d;W mq;fq;fNshL xj;jpUf;fpwJ. Gj;jp jiyNahL> Mtp ,jaj;NjhL> mth Miriaj; Jhz;Lk; nghwpfNshL. fl;Lf;flq;fhj  mthjhd; vy;yhr; rpf;fy;fSf;Fk; %y fhuzk; vdg; gpshl;Nlh ek;gpdhH.

 

Gj;jp jiyNahL rk;ge;jg;gl;lJ vd;gJ gpshl;Nlh my;yJ Nrhf;fpul;b]; nra;J nfhz;l Gj;jprhypj;jdkhd CfkhFk;. mup];Njhl;ly; Gj;jpia ,jaj;NjhL njhlHG gLj;jpapUe;jhH. vfpg;jpaHfs; kkpfisg; gjk;nra;Ak;NghJ %isia vwpe;Jtpl;L ,jaj;ijj;jhd; clk;NghL itj;Jg;  ghJfhj;jhHfs;.

 

gpshl;Nlhtpd; ,yf;fpa Fbaurpy; jj;JtthjpfSk; tPuHfSNk murpd; fhtyHfs;. ,e;jf; fhtyHfSf;F gpshl;Nlh rpy tpjpfis my;yJ fl;Lg;ghLfis tpjpj;jpUf;fpwhH.

 

(m) ghJfhtyHfs; vspa tho;f;if thoNtz;Lk;. nrhj;Jf;fis nghJr; nrhj;Jf;fshf itj;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;.  

 

(M) ghJfhtyHfspd; FLk;gq;fs; nghJTlikahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;! Foe;ijfs; jha; je;ijaH ahH vd;gJ njupahj tifapy;  tsHf;fg;gLthHfs;. jha; je;ijaUf;F jq;fs; Foe;ijfs; ahH vd;gJ  njupahky; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.  Foe;ijfs; Gj;jprhypf; Foe;ijfshfg; gpwg;gjw;F Gj;jprhypj; jha; je;ijaiug; njupT nra;a Ntz;Lk;. mij vg;gbr; nra;tJ vd;gJ  ,ufrpakhf itf;fg;gLk;.

 

(,) ghJfhtyHfs; Jiwawf; fy;tp fw;wy; Ntz;Lk;.  FbauR vd;w Ehypd; ngUk;gFjp fy;tpiag;gw;wpAk; mjd; mtrpaj;ijg; gw;wpANk nrhy;fpwJ.

 

gpshl;Nlhtpd; ,yf;fpaf; FbauRgw;wpf;  Fiwfs;  my;yJ Kuz;ghLfs;  ,Uf;fpd;wd. mjpy; Kf;fpakhf ,uz;ilf; Fwpg;gplyhk;.

 

        (1) jj;Jtthjp vd;gtHfs; jq;fSf;F xd;WNk  njupahjtHfs; vd;gJjhd; jj;JtthjpfSf;Fg; gpshl;Nlh nfhLf;Fk; tiutpyf;fzk;. Mdhy;> jj;Jtthjpfs; ghJfhtyHfs; vd;Dk;NghJ mtHfs; Gj;jprhypfshf  ,Ug;ghHfs; vd;w gbepiyapy; ,Ue;Nj gpshl;Nlh thjpf;fpwhH. jj;Jtthjpfs; Gj;jprhypfshf ,y;yhj gl;rj;jpy; epiyik vd;d?

 

        (2) gpshl;Nlh Md;kh %d;W ghfq;fisf;  nfhz;lJ vd;fpwhH. Mdhy;> mjid %d;W r%f tHf;fq;fNshL ,izf;Fk;NghJ mjpy; xU ghfj;ijj;jhd; Fwpg;gpLfpwhH.

 

(3) ghJfhtyHfs; Mirfisj; Jwe;J vspa tho;f;if tho;thHfs; vd;gJ eilKiwapy; rhj;jpakpy;iy. Mir JwNthiuj;jtpu kw;w vy;NyhUf;Fk; nghJthdJ. 

 

gpshl;Nlhtpd; FbauR Ehy; gw;wp NkYk;  mwpa tpUk;GtHfs; nkhj;jk; gj;J mjpfhuq;fisf; nfhz;l me;j Ehiyg; gbf;f Ntz;Lk;. jj;Jtk; kpfTk; rpf;fyhdJ. Mdhy;> jj;Jtk; kdpjidr; rpe;jpf;fj; Jhz;LfpwJ. mLj;j fpoik  gpshl;Nlhtpd; khztH mup];Njhl;liyg; gw;wpg; ghHg;Nghk;. 

 

 


 

 

 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu (50)

 

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;

 

khdpl tuyhw;wpy; kpfg; ngupa rpe;jidahsH mup];Njhl;ly;!

 

mup];Njhl;ly; (fpK 384 - 322) jdJ Mrhd; gpshl;Nlhtpdhy; "mwpTj;jpwk;" gilj;jtH vd;W miof;fg;gl;ltH. cz;ikapy; mup];Njhl;ly;  fpNuf;f jj;JtthjpfSf;Fs; jiy rpwe;j rpe;jidahsH. Vd; KO khdpl tuyhw;wpy; mtHjhd; kpfg; ngupa rpe;jidahsuhf vdg; Nghw;wg;gLfpwhH.

 

mg;NghJ krpNlhdpah kd;duhf ,Ue;j gpypg; jdJ 13 mfit epuk;gpa kfd;  mnyf;rhe;jUf;Fg; ghlk;nrhy;ypf; nfhLf;f mup];Njhl;liyNa epakpj;jhd;. Ie;jhz;Lfs; mnyf;rhe;jH mup];Njhl;lyplk; ghlk; fw;whd;. kd;dd; gpypg; ,we;jNghJ mnyf;rhe;jH Ml;rpgPlk; Vwpdhd;. 

 

mup];Njhl;ly; vOjpa  Ehy;fspd;  vz;zpf;if vt;tsT vd;W njupAkh? Vwj;jho Mapuk;. Mdhy;> ,tw;Ws; ngUk;gFjp rq;f Ehy;fs; mope;Jgl;lJ Nghy mope;Jgl;L tpl;ld. Mdhy;> mtuhy; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;l fy;Yhupapy; itf;fg;gl;bUe;j Kf;fpa Ehy;fs; fhynts;sj;jpy; ms;Sz;L NghfhJ jg;gptpl;ld!

                                                                                   mup];Njhl;lypd;

 

mup];Njhl;lypd; Ehy;fs; KOJk; Kjd;  Kiwahf fpK Kjyhk; Ehw;whz;by; tho;;e;j md;Nwhdpf;f]; vd;gtuhy; (Andtronicus of Rhodes) "gpuRuk;" nra;ag;gl;lJ. mup];Njhl;lypd; Ez;khd;EioGyj;Jf;F (gy Ehy;fs; fw;gjhy; tUk; mwpT) mtH vOjpa Ehy;fSk; mtw;wpd; ghLnghUSk; rhd;W gfHfpd;wd.

 

 

    (1) jUf;ftpay; (Logic)

 

        (m) tiffs; (Categories)

        (M) nghUs; tpsf;;fk; (On interpretation)

        (,) Kd;idg; gFg;ghuha;r;rp (Prior Analytics (on Demonstration)

        (<)  gpd;idg; gFg;ghuha;r;rp

        (c) tpthjg; nghUs;

        (C) Nrhgp];L (Sophistic) kWg;Gf;fs;

 

    (2) ,aw;gpay; (Physics)  

 

        (m) ,aw;gpay; (vl;Lg; Gj;jfq;fs;)

        (M) nrhHf;fk; gw;wpaJ ( ehY Gj;jfq;fs;)

        (,) gpwg;G kw;Wk; Coy; gw;wpaJ (,uz;L Gj;jfq;fs;)

        (<)  thdpiy (ehY Gj;jfq;fs;)

        (c) Md;khgw;wpa tprhuiz ( %d;W Gj;jfq;fs;)

 

    (3) Ez;nghUs; Nfhl;ghl;bay; (Metaphysics)

 

mup];Njhl;lypd; Ez;nghUs; Nfhl;ghl;bay;gw;wpg; 14 Gj;jfq;fshf tifg;gLj;Jg;gl;Ls;sd.  ,itahTk; mup];Njhl;ly; kiwe;j gpd; njhFf;fg;gl;litahFk;.

 

    (4) xOf;ftpay; kw;Wk; murpay; (Ethics and Politics)

 

        (m) epr;Nrhkr;rpahd; xOf;ftpay; (Nichomachean Ethics)

        (M) Anlkpad; xOf;ftpay; (Eudemian Ethics)

        (<)  khngUk; xOf;ftpay;

        (c) murpay; (KbT ngwhj vl;Lg; Gj;jfq;fs;)

 

    (5) ntw;Wiu kw;Wk; nra;Al;fs; (Rhetoric and Poetry)

 

        (m) mzpapyf;fzk; ( %d;W Gj;jfq;fs;)   

        (M) nra;Al;fs; (,uz;L Gj;jfq;fs;)

 

,it  mup];Njhl;ly; vOjpa Gj;jfq;fspd; xU gFjpNa.  ,jidg;  gl;bay; ,l;Lf; fhl;Ltjw;Ff; fhuzk; mtuJ Ez;khz;EioGyj;ij ntspf;fhl;lNt.

 

mup];Njhl;lypd; $w;Wg;gb Rj;jkhd mwpTf;Fupa rpwe;j  top xd;Wf;F  xd;W njhlHgila Kf;$w;W KbT (Syllogism) topahFk;. mjhtJ Kjy; ,uz;L $w;wpd; (premises) mbg;gilapy;  %d;whtJ cz;ikia my;yJ Kbit kdk;   fz;Lgpbg;gjhFk;.  ,jid xU vLj;Jf;fhl;bd; %yk; tpsf;fyhk;.

 

vy;yh kdpjUk; (fUj;Jg; gbtk;) ,we;J gLgtHfNs (jHf;fg; gadpiy)

 

Nrhf;fpwl;b]; (vOtha;)  xU kdpjd; (fUj;Jg; gbtk;) vdNt Nrhf;fpwl;b];  (vOtha;) ,we;JgLgtNu ( jHf;fg; gadpiy)

 

KbT Kjy; ,uz;L $w;wpd; cz;ikiag; nghWj;jpUf;fpwJ. Kjy; ,uz;Lk; cz;ikahf  ,Uf;Fk; gl;rj;jpy; KbTk; cz;ikahf ,Uf;Fk;. mg;gbapy;yhj NghJ KbT nghUsw;wjhf  ,Uf;Fk;. ,jid xU vLj;Jf;fhl;bd; %yk; tpsf;fyhk;.

 

fhfk; xU gwit

fhfk; fUg;G

vdNt vy;yhg; gwitfSk; fUg;G

 

jUf;ftpaypy; ,jid Ab initio  vd;W $WthHfs;. mjhtJ njhlf;f KjNy nghUsw;w $w;W MFk;.   

 

xOf;ftpay; vd;gJ kdpjd; ,aw;if epajpg;gb vjid mila Ntz;Lk; vd;w Fwpf;Nfhs; gw;wpAk;> mtdJ kfpo;r;rp ve;j %yj;jpy; ,Ue;J tUfpwJ vd;gJ gw;wpAk; nrhy;tjhFk;. 

 

kdpjd; gFj;jwpT gilj;j tpyq;F. vdNt mwpitj; Njbf; nfhs;tNj mtdJ Fwpf;NfhshFk;.  mup];Njhl;lypd; vz;zg;gb xOf;fk;  tho;tpd; KbT my;y. KbTf;F  mJ xU top kl;LNk. kdpjdJ nray;fs; gFj;jwptpd; mbg;gilapy; mike;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;.

 

mup];Njhl;ly; murpaiyg;gw;wpr; nrhy;ypapUg;gJ ftdpf;fj;jf;fJ. kdpjdJ Fwpf;Nfhs; xOf;fj;NjhL thOjy; MFk;. kdpjd; xU murpay; tpyq;F vd;W tiutpyf;fzk; nrhy;fpNwhk; my;yth? mjw;Ff; fhuzk; mtd; ,aw;ifahfNt muNrhL gpizf;fg;gl;Ls;shd;. mJ NghyNt kdpjd; ,aw;ifahfNt jd; FLk;gj;Jf;F Kd;Dupik nfhLj;J tho tpUk;Gfpwhd;. gpd;dH  kw;w kdpjHfNshL $b xU r%fkhf tho tpUk;Gfpwhd;.

 

FLk;gk; kdpjDf;F ,aw;ifahdJ. jdpAlik FLk;gj;jpw;F ,d;wpaikahjJ. (,q;Nf mup]; Njhl;ly; gpshl;Nlh kw;Wk; Nrhf;fpwl;bNrhL Kuz;gLtijg; ghHf;fyhk;. ,tHfs; FLk;gk; nghJTlikahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W nrhd;dhHfs;).  mup];Njhl;;lypd; FLk;gk; gpd;tUkhW tFf;fg;gl;lJ.

 

    (m) Foe;ijfs;

    (M) kidtp

    (,) nrhj;Jf;fs;

    (<) mbikfs;

 

FLk;;gj;jpd; jiytd; FLk;;g tptfhuq;fisf;  ftdpf;fpwhd;. Foe;ijfSf;Fk; kidtpf;Fk; mtd; topfhl;bahf ,Uf;fpwhd;. nrhj;Jf;fs; %yk; kdpjd; ,yhgj;ij <l;l Ntz;Lk;. nrhj;Jf;fs; gad;ju mtd; capuw;w>  capUs;s ,uz;ilAk; gad; gLj;Jfpwhd;. mbikfs; capUs;sit. mup];Njhl;ly; fhy fpNuf;fj;jpy; cly; ciog;G ,opthff; fUjg;gl;lJ (tUzhr;rpu jHkj;jpd; gbAk; cotHfs;> iftpidahsHfs; Nghd;w cly; ciog;ghHfs; ,opthff; fUjg;gl;lhHfs;).

 

vdNt mup];Njhl;ly; r%fj;ij caHe;NjhH> mbikfs; vd ,uz;lhfg; gFj;jhH. ,jdhy; mup];Njhl;ly; mbik Kiwia Vw;Wf; nfhz;bUf;fpwhH. mJkl;Lk; my;y fy;tp fw;Fk; cupik caHe;NjhUf;F kl;Lk; cz;nld;gij Vw;Wf; nfhs;fpwhH. mbikfSf;F mJ kWf;fg;gl;lij mtH vjpHf;ftpy;iy.  

 

mup];Njhl;lypd; rkfhyj;jthuhd njhy;fhg;gpaUk; r%fj;ij me;jzH> murH> tzpfH> NtshsH vd ehd;Ftifahf (,e;jtif tFg;G gpw;fhyj;jpy; nra;ag;gl;l  ,ilr; nrUf;fy;  vdf; fUjg;gLfpwJ) tFf;fpwhH. NkYk; njhopy; mbg;gilapy; caHe;NjhH ,ope;NjhH vd kf;fis tifg;gLj;JfpwhH. coTj;njhopy; nra;NthH caHe;NjhuhfTk; cg;G tpw;Fk; ckzH ,ope;NjhuhfTk; fUjg;gl;lhHfs;. Mdhy;> fy;tp ,ope;NjhHf;F kWf;fg;gl;ljhfj; njupatpy;iy.

 

rq;f fhyg; GytHfspd; vz;zpf;if Ie;Ehw;Wf;Fk; mjpfkhf ,Ue;jpUf;fpwJ. ,tHfspy; murH rpyH. tzpfH rpyH. MrpupaH rpyH. FwtH Fyj;jpy; gpwe;j FwpnaapdpAk;>  ,sntapdpAk;> FatH Fyj;jpy; gpwe;j ntz;zpf; Faj;jpAk; rpwe;j  ngz; GytHfshf tpsq;fpdhHfs;.

 

,J rq;ffhyj;jpy; vy;NyhUk; ghy; NtWghL ,y;yhJ> njhopy; NtWghL  ,y;yhJ fy;tp  fw;wijf; fhl;LfpwJ. mJ kl;Lk; my;yhJ mNj fhyfl;lj;jpy; fpNuf;fk; cl;gl Ntnwe;j ehl;bYk; ,j;Jidg; GytHfs; ,Ue;jjhfj; njupatpy;iy. Mdhy;> mtHfs; gilj;jJ ,yf;fpak;> ,yf;fzk; kl;LNk. fpNuf;f jj;Jtthjpfs; Nghy; muR gw;wpAk;> Vuzk; (jHf;fk;) gw;wpAk;> ,aw;gpay; gw;wpAk;> fzf;fpay; gw;wpAk;> thdpay;gw;wpAk;> jhtuq;fs;> tpyq;Ffs; gw;wpAk; jdpg; ghly;fs;> jdp Ehy;fs; vOjtpy;iy. xUNtis vOjpapUe;jhYk; mit ,d;W fpilj;jpyJ. 

 

ehd; Kd;dH vOjpathW jkpo;g; GytHfspy; jpUts;StH xUtNu Nrhf;fpwl;b];> gpshl;Nlh> mup];Njhl;ly; Nghd;w jj;JtthjpfSld; xg;G Nehf;fpg; ghHf;Fk; rpe;jidahsuhfj; jpfo;fpwhH.   

 

mup];Njhl;lYf;Fg; gpd;dNu jj;Jtj;jpy; ,Ue;J mwptpay; jdp ,ayhfg; gupzkpj;jJ. mup];Njhl;lYf;Fg; gpd; Njhd;wpatHfs; mwptpay; mbg;gilapy; rpe;jpj;J> Ma;T nra;J> mwptpaiy tsHj;jhHfs;.

 

mup];Njhl;lypd; rpe;jidfs; gpw;fhyj;jpy; fpNufj;jpw;F mg;ghy;  cs;s INuhg;gpa> muG ehLfSf;Fg; gutp me;j ehLfspd; rpe;jid tsHr;rpf;F cjtpaJ. Fwpg;ghf fpwpj;jt rpe;jidfSf;F mup];Njhl;lypd; rpe;jidfs; ce;Jrf;jpahf mike;jd.

 

fpNuf;fHfs; ,w;iwf;F ,uz;lhapuk; Mz;LfSf;F  Kd;dNu cyfk;> nrhHf;fk;> Md;kh>  ,aw;if ,itgw;wp vt;tsT Mokhfr; rpe;jpj;jhHfs; vd;gijf; fhl;lNt jj;Jt  cyfpd;  Kk;%Hj;jpfshd Nrhf;fpul;b];> gpshl;Nlh> mup];Njhl;ly; gw;wp RUf;fkhf vOjpNdd;.